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1

Light microscopic hair abnormalities in children: retrospective review of 119 cases in a 10-year period.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in the hair can be congenital or acquired conditions. Examples of genetic disorders with associated hair abnormalities include Menkes syndrome, Netherton syndrome, uncombable hair syndrome, trichothiodystrophy, and loose anagen hair syndrome. Acquired hair abnormalities can be associated with grooming or use of various hair products. There are many patterns of hair abnormalities that can be readily identified under a light microscope. We performed a retrospective review of 129 hair mount samples from 119 patients submitted to the pathology department for microscopic examination over a 10-year span (from January 2002 to December 2011). Of the 119 patients, 63 (53%) had morphologic changes in the hair samples. Thirty-seven patients (31%) showed morphologic changes compatible with specific diagnoses of various genetic conditions, including 25 cases of loose anagen hair syndrome, 6 cases of uncombable hair syndrome, 2 cases of Netherton syndrome, 3 cases of Menkes syndrome, and 1 case of trichothiodystrophy. The other changes were considered nonspecific or nondiagnostic, with trichorrhexis nodosa in 13 patients, presence of loose anagen hairs in 12 patients, and pili torti in 1 patient. We describe the light microscopic patterns of hair abnormalities, clinical findings, and molecular defects related to those genetic conditions. Our study indicates that hair examination can be a 1st-line investigation on various pediatric conditions. PMID:24251687

Shao, Lei; Newell, Brandon

2014-01-01

2

Causes of hair loss and the developments in hair rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Hair is considered to be a major component of an individual's general appearance. The psychological impact of hair loss results in a measurably detrimental change in self-esteem and is associated with images of reduced worth. It is not surprising that both men and women find hair loss a stressful experience. Genetic hair loss is the major problem affecting men and by the age of 50, up to 50% will be affected. Initial attempts to regenerate the lost hair have centred on applying a topical solution of between 2% to 5% minoxidil; however, the results proved disappointing. Recently, finasteride, a type II 5alpha reductase inhibitor has been found to regrow a noticeable amount of hair in about 40% of balding men. Further developments in treatments have lead to the use of a dual type I and type II inhibitor where 90% of those treated regrow a noticeable amount of hair. In women the major cause of hair loss before the age of 50 is nutritional, with 30% affected. Increased and persistent hair shedding (chronic telogen effluvium) and reduced hair volume are the principle changes occurring. The main cause appears to be depleted iron stores, compromised by a suboptimal intake of the essential amino acid l-lysine. Correction of these imbalances stops the excessive hair loss and returns the hair back to its former glory. However, it can take many months to redress the situation. PMID:18498491

Rushton, D H; Norris, M J; Dover, R; Busuttil, Nina

2002-02-01

3

[Etiologic diagnosis and behaviour when confronted with abnormal hair growth in a child].  

PubMed

Knowledge of the physiology of hair follicle growth and its relationship to the endocrine and the metabolic system is essential in understanding abnormalities in hair development or hirsutism. Although there is no sexual dysmorphism in the distribution of hair follicles, there are many factors that induce hair growth. The first clinical measure is to differentiate all the intrinsic causes from auxologic and normal psychomotor development related to ethnic, racial and hereditary differences (generalized congenital or idiopathic hypertrichosis) and congenital causes within the context of a multi-malformation syndrome in which hirsutism is associated with mental retardation (Cornélia de Lange's syndrome), major hypotrophy (leprechaunism) or with abnormalities of the limbs (Rubinstein Taybi's syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis). In these cases, the hormone balance is normal and genetic and/or metabolic explorations are required. Secondly, virilism may occur with hirsutism combining pubis and axillary hair growth, hypertrophy of the clitoris, and android characteristics. This results from hyperandrogenia with increased circulation of plasma androgens. Dynamic hormone tests (ACTH test and dectanyl suppression test), together with sonography help to determine the adrenal (hyperplasia, more frequent than tumors), gonadic (tumors, cysts or gonadic dysgenesis) or paraneoplastic origins (choriocarcinoma). In practice, most hirsutism is considered as idiopathic. PMID:12223965

Pienkowski, C; Gayrard-Cros, M

2002-05-01

4

Multiple hair whorls in a child with normal cranial and neurologic development.  

PubMed

Hair whorls are a normal characteristic of the human scalp and abnormally placed or absent whorls have been associated with cranial or neurologic abnormalities. We report a case of multiple whorls in a child with normal neurologic development. We also include a brief review of the literature on the development of hair whorls and their associations. PMID:24016289

Malathi, Munisamy; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder M

2013-01-01

5

Mybs in mouse hair follicle development.  

PubMed

The Myb transcription factors are involved in essential cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death. Biological functions carried out by specific Myb proteins are distinct. Hair follicles are ectodermal-derived organs with cycling character of the growth resulting from the presence of somatic stem cells. In this study, we followed the expression of the Myb proteins in developing hair follicles and in the hair follicle stem cell niche by immunofluorescence staining. During hair follicle development, B-Myb was present in a few cells located in the area of cell division; c-Myb was abundant postanally in dividing cells but also in keratinizing zone. In addition, c-Myb was also detected in cells under the hair follicle bulge. These findings indicate possible involvement of c-Myb in regulation of activated stem cells leaving the niche. PMID:25064514

Veselá, B; Svandová, E; Smarda, J; Matalová, E

2014-10-01

6

New methods of developing sensors for hair hygrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to the linearization of length change of hygrometer hair through the use of an inductive displacement transducer and by applying new hair hygrometric sensors with analog output of the voltage. The measuring technology is reviewed with regard to function, construction, calibration, and scaling. In conclusion it is shown that the hygrometer hairs developed are sufficient for measuring

A. Lang

1979-01-01

7

A new syndrome of tufting enteropathy and choanal atresia, with ophthalmologic, hematologic and hair abnormalities.  

PubMed

Three siblings are reported with a syndrome of intractable diarrhea of infancy (owing to tufting enteropathy) and choanal atresia/stenosis. Additional components of this condition are a mild shortness of stature, a prominent and broad nasal bridge, micrognathia, single palmar creases, chronic corneal inflammation, episodic cytopenia, and abnormal hair texture. Intelligence is normal, and there is no immunodeficiency distinguishing this syndrome from that reported by Girault et al. (1994). Additional features that might occur in this syndrome include bifid uvula, preauricular pits, and 2/3 toe syndactyly. We compare this syndrome with previously reported intractable diarrhea syndromes and speculate on the developmental mechanisms that could account for many of the features demonstrated by this sibship. PMID:17786112

Bird, Lynne M; Sivagnanam, Mamata; Taylor, Sharon; Newbury, Robert O

2007-10-01

8

Development of cricket sensory hairs: changes of dynamic mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical oscillation properties of cricket (Acheta domesticus) filiform hair sensilla were measured at different larval stages, as an indication of larval sensory capacities and for comparison with data in the literature on central nervous changes during development. The hairs were stimulated by airborne vibration over a frequency range of 10 to 220 Hz. Best frequency, angular displacement at best frequency,

Günter Kämper

1992-01-01

9

Analysis of Rat Vestibular Hair Cell Development and Regeneration Using Calretinin as an Early Marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increased interest in inner ear hair cell regeneration, it is still unclear what exact mechanisms underlie hair cell regener- ation in mammals because of our limited understanding of hair cell development and the lack of specific hair cell markers. In this report, we studied hair cell development using immunohis- tochemistry on sections prepared from embryonic day (E) 13 to

J. Lisa Zheng; Wei-Qiang Gao

1997-01-01

10

Distribution of Two Basement Membrane Proteoglycans Through Hair Follicle Development and the Hair Growth Cycle in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin

John R. Couchman; Jeffrey L. King; Kevin J. McCarthy

1990-01-01

11

Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the desmoplakin gene cause hair shaft abnormalities and culminate in lethal cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

A 2-month-old white girl born to nonconsanguineous parents presented to the dermatology department with hair loss that had commenced a few months after birth. Although her hair loss later stabilized, it remained sparse. By the age of 2 years, she was noted to have developed focal keratoderma over pressure points of the soles. Aged 5 years, she was admitted to hospital with a chest infection, and investigations at that point revealed that she had a dilated cardiomyopathy. Subsequent genetic investigations identified compound heterozygous mutations in the 3' end of the desmoplakin (DSP) gene (7567delAAGA and 6577G>A), explaining the cardiocutaneous phenotype. PMID:24825141

Yesudian, P D; Cabral, R M; Ladusans, E; Spinty, S; Gibbs, J; Fryer, A; Christiano, A M; Mendelsohn, S S

2014-06-01

12

Cutaneous Retinoic Acid Levels Determine Hair Follicle Development and Downgrowth*  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid (RA) is essential during embryogenesis and for tissue homeostasis, whereas excess RA is well known as a teratogen. In humans, excess RA is associated with hair loss. In the present study, we demonstrate that specific levels of RA, regulated by Cyp26b1, one of the RA-degrading enzymes, are required for hair follicle (hf) morphogenesis. Mice with embryonic ablation of Cyp26b1 (Cyp26b1?/?) have excessive endogenous RA, resulting in arrest of hf growth at the hair germ stage. The altered hf development is rescued by grafting the mutant skin on immunodeficient mice. Our results show that normalization of RA levels is associated with reinitiation of hf development. Conditional deficiency of Cyp26b1 in the dermis (En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/?) results in decreased hair follicle density and specific effect on hair type, indicating that RA levels also influence regulators of hair bending. Our results support the model of RA-dependent dermal signals regulating hf downgrowth and bending. To elucidate target gene pathways of RA, we performed microarray and RNA-Seq profiling of genes differentially expressed in Cyp26b1?/? skin and En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/? tissues. We show specific effects on the Wnt-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families, indicating that RA modulates pathways and factors implicated in hf downgrowth and bending. Our results establish that proper RA distribution is essential for morphogenesis, development, and differentiation of hfs. PMID:23007396

Okano, Junko; Levy, Clara; Lichti, Ulrike; Sun, Hong-Wei; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Sakai, Yasuo; Morasso, Maria I.

2012-01-01

13

Neurod1 Suppresses Hair Cell Differentiation in Ear Ganglia and Regulates Hair Cell Subtype Development in the Cochlea  

PubMed Central

Background At least five bHLH genes regulate cell fate determination and differentiation of sensory neurons, hair cells and supporting cells in the mammalian inner ear. Cross-regulation of Atoh1 and Neurog1 results in hair cell changes in Neurog1 null mice although the nature and mechanism of the cross-regulation has not yet been determined. Neurod1, regulated by both Neurog1 and Atoh1, could be the mediator of this cross-regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Tg(Pax2-Cre) to conditionally delete Neurod1 in the inner ear. Our data demonstrate for the first time that the absence of Neurod1 results in formation of hair cells within the inner ear sensory ganglia. Three cell types, neural crest derived Schwann cells and mesenchyme derived fibroblasts (neither expresses Neurod1) and inner ear derived neurons (which express Neurod1) constitute inner ear ganglia. The most parsimonious explanation is that Neurod1 suppresses the alternative fate of sensory neurons to develop as hair cells. In the absence of Neurod1, Atoh1 is expressed and differentiates cells within the ganglion into hair cells. We followed up on this effect in ganglia by demonstrating that Neurod1 also regulates differentiation of subtypes of hair cells in the organ of Corti. We show that in Neurod1 conditional null mice there is a premature expression of several genes in the apex of the developing cochlea and outer hair cells are transformed into inner hair cells. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that the long noted cross-regulation of Atoh1 expression by Neurog1 might actually be mediated in large part by Neurod1. We suggest that Neurod1 is regulated by both Neurog1 and Atoh1 and provides a negative feedback for either gene. Through this and other feedback, Neurod1 suppresses alternate fates of neurons to differentiate as hair cells and regulates hair cell subtypes. PMID:20661473

Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

2010-01-01

14

Uncombable hair  

PubMed Central

Uncombable hair is a familial abnormality of scalp hair structure which affects children and lessens as they grow older. It is suggested that the mode of inheritance of the condition is autosomal dominant. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:7125692

Garty, B; Metzker, A; Mimouni, M; Varsano, I

1982-01-01

15

Correct Timing of Proliferation and Differentiation is Necessary for Normal Inner Ear Development and Auditory Hair Cell Viability  

PubMed Central

Background Hearing restoration through hair cell regeneration will require revealing the dynamic interactions between proliferation and differentiation during development to avoid the limited viability of regenerated hair cells. Pax2-Cre N-Myc conditional knockout (CKO) mice highlighted the need of N-Myc for proper neurosensory development and possible redundancy with L-Myc. The late-onset hair cell death in the absence of early N-Myc expression could be due to mis-regulation of genes necessary for neurosensory formation and maintenance, such as Neurod1, Atoh1, Pou4f3, and Barhl1. Results Pax2-Cre N-Myc L-Myc double CKO mice show that proliferation and differentiation are linked together through Myc and in the absence of both Mycs, altered proliferation and differentiation results in morphologically abnormal ears. In particular, the organ of Corti apex is re-patterned into a vestibular-like organization and the base is truncated and fused with the saccule. Conclusions These data indicate that therapeutic approaches to restore hair cells must take into account a dynamic interaction of proliferation and differentiation regulation of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors in attempts to stably replace lost cochlear hair cells. In addition, our data indicate that Myc is an integral component of the evolutionary transformation process that resulted in the organ of Corti development. PMID:23193000

Kopecky, Benjamin J.; Jahan, Israt; Fritzsch, Bernd

2013-01-01

16

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... be more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Disruption of the hair growth cycle. Some major events ... to grow, a person might not notice any disruption of the hair growth cycle until months after ...

17

Is There a True Concern Regarding the Use of Hair Dye and Malignancy Development?  

PubMed Central

Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies. PMID:23320124

Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E.; Messina, Jane L.; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C.; Grekin, Steven K.; Holland, Jean

2013-01-01

18

Magnesium availability regulates the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.  

PubMed

Root hairs are reported to be plastic in response to nutrient supply, but relatively little is known about their development in response to magnesium (Mg) availability. Here, we showed that development of root hairs of Arabidopsis decreased progressively with increasing Mg supply, which was related to the initiation of new trichoblast files and likelihood of trichoblasts to form hairs. Tip-focused reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations [(Ca(2+) )c] during elongation of root hairs were enhanced under low Mg but decreased under high Mg. Under low Mg, application of diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or BAPTA [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] blocked the enhanced development of root hairs and the opposite was true when the plants under high Mg were treated with phenazine methosulphate (PMS), methyl viologen (MV) or CaCl2 . Furthermore, Mg availability did not alter root hair growth in rhd2-1 mutant that contains lower levels of ROS and cytosolic [Ca(2+) ]c. Transcriptome data and qPCR results revealed a greater fraction of morphogenetic H-genes, and cell wall organization genes were up-regulated by low Mg but down-regulated by high Mg. Our data suggest a profound effect of Mg supply on the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis, through the characterized Ca(2+) and ROS signals that modulate the elongation of root hairs and the expression of root-hair morphogenetic genes. PMID:24851702

Niu, Yaofang; Chai, Rushan; Liu, Lijuan; Jin, Gulei; Liu, Miao; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong

2014-12-01

19

Betacellulin Regulates Hair Follicle Development and Hair Cycle Induction and Enhances Angiogenesis in Wounded Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betacellulin (BTC) belongs to the EGF family, whose members play important roles in skin morphogenesis, homeostasis, and repair. However, the role of BTC in skin biology is still unknown. We employed transgenic mice overexpressing BTC ubiquitously to study its role in skin physiology. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of BTC especially in the hair follicles and in the epidermis of transgenic

Marlon R Schneider; Maria Antsiferova; Laurence Feldmeyer; Maik Dahlhoff; Philippe Bugnon; Sybille Hasse; Ralf Paus; Eckhard Wolf; Sabine Werner

2008-01-01

20

A Comprehensive Guide for the Recognition and Classification of Distinct Stages of Hair Follicle Morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous spontaneous and experimentally induced mouse mutations develop a hair phenotype, which is often associated with more or less discrete abnormalities in hair follicle development. In order to recognize these, it is critically important to be able to determine and to classify accurately the major stages of normal murine hair follicle morphogenesis. As an aid, we propose a pragmatic and

Ralf Paus; Sven Müller-Röver; Carina van der Veen; Marcus Maurer; Stefan Eichmüller; Gao Ling; Udo Hofmann; Kerstin Foitzik; Lars Mecklenburg; Bori Handjiski

1999-01-01

21

Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.  

PubMed Central

Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

1997-01-01

22

Alterations in hair follicle dynamics in women.  

PubMed

Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

2013-01-01

23

Postnatal development of the hair cycle in the domestic pig.  

PubMed Central

The postnatal patterns of hair follicle activity have been quantified in pigs born in summer and winter. Animals were skin sampled monthly during the first year of life and the stages of the hair cycle were identified from follicles in histological sections. Percentages of active follicles were used to determine hair cycle patterns and as a measure of how the hair cycle became synchronised with that of the adult. At birth, in excess of 95% of follicles were active in fibre production. Within the first 12 weeks of life, the proportions of active follicles were found to approach those found in adult skin, and thereafter the hair follicle population of the growing pig displayed cycles of activity and rest reminiscent of those of the mature animal. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2254156

Watson, S A; Moore, G P

1990-01-01

24

Early stages of hair follicle development: a step by step microarray identity.  

PubMed

Hair follicle morphogenesis requires an epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk during development, from hair placode to hair peg, and finally hair follicle formation. During this step, factors known as activators and inhibitors allow the patterning distribution of hair follicle within the skin. Our goal was to investigate the modulation of expression of various factors already known to be part of the hair placode formation, and to identify novel factors involved during the initiation of this process. In mice, primary hair follicles arise in utero from E12.5 mouse embryos. Back skin RNA were extracted from E12.5 to E14.5 embryos to perform microarray analysis (Affymetrix). We identified four new Wnt related genes which could be involved in hair follicle initiation because of their maximum expression at E12.5, namely two activators: Wnt-2 and Zic-1 and two inhibitors: Dkk-2 and Dact-1. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions confirmed their expression. Our data provide a more precise view of transcript expressions involved during induction of HF morphogenesis, particularly the hair primordium formation. PMID:23567059

Cadau, S; Rosignoli, C; Rhetore, S; Voegel, Jj; Parenteau-Bareil, R; Berthod, F

2013-04-01

25

Development/Plasticity/Repair Effects of Restricted Basilar Papillar Lesions and Hair Cell  

E-print Network

mammals, have the ability to regenerate hair cells (HCs) after damage to the peripheral auditory organDevelopment/Plasticity/Repair Effects of Restricted Basilar Papillar Lesions and Hair Cell Regeneration on Auditory Forebrain Frequency Organization in Adult European Starlings Dexter R. F. Irvine,1

Rubel, Edwin

26

Activated Notch Causes Deafness by Promoting a Supporting Cell Phenotype in Developing Auditory Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether activated Notch can promote a supporting cell fate during sensory cell differentiation in the inner ear. Methods An activated form of the Notch1 receptor (NICD) was expressed in early differentiating hair cells using a Gfi1-Cre mouse allele. To determine the effects of activated Notch on developing hair cells, Gfi1-NICD animals and their littermate controls were assessed at 5 weeks for hearing by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The differentiation of NICD-expressing hair cells was assessed at postnatal day (P) 6, 11 and 20, using histological and molecular markers for hair cells, as well as supporting cells/progenitor cells. We also examined whether the effects of Notch were mediated by SOX2, a gene expressed in supporting cells and a likely downstream target of Notch, by crossing an inducible form of SOX2 to the Gfi1-Cre. Results Activation of Notch1 in developing auditory hair cells causes profound deafness. The NICD-expressing hair cells switch off a number of hair cell markers and lose their characteristic morphology. Instead, NICD-expressing hair cells adopt a morphology resembling supporting cells and upregulate a number of supporting cell markers. These effects do not appear to be mediated by SOX2, because although expression of SOX2 caused some hearing impairment, the SOX2-expressing hair cells did not downregulate hair cell markers nor exhibit a supporting cell-like phenotype. Conclusions Our data show that Notch signaling inhibits hair cell differentiation and promotes a supporting cell-like phenotype, and that these effects are unlikely to be mediated by SOX2. PMID:25264928

Savoy-Burke, Grace; Gilels, Felicia A.; Pan, Wei; Pratt, Diana; Que, Jianwen; Gan, Lin; White, Patricia M.; Kiernan, Amy E.

2014-01-01

27

Root hairs.  

PubMed

Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

2014-01-01

28

Arabidopsis GLASSY HAIR genes promote trichome papillae development  

PubMed Central

Specialized plant cells form cell walls with distinct composition and properties pertinent to their function. Leaf trichomes in Arabidopsis form thick cell walls that support the upright growth of these large cells and, curiously, have strong light-reflective properties. To understand the process of trichome cell-wall maturation and the molecular origins of this optical property, mutants affected in trichome light reflection were isolated and characterized. It was found that GLASSY HAIR (GLH) genes are required for the formation of surface papillae structures at late stages of trichome development. Trichomes in these mutants appeared transparent due to unobstructed light transmission. Genetic analysis of the isolated mutants revealed seven different gene loci. Two—TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE (TBR) and NOK (Noeck)—have been reported previously to have the glassy trichome mutant phenotype. The other five glh mutants were analysed for cell-wall-related phenotypes. A significant reduction was found in cellulose content in glh2 and glh4 mutant trichomes. In addition to the glassy trichome phenotype, the glh6 mutants showed defects in leaf cuticular wax, and glh6 was found to represent a new allele of the eceriferum 10 (cer10) mutation. Trichomes of the glh1 and glh3 mutants did not show any other phenotypes beside reduced papillae formation. These data suggest that the GLH1 and GLH3 genes may have specific functions in trichome papillae formation, whereas GLH2, GLH4, and GLH6 genes are also involved in deposition of other cell-wall components. PMID:24014871

Kirik, Viktor

2013-01-01

29

Compound Heterozygous Desmoplakin Mutations Result in a Phenotype with a Combination of Myocardial, Skin, Hair, and Enamel Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the

Sara Sadowski; Donna Brennan; Pekka Pikander; Pekka Saukko; James Wahl; Heikki Aho; Kristiina Heikinheimo; Leena Bruckner-Tuderman; Andrzej Fertala; Juha Peltonen; Jouni Uitto; Sirkku Peltonen

2010-01-01

30

Long-term treatment with finasteride 1 mg decreases the likelihood of developing further visible hair loss in men with androgenetic alopecia (male pattern hair loss).  

PubMed

There are no reports on the effects of pharmacologic treatment on the likelihood of developing further visible hair loss in men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Our objectives were to examine whether finasteride 1 mg treatment decreases the likelihood of developing further visible hair loss in men with AGA. We conducted an analysis of global photographic assessment data from two Phase III trials in which 1553 men with AGA received finasteride 1 mg/day or placebo for up to 5 years. Finasteride 1 mg treatment led to a 93% decrease relative to placebo in the 5-year likelihood of developing further visible hair loss (95% CI: 89-97%; p < 0.001). We conclude that, in men with AGA, treatment with finasteride 1 mg/day over 5 years led to a marked and sustained decrease in the likelihood of developing further visible hair loss. PMID:18573712

Kaufman, Keith D; Rotonda, Jennifer; Shah, Arvind K; Meehan, Alan G

2008-01-01

31

Paraphenylenediamine: Blackening more than just hair  

PubMed Central

Paraphenylenediamine is an important constituent of hair dye toxicity of which one could herald fatal complications such as rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, angioneurotic edema, and respiratory failure. We present a case of hair dye poisoning that presented with respiratory distress due to laryngeal edema and later developed trismus, subclinical tetany, apnea, and conduction abnormality on electrocardiogram. This case report highlights the need for a thorough toxicological review of the components of any ingested substance. PMID:23626641

Gude, Dilip; Bansal, Dharam Pal; Ambegaonkar, Rahul; Prajapati, Jayaram

2012-01-01

32

The regulatory mechanism of microRNAs in skin and hair follicle development.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of regulators that control post-transcriptional processes, and could be potential targets for drug in pathology and potential sites of phenotypic regulation. Although some functions of miRNAs have been known, the regulatory mechanism of miRNAs in skin and hair follicle development remains unclear. High throughput sequencing provides more accurate and rapid method for identification of miRNAs. It has been found that some miRNAs affect the cell differentiation and proliferation of skin and hair follicles, and their target genes play important roles in the periodic growth of hair follicles. In this review, we summarize the recent achievements of the regulatory mechanism of miRNAs in the skin follicles and provide useful clues for further study on miRNA regulation in hair follicle growth of cashmere goat. PMID:25076029

Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yanjun; Su, Rui; Wang, Ruijun; Li, Jinquan

2014-07-01

33

Compound Heterozygous Desmoplakin Mutations Result in a Phenotype with a Combination of Myocardial, Skin, Hair, and Enamel Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses. PMID:19924139

Mahoney, M? G.; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

2014-01-01

34

Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

2008-01-01

35

A Comprehensive Guide for the Accurate Classification of Murine Hair Follicles in Distinct Hair Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous strains of mice with defined mutations display pronounced abnormalities of hair follicle cycling, even in the absence of overt alterations of the skin and hair phenotype; however, in order to recognize even subtle, hair cycle-related abnormalities, it is critically important to be able to determine accurately and classify the major stages of the normal murine hair cycle. In this

Sven Müller-Röver; Bori Handjiski; Carina van der Veen; Stefan Eichmüller; Kerstin Foitzik; Ian A. McKay; Kurt S. Stenn; Ralf Paus

2001-01-01

36

Abnormal Enamel Development in a Cystic Fibrosis Transgenic Mouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary condition that affects cAMP-regulated chloride channels in epithelial tissues due to a defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Recently, a transgenic CF mouse model was developed at UNC that exhibits no CFTR expression. Interestingly, the CF mouse demonstrates abnormal incisor enamel. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to characterize

J. T. Wright; C. L. Kiefer; K. I. Hall; B. R. Grubb

1996-01-01

37

Using social robots to study abnormal social development  

E-print Network

test that can diagnose autism. Diagnosis relies on the clinician's intuitive feel for the child in their construction, can be unique tools in the study of abnormal social development. Autism is a pervasive evaluations of children for autism per year, this paper discusses how social robots will make an impact

Scassellati, Brian

38

Emx2 and early hair cell development in the mouse inner ear.  

PubMed

Emx2 is a homeodomain protein that plays a critical role in inner ear development. Homozygous null mice die at birth with a range of defects in the CNS, renal system and skeleton. The cochlea is shorter than normal with about 60% fewer auditory hair cells. It appears to lack outer hair cells and some supporting cells are either absent or fail to differentiate. Many of the hair cells differentiate in pairs and although their hair bundles develop normally their planar cell polarity is compromised. Measurements of cell polarity suggest that classic planar cell polarity molecules are not directly influenced by Emx2 and that polarity is compromised by developmental defects in the sensory precursor population or by defects in epithelial cues for cell alignment. Planar cell polarity is normal in the vestibular epithelia although polarity reversal across the striola is absent in both the utricular and saccular maculae. In contrast, cochlear hair cell polarity is disorganized. The expression domain for Bmp4 is expanded and Fgfr1 and Prox1 are expressed in fewer cells in the cochlear sensory epithelium of Emx2 null mice. We conclude that Emx2 regulates early developmental events that balance cell proliferation and differentiation in the sensory precursor population. PMID:20152827

Holley, Matthew; Rhodes, Charlotte; Kneebone, Adam; Herde, Michel K; Fleming, Michelle; Steel, Karen P

2010-04-15

39

Retinoic acid signalling regulates the development of tonotopically patterned hair cells in the chicken cochlea.  

PubMed

Precise frequency discrimination is a hallmark of auditory function in birds and mammals and is required for distinguishing similar sounding words, like 'bat,' 'cat' and 'hat.' In the cochlea, tuning and spectral separation result from longitudinal differences in basilar membrane stiffness and numerous individual gradations in sensory hair cell phenotypes, but it is unknown what patterns the phenotypes. Here we used RNA-seq to compare transcriptomes from proximal, middle and distal regions of the embryonic chicken cochlea, and found opposing longitudinal gradients of expression for retinoic acid (RA)-synthesizing and degrading enzymes. In vitro experiments showed that RA is necessary and sufficient to induce the development of distal-like hair cell phenotypes and promotes expression of the actin-crosslinking proteins, Espin and Fscn2. These and other findings highlight a role for RA signalling in patterning the development of a longitudinal gradient of frequency-tuned hair cell phenotypes in the cochlea. PMID:24845860

Thiede, Benjamin R; Mann, Zoë F; Chang, Weise; Ku, Yuan-Chieh; Son, Yena K; Lovett, Michael; Kelley, Matthew W; Corwin, Jeffrey T

2014-01-01

40

CLRN1 Is Nonessential in the Mouse Retina but Is Required for Cochlear Hair Cell Development  

E-print Network

CLRN1 Is Nonessential in the Mouse Retina but Is Required for Cochlear Hair Cell Development Scott and functional consequences of Clrn1 deletion in the retina and cochlea. Clrn1 KO mice do not develop a retinal was localized in the retina using in situ hybridization (ISH), laser capture microdissection (LCM), and RT

Avraham, Karen

41

Early motor development is abnormal in complexin 1 knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexin I expression is dysregulated in a number of neurological diseases including schizophrenia and depression. Adult complexin 1 knockout (Cplx1?\\/?) mice are severely ataxic and show deficits in exploration and emotional reactivity. Here, we evaluated early behavioural development of Cplx1?\\/? mice. Cplx1?\\/? mice showed marked abnormalities. They develop ataxia by post-natal day 7 (P7), and by P21 show marked deficits

Dervila Glynn; Rachel J. Sizemore; A. Jennifer Morton

2007-01-01

42

Abnormal retinal development associated with FRMD7 mutations  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, often associated with FRMD7 mutations. As the appearance of the retina is reported to be normal based on conventional fundus photography, IIN is postulated to arise from abnormal cortical development. To determine whether the afferent visual system is involved in FRMD7 mutations, we performed in situ hybridization studies in human embryonic and fetal stages (35 days post-ovulation to 9 weeks post-conception). We show a dynamic retinal expression pattern of FRMD7 during development. We observe expression within the outer neuroblastic layer, then in the inner neuroblastic layer and at 9 weeks post-conception a bilaminar expression pattern. Expression was also noted within the developing optic stalk and optic disk. We identified a large cohort of IIN patients (n = 100), and performed sequence analysis which revealed 45 patients with FRMD7 mutations. Patients with FRMD7 mutations underwent detailed retinal imaging studies using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. The tomograms were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). The foveal pit was significantly shallower in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). The optic nerve head morphology was abnormal with significantly decreased optic disk area, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, cup area and cup depth in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). This study shows for the first time that abnormal afferent system development is associated with FRMD7 mutations and could be an important etiological factor in the development of nystagmus. PMID:24688117

Thomas, Mervyn G.; Crosier, Moira; Lindsay, Susan; Kumar, Anil; Araki, Masasuke; Leroy, Bart P.; McLean, Rebecca J.; Sheth, Viral; Maconachie, Gail; Thomas, Shery; Moore, Anthony T.; Gottlob, Irene

2014-01-01

43

External contamination of hair with cocaine: evaluation of external cocaine contamination and development of performance-testing materials.  

PubMed

The National Laboratory Certification Program undertook an evaluation of the dynamics of external contamination of hair with cocaine (COC) while developing performance testing materials for Federal Drug-Free Workplace Programs. This characterization was necessary to develop performance materials that could evaluate the efficacy of hair testing industry's decontamination procedures. Hair locks (blonde to dark brown/black) from five different individuals were contaminated with cocaine HCl. Hair locks were then treated with a synthetic sweat solution and hygienic treatments to model real-life conditions. Hair locks were shampooed daily (Monday through Friday) for 10 weeks, and samples of the hair locks were analyzed for COC, benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene (CE), and norcocaine (NCOC). Three commercial analytical laboratories analyzed samples under three protocols: no decontamination procedure, individual laboratory decontamination, or decontamination by an extended buffer procedure at RTI International. Results indicated substantial and persistent association of all four compounds with all hair types. Hair that was not decontaminated had significantly greater quantities of COC and BE than did hair that was decontaminated. The only hair samples below detection limits for all four compounds were those decontaminated 1 h after contamination. Additionally, BE/COC ratios increased significantly over the 10-week study (regardless of decontamination treatment). From 21 days postcontamination until the end of the study, the mean BE/COC ratio for all hair types exceeded 0.05, the proposed Federal Mandatory Guidelines requirement. The largest variability in results was observed for samples decontaminated by participant laboratories. This suggests that current laboratory decontamination strategies will increase variability of performance testing sample results. None of the decontamination strategies used in the study were effective at removing all contamination, and some of the contaminated hair in this study would have been reported as positive for cocaine use based on the proposed Federal Mandatory Guidelines. PMID:17132242

Stout, Peter R; Ropero-Miller, Jeri D; Baylor, Michael R; Mitchell, John M

2006-10-01

44

DEVELOPMENT OF THE WALL LABYRINTH IN PAVEMENT EPITHELIUM HAIRS OF SOME UTRICULARIA SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium hypochlorite-digested material and scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of wall ingrowths in pavement epithelium hairs of Utricularia species from the primitive section Pleiochasia (U. volubilis) and the advanced section Utricularia (U. stygia, U. intermedia). Wall ingrowths were reticulate-type in all examined species. Wall ingrowth development started with the formation of small papillae, which later lengthened

BARTOSZ JAN; ANDRZEJ JANKUN; JADWIGA FABER

2005-01-01

45

Abnormal Placental Development and Early Embryonic Lethality in EpCAM-Null Mice  

PubMed Central

Background EpCAM (CD326) is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM ?/? mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to ?geo. EpCAM +/? mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/? embryos revealed that ?geo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts), eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM ?/? mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM ?/? embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM ?/? placentas. Conclusion EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs. PMID:20046825

Nagao, Keisuke; Zhu, Jianjian; Heneghan, Mallorie B.; Hanson, Jeffrey C.; Morasso, Maria I.; Tessarollo, Lino; Mackem, Susan; Udey, Mark C.

2009-01-01

46

Exploring differentially expressed genes by RNA-Seq in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development and cycling.  

PubMed

Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-? and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies. PMID:23638136

Geng, Rongqing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yulin

2013-01-01

47

Exploring Differentially Expressed Genes by RNA-Seq in Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus) Skin during Hair Follicle Development and Cycling  

PubMed Central

Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-? and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies. PMID:23638136

Geng, Rongqing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yulin

2013-01-01

48

The masculinized female and investigation of abnormal sexual development.  

PubMed

The congenital adrenal hyperplasias are the commonest cause of ambiguity of the external genitalia at birth, although sexual differentiation in these disorders is strictly normal. The masculinized genetic female is invariably the result of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The molecular features are well characterized and the phenotypic correlates are generally concordant. Prenatal treatment by maternal dexamethasone administration can successfully prevent virilization of the external genitalia in an affected female fetus. Placental aromatase is a rare and recently characterized alternative cause of a masculinized female which should be considered in the absence of fetal adrenal hyperplasia and maternal androgen-secreting tumours. The investigation of abnormal sexual development requires an initial karyotype analysis and serum 17OH progesterone measurement to determine whether 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the likeliest cause. Thereafter, the presence of a 46,XY karyotype determines the mode of investigation according to androgen production and action. Obtaining appropriate samples for DNA, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses is essential if the diagnostic yield for the investigation of abnormal sexual development is to be improved. PMID:9890067

Hughes, I A

1998-04-01

49

Good Hair Care May Head off Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... the scalp) can develop. Do you let the sun color your hair? Excessive exposure to the sun can cause hair to become weak, dry, rough, ... hair and then expose your hair to the sun. The chemicals often cause unsightly yellowing, fading, and ...

50

Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide modulates infection thread development in white clover root hairs.  

PubMed

The interaction between Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and white clover roots was examined. The Limulus lysate assay indicated that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (hereafter called R. trifolii) released LPS into the external root environment of slide cultures. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that purified LPS from R. trifolii 0403 bound rapidly to root hair tips and infiltrated across the root hair wall. Infection thread formation in root hairs was promoted by preinoculation treatment of roots with R. trifolii LPS at a low dose (up to 5 micrograms per plant) but inhibited at a higher dose. This biological activity of LPS was restricted to the region of the root present at the time of exposure to LPS, higher with LPS from cells in the early stationary phase than in the mid-exponential phase, incubation time dependent, incapable of reversing inhibition of infection by NO3- or NH4+, and conserved among serologically distinct LPSs from several wild-type R. trifolii strains (0403, 2S-2, and ANU843). In contrast, infections were not increased by preinoculation treatment of roots with LPSs from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 300, R. meliloti 102F28, or members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Most infection threads developed successfully in root hairs pretreated with R. trifolii LPS, whereas many infections aborted near their origins and accumulated brown deposits if pretreated with LPS from R. meliloti 102F28. LPS from R. leguminosarum 300 also caused most infection threads to abort. Other specific responses of root hairs to infection-stimulating LPS from R. trifolii included acceleration of cytoplasmic streaming and production of novel proteins. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicated that biologically active LPS from R. trifolii 0403 in the early stationary phase had less fucose but more 2-O-methylfucose, quinovosamine, 3,6-dideoxy-3-(methylamino)galactose, and noncarbohydrate substituents (O-methyl, N-methyl, and acetyl groups) on glycosyl components than did inactive LPS in the mid-exponential phase. We conclude that LPS-root hair interactions trigger metabolic events that have a significant impact on successful development of infection threads in this Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. PMID:1885517

Dazzo, F B; Truchet, G L; Hollingsworth, R I; Hrabak, E M; Pankratz, H S; Philip-Hollingsworth, S; Salzwedel, J L; Chapman, K; Appenzeller, L; Squartini, A

1991-09-01

51

CHRONIC PERCHLORATE EXPOSURE CAUSES MORPHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN DEVELOPING STICKLEBACK  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined the effects of chronic perchlorate exposure during growth and development, and fewer still have analyzed the effects of perchlorate over multiple generations. We describe morphological and developmental characteristics for threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that were spawned and raised to sexual maturity in perchlorate-treated water (G1,2003) and for their offspring (G2,2004) that were not directly treated with perchlorate. The G1,2003 displayed a variety of abnormalities, including impaired formation of calcified traits, slower growth rates, aberrant sexual development, poor survivorship, and reduced pigmentation that allowed internal organs to be visible. Yet these conditions were absent when the offspring of contaminated fish (G2,2004) were raised in untreated water, suggesting a lack of transgenerational effects and that surviving populations may be able to recover following remediation of perchlorate-contaminated sites PMID:21465539

Bernhardt, Richard R.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; O'Hara, Todd M.

2011-01-01

52

Preliminary characterization of voltage-activated whole-cell currents in developing human vestibular hair cells and calyx afferent terminals.  

PubMed

We present preliminary functional data from human vestibular hair cells and primary afferent calyx terminals during fetal development. Whole-cell recordings were obtained from hair cells or calyx terminals in semi-intact cristae prepared from human fetuses aged between 11 and 18 weeks gestation (WG). During early fetal development (11-14 WG), hair cells expressed whole-cell conductances that were qualitatively similar but quantitatively smaller than those observed previously in mature rodent type II hair cells. As development progressed (15-18 WG), peak outward conductances increased in putative type II hair cells but did not reach amplitudes observed in adult human hair cells. Type I hair cells express a specific low-voltage activating conductance, G K,L. A similar current was first observed at 15 WG but remained relatively small, even at 18 WG. The presence of a "collapsing" tail current indicates a maturing type I hair cell phenotype and suggests the presence of a surrounding calyx afferent terminal. We were also able to record from calyx afferent terminals in 15-18 WG cristae. In voltage clamp, these terminals exhibited fast inactivating inward as well as slower outward conductances, and in current clamp, discharged a single action potential during depolarizing steps. Together, these data suggest the major functional characteristics of type I and type II hair cells and calyx terminals are present by 18 WG. Our study also describes a new preparation for the functional investigation of key events that occur during maturation of human vestibular organs. PMID:24942706

Lim, Rebecca; Drury, Hannah R; Camp, Aaron J; Tadros, Melissa A; Callister, Robert J; Brichta, Alan M

2014-10-01

53

Changes in ADF/destrin expression in the development of hair cells following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/destrin and position changes of kinetosomes in the development of hair cells following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration in the basilar membrane of mice. We observed through immunofluorescence at various time-points the expression of ADF/destrin and the specific kinetosome marker, ?-tubulin, in hair cells following ectopic regeneration induced by adenovirus transfection, overexpression of Atoh1 and in vitro culture. Changes of ADF/destrin distribution and kinetosome position during in vitro culture of new hair cells [Myo7a(+)] following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration are consistent with the changes in ADF/destrin expression and the polar migration of kinetosomes in hair cells of the cochlear sensory epithelium in normal development. ADF/destrin is involved in the development of the auditory epithelium and the development and structural rearrangement of ectopically regenerated hair cells in mammals. The kinetosomes of hair cells following Atoh1-induced ectopic regeneration show positional changes in vitro at different time-points. PMID:23935742

JIN, KAI; REN, DONG-DONG; CHI, FANG-LU; YANG, JUAN-MEI; HUANG, YI-BO; LI, WEN

2013-01-01

54

Abnormal cingulum bundle development in autism: a probabilistic tractography study.  

PubMed

There is now considerable evidence that white matter abnormalities play a role in the neurobiology of autism. Little research has been directed, however, at understanding (a) typical white matter development in autism and how this relates to neurocognitive impairments observed in the disorder. In this study we used probabilistic tractography to identify the cingulum bundle in 21 adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. We investigated group differences in the relationships between age and fractional anisotropy, a putative measure of white matter integrity, within the cingulum bundle. Moreover, in a preliminary investigation, we examined the relationship between cingulum fractional anisotropy and executive functioning using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The ASD participants demonstrated significantly lower fractional anisotropy within the cingulum bundle compared to the typically developing volunteers. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that the ASD group did not show the typical age-associated increases in fractional anisotropy observed among healthy individuals. Moreover, lower fractional anisotropy within the cingulum bundle was associated with worse BRIEF behavioral regulation index scores in the ASD group. The current findings implicate a dysregulation in cingulum bundle white matter development occurring in late adolescence and early adulthood in ASD, and suggest that greater disturbances in this trajectory are associated with executive dysfunction in ASD. PMID:24231056

Ikuta, Toshikazu; Shafritz, Keith M; Bregman, Joel; Peters, Bart D; Gruner, Patricia; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R

2014-01-30

55

Prenatal Mild Ventriculomegaly Predicts Abnormal Development of the Neonatal Brain  

PubMed Central

Background Many psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with mild enlargement of the lateral ventricles thought to have origins in prenatal brain development. Little is known about development of the lateral ventricles and the relationship of prenatal lateral ventricle enlargement with postnatal brain development. Methods We performed a neonatal MRI on 34 children with isolated mild ventriculomegaly (MVM, width of the atrium of the lateral ventricle ? 1.0 cm) on prenatal ultrasound and 34 age and gender matched controls with normal prenatal ventricle size. Lateral ventricle and cortical gray and white matter volumes were assessed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in corpus callosum and cortico-spinal white matter tracts were determined obtained using quantitative tractography. Results Neonates with prenatal MVM had significantly larger lateral ventricle volumes than matched controls (286.4%; p < 0.0001). Neonates with MVM also had significantly larger intracranial volumes (ICV; 7.1%, p = 0.0063) and cortical gray matter volumes (10.9%, p = 0.0004) compared to controls. DTI tractography revealed a significantly greater MD in the corpus callosum and cortico-spinal tracts, while FA was significantly smaller in several white matter tract regions. Conclusions Prenatal enlargement of the lateral ventricle is associated with enlargement of the lateral ventricles after birth, as well as greater gray matter volumes and delayed or abnormal maturation of white matter. It is suggested that prenatal ventricle volume is an early structural marker of altered development of the cerebral cortex and may be marker of risk for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with ventricle enlargement. PMID:18835482

Gilmore, John H.; Smith, Lauren C.; Wolfe, Honor M.; Hertzberg, Barbara S.; Smith, J. Keith; Chescheir, Nancy C.; Evans, Dianne D.; Kang, Chaeryon; Hamer, Robert M.; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido

2008-01-01

56

Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... and being replaced helps to maintain just the right number of hairs on your head. Hair Comes in Many Colors What kind of hair do you have — black and curly, blond and straight, or some other combination? Hair color comes from melanin (say: MEL-uh- ...

57

Maintenance of stereocilia and apical junctional complexes by Cdc42 in cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed

Cdc42 is a key regulator of dynamic actin organization. However, little is known about how Cdc42-dependent actin regulation influences steady-state actin structures in differentiated epithelia. We employed inner ear hair-cell-specific conditional knockout to analyze the role of Cdc42 in hair cells possessing highly elaborate stable actin protrusions (stereocilia). Hair cells of Atoh1-Cre;Cdc42(flox/flox) mice developed normally but progressively degenerated after maturation, resulting in progressive hearing loss particularly at high frequencies. Cochlear hair cell degeneration was more robust in inner hair cells than in outer hair cells, and began as stereocilia fusion and depletion, accompanied by a thinning and waving circumferential actin belt at apical junctional complexes (AJCs). Adenovirus-encoded GFP-Cdc42 expression in hair cells and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging of hair cells from transgenic mice expressing a Cdc42-FRET biosensor indicated Cdc42 presence and activation at stereociliary membranes and AJCs in cochlear hair cells. Cdc42-knockdown in MDCK cells produced phenotypes similar to those of Cdc42-deleted hair cells, including abnormal microvilli and disrupted AJCs, and downregulated actin turnover represented by enhanced levels of phosphorylated cofilin. Thus, Cdc42 influenced the maintenance of stable actin structures through elaborate tuning of actin turnover, and maintained function and viability of cochlear hair cells. PMID:24610943

Ueyama, Takehiko; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Takashi; Goto, Akihiro; Morioka, Shigefumi; Shimizu, Aya; Nakao, Kazuki; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ninoyu, Yuzuru; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Suetsugu, Shiro; Koji, Takehiko; Fritzsch, Bernd; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Hisa, Yasuo; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Aiba, Atsu; Saito, Naoaki

2014-05-01

58

Expression and localization of the vascular endothelial growth factor and changes of microvessel density during hair follicle development of Liaoning cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play important roles in neovascularization, tissue development, and angiogenesis. In this study, changes in VEGF expression patterns and microvessel density (MVD), and their correlations, were investigated during hair follicle development in epidermal appendages of Liaoning cashmere goats. Polyclonal antibodies to VEGF and microvessels were used for monthly immunohistochemical examinations of normal skin specimens from adult female goats for one year. VEGF was expressed in the hair bulb of primary and secondary hair follicles, the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous glands (ductal and secretory portions), eccrine sweat glands (ductal and secretory portions), and the epidermis. Abundant expression of VEGF was observed in the follicular basement membrane zone surrounding the bulb matrix and in ductal and secretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. The change in VEGFs in primary hair follicles showed a bimodal pattern, with the first peak observed from March to May, and the second in August. Maximal expression in secondary hair follicles occurred in May and August. Therefore, VEGF expression in primary and secondary hair follicles is synchronized throughout the year, and is correlated to hair development. In the later telogen and anagen phases, VEGF expression was higher in the secondary, compared to the primary, hair follicle. Changes in MVD also showed a bimodal pattern with peaks in May and August. VEGF expression and MVD showed moderate and strongly positive correlation in the primary and secondary hair follicles, respectively. Therefore, MVD and VEGF are closely related to the processes involved in hair cycle regulation. PMID:24390991

Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Li, Y M; Chang, Q; Chen, Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

2013-01-01

59

Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.

1979-01-01

60

Effects of low-dose heavy ions on embryonic development in mice and on melanocyte differentiation in the epidermis and hair bulb  

PubMed Central

The effects of prenatal low-dose irradiation with heavy ions on embryonic development in mice and on melanocyte differentiation are not well understood. We performed whole-body irradiation of pregnant C57BL/10J mice at embryonic Day 9 (E9) with a single dose of ?-rays, silicon, argon or iron ions. The number of living embryos and embryonic body weight at E18 decreased after exposure to heavy ions at high doses. Malformations such as small eyes and limb anomalies were observed in heavy-ion-treated embryos, but not in ?-ray-treated embryos. The frequency of abnormally curved tails was increased by exposure to ?-rays and argon and iron ions even at a dose of 0.1 Gy (P < 0.05). In contrast, a dose-dependent decrease in the number of epidermal melanoblasts/melanocytes and hair bulb melanocytes was observed after 0.1 Gy irradiation with ?-rays or heavy ions (P < 0.01). The decrease in the number of dorsal hair bulb melanocytes, dorsal and ventral epidermal melanoblasts/melanocytes and ventral hair bulb melanocytes was not necessarily correlated with the linear energy transfer of the radiation tested. Moreover, the effects of heavy ions were larger on the ventral skin than on the dorsal skin, indicating that the sensitivity of melanocytes to heavy ions differs between the dorsal and ventral skin. Taken together, these results suggest that the effects of the low-dose heavy ions differ between cell types and tissues, and the effects on the prenatal development of mice and melanocyte development are not necessarily greater than those of ?-rays. PMID:23230241

Hirobe, Tomohisa; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Sugaya, Kimihiko; Murakami, Masahiro

2013-01-01

61

Predicting the spatiotemporal dynamics of hair follicle patterns in the developing mouse.  

PubMed

Reaction-diffusion models have been used as a paradigm for describing the de novo emergence of biological patterns such as stripes and spots. In many organisms, these initial patterns are typically refined and elaborated over the subsequent course of development. Here we study the formation of secondary hair follicle patterns in the skin of developing mouse embryos. We used the expression of sex-determining region Y box 2 to identify and distinguish the primary and secondary hair follicles and to infer the spatiotemporal dynamics of the follicle formation process. Quantitative analysis of the specific follicle patterns observed reveals a simple geometrical rule governing the formation of secondary follicles, and motivates an expansion-induction (EI) model in which new follicle formation is driven by the physical growth of the embryo. The EI model requires only one diffusible morphogen and provides quantitative, accurate predictions on the relative positions and timing of secondary follicle formation, using only the observed configuration of primary follicles as input. The same model accurately describes the positions of additional follicles that emerge from skin explants treated with an activator. Thus, the EI model provides a simple and robust mechanism for predicting secondary space-filling patterns in growing embryos. PMID:24550288

Cheng, Chi Wa; Niu, Ben; Warren, Mya; Pevny, Larysa Halyna; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Hwa, Terence; Cheah, Kathryn S E

2014-02-18

62

Predicting the spatiotemporal dynamics of hair follicle patterns in the developing mouse  

PubMed Central

Reaction–diffusion models have been used as a paradigm for describing the de novo emergence of biological patterns such as stripes and spots. In many organisms, these initial patterns are typically refined and elaborated over the subsequent course of development. Here we study the formation of secondary hair follicle patterns in the skin of developing mouse embryos. We used the expression of sex-determining region Y box 2 to identify and distinguish the primary and secondary hair follicles and to infer the spatiotemporal dynamics of the follicle formation process. Quantitative analysis of the specific follicle patterns observed reveals a simple geometrical rule governing the formation of secondary follicles, and motivates an expansion–induction (EI) model in which new follicle formation is driven by the physical growth of the embryo. The EI model requires only one diffusible morphogen and provides quantitative, accurate predictions on the relative positions and timing of secondary follicle formation, using only the observed configuration of primary follicles as input. The same model accurately describes the positions of additional follicles that emerge from skin explants treated with an activator. Thus, the EI model provides a simple and robust mechanism for predicting secondary space-filling patterns in growing embryos. PMID:24550288

Cheng, Chi Wa; Niu, Ben; Warren, Mya; Pevny, Larysa Halyna; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Hwa, Terence; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.

2014-01-01

63

Intravital imaging of hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Direct videomicroscopic visualization of organ formation and regeneration in toto is a powerful strategy to study cellular processes that often cannot be replicated in vitro. Intravital imaging aims at quantifying changes in tissue architecture or subcellular organization over time during organ development, regeneration or degeneration. A general feature of this approach is its reliance on the optical isolation of defined cell types in the whole animals by transgenic expression of fluorescent markers. Here we describe a simple and robust method to analyze sensory hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line by high-resolution intravital imaging using laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). The main advantage of studying hair-cell regeneration in the lateral line is that it occurs throughout the life of the animal, which allows its study in the most natural context. We detail protocols to achieve continuous videomicroscopy for up to 68 hours, enabling direct observation of cellular behavior, which can provide a sensitive assay for the quantitative classification of cellular phenotypes and cell-lineage reconstruction. Modifications to this protocol should facilitate pharmacogenetic assays to identify or validate otoprotective or reparative drugs for future clinical strategies aimed at preserving aural function in humans. PMID:24130521

Pinto-Teixeira, Filipe; Muzzopappa, Mariana; Swoger, Jim; Mineo, Alessandro; Sharpe, James; Lopez-Schier, Hernan

2013-01-01

64

Cartilage Hair Hypoplasia: First report from Iran.  

PubMed

Cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH), is a rare cause of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and short stature. Other featuresincluded hair abnormality, immunodeficiency, anemia, gastrointestinal disorders (Hirschsprung disease,celiac, …) and increased risk of cancer. The disease is an autosomal recessive disorder and previously has notbeen reported in Iran. We report a 9-year-old boy diagnosed as cartilage hair hypoplasia, with severe short stature,metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, hair hypoplasia, Hirschsprung disease, hypothyroidism, vesicouretral refluxand renal stone. Renal stone and hypothyroidism have been reported in cartilage hair hypoplasia with lower frequencies.This is the first report of cartilage hair hypoplasia in Iran. PMID:24791127

Shiasi Arani, Kobra

2013-08-01

65

Ectodysplasin regulates the lymphotoxin-? pathway for hair differentiation  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the EDA gene cause anhidrotic/hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a disorder characterized by defective formation of hair, sweat glands, and teeth in humans and in a mouse model, “Tabby” (Ta). The gene encodes ectodysplasin, a TNF ligand family member that activates the NF-?B-signaling pathway, but downstream targets and the mechanism of skin appendage formation have been only partially analyzed. Comparative transcription profiling of embryonic skin during hair follicle development in WT and Ta mice identified critical anhidrotic/hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) effectors in four pathways, three already implicated in follicle formation. They included Shh and its effectors, as well as antagonists for the Wnt (Dkk4) and BMP (Sostdc1) pathways. The fourth pathway was unexpected, a variant NF-?B-signaling cascade based on lymphotoxin-? (LT?)/RelB. Previously known to participate only in lymphoid organogenesis, LT? was enriched in developing hair follicles of WT but not in Ta mice. Furthermore, in mice lacking LT?, all three types of mouse hair were still formed, but all were structurally abnormal. Guard hairs became wavy and irregular, zigzag/auchen hairs lost their kinks, and in a phenocopy of features of Ta animals, the awl hairs doubled in number and were characteristically distorted and pinched. LT?-null mice that received WT bone marrow transplants maintained mutant hair phenotypes, consistent with autonomous LT? action in skin independent of its expression in lymphoid cells. Thus, as an EDA target, LT? regulates the form of hair in developing hair follicles; and when EDA is defective, failure of LT? activation can account for part of the Ta phenotype. PMID:16738056

Cui, Chang-Yi; Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi; Grivennikov, Sergei I.; Piao, Yulan; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Schlessinger, David

2006-01-01

66

Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.  

PubMed

Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. PMID:25036348

Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

2014-01-01

67

Root gravitropism and root hair development constitute coupled developmental responses regulated by auxin homeostasis in the Arabidopsis root apex.  

PubMed

Active polar transport establishes directional auxin flow and the generation of local auxin gradients implicated in plant responses and development. Auxin modulates gravitropism at the root tip and root hair morphogenesis at the differentiation zone. Genetic and biochemical analyses provide evidence for defective basipetal auxin transport in trh1 roots. The trh1, pin2, axr2 and aux1 mutants, and transgenic plants overexpressing PIN1, all showing impaired gravity response and root hair development, revealed ectopic PIN1 localization. The auxin antagonist hypaphorine blocked root hair elongation and caused moderate agravitropic root growth, also leading to PIN1 mislocalization. These results suggest that auxin imbalance leads to proximal and distal developmental defects in Arabidopsis root apex, associated with agravitropic root growth and root hair phenotype, respectively, providing evidence that these two auxin-regulated processes are coupled. Cell-specific subcellular localization of TRH1-YFP in stele and epidermis supports TRH1 engagement in auxin transport, and hence impaired function in trh1 causes dual defects of auxin imbalance. The interplay between intrinsic cues determining root epidermal cell fate through the TTG/GL2 pathway and environmental cues including abiotic stresses modulates root hair morphogenesis. As a consequence of auxin imbalance in Arabidopsis root apex, ectopic PIN1 mislocalization could be a risk aversion mechanism to trigger root developmental responses ensuring root growth plasticity. PMID:23252740

Rigas, Stamatis; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Ljung, Karin; Daras, Gerasimos; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

2013-03-01

68

Root hairs: development, growth and evolution at the plant-soil interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root hairs are tip-growing extensions from root epidermal cells that play important roles in nutrient uptake and in plant-soil\\u000a interactions. In this review, we discuss the major environmental, physiological and genetic factors that regulate the differentiation\\u000a and growth of root hairs in angiosperms. Root hair cells are arranged in a number of different patterns in the root epidermis\\u000a of different

Sourav Datta; Chul Min Kim; Monica Pernas; Nuno D. Pires; Hélène Proust; Thomas Tam; Priya Vijayakumar; Liam Dolan

69

Hair Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ...

70

Hair loss  

MedlinePLUS

... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, your doctor may prescribe an ...

71

[Development of a method for estimation of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram in nails and hair and its usefulness in forensic toxicology].  

PubMed

The report presents the possibility of using an alternative material of determining citalopram and its metabolite (desmethylcitalopram) in hair and nails. Citalopram (Cipramil, Citaratio, Citaxin, Oropram, Cital, Cilon, Aurex) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class, employed in treatment of depression, prevention of depressive disorders recurrence and in some anxiety disorders. The investigations were performed using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrophotometry (LC-ESI-MS). In the course of the study, the authors developed a method for isolation and identification of Citaprolam and its metabolite (desmethylcitaprolam) from hair and nails. Determination were performed in hair and nail samples collected from individuals who had been administered citalopram in therapeutic doses at least for 12 months before sample collection. Hair and nail samples were obtained 4, 6, 9 and 15 months after discontinuing drug administration. The concentration of citalopram in nails was 0.40-10.49 ng/mg and the concentration of desmethylcitalopram was 0.32-3.70 ng/mg. In hair, citalopram concentration was 1.04-8.69 ng/mg and for desmethylcitalopram, the concentration range was 0.07-1.27 ng/mg. PMID:21863728

Pufal, Ewa; Sykutera, Marzena; Nowacka, Teresa; Stefanowicz, Anna; Sliwka, Karol

2010-01-01

72

Phospholipase C-delta1 is an essential molecule downstream of Foxn1, the gene responsible for the nude mutation, in normal hair development.  

PubMed

Nude mice exhibit athymia and hairlessness by a loss-of-function mutation in the transcription factor Foxn1 gene. Although the immunological functions of Foxn1 have been studied intensively, there have been relatively few studies of its functions in skin. Foxn1 regulates expression of hair keratins, which is essential for normal hair structure; however, how Foxn1 regulates hair keratin expression and hair formation is largely unknown. In the present study, we found that mice lacking phospholipase C (PLC)-delta1, a key molecule in the phosphoinositide signaling pathway, and nude mice show similar hair abnormalities, such as lack of cuticle and bending. We also found that expression of hair keratins was remarkably decreased in skin of PLC-delta1 knockout mice. Furthermore, expression of PLC-delta1 was induced in Foxn1-transfected U2OS cells. In addition, we showed that PLC-delta1 expression was remarkably decreased in skin of nude mice. In skin and keratinocytes of nude mice as well as PLC-delta1 KO mice, activation of PLC downstream effectors, such as PKC and nuclear factor of activated T cells, was impaired. These results indicate that PLC-delta1 is an essential molecule downstream of Foxn1 in normal hair formation, and strongly suggest that hairlessness in nude mice is caused by insufficient expression of PLC-delta1. PMID:17938256

Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Ichinohe, Manabu; Hirata, Masayuki; Matsuura, Hirokazu; Fujiwara, Takashi; Igarashi, Takahiro; Nakahara, Masamichi; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Yasugi, Sadao; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Fukami, Kiyoko

2008-03-01

73

Prenatal craniofacial development: new insights on normal and abnormal mechanisms.  

PubMed

Technical advances are radically altering our concepts of normal prenatal craniofacial development. These include concepts of germ layer formation, the establishment of the initial head plan in the neural plate, and the manner in which head segmentation is controlled by regulatory (homeobox) gene activity in neuromeres and their derived neural crest cells. There is also a much better appreciation of ways in which new cell associations are established. For example, the associations are achieved by neural crest cells primarily through cell migration and subsequent cell interactions that regulate induction, growth, programmed cell death, etc. These interactions are mediated primarily by two groups of regulatory molecules: "growth factors" (e.g., FGF and TGF alpha) and the so-called steroid/thyroid/retinoic acid superfamily. Considerable advances have been made with respect to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in primary and secondary palate formation, such as growth, morphogenetic movements, and the fusion/merging phenomenon. Much progress has been made on the mechanisms involved in the final differentiation of skeletal tissues. Molecular genetics and animal models for human malformations are providing many insights into abnormal development. A mouse model for the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a mild form of holoprosencephaly, demonstrates a mid-line anterior neural plate deficiency which leads to olfactory placodes being positioned too close to the mid-line, and other secondary changes. Work on animal models for the retinoic acid syndrome (RAS) shows that there is major involvement of neural crest cells. There is also major crest cell involvement in similar syndromes, apparently including hemifacial microsomia. Later administration of retinoic acid prematurely and excessively kills ganglionic placodal cells and leads to a malformation complex virtually identical to the Treacher Collins syndrome. Most clefts of the lip and/or palate appear to have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic variations in TGF alpha s, RAR alpha s, NADH dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in oxidative metabolism, and cytochrome P-450, a detoxifying enzyme, have been implicated as contributing genetic factors. Cigarette smoking, with the attendant hypoxia, is a probable contributing environmental factor. It seems likely that few clefts involve single major genes. In most cases, the pathogenesis appears to involve inadequate contact and/or fusion of the facial prominences or palatal shelves. Specific mutations in genes for different FGF receptor molecules have been identified for achondroplasia and Crouzon's syndrome, and in a regulatory gene (Msx2) for one type of craniosynostosis. Poorly co-ordinated control of form and size of structures, or groups of structures (e.g., teeth and jaws), by regulatory genes should do much to explain the very frequent "mismatches" found in malocclusions and other dentofacial "deformities". Future directions for research, including possibilities for prevention, are discussed. PMID:8664424

Johnston, M C; Bronsky, P T

1995-01-01

74

Human placental development is impaired by abnormal hCG signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies  

E-print Network

1 Human placental development is impaired by abnormal hCG signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies a fetus with trisomy 21, with defective syncytiotrophoblast (ST) formation and function. The ST arises, how abnormal endogenous hCG signaling impairs human placental development. HALauthormanuscriptinserm

Boyer, Edmond

75

Hair growth modulation by topical immunophilin ligands: induction of anagen, inhibition of massive catagen development, and relative protection from chemotherapy-induced alopecia.  

PubMed Central

Selected immunophilin ligands (IPLs) are not only potent immunosuppressants but also modulate hair growth. Their considerable side effects, however, justify at best topical applications of these drugs for the management of clinical hair growth disorders. Therefore, we have explored hair growth manipulation by topical cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK 506 in previously established murine models that mimic premature hair follicle regression (catagen) or chemotherapy-induced alopecia, two major pathomechanisms underlying human hair loss. We confirm that topical CsA and FK 506 induce active hair growth (anagen) in the back skin of C57BL/6 mice with all follicles in the resting stage (telogen) and show that both IPLs also inhibit massive, dexamethasone-induced, premature catagen development in these mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CsA and FK 506 provide relative protection from alopecia and follicle dystrophy induced by cyclophosphamide, possibly by favoring the dystrophic anagen pathway of follicle response to chemical damage. Although it remains to be established whether these IPLs exert the same effects on human hair follicles, our study provides proof of the principle that topical IPLs can act as potent manipulators of clinically relevant hair-cycling pathomechanisms. This strongly encourages one to explore the use of topical IPLs in the management of human hair growth disorders. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 9 PMID:9094998

Maurer, M.; Handjiski, B.; Paus, R.

1997-01-01

76

Hair casts  

PubMed Central

Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

2014-01-01

77

Hair casts.  

PubMed

Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

Parmar, Sweta S; Parmar, Kirti S; Shah, Bela J

2014-10-01

78

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

Lecture 6 Chromosomal Abnormalities #12;Chromosomal abnormalities Numeric Polyploidy- abnormal # of chromosome sets Aneuploidy- abnormal chromosome number Structural Deletion syndromes Duplications Ring chromosomes Centromeric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) Insertion Inversion Paracentric Pericentric

Dellaire, Graham

79

The molecular basis of neurosensory cell formation in ear development: a blueprint for hair cell and sensory neuron regeneration?  

PubMed Central

Summary The inner ear of mammals uses neurosensory cells derived from the embryonic ear for mechanoelectric transduction of vestibular and auditory stimuli (the hair cells) and conducts this information to the brain via sensory neurons. As with most other neurons of mammals, lost hair cells and sensory neurons are not spontaneously replaced and result instead in age-dependent progressive hearing loss. We review the molecular basis of neurosensory development in the mouse ear to provide a blueprint for possible enhancement of therapeutically useful transformation of stem cells into lost neurosensory cells. We identify several readily available adult sources of stem cells that express, like the ectoderm-derived ear, genes known to be essential for ear development. Use of these stem cells combined with molecular insights into neurosensory cell specification and proliferation regulation of the ear, might allow for neurosensory regeneration of mammalian ears in the near future. PMID:17120192

Fritzsch, Bernd; Beisel, Kirk W.; Hansen, Laura

2014-01-01

80

Practical management of hair loss.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe an organized diagnostic approach for both nonscarring and scarring alopecias to help family physicians establish an accurate in-office diagnosis. To explain when ancillary laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for hair loss are based on randomized controlled studies, uncontrolled studies, and case series. MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 1998 with the MeSH words alopecia, hair, and alopecia areata. Articles were selected on the basis of experimental design, with priority given to the most current large multicentre controlled studies. Overall global evidence for therapeutic intervention for hair loss is quite strong. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common forms of nonscarring alopecias are androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. Other disorders include trichotillomania, traction alopecia, tinea capitis, and hair shaft abnormalities. Scarring alopecia is caused by trauma, infections, discoid lupus erythematosus, or lichen planus. Key to establishing an accurate diagnosis is a detailed history, including medication use, systemic illnesses, endocrine dysfunction, hair-care practices, and family history. All hair-bearing sites should be examined. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the scalp is useful, particularly to diagnose scarring alopecias. Once a diagnosis has been established, specific therapy can be initiated. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and management of hair loss is an interesting challenge for family physicians. An organized approach to recognizing characteristic differential features of hair loss disorders is key to diagnosis and management. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10925761

Shapiro, J.; Wiseman, M.; Lui, H.

2000-01-01

81

Development and evaluation of formulations of microbial biotransformed extract of tobacco leaves for hair growth potential  

PubMed Central

Background: Extensive researches are going on to explore the effective and safe drug for their hair growth. Tobacco leaves are traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. Therefore, the aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate the microbial biotransformed extract of tobacco leaves for hair growth potential in male albino wister rats. Materials and Methods: The extract of was prepared by microbial biotransformation of tobacco leaves in cow urine for 28 days. The herbal formulations (lotion) were formulated by general method using o/w type base in various rations or concentrations such as 10%, 20% and 30% of extract. These lotions were applied on shaved skin area of rats for 30 days once in a day and hair length, serum total protein, and total testosterone were measured. Results: Our formulations show increase in hair growth and serum total protein at concentration dependent manner with effect to standard and control groups. Serum total testosterone decreases according to a concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Further, series of investigations are, however, necessary to remain exploration, which includes their structural elucidation, characterization, clinical safety, reliability and molecular mechanism involved in this pharmacological activity. PMID:21589756

Murkute, Ashlesh V.; Sahu, Mahesh S.; Mali, Prashant Y.; Rangari, Vinod D.

2010-01-01

82

Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral\\u000a hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was\\u000a not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing\\u000a may interfere with the normal

C. Jacquemin; P. Mullaney; T. M. Bosley

2001-01-01

83

HCG stimulation test in children with abnormal sexual development.  

PubMed Central

Plasma testosterone was estimated by radioimmunoassay in 60 children with disorders of sexual development before and after stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). In 21 children the testosterone levels after 3 and 5 daily injections of 1000 units HCG were compared and good correlation was found between the paired results (r =0-93), suggesting that the 5-day HCG test has no advantage over the 3-day test. In 7 boys with apparently normal genital development the increments in plasma testosterone ranged from 2-0 to 8-5 nmol/1 after 3 injections of HCG. 10 boys with anorchia showed little response to HCG stimulation, but in patients with other disorders, such as micropenis (10), cryptorchidism (8), hermaphroditism (3), male pseudohermaphroditism (13), hypospadias (3), and sex chromosome anomalies (6), there was considerable variation in the plasma testosterone level after HCG. In 2 boys with suspected anorchia the results suggested that testes were present and this was confirmed at operation. PMID:9030

Grant, D B; Laurance, B M; Atherden, S M; Ryness, J

1976-01-01

84

Dynamic ultrastructural changes of the connective tissue sheath of human hair follicles during hair cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural changes of the connective tissue sheath (CTS), including the hyaline membrane, of human hair follicles during the hair cycle, were studied in normal scalp skin specimens. In early anagen, the CTS was composed of a thin basal lamina and surrounding collagen tissue. The collagen tissue gradually thickened during the development of the hair and hair follicle. In mature anagen

M. Ito; Y. Sato

1990-01-01

85

Tanning and Increased Nevus Development in Very-Light-Skinned Children Without Red Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design: Prospective cohort nested within a randomized controlled trial. Skin examinations in 3 consecutive years (2004, 2005, and 2006) included full-body counts of nevi, skin color and tanning measurement using colorimetry, and hair and eye color evaluation by comparison with charts. Telephone interviews of parents provided sun ex- posure, sun protection, and sunburn history. Setting: Large managed-care organization and private

Jenny Aalborg; Joseph G. Morelli; Stefan T. Mokrohisky; Nancy L. Asdigian; Tim E. Byers; Robert P. Dellavalle; Neil F. Box; Lori A. Crane

2009-01-01

86

Hair restoration.  

PubMed

The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome. PMID:18620980

Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

2008-08-01

87

The anthocyanin reduced Tomato Mutant Demonstrates the Role of Flavonols in Tomato Lateral Root and Root Hair Development.  

PubMed

This study utilized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants with altered flavonoid biosynthesis to understand the impact of these metabolites on root development. The mutant anthocyanin reduced (are) has a mutation in the gene encoding FLAVONOID 3-HYDROXYLASE (F3H), the first step in flavonol synthesis, and accumulates higher concentrations of the F3H substrate, naringenin, and lower levels of the downstream products kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and anthocyanins, than the wild type. Complementation of are with the p35S:F3H transgene reduced naringenin and increased flavonols to wild-type levels. The initiation of lateral roots is reduced in are, and p35S:F3H complementation restores wild-type root formation. The flavonoid mutant anthocyanin without has a defect in the gene encoding DIHYDROFLAVONOL REDUCTASE, resulting in elevated flavonols and the absence of anthocyanins and displays increased lateral root formation. These results are consistent with a positive role of flavonols in lateral root formation. The are mutant has increased indole-3-acetic acid transport and greater sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid on lateral root formation. Expression of the auxin-induced reporter (DR5-?-glucuronidase) is reduced in initiating lateral roots and increased in primary root tips of are. Levels of reactive oxygen species are elevated in are root epidermal tissues and root hairs, and are forms more root hairs, consistent with a role of flavonols as antioxidants that modulate root hair formation. Together, these experiments identify positive roles of flavonols in the formation of lateral roots and negative roles in the formation of root hairs through the modulation of auxin transport and reactive oxygen species, respectively. PMID:25006027

Maloney, Gregory S; DiNapoli, Kathleen T; Muday, Gloria K

2014-10-01

88

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

89

Modulation of development, growth dynamics, wall crystallinity, and infection sites in white clover root hairs by membrane chitolipooligosaccharides from Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii.  

PubMed

We used bright-field, time-lapse video, cross-polarized, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopies to examine the influence of isolated chitolipooligosaccharides (CLOSs) from wild-type Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii on development of white clover root hairs, and the role of these bioactive glycolipids in primary host infection. CLOS action caused a threefold increase in the differentiation of root epidermal cells into root hairs. At maturity, root hairs were significantly longer because of an extended period of active elongation without a change in the elongation rate itself. Time-series image analysis showed that the morphological basis of CLOS-induced root hair deformation is a redirection of tip growth displaced from the medial axis as previously predicted. Further studies showed several newly described infection-related root hair responses to CLOSs, including the localized disruption of the normal crystallinity in cell wall architecture and the induction of new infection sites. The application of CLOS also enabled a NodC- mutant of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii to progress further in the infection process by inducing bright refractile spot modifications of the deformed root hair walls. However, CLOSs did not rescue the ability of the NodC- mutant to induce marked curlings or infection threads within root hairs. These results indicate that CLOS Nod factors elicit several host responses that modulate the growth dynamics and symbiont infectibility of white clover root hairs but that CLOSs alone are not sufficient to permit successful entry of the bacteria into root hairs during primary host infection in the Rhizobium-clover symbiosis. PMID:8655563

Dazzo, F B; Orgambide, G G; Philip-Hollingsworth, S; Hollingsworth, R I; Ninke, K O; Salzwedel, J L

1996-06-01

90

Modulation of development, growth dynamics, wall crystallinity, and infection sites in white clover root hairs by membrane chitolipooligosaccharides from Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii.  

PubMed Central

We used bright-field, time-lapse video, cross-polarized, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopies to examine the influence of isolated chitolipooligosaccharides (CLOSs) from wild-type Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii on development of white clover root hairs, and the role of these bioactive glycolipids in primary host infection. CLOS action caused a threefold increase in the differentiation of root epidermal cells into root hairs. At maturity, root hairs were significantly longer because of an extended period of active elongation without a change in the elongation rate itself. Time-series image analysis showed that the morphological basis of CLOS-induced root hair deformation is a redirection of tip growth displaced from the medial axis as previously predicted. Further studies showed several newly described infection-related root hair responses to CLOSs, including the localized disruption of the normal crystallinity in cell wall architecture and the induction of new infection sites. The application of CLOS also enabled a NodC- mutant of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii to progress further in the infection process by inducing bright refractile spot modifications of the deformed root hair walls. However, CLOSs did not rescue the ability of the NodC- mutant to induce marked curlings or infection threads within root hairs. These results indicate that CLOS Nod factors elicit several host responses that modulate the growth dynamics and symbiont infectibility of white clover root hairs but that CLOSs alone are not sufficient to permit successful entry of the bacteria into root hairs during primary host infection in the Rhizobium-clover symbiosis. PMID:8655563

Dazzo, F B; Orgambide, G G; Philip-Hollingsworth, S; Hollingsworth, R I; Ninke, K O; Salzwedel, J L

1996-01-01

91

I. Cervical dysplasia = abnormal tissue growth n Cervical cancer develops in the  

E-print Network

11/12/12 1 I. Cervical dysplasia = abnormal tissue growth n Cervical cancer develops in the lining dysplasia to cancer A. Cancerous condition usually develops over time. q Normal cervical cells may gradually undergo changes to become precancerous and then cancerous q Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN

Dever, Jennifer A.

92

A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

Phelps, William R.

93

Cytoskeleton and Root Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of root epidermis cell that form to increase the root surface in order to assist in\\u000a the uptake of water and nutrients from soil. Root hair development consists of two distinct processes: root hair initiation\\u000a and tip growth. During both events, the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton translates local signaling events into a\\u000a focused

Eunsook Park; Andreas Nebenführ

94

Modulation of Development, Growth Dynamics, Wall Crystallinity, and Infection Sites in White Clover Root Hairs by Membrane Chitolipooligosaccharides fromRhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used bright-field, time-lapse video, cross-polarized, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopies to examine the influence of isolated chitolipooligosaccharides (CLOSs) from wild-typeRhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii on development of white clover root hairs, and the role of these bioactive glycolipids in primary host infection.CLOSactioncausedathreefoldincreaseinthedifferentiationofrootepidermalcellsintoroothairs. At maturity, root hairs were significantly longer because of an extended period of active elongation without a change in

FRANK B. DAZZO; GUY G. ORGAMBIDE; SALEELA PHILIP-HOLLINGSWORTH; RAWLE I. HOLLINGSWORTH; KENNETH O. NINKE; ANDJANET L. SALZWEDEL

1996-01-01

95

Tufted hair folliculitis: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Tufted hair folliculitis is a rare folliculitis of the scalp that resolves with patches of scarring alopecia within multiple hair tufts emerging from dilated follicular orifices. Tufting of hair is caused by clustering of adjacent follicular units due to a fibrosing process and to retention of telogen hairs within a dilated follicular orifice. Various pathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed including nevoid abnormalities, recurrent infections of the follicles, and retention of telogen hair in the tufts. We present a patient with tufted hair folliculitis who was effectively treated with antibacterial medications, verifying the infectious nature of the disease. PMID:21879202

Broshtilova, V; Bardarov, E; Kazandjieva, J; Marina, S

2011-01-01

96

Gilmore et al., Page 1 Prenatal Mild Ventriculomegaly Predicts Abnormal Development of the  

E-print Network

of abnormal prenatal brain development, including schizophrenia (1, 2), autism (3), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity University Medical Center, Durham, NC 4. Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with mild enlargement of the lateral ventricles thought to have origins

Utah, University of

97

pitx2 Deficiency Results in Abnormal Ocular and Craniofacial Development in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder that involves ocular anterior segment defects, dental hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism and umbilical abnormalities. Characterization of the PITX2 pathway and identification of the mechanisms underlying the anomalies associated with PITX2 deficiency is important for better understanding of normal development and disease; studies of pitx2 function in animal models can facilitate these analyses. A knockdown of pitx2 in zebrafish was generated using a morpholino that targeted all known alternative transcripts of the pitx2 gene; morphant embryos generated with the pitx2ex4/5 splicing-blocking oligomer produced abnormal transcripts predicted to encode truncated pitx2 proteins lacking the third (recognition) helix of the DNA-binding homeodomain. The morphological phenotype of pitx2ex4/5 morphants included small head and eyes, jaw abnormalities and pericardial edema; lethality was observed at ?6–8-dpf. Cartilage staining revealed a reduction in size and an abnormal shape/position of the elements of the mandibular and hyoid pharyngeal arches; the ceratobranchial arches were also decreased in size. Histological and marker analyses of the misshapen eyes of the pitx2ex4/5 morphants identified anterior segment dysgenesis and disordered hyaloid vasculature. In summary, we demonstrate that pitx2 is essential for proper eye and craniofacial development in zebrafish and, therefore, that PITX2/pitx2 function is conserved in vertebrates. PMID:22303467

Liu, Yi; Semina, Elena V.

2012-01-01

98

Brain imaging in normal and abnormal brain development: new perspectives for child psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive brain imaging permits the study of normal and abnormal brain development in childhood and adolescence. This paper summarizes current knowledge of brain development for healthy adolescents and for patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), a rare form of the disorder. The implications of these findings are explored. Cross-sectional and longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are reviewed. The pattern

Nitin Gogate; Jay Giedd; Kristin Janson; Judith L. Rapoport

2001-01-01

99

Time course of cocaine in rabbit hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate interpretation of analytical results from hair testing for drugs of abuse continues to be a complex and difficult problem since many questions still remain unanswered. In this paper an animal model was developed to ascertain the time course for the appearance and disappearance of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in hair. Female Fauve Bourgogne red-haired rabbits (n

C. Jurado; C. Rodriguez-Vicente; M. Menéndez; M. Repetto

1997-01-01

100

[Tufted hair folliculitis].  

PubMed

A case of tufted hair folliculutis presenting as circumscribed, tender and inflamed areas in the occiput with residual tufted follicles in a 28-year old man is reported. Tufted hair folliculitis is a characteristic localized scarring bacterial folliculitis of the scalp due to Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathological studies reveal perifollicular inflammation around the upper portions of the follicles sparing the hair root level. Within areas of inflammation, several follicles converge toward a common follicular duct with a widely dilated opening. Currently, tufted hair folliculitis is considered a variant of folliculitis decalvans of Quinquaud. Staphylococcal infection is believed to be an initial causative factor, and underlying differences in follicular anatomy or host response may be important in determining which reaction pattern occurs in an affected individual. The development of atrophy with loss of adnexal structures (in folliculitis decalvans) or of hair tufts (in tufting folliculitis) may depend upon the depth and destructive potential of the inflammatory process. The therapeutic approach is problematic; prolonged treatment with oral antibiotics may stabilize the disease, but good and at times more definitive results (as in the presented case) have been reported after radical surgical excision of the involved areas. PMID:9206717

Trüeb, R M; Pericin, M; Hafner, J; Burg, G

1997-04-01

101

The structure of people's hair  

PubMed Central

Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

2014-01-01

102

The structure of people's hair.  

PubMed

Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

2014-01-01

103

Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine,

Won-Soo Lee

2011-01-01

104

Hair Cell Replacement in Adult Mouse Utricles after Targeted Ablation of Hair Cells with Diphtheria Toxin  

PubMed Central

We developed a transgenic mouse to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor. In adult wild-type mice, administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) caused no significant hair cell loss. In adult Pou4f3 +/DTR mice, DT treatment reduced hair cell numbers to 6% of normal by 14 days post-DT. Remaining hair cells were located primarily in the lateral extrastriola. Over time, hair cell numbers increased in these regions, reaching 17% of untreated Pou4f3 +/DTR mice by 60 days post-DT. Replacement hair cells were morphologically distinct, with multiple cytoplasmic processes, and displayed evidence for active mechanotransduction channels and synapses characteristic of type II hair cells. Three lines of evidence suggest replacement hair cells were derived via direct (nonmitotic) transdifferentiation of supporting cells: new hair cells did not incorporate BrdU, supporting cells upregulated the pro-hair cell gene Atoh1, and supporting cell numbers decreased over time. This study introduces a new method for efficient conditional hair cell ablation in adult mouse utricles and demonstrates that hair cells are spontaneously regenerated in vivo in regions where there may be ongoing hair cell turnover. PMID:23100430

Golub, Justin S.; Tong, Ling; Ngyuen, Tot B.; Hume, Cliff R.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Stone, Jennifer S.

2012-01-01

105

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

106

Hair Cycle-Dependent Changes in Adrenergic Skin Innervation, and Hair Growth Modulation by Adrenergic Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin nerves may exert ‘‘trophic’’ functions during hair follicle development, growth, and\\/or cycling. Here, we demonstrate hair cycle-related plasticity in the sympathetic innervation of skin and hair follicle in C57BL\\/6 mice. Compared with telogen skin, the number of nerve fibers containing norepinephrine or immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase increased during the early growth phase of the hair cycle (anagen) in dermis

Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Eva M. J. Peters; Natalia V. Botchkareva; Marcus Maurer; Ralf Paus

1999-01-01

107

A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

2014-07-01

108

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

109

A theoretical approach for assessing the role of rock and fluid properties in the development of abnormal fluid pressures  

E-print Network

A THEORETICAL APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE ROLE OF ROCK AND FLUID PROPERTIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ABNORMAL FLUID PRESSURES A Thesis by THOMAS WORCESTER HASTINGS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Geology A THEORETICAL APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE ROLE OF ROCK AND FLUID PROPERTIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ABNORMAL FLUID PRESSURES A Thesis by THOMAS MORCESTER HASTINGS...

Hastings, Thomas Worcester

2012-06-07

110

Acquired Hair Fragility in Pili anulati: Causal Relationship with Androgenetic Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pili anulati are defined by characteristic alternating light and dark banding in the hair shaft, due to air-filled spaces between the macrofibrillar units of the hair cortex, and are regarded as a congenital hair shaft disorder without increased hair fragility. Two cases of pili anulati are presented, in which fragility of hair developed in a causal relationship with the onset

Günther F. L. Hofbauer; Dionysios Tsambaos; Max A. Spycher; Ralph M. Trüeb

2001-01-01

111

The character of abnormalities found in eye development of quail embruos exposed under space flight conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The avian embryonic eye is used as a model system for studies on the environmental effects on central nervous system development. Here we present results of qualitative investigation of the eye development in quail embryos incubated in micro-"g" environment. In this study we used eyes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) embryos "flown" onboard biosatellite Kosmos-1129 and on Mir station within the framework of Mir-NASA Program. Eyes obtained from embryos ranging in age from 3-12 days (E3-E12) were prepared histologically and compared with those of the synchronous and laboratory gound controls. Ther most careful consideration was given to finding and analysis of eye developmental abnormalities. Then they were compared with those already described by experimental teratology for birds and mammals. At the stage of the "eye cup" (E3) we found the case of invalid formation of the inner retina. The latter was represented by disorganized neuroblasts occupying whole posterior chamber of the eye. On the 7th day of quail eye development, at the period of cellular growth activation some cases of small eyes with many folds of overgrowing neural and pigmented retinal layers were detected. In retinal folds of these eyes the normal layering was disturbed as well as the formation of aqueous body and pecten oculi. At this time point the changes were also found in the anterior part of the eye. The peculiarities came out of the bigger width of the cornea and separation of its layers, but were found in synchronous control as well. Few embryos of E10 had also eyes with the abnormities described for E7 but this time they were more vivid because of the completion of eye tissue differentiation. At the stage E12 we found the case evaluated as microphthalmia attending by overgrowth of anterior pigmented tissues - iris and ciliary body attached with the cornea. Most, but not all, of abnormalities we found in eye morphogeneses belonged to the birds "flown" aboard Kosmos- 1129 and were likely induced by specific conditions of that flight. All sorts of disturbances we observed in eye development were similar with dom inated types found in birds and mammals on ground and could be induced by factors we intend to discuss in our report.

Grigoryan, E.; Dadheva, O.; Polinskaya, V.; Guryeva, T.

112

Selenoprotein N deficiency in mice is associated with abnormal lung development  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the human SEPN1 gene, encoding selenoprotein N (SepN), cause SEPN1-related myopathy (SEPN1-RM) characterized by muscle weakness, spinal rigidity, and respiratory insufficiency. As with other members of the selenoprotein family, selenoprotein N incorporates selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec). Most selenoproteins that have been functionally characterized are involved in oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, with the Sec residue located at their catalytic site. To model SEPN1-RM, we generated a Sepn1-knockout (Sepn1?/?) mouse line. Homozygous Sepn1?/? mice are fertile, and their weight and lifespan are comparable to wild-type (WT) animals. Under baseline conditions, the muscle histology of Sepn1?/? mice remains normal, but subtle core lesions could be detected in skeletal muscle after inducing oxidative stress. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels showed lower sensitivity to caffeine in SepN deficient myofibers, suggesting a possible role of SepN in RyR regulation. SepN deficiency also leads to abnormal lung development characterized by enlarged alveoli, which is associated with decreased tissue elastance and increased quasi-static compliance of Sepn1?/? lungs. This finding raises the possibility that the respiratory syndrome observed in patients with SEPN1 mutations may have a primary pulmonary component in addition to the weakness of respiratory muscles.—Moghadaszadeh, B., Rider B. E., Lawlor, M. W., Childers, M. K., Grange, R. W., Gupta, K., Boukedes, S. S., Owen, C. A., Beggs, A. H. Selenoprotein N deficiency in mice is associated with abnormal lung development. PMID:23325319

Moghadaszadeh, Behzad; Rider, Branden E.; Lawlor, Michael W.; Childers, Martin K.; Grange, Robert W.; Gupta, Kushagra; Boukedes, Steve S.; Owen, Caroline A.; Beggs, Alan H.

2013-01-01

113

New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.  

PubMed

Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

2014-05-01

114

Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Sim?i?, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

2007-07-01

115

Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration  

PubMed Central

The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair. Recent studies have revealed that hair follicle stem cells are heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. Moreover, interactions between heterologous stem cells, including both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells, within the hair follicle are just now being explored. This review will describe how recent findings have expanded our understanding of the development, organization, and regeneration of hair follicle stem cells. At a basic level, this review is intended to help construct a reference point to integrate the surge of studies on the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells. PMID:22293183

Ito, Mayumi; Myung, Peggy

2012-01-01

116

Rice ORMDL Controls Sphingolipid Homeostasis Affecting Fertility Resulting from Abnormal Pollen Development  

PubMed Central

The orosomucoids (ORM) are ER-resisdent polypeptides encoded by ORM and ORMDL (ORM-like) genes. In humans, ORMDL3 was reported as genetic risk factor associated to asthma. In yeast, ORM proteins act as negative regulators of sphingolipid synthesis. Sphingolipids are important molecules regulating several processes including stress responses and apoptosis. However, the function of ORM/ORMDL genes in plants has not yet been reported. Previously, we found that temperature sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) rice lines controlled by tms2 contain a deletion of about 70 kb in chromosome 7. We identified four genes expressed in panicles, including an ORMDL ortholog, as candidates for tms2. In this report, we quantified expression of the only two candidate genes normally expressed in anthers of wild type plants grown in controlled growth rooms for fertile and sterile conditions. We found that only the ORMDL gene (LOC_Os07g26940) showed differential expression under these conditions. To better understand the function of rice ORMDL genes, we generated RNAi transgenic rice plants suppressing either LOC_Os07g26940, or all three ORMDL genes present in rice. We found that the RNAi transgenic plants with low expression of either LOC_Os07g26940 alone or all three ORMDL genes were sterile, having abnormal pollen morphology and staining. In addition, we found that both sphingolipid metabolism and expression of genes involved in sphingolipid synthesis were perturbed in the tms2 mutant, analogous to the role of ORMs in yeast. Our results indicated that plant ORMDL proteins influence sphingolipid homeostasis, and deletion of this gene affected fertility resulting from abnormal pollen development. PMID:25192280

Chueasiri, Chutharat; Chunthong, Ketsuwan; Pitnjam, Keasinee; Chakhonkaen, Sriprapai; Sangarwut, Numphet; Sangsawang, Kanidta; Suksangpanomrung, Malinee; Michaelson, Louise V.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Muangprom, Amorntip

2014-01-01

117

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth. Antheraea polyphemus, III. Development of olfactory sensilla and the properties of hair-forming cells.  

PubMed

During adult development of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, the anlagen of olfactory sensilla arise within the first 2 days post-apolysis in the antennal epidermis (stage 1-3). Approximately on the second day, the primary dendrites as well as the axons grow out from the sensory neurons (stage 4). The trichogen cells start to grow apical processes approximately on the third day, and these hair-forming 'sprouts' reach their definite length around the ninth day (stages 5-6). Then the secretion of cuticle begins, the cuticulin layer having formed on day 10 (stage 7a). The primary dendrites are shed, the inner dendritic segments as well as the thecogen cells retract from the prospective hair bases, and the inner tormogen cells degenerate around days 10/11 (stage 7b). The hair shafts of the basiconic sensilla are completed around days 12/13 (stage 7c), and those of the trichoid sensilla around days 14/15 (stage 7d). The trichogen sprouts retract from the hairs after having finished cuticle formation, and the outer dendritic segments grow out into the hairs: in the basiconic sensilla directly through, and in the trichoid sensilla alongside, the sprouts. The trichogen sprouts contain numerous parallel-running microtubules. Besides their cytoskeletal function, these are most probably involved in the transport of membrane vesicles. During the phase of cuticle deposition, large numbers of vesicles are transported anterogradely from the cell bodies into the sprouts, where they fuse with the apical cell membrane and release their electron-dense contents (most probably cuticle precursors) to the outside. As the cuticle grows in thickness, the surface area of the sprouts is reduced by endocytosis of coated vesicles. When finally the sprouts retract from the completed hairs, the number of endocytotic vesicles is further increased and numerous membrane cisterns seem to be transported retrogradely along the microtubules to the cell bodies. Here the membrane material will most probably be used again in the formation of the sensillum lymph cavities. Thus, the trichogen cells are characterized by an intensive membrane recycling. The sensillum lymph cavities develop between days 16-20 (stage 8), mainly via apical invaginations of the trichogen cells. The imago emerges on day 21. PMID:18621189

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1991-01-01

118

Normal and abnormal development of the aortic wall and valve: correlation with clinical entities.  

PubMed

Dilation of the wall of the thoracic aorta can be found in patients with a tricuspid (TAV) as well as a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) with and without a syndromic component. BAV is the most common congenital cardiovascular malformation, with a population prevalence of 0.5-2 %. The clinical course is often characterised by aneurysm formation and in some cases dissection. The non-dilated aortic wall is less well differentiated in all BAV as compared with TAV, thereby conferring inherent developmental susceptibility. Furthermore, a turbulent flow, caused by the inappropriate opening of the bicuspid valve, could accelerate the degenerative process in the aortic wall. However, not all patients with bicuspidy develop clinical complications during their life. We postulate that the increased vulnerability for aortic complications in a subset of patients with BAV is caused by a defect in the early development of the aorta and aortic valve. This review discusses histological and molecular genetic aspects of the normal and abnormal development of the aortic wall and semilunar valves. Aortopathy associated with BAV could be the result of a shared developmental defect during embryogenesis. PMID:25074475

Grewal, N; DeRuiter, M C; Jongbloed, M R M; Goumans, M J; Klautz, R J M; Poelmann, R E; Gittenberger-de Groot, A C

2014-09-01

119

Human TIMP-3 Is Expressed During Fetal Development, Hair Growth Cycle, and Cancer Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We studied the expression and regulation of TIMP-3, a recently cloned mem- ber of the tissue inhibitor of the metalloproteinase family, during human fetal develop- ment and in various human tissues, with emphasis on epithelial structures. Expression of TIMP-3 mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in developing bone, kidney, and vari- ous mesenchymal structures. At 16 weeks of

Kristiina Airola; Matti Ahonen; Nina Johansson; Päivi Heikkilä; Juha Kere; Veli-Matti Kähäri; Ulpu K. Saarialho-Kere

1998-01-01

120

Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography  

PubMed Central

A simple, specific, accurate, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of Lawsone in Trichup herbal hair powder (coded as a THHP), polyherbal formulation. The chromatographic development was carried out on aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 and good resolution was achieved with Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (8:1:1 v/v/v) as mobile phase. Lawsone detection was carried out densitometrically at 277 nm and obtained retardation factor value was 0.46 ± 0.02. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curve was achieved to be linear over a range of 5-60 ?g/ml and regression coefficient was obtained 0.998. Accuracy of chromatographic method was evaluated by standard addition method; recovery was obtained 99.25 ± 0.61%. The peak purity of Lawsone was achieved 0.999 r. Relative standard deviation for intraday and inter-day precision was 0.37-0.56% and 0.42-0.55%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the Lawsone were found to be 1.08 ?g/m land 3.28 ?g/ml, respectively. This result shows that the method was well validated. In the present study, the Lawsone content was found 0.322 ± 0.014% in THHP. This study reveals that the proposed high performance thin layer chromatography method is accurate, fast and cost- effective for routine estimation of Lawsone in polyherbal formulation. PMID:24083204

Patel, Maunang M.; Solanki, Bhavna R.; Gurav, Nilesh C.; Patel, Prateek H.; Verma, Shweta S.

2013-01-01

121

Changing Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... bad result — like orange hair, when you wanted blonde! See a professional. After talking with your mom ... out or be hopelessly frizzy! Curling irons or hot or cold rollers also make straight hair curly. ...

122

Healthy Hair: What Is it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity.

Rodney D Sinclair

2007-01-01

123

Sox2 signaling in prosensory domain specification and subsequent hair cell differentiation in the developing cochlea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sox2 is a high-mobility transcription factor that is one of the earliest markers of developing inner ear prosensory domains. In humans, mutations in SOX2 cause sensorineural hearing loss and a loss of function study in mice showed that Sox2 is required for prosensory formation in the cochlea. However, the specific roles of Sox2 have not been determined. Here we illustrate

Alain Dabdoub; Chandrakala Puligilla; Jennifer M. Jones; Bernd Fritzsch; Kathryn S. E. Cheah; Larysa H. Pevny; Matthew W. Kelley

2008-01-01

124

Normal and Abnormal Development of the Intrapericardial Arterial Trunks in Man and Mouse  

PubMed Central

Aims The definitive cardiac outflow channels have three components: the intrapericardial arterial trunks; the arterial roots with valves; and the ventricular outflow tracts. We studied the normal and abnormal development of the most distal of these, the arterial trunks, comparing findings in mouse and man. Methods and Results Using lineage tracing and three-dimensional visualization by episcopic reconstruction and scanning electron microscopy, we studied embryonic day 9.5 to 12.5 mouse hearts, clarifying the development of the outflow tracts distal to the primordia of the arterial valves. We characterize a transient aortopulmonary foramen, located between the leading edge of a protrusion from the dorsal wall of the aortic sac and the distal margins of the two outflow cushions. The foramen is closed by fusion of the protrusion, with its cap of neural crest cells, with the neural crest cell-filled cushions; the resulting structure then functioning transiently as an aortopulmonary septum. Only subsequent to this closure is it possible to recognize, more proximally, the previously described aortopulmonary septal complex. The adjacent walls of the intrapericardial trunks are derived from the protrusion and distal parts of the outflow cushions, while the lateral walls are formed from intrapericardial extensions of pharyngeal mesenchyme derived from the second heart field. Conclusions We provide, for the first time, objective evidence of the mechanisms of closure of an aortopulmonary foramen that exists distally between the lumens of the developing intrapericardial arterial trunks. Our findings provide insights into the formation of aortopulmonary windows and the variants of common arterial trunk. PMID:22499773

Anderson, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Bill; Mohun, Timothy J.; Bamforth, Simon D.; Hoyland, Darren; Phillips, Helen M.; Webb, Sandra; Moorman, Antoon F.J.; Brown, Nigel A.; Henderson, Deborah J.

2014-01-01

125

Abnormal cerebellar development and Purkinje cell defects in Lgl1-Pax2 conditional knockout mice.  

PubMed

Lgl1 was initially identified as a tumour suppressor in flies and is characterised as a key regulator of epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division. A previous study indicated that More-Cre-mediated Lgl1 knockout mice exhibited significant brain dysplasia and died within 24h after birth. To overcome early neonatal lethality, we generated Lgl1 conditional knockout mice mediated by Pax2-Cre, which is expressed in almost all cells in the cerebellum, and we examined the functions of Lgl1 in the cerebellum. Impaired motor coordination was detected in the mutant mice. Consistent with this abnormal behaviour, homozygous mice possessed a smaller cerebellum with fewer lobes, reduced granule precursor cell (GPC) proliferation, decreased Purkinje cell (PC) quantity and dendritic dysplasia. Loss of Lgl1 in the cerebellum led to hyperproliferation and impaired differentiation of neural progenitors in ventricular zone. Based on the TUNEL assay, we observed increased apoptosis in the cerebellum of mutant mice. We proposed that impaired differentiation and increased apoptosis may contribute to decreased PC quantity. To clarify the effect of Lgl1 on cerebellar granule cells, we used Math1-Cre to specifically delete Lgl1 in granule cells. Interestingly, the Lgl1-Math1 conditional knockout mice exhibited normal proliferation of GPCs and cerebellar development. Thus, we speculated that the reduction in the proliferation of GPCs in Lgl1-Pax2 conditional knockout mice may be secondary to the decreased number of PCs, which secrete the mitogenic factor Sonic hedgehog to regulate GPC proliferation. Taken together, these findings suggest that Lgl1 plays a key role in cerebellar development and folia formation by regulating the development of PCs. PMID:25050931

Hou, Congzhe; Ding, Lingcui; Zhang, Jian; Jin, Yecheng; Sun, Chen; Li, Zhenzu; Sun, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Aizhen; Li, Huashun; Gao, Jiangang

2014-11-01

126

The anthocyanin reduced Tomato Mutant Demonstrates the Role of Flavonols in Tomato Lateral Root and Root Hair Development1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

This study utilized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants with altered flavonoid biosynthesis to understand the impact of these metabolites on root development. The mutant anthocyanin reduced (are) has a mutation in the gene encoding FLAVONOID 3-HYDROXYLASE (F3H), the first step in flavonol synthesis, and accumulates higher concentrations of the F3H substrate, naringenin, and lower levels of the downstream products kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and anthocyanins, than the wild type. Complementation of are with the p35S:F3H transgene reduced naringenin and increased flavonols to wild-type levels. The initiation of lateral roots is reduced in are, and p35S:F3H complementation restores wild-type root formation. The flavonoid mutant anthocyanin without has a defect in the gene encoding DIHYDROFLAVONOL REDUCTASE, resulting in elevated flavonols and the absence of anthocyanins and displays increased lateral root formation. These results are consistent with a positive role of flavonols in lateral root formation. The are mutant has increased indole-3-acetic acid transport and greater sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid on lateral root formation. Expression of the auxin-induced reporter (DR5-?-glucuronidase) is reduced in initiating lateral roots and increased in primary root tips of are. Levels of reactive oxygen species are elevated in are root epidermal tissues and root hairs, and are forms more root hairs, consistent with a role of flavonols as antioxidants that modulate root hair formation. Together, these experiments identify positive roles of flavonols in the formation of lateral roots and negative roles in the formation of root hairs through the modulation of auxin transport and reactive oxygen species, respectively. PMID:25006027

Maloney, Gregory S.; DiNapoli, Kathleen T.; Muday, Gloria K.

2014-01-01

127

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of prostaglandin E receptor 2 gene in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development.  

PubMed

As a member of the four subtypes of receptors for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) is in the family of G-protein coupled receptors and has been characterized to be involved in the development and growth of hair follicles. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of PTGER2 gene from cashmere goat skin. The entire open reading frame (ORF) of PTGER2 gene was 1047 bp and encoded 348 amino acid residues. The deduced protein contained one G-protein coupled receptors family 1 signature, seven transmembrane domains, and other potential sites. Tissue expression analysis showed that PTGER2 gene was expressed strongly in the skin. The general expression tendency of PTGER2 gene at different hair follicle developmental stages in the skin was gradually decreased from anagen to catagen to telogen. After comparing with the expression of BMP4 gene and related reports, we further presume that it seems to have a relationship between the hair follicle cycle and the expression level of PTGER2 gene in cashmere goat skin. PMID:24555795

Geng, Rong-Qing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yu-Lin

2014-04-01

128

Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.  

PubMed

Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways, and others, can explain many alternatives and specific variations of hair bending phenotypes. Mechanisms for hair papilla budding or its division by bisection or fission can explain MPC formation. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) and mesenchymal-to-epithelial (MET) transitions, acting in collaboration with epithelial-mesenchymal communications are also considered as mechanisms affecting hair growth and its bending and twisting. These may be treated as sub-mechanisms of an overall development from neural-crest stem cell (NCSC) lineages to differentiated hair follicle (HF) cell types, thus providing a unified framework for hair growth and development. PMID:24617997

Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

2014-08-01

129

Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.  

PubMed

Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application. PMID:20157224

Dickinson, B T

2010-03-01

130

New source of evidence: explosive traces in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the sorption of explosives [TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP] to hair during exposure to their vapors. In each test, three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Washing, extracting, and gas chromatographic quantification protocols were developed, and replication of quantitative data was confirmed. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is

Jimmie C. Oxley; James L. Smith; Louis Kirschenbaum; Kajal P. Shinde; Suvarnakishore Marimganti

2004-01-01

131

Development and validation of a gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC–NCI-MS\\/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30mg

Hicham Kharbouche; Frank Sporkert; Stéphanie Troxler; Marc Augsburger; Patrice Mangin; Christian Staub

2009-01-01

132

In Vitro Differences Between Keratinocyte Stem Cells and Transit-Amplifying Cells of the Human Hair Follicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial stem cells within the human hair follicle are critical for hair development, hair cycling, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. We and others have previously shown that the hair follicle bulge area contains keratinocyte stem cells, whereas the hair matrix represents the proliferating and differentiating transit-amplifying (TA) cell compartment. In order to better characterize the phenotypic differences between human keratinocyte stem

Cecilia Roh; Qingfeng Tao; Christos Photopoulos; Stephen Lyle

2005-01-01

133

Radioimmunoassay of drugs of abuse in hair Part 2: The determination of methadone in the hair of known drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication addresses the analytical problems associated with the analysis of hair specimens from known users and misusers of the synthetic opioid methadone. An adapted radioimmunoassay and a previously developed preanalytical decontamination procedure have been applied to samples from known drug users. The removal of drugs from the hair surface by washing and the effect of proprietary hair treatments on

A. Marsh; M. B. Evans; J. Strang

1995-01-01

134

Development of early postnatal peripheral nerve abnormalities in Trembler-J and PMP22 transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the gene for peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are associated with peripheral neuropathy in mice and humans. Although PMP22 is strongly expressed in peripheral nerves and is localised largely to the myelin sheath, a dual role has been suggested as 2 differentially expressed promoters have been found. In this study we compared the initial stages of postnatal development in transgenic mouse models which have, in addition to the murine pmp22 gene, 7 (C22) and 4 (C61) copies of the human PMP22 gene and in homozygous and heterozygous Trembler-J (TrJ) mice, which have a point mutation in the pmp22 gene. The number of axons that were singly ensheathed by Schwann cells was the same in all groups indicating that PMP22 does not function in the initial ensheathment and separation of axons. At both P4 and P12 all mutants had an increased proportion of fibres that were incompletely surrounded by Schwann cell cytoplasm indicating that this step is disrupted in PMP22 mutants. C22 and homozygous TrJ animals could be distinguished by differences in the Schwann cell morphology at the initiation of myelination. In homozygous TrJ animals the Schwann cell cytoplasm had failed to make a full turn around the axon whereas in the C22 strain most fibres had formed a mesaxon. It is concluded that PMP22 functions in the initiation of myelination and probably involves the ensheathment of the axon by the Schwann cell, and the extension of this cell along the axon. Abnormalities may result from a failure of differentiation but more probably from defective interactions between the axon and the Schwann cell. PMID:10580849

ROBERTSON, A. M.; HUXLEY, C.; KING, R. H. M.; THOMAS, P. K.

1999-01-01

135

Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral\\u000a disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities\\u000a and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high\\u000a resolution MRI to

Katherine G Akers; Steven A Kushner; Ana T Leslie; Laura Clarke; Derek van der Kooy; Jason P Lerch; Paul W Frankland

2011-01-01

136

Overexpression of Wnt5a in mouse epidermis causes no psoriasis phenotype but an impairment of hair follicle anagen development.  

PubMed

Increased Wnt5a expression has been observed in psoriatic plaques. However, whether Wnt5a overexpression directly causes psoriasis is unknown. In this study, we generated transgenic (TG) mice with epidermal Wnt5a overexpression under the control of the human K14 promoter. The skin of Wnt5a TG mice was not psoriatic, but characterized with normal proliferation and homeostasis of epidermis. Instead, these TG mice displayed impaired hair follicle transition from telogen to anagen, most likely due to impaired canonical Wnt signalling. These results suggest that increased Wnt5a expression alone is inadequate to induce psoriasis in the skin and possible involvement of Wnt5a in hair follicle cycling. PMID:25219536

Zhu, Xuming; Wu, Yumei; Huang, Sixia; Chen, Yingwei; Tao, Yixin; Wang, Yushu; He, Shigang; Shen, Sanbing; Wu, Ji; Guo, Xizhi; Li, Baojie; He, Lin; Ma, Gang

2014-12-01

137

Algorithm of hair restoration surgery in children.  

PubMed

Hair is an inseparable element of external appearance of every human being. Although various fashion trends come and go, the lack of hair is for many a major aesthetic and psychological problem. Even if men's balding can be accepted as a natural phenomenon, hair loss in children is considered to be a condition demanding correction. During an 18-year period, 8440 hair restoration operations were performed at the Hair Clinic Poznan, in Poznan, Poland. Most patients were men treated for androgenic alopecia. Among the patients were 57 children in whom hair loss resulted from hereditary factors, perinatal traumas, radiotherapy, and mechanical, thermal, and chemical damage. Methods of restoration were adjusted to type of hair loss, patient age, and ability to cooperate with the surgeon. In cases of single massive scars, skin flap correction was usually used. The flaps were prepared with the use of expanders. In cases of numerous scattered defects or considerable thinning of the scalp, the method of choice was hair transplantation. The "four-hand stick-and-place" technique developed by the authors enabled the surgeon to quickly and precisely carry out the procedure. Application of varied surgery techniques in scalp reconstruction procedures in children gave very good aesthetic results with a minimal complication rate. PMID:12900598

Kolasiñski, Jerzy; Kolenda, Ma?gorzata

2003-08-01

138

Mitochondrial profiling of dog hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make greater use of dog hairs as forensic evidence, we have developed a robust method for duplex amplification of adjacent 306 and 332bp amplicons within the 5? hypervariable region (5? HVR) of the canine mitochondrial control region. In support of this, a 595bp region covering 35 polymorphic sites has been sequenced from the blood of 105 UK

Jon H. Wetton; Jenny E. Higgs; Adrian C. Spriggs; Chris A. Roney; Carol S. F. Tsang; Aiden P. Foster

2003-01-01

139

Development and experimental validation of computational methods to simulate abnormal thermal and structural environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: a purely regulatory approach, or by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches.

Moya, J. L.; Skocypec, R. D.; Thomas, R. K.

1993-09-01

140

Abnormal Hippocampal Development in Children with Medulloblastoma Treated with Risk-Adapted Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Children with medulloblastoma demonstrate post-treat- ment neurocognitive deficits in a number of areas, including memory performance. However, there is no definitive understanding of the neuropathology underlying these functional deficits. Previous literature has reported that hippocampal integrity is crucial to the acquisition of new episodic memories. Therefore, we hypothesized that longitudinal hippocampal volume mea- surements are abnormal in

Bonnie J. Nagel; Shawna L. Palmer; Wilburn E. Reddick; John O. Glass; Kathleen J. Helton; Shengjie Wu; Xiaoping Xiong; Larry E. Kun; Amar Gajjar; Raymond K. Mulhern

2004-01-01

141

Amniotic Fluid Deficiency and Congenital Abnormalities both Influence Fluctuating Asymmetry in Developing Limbs of Human Deceased Fetuses  

PubMed Central

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), as an indirect measure of developmental instability (DI), has been intensively studied for associations with stress and fitness. Patterns, however, appear heterogeneous and the underlying causes remain largely unknown. One aspect that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the consequence of direct mechanical effects on asymmetries. The crucial prerequisite for FA to reflect DI is that environmental conditions on both sides should be identical. This condition may be violated during early human development if amniotic fluid volume is deficient, as the resulting mechanical pressures may increase asymmetries. Indeed, we showed that limb bones of deceased human fetuses exhibited increased asymmetry, when there was not sufficient amniotic fluid (and, thus, space) in the uterine cavity. As amniotic fluid deficiency is known to cause substantial asymmetries and abnormal limb development, these subtle asymmetries are probably at least in part caused by the mechanical pressures. On the other hand, deficiencies in amniotic fluid volume are known to be associated with other congenital abnormalities that may disturb DI. More specifically, urogenital abnormalities can directly affect/reduce amniotic fluid volume. We disentangled the direct mechanical effects on FA from the indirect effects of urogenital abnormalities, the latter presumably representing DI. We discovered that both factors contributed significantly to the increase in FA. However, the direct mechanical effect of uterine pressure, albeit statistically significant, appeared less important than the effects of urogenital abnormalities, with an effect size only two-third as large. We, thus, conclude that correcting for the relevant direct factors allowed for a representative test of the association between DI and stress, and confirmed that fetuses form a suitable model system to increase our understanding in patterns of FA and symmetry development. PMID:24312362

ten Broek, Clara Mariquita Antoinette; Bots, Jessica; Varela-Lasheras, Irma; Bugiani, Marianna; Galis, Frietson; Van Dongen, Stefan

2013-01-01

142

Activated Hair Follicle Stem Cells and Wnt/?-catenin Signaling Involve in Pathnogenesis of Sebaceous Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Sebaceous glands (SGs) undergo cyclic renewal independent of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) activation while HFSCs have the potential to differentiate into sebaceous gland cells, hair follicle and epidermal keratinocytes. Abnormalities of sebaceous gland progenitor cells contribute to the development of sebaceous neoplasms, but little is known about the role of HFSCs during sebaceous neoplasm development. Here, using dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) plus 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment developing sebaceous neoplasms (SNs) were identified with H&E and Oil red O staining. And then the molecular expression and activation of HFSCs and was characterized by immunostaining. Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling molecular which is important for activation of HFSCs were detected by immunostaining. We found hair follicle and epidermal cell markers were expressed in sebaceous neoplasms. Furthermore, SOX-9 and CD34-positive HFSCs were located in the basal layer of sebaceous lobules within the sebaceous neoplasms. Many appear to be in an active state. Finally, Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling was activated within the basal cells of sebaceous lobules in the sebaceous neoplasms. Collectively, our findings suggest that the abnormal activation of both HFSCs and Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling involves in the development of sebaceous neoplasms. PMID:25076848

Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Li, Jin; Wang, Ning; Lian, Xiaohua

2014-01-01

143

Overexpression of NlgCycB Isolated from Interspecific Hybrid of N. langsdorffii  ×  N. glauca Alters Root Growth and Root Hair Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone encoding cyclin B (NlgCycB) was isolated from an interspecific hybrid of N. langsdorffii × N. glauca. The full-length cDNA had an open reading frame of 1,422 bp, with a deduced amino acid sequence of 473 residues. To investigate\\u000a the role of NlgCycB, transgenic tobacco plants were constructed to overexpress NlgCycB. The transgenic plants showed premature root hair development in the

Hye-Kyoung Kwon; Yong-Eui Choi; Myeong-Hyeon Wang

144

Taking Care of Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... straight hair better than curly hair, which is why straight hair can appear shinier. Depending how long a person's hair is or how fast it grows, the ... more vulnerable to breakage or cuticle damage. That's why using a hot ... to break easily. Some people find that their hair gets oily in their ...

145

Comparison of hair from rectum cancer patients and from healthy persons by Raman microspectroscopy and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, Raman microspectroscopy and imaging was employed to analyze cancer patients' hair tissue. The comparison between the hair from rectum cancer patients and the hair from healthy people reveals some remarkable differences, such as for the rectum cancer patients, there are more lipids but less content of ?-helix proteins in the hair medulla section. Though more statistic data are required to establish universary rules for practical and accurate diagnosis, this work based on case study demonstrates the possibility of applying Raman microspectroscopy to reveal abnormality in non-cancer tissues such as hair in order to predict and diagnose cancers.

Wei, Xiaoli; Wang, Xin; Fang, Yusheng; Huang, Qing

2013-09-01

146

Hair loss and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).  

PubMed

Hair loss is a common problem in captive macaque colonies. A potential factor is the possible influence of stressful environments in the development of hair loss. We examined the relationship between hair loss and chronic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity by measuring cortisol in hair. Adult male and female rhesus macaques housed at 3 primate facilities in the United States were screened for degree of hair loss and observed for evidence of hair-plucking behavior. Hair samples and photographic data were obtained from 99 subjects, none of which were hair-pluckers. Macaques with greater than 30% hair loss (alopecia group) showed higher concentrations of hair cortisol than did those with less than 5% hair loss (control group), a finding that was unrelated to age, body weight, or the month in which the sample was collected. Hair loss scores were positively correlated with hair cortisol levels across all monkeys and within the alopecic group alone. In addition, the strong relationship between hair cortisol and alopecia was noted in 2 but not the third facility. Friction with cage surfaces appeared to contribute to hair loss in 18 monkeys. These findings suggest that stress may be one of several factors related to hair loss in some captive nonhuman primates, although whether this relationship is causal or merely correlational is unclear. Moreover, the source of the additional cortisol in the hair of alopecic monkeys (that is, from the circulation or from local synthesis in the skin) remains to be determined. PMID:24827567

Novak, Melinda A; Hamel, Amanda F; Coleman, Kris; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Menard, Mark; Ryan, Amy; Rosenberg, Kendra; Meyer, Jerrold S

2014-05-01

147

Hair Loss and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Hair loss is a common problem in captive macaque colonies. A potential factor is the possible influence of stressful environments in the development of hair loss. We examined the relationship between hair loss and chronic hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity by measuring cortisol in hair. Adult male and female rhesus macaques housed at 3 primate facilities in the United States were screened for degree of hair loss and observed for evidence of hair-plucking behavior. Hair samples and photographic data were obtained from 99 subjects, none of which were hair-pluckers. Macaques with greater than 30% hair loss (alopecia group) showed higher concentrations of hair cortisol than did those with less than 5% hair loss (control group), a finding that was unrelated to age, body weight, or the month in which the sample was collected. Hair loss scores were positively correlated with hair cortisol levels across all monkeys and within the alopecic group alone. In addition, the strong relationship between hair cortisol and alopecia was noted in 2 but not the third facility. Friction with cage surfaces appeared to contribute to hair loss in 18 monkeys. These findings suggest that stress may be one of several factors related to hair loss in some captive nonhuman primates, although whether this relationship is causal or merely correlational is unclear. Moreover, the source of the additional cortisol in the hair of alopecic monkeys (that is, from the circulation or from local synthesis in the skin) remains to be determined. PMID:24827567

Novak, Melinda A; Hamel, Amanda F; Coleman, Kris; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Menard, Mark; Ryan, Amy; Rosenberg, Kendra; Meyer, Jerrold S

2014-01-01

148

Abnormalities in cartilage and bone development in the Apert syndrome FGFR2+\\/S252W mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by malformations of the skull, limbs and viscera. Two-thirds of affected individuals have a S252W mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). To study the pathogenesis of this condition, we generated a knock-in mouse model with this mutation. The Fgfr2 +\\/S252W mutant mice have abnormalities of the skeleton, as well as

Yingli Wang; Ran Xiao; Fan Yang; Baktiar O. Karim; Anthony J. Iacovelli; Juanliang Cai; Charles P. Lerner; Joan T. Richtsmeier; Jen M. Leszl; Cheryl A. Hill; Kai Yu; David M. Ornitz; Jennifer Elisseeff; David L. Huso; Ethylin Wang Jabs

2005-01-01

149

Hair Cell Generator Potentials  

PubMed Central

A technique is introduced using a piezoelectric device to stimulate hair cells of a molluscan statocyst while recording their responses intracellularly. Statocyst displacements produced with the technique are calibrated with stroboscopic photography. Properties of the hair cells' response to currents and mechanical stimulation are studied. The hair cell generator potential arises from a conductance increase and, for a certain range, is a logarithmic function of the amplitude of the displacement stimulus. PMID:4705640

Alkon, Daniel L.; Bak, Anthony

1973-01-01

150

MRI of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair\\u000a care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical\\u000a techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added\\u000a by

Eveline Mattle; Markus Weiger; Daniel Schmidig; Peter Boesiger; Michael Fey

2009-01-01

151

Photoaggravation of Hair Aging  

PubMed Central

Photoaggravation of hair aging includes various chemical and physical changes in fiber properties which lead to an increase in fiber porosity, loss of mechanical strength and an increase in surface roughness. These changes come from lipid oxidation, disulfide bond cleavage, tryptophan degradation and cysteic acid formation. Hair exposed to sunlight is claimed to be more brittle, stiffer and drier than before irradiation and exhibits a reduced water-absorption capacity. Hair pigments function to provide photochemical protection to hair proteins. Hair pigments accomplish this protection by absorbing and filtering the impinging radiation and subsequently dissipating this energy as heat. However, in the process of protecting the hair proteins from light, the pigments are degraded or bleached. Dark hair is more resistant to photodegradation than light hair, because of the higher photostability of eumelanin compared to pheomelanin. Integral lipids of hair fibers are degraded by ultraviolet light, as well as by visible light, helping to explain the weakening of the cell membrane complex exposed to light radiation. PMID:20927230

Lee, Won-Soo

2009-01-01

152

Age-Related Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... where hair is needed. Medication for Hair Restoration Finasteride – Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( ... hair re-growth in about 66% of men. Finasteride works by blocking the formation of the active ...

153

Designing a better hair straightener  

E-print Network

The Simply Straight Hair Brush was designed and built. The aim of the Simply Straight Hair Brush was to straighten hair faster and better than any product currently on the market. The current products were studied and the ...

Read, Melissa B. (Melissa Beth), 1982-

2004-01-01

154

Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System  

PubMed Central

Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

Tobin, Desmond J

2009-01-01

155

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

156

Abnormalities of the vitreoretinal interface caused by dysregulated Hedgehog signaling during retinal development.  

PubMed

Mutations in Patched (PTCH), encoding the Hedgehog (Hh) receptor, underlie Basal Cell Naevus syndrome (BCNS) and, in addition to tumor predisposition, are associated with a wide range of 'patterning' defects. The basis for the underlying patterning problems in Hh-dependent tissues in BCNS and their long-term consequences on tissue homeostasis are, however, not known. Hh signaling is required for normal growth and organization of the mammalian retina and we show that PtchlacZ+/- mice exhibit vitreoretinal abnormalities resembling those found in BCNS patients. The retinas of PtchlacZ+/- mice exhibit abnormal cell cycle regulation, which culminates in photoreceptor dysplasia and Müller cell-derived gliosis. In BCNS, the intraretinal glial response results in epiretinal membrane (ERM) formation, a proliferative and contractile response on the retinal surface. ERMs are a cause of significant visual loss in the general, especially elderly, population. We hypothesize that alteration of Müller cell Hh signaling may play a role in the pathogenesis of such age-related 'idiopathic' ERMs. PMID:14570707

Black, Graeme C M; Mazerolle, Chantal J; Wang, Yaping; Campsall, Katrina D; Petrin, Dino; Leonard, Brian C; Damji, Karim F; Evans, D Gareth; McLeod, David; Wallace, Valerie A

2003-12-15

157

Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This image displays a close-up of the scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition resulting ...

158

Development and validation of a single LC-MS/MS assay following SPE for simultaneous hair analysis of amphetamines, opiates, cocaine and metabolites.  

PubMed

The two major challenges in hair analysis are the limited amount of samples usually available and the low targeted concentrations. To overcome these limitations, a liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) allowing the simultaneous analysis of 17 amphetamines (amphetamine, BDB, m-CPP, dexfenfluramine, DOB, DOM, ephedrine, MBDB, MDA, MDEA, MDMA, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, 4-MTA, norephedrine, norfenfluramine and PMA), 5 opiates (morphine, codeine, heroin, ethylmorphine, and 6AM), cocaine and 5 metabolites [ecgonine methyl ester (EME), benzoylecgonine (BZE), anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AME), cocaethylene, and norcocaine] has been developed. The validation procedure included linearity, intra-day and inter-day variability and accuracy for 5 days (5 replicates at 3 concentration levels). Proficiency studies were used to check the accuracy of the method. As a result, all amphetamines, opiates and cocaine derivatives were satisfactory identified by 2 MRM transitions in 15 min. Calibration curves were performed by a quadratic 1/X weighted regression. The calibration model fits from 0.05 to 10 ng/mg. The limits of detection (LODs) range between 0.005 and 0.030 ng/mg. Precision has been checked by intra-day and inter-day RSD, and associated relative bias, which were lower than 25% for the limits of quantifications (LOQs) and lower than 20% for the other levels tested. This method was routinely applied to hair samples: two positive results of adult drug addicts are presented. PMID:24378313

Imbert, L; Dulaurent, S; Mercerolle, M; Morichon, J; Lachâtre, G; Gaulier, J-M

2014-01-01

159

Developing Software to "Track and Catch" Missed Follow-up of Abnormal Test Results in a Complex Sociotechnical Environment  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed test results, we developed a software prototype to account for technical, usability, organizational, and workflow needs. Our evaluation has shown the feasibility of the prototype as a means of facilitating better follow-up for cancer-related abnormal test results. PMID:24155789

Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.

2013-01-01

160

Hair analysis for drugs of abuse XIX. Determination of ephedrine and its homologs in rat hair and human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive GC-MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of ephedrine (EP), phenylpropanolamine (PPA) and methylephedrine (ME) in animal and human hair. After washing with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, hair samples (10 mg) were added with deuterated internal standards, extracted by 1-h sonication and over night soaking in 2 ml of 5 M HCl-methanol (1:20) at room temperature. Following

Yuji Nakahara; Ruri Kikura

1997-01-01

161

Molecular Remodeling of Tip Links Underlies Mechanosensory Regeneration in Auditory Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Sound detection by inner ear hair cells requires tip links that interconnect mechanosensory stereocilia and convey force to yet unidentified transduction channels. Current models postulate a static composition of the tip link, with protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) at the lower and cadherin 23 (CDH23) at the upper end of the link. In terminally differentiated mammalian auditory hair cells, tip links are subjected to sound-induced forces throughout an organism's life. Although hair cells can regenerate disrupted tip links and restore hearing, the molecular details of this process are unknown. We developed a novel implementation of backscatter electron scanning microscopy to visualize simultaneously immuno-gold particles and stereocilia links, both of only a few nanometers in diameter. We show that functional, mechanotransduction-mediating tip links have at least two molecular compositions, containing either PCDH15/CDH23 or PCDH15/PCDH15. During regeneration, shorter tip links containing nearly equal amounts of PCDH15 at both ends appear first. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that these transient PCDH15/PCDH15 links mediate mechanotransduction currents of normal amplitude but abnormal Ca2+-dependent decay (adaptation). The mature PCDH15/CDH23 tip link composition is re-established later, concomitant with complete recovery of adaptation. Thus, our findings provide a molecular mechanism for regeneration and maintenance of mechanosensory function in postmitotic auditory hair cells and could help identify elusive components of the mechanotransduction machinery. PMID:23776407

Indzhykulian, Artur A.; Stepanyan, Ruben; Nelina, Anastasiia; Spinelli, Kateri J.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.; Frolenkov, Gregory I.

2013-01-01

162

A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a very complex visual pattern whose rep- resentation is rarely studied in the vision literature despite its important role in human recognition. In this paper, we propose a generative model for hair representation and hair sketching, which is far more compact than the physically based models in graphics. We decompose a color hair im- age into three

Hong Chen; Song Chun Zhu

2005-01-01

163

Notch signaling in mammalian hair cell regeneration  

PubMed Central

In the inner ear, Notch signaling has been shown to have two key developmental roles. The first occurs early in otic development and defines the prosensory domains that will develop into the six sensory organs of the inner ear. The second role occurs later in development and establishes the mosaic-like pattern of the mechanosensory hair cells and their surrounding support cells through the more well-characterized process of lateral inhibition. These dual developmental roles have inspired several different strategies to regenerate hair cells in the mature inner ear organs. These strategies include (1) modulation of Notch signaling in inner ear stem cells in order to increase hair cell yield, (2) activation of Notch signaling in order to promote the formation of ectopic sensory regions in normally non-sensory regions within the inner ear, and (3) inhibition of Notch signaling to disrupt lateral inhibition and allow support cells to transdifferentiate into hair cells. In this review, we summarize some of the promising studies that have used these various strategies for hair cell regeneration through modulation of Notch signaling and some of the challenges that remain in developing therapies based on hair cell regeneration.

Slowik, Amber D.; Bermingham-McDonogh, Olivia

2014-01-01

164

Exogenous Factors in Hair Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and beauty of human hair have immeasurable psychological importance. Hair structure and its cycle are influenced by intentionally or nonintentionally delivered factors such as grooming, heat styling, chemical agents and climatic exposure. All of these factors are capable of causing loss of hair color and luster, harshness, stiffness, weakness, brittleness and flyaway, transient loss of hair or scarring

Liran Horev

2004-01-01

165

Hair Follicle Pigmentation  

PubMed Central

Hair shaft melanin components (eu- or/and pheomelanin) are a long-lived record of precise interactions in the hair follicle pigmentary unit, e.g., between follicular melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal papilla fibroblasts. Follicular melanogenesis (FM) involves sequentially the melanogenic activity of follicular melanocytes, the transfer of melanin granules into cortical and medulla keratinocytes, and the formation of pigmented hair shafts. This activity is in turn regulated by an array of enzymes, structural and regulatory proteins, transporters, and receptors and their ligands, acting on the developmental stages, cellular, and hair follicle levels. FM is stringently coupled to the anagen stage of the hair cycle, being switched-off in catagen to remain absent through telogen. At the organ level FM is precisely coupled to the life cycle of melanocytes with changes in their compartmental distribution and accelerated melanoblast/melanocyte differentiation with enhanced secretory activity. The melanocyte compartments in the upper hair follicle also provides a reservoir for the repigmentation of epidermis and, for the cyclic formation of new anagen hair bulbs. Melanin synthesis and pigment transfer to bulb keratinocytes are dependent on the availability of melanin precursors, and regulation by signal transduction pathways intrinsic to skin and hair follicle, which are both receptor dependent and independent, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. The important regulators are MC1 receptor its and adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, agouti protein ligands (in rodents), c-Kit, and the endothelin receptors with their ligands. Melanin itself has a wide range of bioactivities that extend far beyond its determination of hair color. PMID:15654948

Slominski, Andrzej; Wortsman, Jacobo; Plonka, Przemyslaw M.; Schallreuter, Karin U.; Paus, Ralf; Tobin, Desmond J.

2005-01-01

166

Abnormal P-selectin localization during megakaryocyte development determines thrombosis in the gata1low model of myelofibrosis  

PubMed Central

Patients with primary myelofibrosis have increased risk for bleeding and thrombosis. It is debated whether propensity to thrombosis is due to increased numbers of platelet microparticles and/or to pathological platelet-neutrophil interactions. Platelet neutrophil interactions are mediated by P-selectin and even though the megakaryocytes of myelofibrosis patients express normal levels of P-selectin, it remains abnormally localized to the demarcation membrane system rather than being assembled into the ?-granules in platelets. Mice carrying the hypomorphic Gata1low mutation express the same megakaryocyte abnormalities presented by primary myelofibrosis patients, including abnormal P-selectin localization to the DMS and develop with age myelofibrosis, a disease that closely resembles human primary myelofibrosis. Whether these mice would also develop thrombosis has not been investigated as yet. The aim of this study was to determine whether Gata1low mice would develop thrombosis with age and, in this case, the role played by P-selectin in the development of the trait. To this aim, Gata1low mice were crossed with P-selnull mice according to standard genetic protocols and Gata1lowP-selwt, Gata1lowP-selnull and Gata1WTP-selnull or Gata1wtP-selwt (as controls) littermates obtained. It was shown that platelet counts, but not hematocrit, are reduced in Gata1low mice. Moreover, platelet microparticles are reduced in Gata1low mice and P-selectin positive platelet microparticles were not found. To determine the phenotypic implications of the different mutations, bleeding time was estimated by a tail cut procedure. Mutant mice were sacrificed and presence of thrombosis was determined by immunohistological staining of organs. Gata1low mice with or without the P-selectin null trait had a prolonged bleeding time compared to wild type mice. However, in Gata1low mice significantly higher frequency of thrombotic events was seen in adult and old Gata1low mice compared to Gata1lowP-selnull mice. Thus, presence of the P-selectin null trait rescued Gata1low mice from the thrombotic phenotype, but did not change the level of platelet microparticles. Taken together these data indicate that abnormal localization of P-selectin, induced by the Gata1low mutation, and thus, increased pathological interactions with leucocytes, is responsible for the increased presence of thrombosis seen in these mice. PMID:24176039

Zetterberg, Eva; Verrucci, Maria; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zingariello, Maria; Sancillo, Laura; D’Amore, Emanuela; Rana, Rosa Alba; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

2014-01-01

167

Microtubules in root hairs.  

PubMed

The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis. PMID:4066793

Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

1985-06-01

168

Ponatinib suppresses the development of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities are characterized by constitutive activated FGFR1 kinase and rapid transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Molecular targeted therapies have not been widely used for SCLL. Ponatinib (AP24534), that potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL, also targets the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. Using murine BaF3 cells stably transformed with six different FGFR1 fusion genes, as well as human KG1 cells expressing activated chimeric FGFR1 and five newly established murine SCLL cell lines, we show that Ponatinib (< 50 nM) can effectively inhibit phosphoactivation of the fusion kinases and their downstream effectors, such as PLC?, Stat5 and Src. Ponatinib also significantly extended survival of mice transplanted with different SCLL cell lines. Ponatinib administered at 30 mg/kg daily also significantly delayed, or even prevented, tumorigenesis of KG1 cells in xenotransplanted mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ponatinib specifically inhibits cell growth and clonogenicity of normal human CD34+ progenitor cells transformed by chimeric FGFR1 fusion kinases. Overall, our data provide convincing evidence to suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR1 fusion kinases with Ponatinib is likely to be beneficial for patients with SCLL and perhaps for other human disorders associated with dysregulated FGFR1 activity. PMID:22781593

Ren, Mingqiang; Qin, Haiyan; Ren, Ruizhe; Cowell, John K.

2012-01-01

169

Mice lacking FABP9/PERF15 develop sperm head abnormalities but are fertile  

PubMed Central

The male germ cell-specific fatty acid binding protein 9 (FABP9/PERF15) is the major component of the murine sperm perforatorium and perinuclear theca. Based on its cytoskeletal association and sequence homology to myelin P2 (FABP8), it has been suggested that FABP9 tethers sperm membranes to the underlying cytoskeleton. Furthermore, its upregulation in apoptotic testicular germ cells and its increased phosphorylation status during capacitation suggested multiple important functions for FABP9. Therefore, we investigated specific functions for FABP9 by means of targeted gene disruption in mice. FABP9?/? mice were viable and fertile. Phenotypic analysis showed that FABP9?/? mice had significant increases in sperm head abnormalities (~8% greater than their WT cohorts); in particular, we observed the reduction or absence of the characteristic structural element known as the “ventral spur” in ~10% of FABP9?/? sperm. However, deficiency of FABP9 neither affected membrane tethering to the perinuclear theca nor the fatty acid composition of sperm. Moreover, epididymal sperm numbers were not affected in FABP9?/? mice. Therefore, we conclude that FABP9 plays only a minor role in providing the murine sperm head its characteristic shape and is not absolutely required for spermatogenesis or sperm function. PMID:20920498

Selvaraj, Vimal; Asano, Atsushi; Page, Jennifer L.; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Foster, James A.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Weiss, Robert S.; Travis, Alexander J.

2010-01-01

170

EFFERENT MODULATION OF HAIR CELL FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review covers papers published between 2010 and early 2011 that presented new findings on inner ear-efferents and their ability to modulate hair cell function. Recent findings Studies published within the review period have increased our understanding of efferent mechanisms on hair cells in the cochlear and vestibular sensory epithelium and provide insights on efferent contributions to the plasticity of bilateral auditory processing. The central nervous system controls the sensitivity of hair cells to physiological stimuli by regulating the gain of hair cell electromechanical amplification and modulating the efficiency of hair cell-8th nerve transmission. A notable advance in the past year has been animal and human studies that have examined the contribution of the olivocochlear efferents to sound localization particularly in a noisy environment. Summary Acoustic activation of olivocochlear fibers provides a clinical test for the integrity of the peripheral auditory system and has provided new understanding about the function and limitations of the cochlear amplifier. While similar tests may be possible in the efferent vestibular system they have not yet been developed. The structural and functional similarities of the sensory epithelia in the inner ear offer hope that testing procedures may be developed that will allow reliable testing of the vestibular hair cell function. PMID:22552698

RABBITT, RICHARD D.; BROWNELL, WILLIAM E.

2012-01-01

171

Animating Hair with Loosely Connected Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a practical approach to the animation of hair at an interactive frame rate. In our approach, we model the hair as a set of particles that serve as sampling points for the volume of the hair, which covers the whole region where hair is present. The dynamics of the hair, including hair-hair interactions, is simulated using the

Yosuke Bando; Bing-Yu Chen; Tomoyuki Nishita

172

How to Stop Damaging Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... Wrap your hair in a towel to absorb the water. Let your hair air dry. Brushing your hair while it is wet Changes that can help prevent hair damage: Do you have straight hair? Let your hair dry a bit before you gently comb it with a wide-tooth comb. Do you have textured hair or ...

173

A Model of Filiform Hair Distribution on the Cricket Cercus  

PubMed Central

Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is covered with between 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement axes, are very stereotypical across different animals in this species, and the development of this system has been studied extensively. Although hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying pattern development of the hair array have been proposed in previous studies, no quantitative modeling studies have been published that test these hypotheses. We demonstrate that several aspects of the global pattern of mechanosensory hairs can be predicted with considerable accuracy using a simple model based on two independent morphogen systems. One system constrains inter-hair spacing, and the second system determines the directional movement axes of the hairs. PMID:23056357

Heys, Jeffrey J.; Rajaraman, Prathish K.; Gedeon, Tomas; Miller, John P.

2012-01-01

174

Computational identification of root hair-specific genes in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Activated cortical domains (AC Ds) are regions of the plant cell cortex performing localized membrane turnover, delimited by concerted action of the cortical cytoskeleton and endomembrane compartments. Arabidopsis thaliana rhizodermis consists of two cell types differing by a single AC D (trichoblasts, carrying tip-growing root hairs, and hairless atrichoblasts), providing a model for the study of AC D determination. We compiled a set of genes specifically upregulated in root hairs from published transcriptome data and compared it with a “virtual Arabidopsis root hair proteome,” i.e., a list of computationally identified homologs of proteins from the published soybean root hair proteome. Both data sets were enriched in genes and proteins associated with root hairs in functional studies, but there was little overlap between the transcriptome and the proteome: the former captured gene products specific to root hairs, while the latter selected those abundant in root hairs but not necessarily specific to them. Decisive steps in AC D specification may be performed by signaling proteins of high expression specifity and low abundance. Nevertheless, 73 genes specifically transcribed in Arabidopsis trichoblasts or root hairs encode homologs of abundant root hair proteins from soybean. Most of them encode “housekeeping” proteins required for rapid tip growth. However, among the “candidates” is also a generative actin isoform, ACT11. Preliminary characterization of an act11 mutant allele indeed suggests a hitherto unexpected role for this gene in root and root hair development. PMID:21051945

Bezvoda, Radek; Zarsky, Viktor

2010-01-01

175

Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... the cause is not obvious, such as mild iron deficiency. If the telogen effluvium is caused by a medication, the medication needs to be stopped. When the cause of the hair loss is something like giving birth, a transient illness, ...

176

Hair Restoration (Cosmetic Procedures)  

MedlinePLUS

... MS, Dover JS, Arndt KA, editors. Atlas of Cosmetic Surgery . United States of America, W. B. Saunders Company; ... of Dermatology Dermatologists have invented or refined several cosmetic procedures. Hair replacement and transplant surgery was pioneered by an American dermatologist.

177

dusky-like is required to maintain the integrity and planar cell polarity of hairs during the development of the Drosophila wing.  

PubMed

The cuticular hairs and sensory bristles that decorate the adult Drosophila epidermis and the denticles found on the embryo have been used in studies on planar cell polarity and as models for the cytoskeletal mediated morphogenesis of cellular extensions. ZP domain proteins have recently been found to be important for the morphogenesis of both denticles and bristles. Here we show that the ZP domain protein Dusky-like is a key player in hair morphogenesis. As is the case in bristles, in hairs dyl mutants display a dramatic phenotype that is the consequence of a failure to maintain the integrity of the extension after outgrowth. Hairs lacking dyl function are split, thinned, multipled and often very short. dyl is required for normal chitin deposition in hairs, but chitin is not required for the normal accumulation of Dyl, hence dyl acts upstream of chitin. A lack of chitin however, does not mimic the dyl hair phenotype, thus Dyl must have other targets in hair morphogenesis. One of these appears to be the actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, dyl mutants also display a unique planar cell polarity phenotype that is distinct from that seen with mutations in the frizzled/starry night or dachsous/fat pathway genes. Rab11 was previously found to be essential for Dyl plasma membrane localization in bristles. Here we found that the expression of a dominant negative Rab11 can mimic the dyl hair morphology phenotype consistent with Rab11 also being required for Dyl function in hairs. We carried out a small directed screen to identify genes that might function with dyl and identified Chitinase 6 (Cht6) as a strong candidate, as knocking down Cht6 function led to weak versions of all of the dyl hair phenotypes. PMID:23623898

Adler, Paul N; Sobala, Lukasz F; Thom, Desean; Nagaraj, Ranganayaki

2013-07-01

178

Methods of hair removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of hair removal vary between simple inexpensive means of home treatment (shaving, plucking, depilatories) to expensive and potentially time-consuming means used by paraprofessionals, nurses, and\\/or physicians (electrolysis, lasers, x-ray). The ways in which these different methods induce hair removal, the duration of such removal, and the nuances between devices within the same category of methods are discussed. (J

Elise A. Olsen

1999-01-01

179

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

180

Overlapping and divergent signaling pathways for ARK1 and AGD1 in the control of root hair polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

We previously showed that seedlings harboring mutations in genes encoding ARK1, an armadillo repeat-containing kinesin, or AGD1, a class 1 ARF-GAP, have root hairs that exhibit wavy/spiral growth and two tips originating from one initiation site. These root hair defects were accompanied by bundling of endoplasmic microtubules and filamentous actin (F-actin) that extended to the extreme root hair apex. The similar phenotypes of ark1 and agd1 mutants suggest a tight coordination between the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in the control of root hair polarity. Indeed, cell biological and genetic studies of the agd1 mutant provided evidence that AGD1's involvement in root hair development involves cross-talk among phosphoinositides (PIs), the actin cytoskeleton and other small GTPases such as ROP2 and RABA4b. Here we show that ark1 root hairs mirror those of agd1 with regard to altered targeting of ROP2 and RABA4b, as well as abnormal tonoplast organization. Furthermore, like agd1, enhanced root hair defects in double mutants in ARK1 and genes encoding a type B phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 (PIP5K3), a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI-4P) phosphatase (RHD4), a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (COW1), and a vegetative actin isoform (ACT2), were observed. However, root hair shape of some ark1 double mutant combinations, particularly those with act2, pip5k3 and rhd4 (ark1 act2, ark1 pip5k3, ark1 rhd4), differed in some respects from agd1 act2, agd1 pip5k3, and agd1 rhd4. Taken together our results continue to point to commonalities between ARK1 and AGD1 in specifying root hair polarity, but that these two modulators of tip-growth can also regulate root hair development through divergent signaling routes with AGD1 acting predominantly during root hair initiation and ARK1 functioning primarily in sustained tip growth. PMID:24400013

Yoo, Cheol-Min; Blancaflor, Elison B.

2013-01-01

181

Black Holes with Skyrme Hair  

E-print Network

This paper is intended to give a review of the recent developments on black holes with Skyrme hair. The Einstein-Skyrme system is known to possess black hole solutions with Skyrme hair. The spherically symmetric black hole skyrmion with B=1 was the first discovered counter example of the no-hair conjecture for black holes. Recently we found the B=2 axially symmetric black hole skyrmion. In this system, the black hole at the center of the skyrmion absorbs the baryon number partially, leaving fractional charge outside the horizon. Therefore the baryon number is no longer conserved. We examine the B=1, 2 black hole solutions in detail in this paper. The model has a natural extension to the gauged version which can describe monopole black hole skyrmions. Callan and Witten discussed the monopole catalysis of proton decay within the Skyrme model. We apply the idea to the Einstein-Maxwell-Skyrme system and obtain monopole black hole skyrmions. Remarkably there exist multi-black hole skyrmion solutions in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and strong forces between the monopoles are all in balance. The solutions turn out to be stable under spherically symmetric linear perturbations.

Noriko Shiiki; Nobuyuki Sawado

2005-01-09

182

From conditioning shampoo to nanomechanics and haptics of human hair.  

PubMed

Shampoo treatment and hair conditioning have a direct impact on our wellbeing via properties like combability and haptic perception of hair. Therefore, systematic investigations leading to quality improvement of hair care products are of major interest. The aim of our work is a better understanding of complex testing and the correlation with quantitative parameters. The motivation for the development of physical testing methods for hair feel relates to the fact that an ingredient supplier like BASF can only find new, so far not yet toxicologically approved chemistries for hair cosmetics, if an in-vitro method exists.In this work, the effects of different shampoo treatments with conditioning polymers are investigated. The employed physical test method, dry friction measurements and AFM observe friction phenomena on a macroscopic as well as on a nanoscale directly on hair. They are an approach to complement sensoric evaluation with an objective in-vitro method. PMID:21635853

Wood, Claudia; Sugiharto, Albert Budiman; Max, Eva; Fery, Andreas

2011-01-01

183

Isolation of the human testatin gene and analysis in patients with abnormal gonadal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously isolated the testatin gene using a modified mRNA differential display method on RNA from developing male and female mouse gonads. This gene is specifically expressed during early testis development, immediately after the onset of the testis-determining gene Sry. The protein encoded by testatin has features that are characteristic for type 2 cystatins, a family of small inhibitors

Annika Eriksson; Virpi Tohonen; Anna Wedell; Katarina Nordqvist

2002-01-01

184

Steroid abnormalities and the developing brain: declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones modulate memory in animals and human adults. Little is known on the developmental effects of these hormones on the neural networks underlying memory. Using Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) as a naturalistic model of early steroid abnormalities, this study examines the consequences of CAH on memory and its neural correlates for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children. Seventeen patients with CAH and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy children (ages 12-14 years) completed the study. Subjects were presented positive, negative and neutral pictures. Memory recall occurred about 30min after viewing the pictures. Children with CAH showed memory deficits for negative pictures compared to healthy children (p<0.01). There were no group differences on memory performance for either positive or neutral pictures (p>0.1). In patients, 24h urinary-free cortisol levels (reflecting glucocorticoid replacement therapy) and testosterone levels were not associated with memory performance. These findings suggest that early steroid imbalances affect memory for negative material in children with CAH. Such memory impairments may result from abnormal brain organization and function following hormonal dysfunction during critical periods of development. PMID:18162329

Maheu, Françoise S; Merke, Deborah P; Schroth, Elizabeth A; Keil, Margaret F; Hardin, Julie; Poeth, Kaitlin; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

2008-02-01

185

Dose-response analysis of infants prenatally exposed to methyl mercury: An application of a single compartment model to single-strand hair analysis  

SciTech Connect

A new method of estimating fetal exposure is used in a dose-response analysis of data from the 1971 outbreak of methyl mercury poisoning in rural Iraq. An X-ray fluorescence instrument for the measurement of single strands of human hair was employed to obtain longitudinal profiles recapitulating fetal exposure. Logit and hockey-stick models as well as nonparametric smoothing are used to describe data on delayed development and central nervous system abnormality.

Cox, C.; Clarkson, T.W.; Marsh, D.O.; Amin-Zaki, L.; Tikriti, S.; Myers, G.G. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1989-08-01

186

Development of a simultaneous analytical method for selected anorectics, methamphetamine, MDMA, and their metabolites in hair using LC-MS/MS to prove anorectics abuse.  

PubMed

Owing to the tight control of methamphetamine, it is presumed that phentermine, an amphetamine-type anorectic, has recently been considered a supplement for methamphetamine abusers in Korea. In addition, the abuse of other anorectics obtained by inappropriate means has become a social issue. Hair is a useful specimen to prove chronic drug use. Therefore, an analytical method for the simultaneous detection of phentermine, phendimetrazine, amfepramone, fenfluramine, mazindol, methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), as well as their metabolites, which covers the major amphetamines and anorectic agents in Korea, in hair was established and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The drugs and their metabolites in hair were extracted using 1 % HCl in methanol and then filtered and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive mode. The validation results for selectivity, linearity, matrix effect, recovery, process efficiency, intra- and interassay precision and accuracy, and processed sample stability were satisfactory. The limits of detection ranged from 0.025 to 1 ng/10 mg hair and the limits of quantification were 0.25 ng/10 mg hair for every analyte except mazindol and phentermine, for which they were 10 ng/10 mg hair. The method was successfully applied for the segmental determination of selected anorectics, methamphetamine, MDMA, and their metabolites in hair from 39 drug suspects. Among the anorectics, phentermine and/or phendimetrazine were identified with or without methamphetamine in the hair samples. Closer supervision of the inappropriate use of anorectics is necessary. Also, hair analysis is useful for monitoring the abuse potential of unnoticed drugs. PMID:22460079

Lee, Sooyeun; Kim, Jihyun; In, Sanghwan; Choi, Hwakyung; Oh, Seung Min; Jang, Choon-Gon; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

2012-05-01

187

Development of renal function abnormalities following bites by Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii siamensis) in Myanmar.  

PubMed

Renal function was monitored in 24 patients with systemic envenoming following proven Russell's viper bite. In all patients, blood clotted within 20 min on admission. In 15 cases severe defibrination (systemic envenoming) developed during the next 3-5 d. None of the patients received antivenom before admission but enzyme-refined monospecific antivenom was given to those who developed signs of systemic envenoming. Specific antigen was detected by enzyme immuno-assay in all 21 subjects tested. Nine patients whose renal function remained normal did not develop systemic envenoming, and recovered without any treatment even though venom antigen was detectable in their serum. Ten patients developed mild renal dysfunction and systemic envenoming, but recovered after treatment with antivenom alone. The remaining 5 patients, all of whom were oliguric from admission, developed acute renal failure despite treatment with antivenom, but some recovered after peritoneal dialysis. Serum venom antigen levels were high in the last 2 groups, but there was some overlap. Albuminuria, found only in patients who became systemically envenomed, was associated with high fractional sodium excretion in those who developed acute oliguric renal failure. Albuminuria may appear before a gross clotting defect is detectable. It is an indication for antivenom and spot measurements might prove a useful early predictor of outcome. PMID:1835190

Thein-Than; Tin-Tun; Hla-Pe; Phillips, R E; Myint-Lwin; Tin-Nu-Swe; Warrell, D A

1991-01-01

188

Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning  

PubMed Central

Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention. PMID:25360097

Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G.; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

2014-01-01

189

Annual Meeting Mini-Symposium Autism and Abnormal Development of Brain Connectivity  

E-print Network

Phenotype" in which characteristic cognitive traits are present subclinically (Dawson et al., 2002 It has been said that people with autism suffer from a lack of "central coherence," the cognitive ability and remediation of autism but can also provide a test case for theories of normal brain and cognitive development

Boulanger, Lisa

190

An Empirically Supported Reconceptualization of African-U.S. Racial Identity Development as an Abnormal Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformational, developmental process theories of African-U.S. racial identity development are flawed because they conceptualize ontogenetic experience without embedding it in phylogenetic dictates. As a result, culminating psychological states are not depicting identity progression but actually mask a sophisticated regression to a \\

Daudi Ajani ya Azibo; Jeanene Robinson

2004-01-01

191

Development of monoclonal antibodies against the abnormal prion protein isoform (PrPres) associated with chronic wasting disease (CWD)  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the abnormal prion protein isoform (PrPres) are indispensable for diagnosing chronic wasting disease (CWD). In this study, eight mAbs were developed by immunizing PrP knockout mice with recombinant elk PrP and an immunogenic PrP peptide. The reactivity of the mAbs to recombinant PrP and the PrP peptide was measured, and their isotypes were subsequently determined. Among them, four mAbs (B85-05, B85-08, B85-12, and B77-75) were shown by Western blotting to recognize proteinase K-treated brain homogenate derived from an elk suffering from CWD. PMID:23271186

Jeong, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Dong-Woon; Kim, Yong-Sun

2012-01-01

192

Neonatal Lethality, Dwarfism, and Abnormal Brain Development in Dmbx1 Mutant Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dmbx1 encodes a paired-like homeodomain protein that is expressed in developing neural tissues during mouse embryogenesis. To elucidate the in vivo role of Dmbx1, we generated two Dmbx1 mutant alleles. Dmbx1 lacks the homeobox and Dmbx1z is an insertion of a lacZ reporter gene. Dmbx1z appears to be a faithful reporter of Dmbx1 expression during embryogenesis and after birth. Dmbx1-lacZ

Akihira Ohtoshi; Richard R. Behringer

2004-01-01

193

Immunolocalization of myosin I? in the hair cell's hair bundle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair bundle, the hair cell's sensory organelle, transduces acoustical or vestibular stimulation into a change in membrane potential. The actin-based stereociliary processes of the hair bundle contain a number of myosin isoforms that may be important to the bundle's function. One of these isoforms, myosin I b, has been proposed to constitute an adaptation motor controling sensitivity of the

Anne B. Metcalf

1998-01-01

194

Elevated Id2 expression results in precocious neural stem cell depletion and abnormal brain development  

PubMed Central

Id2 is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor essential for normal development and its expression is dysregulated in many human neurological conditions. Although it is speculated that elevated Id2 levels contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders, it is unknown whether dysregulated Id2 expression is sufficient to perturb normal brain development or function. Here, we show that mice with elevated Id2 expression during embryonic stages develop microcephaly, and that females in particular are prone to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Analyses of Id2 transgenic brains indicate that Id2 activity is highly cell context specific: elevated Id2 expression in naive NSCs in early neuroepithelium induces apoptosis and loss of NSCs and intermediate progenitors. Activation of Id2 in maturing neuroepithelium results in less severe phenotypes and is accompanied by elevation of G1 Cyclin expression and p53 target gene expression. In contrast, activation of Id2 in committed intermediate progenitors has no significant phenotype. Functional analysis with Id2 over-expressing and Id2-null NSCs shows that Id2 negatively regulates NSC self-renewal in vivo, in contrast to previous cell culture experiments. Deletion of p53 function from Id2-transgenic brains rescues apoptosis and results in increased incidence of brain tumors. Furthermore, Id2 over-expression normalizes the increased self-renewal of p53-null NSCs, suggesting that Id2 activates and modulates the p53 pathway in NSCs. Together, these data suggest that elevated Id2 expression in embryonic brains can cause deregulated NSC self-renewal, differentiation and survival that manifest in multiple neurological outcomes in mature brains, including microcephaly, seizures, and brain tumors. PMID:23390122

Park, H.J.; Hong, M.; Bronson, R.T.; Israel, M.A.; Frankel, W. N.; Yun, K.

2013-01-01

195

Hair-cycle dependent differential expression of ADAM 10 and ADAM 12  

PubMed Central

Background ADAM proteases play important roles in processes of development and differentiation. However, no report has been found in the literature addressing the expression and function of ADAM proteases during hair cycling. Results Cytoplasmic expression pattern of ADAM 10, 12 was similar between normal epidermis and hair infundibulum. In addition, cytoplasmic expression of ADAM 10 was observed in the hair bulb keratinocytes and fibroblasts of dermal papilla in anagen I–III hair follicles. In contrast, decreased ADAM 10 expression was observed in the hair matrix keratinocytes as compared to the hair bulb keratinocytes in anagen I–III hair follicles. Interestingly, ADAM 10 immunoreactivity was expressed weakly in the lower portion of outer root sheath (ORS) of anagen VI hair follicles, and strong ADAM 10 expression was detected in the ORS of catagen and telogen hair follicles. By contrast, ADAM 12 expression was not detected in the hair bulb keratinocytes of anagen I–III hair follicles. ADAM 12 immunoreactivity firstly appeared in the inner root sheath ( IRS ) of anagen IV—V hair follicles and was down-regulated in the IRS and hair cortex and medulla of catagen hair follicles, Strong ADAM 12 immunoreactivity was observed in the ORS of catagen and telogen hair follicles. Material and methods Samples of normal human skin (n = 30) were used. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using ADAM 10, 12 specific polyclonal antibodies and a sensitive streptavidin-peroxidase technique. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a comparable staining pattern of decreased ADAM 10 immunoreactivity in hair matrix keratinocytes and the basal cell layer of normal epidermis and hair infundibulum. Expression of ADAM 10 in dermal papilla cells may imply a role in the induction and development of anagen hair follicles. In addition, expression of ADAM 10 in the ORS and hair bulb assume the involvment of ADAM 10 in the downward migration of anagen hair follicles. Furthermore ADAM 12 expression in the IRS may indicate a role in the differentiation of anagen hair follicles. Downregulation of ADAM 12 upon the onset of catagen hair stage suggests that ADAM 12 may play an important role of ADAM 12 in the apoptosis of hair follicle keratinocytes. In summary our findings suggest that ADAM 10 and 12 may be of importance for the regulation of hair cycling. PMID:20046589

Cho, Baik-Kee; Schramme, Anja; Gutwein, Paul; Tilgen, Wolfgang; Reichrath, Jorg

2009-01-01

196

Molecular Genetic and Endocrine Mechanisms of Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal morphogenesis of hair follicles depends upon a precisely regulated series of molecular genetic processes. Hormones and their receptors play prominent roles in modulating postnatal hair cycling, which recapitulates some aspects of morphogenesis. The responses to androgen are the most obvious of these. The postnatal androgen sensitivity of pilosebaceous units in different skin areas is programmed during prenatal development

Laura C. Alonso; Robert L. Rosenfield

2003-01-01

197

Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

2014-01-01

198

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques. PMID:22089618

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

199

Photo yellowing of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white,

A. C. S. Nogueira; M. Richena; L. E. Dicelio; I. Joekes

2007-01-01

200

Abnormal development of the neuromuscular junction in Nedd4-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Nedd4 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase highly conserved from yeast to humans. The expression of Nedd4 is developmentally down-regulated in the mammalian nervous system, but the role of Nedd4 in mammalian neural development remains poorly understood. Here we show that a null mutation of Nedd4 in mice leads to perinatal lethality: mutant mice were stillborn and many of them died in utero before birth (between E15.5–E18.5). In Nedd4 mutant embryos, skeletal muscle fiber sizes and motoneuron numbers are significantly reduced. Surviving motoneurons project axons to their target muscles on schedule, but motor nerves defasciculate upon reaching the muscle surface, suggesting that Nedd4 plays a critical role in fine-tuning the interaction between the nerve and the muscle. Electrophysiological analyses of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) demonstrate an increased spontaneous miniature endplate potential (mEPP) frequency in Nedd4 mutants. However, the mutant neuromuscular synapses are less responsive to membrane depolarization, compared to the wildtypes. Ultrastructural analyses further reveal that the pre-synaptic nerve terminal branches at the NMJs of Nedd4 mutants are increased in number, but decreased in diameter compared to the wildtypes. These ultrastructural changes are consistent with functional alternation of the NMJs in Nedd4 mutants. Unexpectedly, Nedd4 is not expressed in motoneurons, but is highly expressed in skeletal muscles and Schwann cells. Together, these results demonstrate that Nedd4 is involved in regulating the formation and function of the NMJs through non-cell autonomous mechanisms. PMID:19345204

Liu, Yun; Oppenheim, Ronald W.; Sugiura, Yoshie; Lin, Weichun

2010-01-01

201

Abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menarche is an important event during adolescence. For most girls, it marks completion of puberty and the onset of reproductive capability. Menarche usually occurs when both breast and pubic hair development are at Tanner stage 4. Menstrual problems are common during adolescence due to slow maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and can last 2 to 5 years after menarche. Although

Elisabeth H Quint; Yolanda R Smith

2003-01-01

202

Silencing Abnormal Wing Disc Gene of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Disrupts Adult Wing Development and Increases Nymph Mortality  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5th) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP. PMID:23734251

El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

2013-01-01

203

Children's Preferences for Clothing and Hair Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research two forms of the Person Preference Test were developed, an individual and a group form. The test consists of stimulus figures in 4-part sets representing 8-year-old girls. Sixteen stimulus figures were selected by child development and clothing specialists to represent four distinct types of clothing and hair styles that might be worn by second grade girls. As

Elizabeth G. Haley; Norejane J. Hendrickson

1974-01-01

204

Gene miles-apart is required for formation of otic vesicle and hair cells in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is a serious burden to physical and mental health worldwide. Aberrant development and damage of hearing organs are recognized as the causes of hearing loss, the molecular mechanisms underlining these pathological processes remain elusive. Investigation of new molecular mechanisms involved in proliferation, differentiation, migration and maintenance of neuromast primordium and hair cells will contribute to better understanding of hearing loss pathology. This knowledge will enable the development of protective agents and mechanism study of drug ototoxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the zebrafish gene miles-apart, a homolog of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (s1pr2) in mammals, has an important role in the development of otic vesicle, neuromasts and survival of hair cells. Whole-mount in situ hybridization of embryos showed that miles-apart expression occurred mainly in the encephalic region and the somites at 24?h.p.f. (hour post fertilization), in the midbrain/hindbrain boundary, the brainstem and the pre-neuromast of lateral line at 48?h.p.f. in a strict spatiotemporal regulation. Both up- and downregulation of miles-apart led to abnormal otoliths and semicircular canals, excess or few hair cells and neuromasts, and their disarranged depositions in the lateral lines. Miles-apart (Mil) dysregulation also caused abnormal expression of hearing-associated genes, including hmx2, fgf3, fgf8a, foxi1, otop1, pax2.1 and tmieb during zebrafish organogenesis. Moreover, in larvae miles-apart gene knockdown significantly upregulated proapoptotic gene zBax2 and downregulated prosurvival gene zMcl1b; in contrast, the level of zBax2 was decreased and of zMcl1b enhanced by miles-apart overexpression. Collectively, Mil activity is linked to organization and number decision of hair cells within a neuromast, also to deposition of neuromasts and formation of otic vesicle during zebrafish organogenesis. At the larva stage, Mil as an upstream regulator of bcl-2 gene family has a role in protection of hair cells against apoptosis by promoting expression of prosurvival gene zMcl1b and suppressing proapoptotic gene zBax2. PMID:24176858

Hu, Z-y; Zhang, Q-y; Qin, W; Tong, J-w; Zhao, Q; Han, Y; Meng, J; Zhang, J-p

2013-01-01

205

Identification of Modulators of Hair Cell Regeneratin in the Zebrafish Lateral Line  

PubMed Central

The external location of the zebrafish lateral line makes it a powerful model for studying mechanosensory hair cell regeneration. We have developed a chemical screen to identify FDA-approved drugs and biologically active compounds that modulate hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Of the 1,680 compounds evaluated, we identified 2 enhancers and 6 inhibitors of regeneration. The two enhancers, dexamethasone and prednisolone, are synthetic glucocorticoids that potentiated hair cell numbers during regeneration and also induced hair cell addition in the absence of damage. BrdU analysis confirmed that the extra hair cells arose from mitotic activity. We found that dexamethasone and prednisolone, like other glucocorticoids, suppress zebrafish caudal fin regeneration, indicating that hair cell regeneration occurs by a distinctly different process. Further analyses of the regeneration inhibitors revealed that two of the six, flubendazole and topotecan, significantly suppress hair cell regeneration by preventing proliferation of hair cell precursors. Flubendazole halted support cell division in M-phase, possibly by interfering with normal microtubule activity. Topotecan, a topoisomerase inhibitor, killed both hair cells and proliferating hair cell precursors. A third inhibitor, fulvestrant, moderately delays hair cell regeneration by reducing support cell proliferation. Our observation that hair cells do not regenerate when support cell proliferation is impeded confirms previous observations that cell division is the primary route for hair cell regeneration after neomycin treatment in zebrafish. PMID:22399774

Namdaran, Parhum; Reinhart, Katherine E.; Owens, Kelly N.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

2012-01-01

206

Fabrication of gecko foot-hair like nano structures and adhesion to random rough surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the effect of substrate roughness on the adhesion of gecko foot-hair like nano structures as opposed to solid elastic materials is described and models of both synthetic nano-hairs and hair-substrate interaction are developed. First, by combining linear beam theory and geometric constraints, a nonlinear elastic model for the hair is derived. Then it is shown how for

Domenico Campolo; Steven Jones; Ronald S. Fearing

2003-01-01

207

Comparison of Sample Preparation Methods for Elemental Analysis of Human Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of human hair is useful in monitoring the levels of certain trace elements in the body. Hair samples can be collected easily and painlessly, and they require no special care when stored. Unlike blood, hair gives information about the intracellular accumulations of trace elements and provides information about a longer period. We have considered the references, developed an

János Dombovári; Lajos Papp

1998-01-01

208

Confocal microscopy of hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confocal microscopy is an excellent method for studying the localization of fluorescent stains. Used in this way, superior 3D images can be obtained from multiple optical sections with very shallow depth of field. The main advantage of this technique is that the sample is not damaged. We have taken serial confocal sections of hair and via specific image enhancement routines

J. M. Lagarde; P. Peyre; D. Redoules; D. Black; M. Briot; Y. Gall

1994-01-01

209

Help! It's Hair Loss!  

MedlinePLUS

... will be back to normal within 6 months. Ringworm. Kids who have a fungus called ringworm on their scalp might lose their hair. This ... what to do next. For a fungal infection (ringworm), the doctor will probably prescribe some medicine to ...

210

New source of evidence: explosive traces in hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the sorption of explosives [TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP] to hair during exposure to their vapors. In each test, three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Washing, extracting, and gas chromatographic quantification protocols were developed, and replication of quantitative data was confirmed. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is significantly greater than to blond, brown or bleached hair. Furthermore, the rate of sorption is directly related to the vapor density of the explosive: TATP >>> TNT >> PETN > RDX. Using TNT as the prototype, persistence of the explosive upon standing in air and upon repeated washing with sodium dodecyl sulfate was demonstrated. This study indicates that hair can be a useful indicator of explosive exposure/handling. Work is in progress to develop this technique into an effective forensic tool.

Oxley, Jimmie C.; Smith, James L.; Kirschenbaum, Louis; Shinde, Kajal P.; Marimganti, Suvarnakishore

2004-09-01

211

Ablation of NF1 function in neurons induces abnormal development of cerebral cortex and reactive gliosis in the brain  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a prevalent genetic disorder that affects growth properties of neural-crest-derived cell populations. In addition, approximately one-half of NF1 patients exhibit learning disabilities. To characterize NF1 function both in vitro and in vivo, we circumvent the embryonic lethality of NF1 null mouse embryos by generating a conditional mutation in the NF1 gene using Cre/loxP technology. Introduction of a Synapsin I promoter driven Cre transgenic mouse strain into the conditional NF1 background has ablated NF1 function in most differentiated neuronal populations. These mice have abnormal development of the cerebral cortex, which suggests that NF1 has an indispensable role in this aspect of CNS development. Furthermore, although they are tumor free, these mice display extensive astrogliosis in the absence of conspicuous neurodegeneration or microgliosis. These results indicate that NF1-deficient neurons are capable of inducing reactive astrogliosis via a non-cell autonomous mechanism. PMID:11297510

Zhu, Yuan; Romero, Mario I.; Ghosh, Pritam; Ye, Zhengyi; Charnay, Patrick; Rushing, Elizabeth J.; Marth, Jamey D.; Parada, Luis F.

2001-01-01

212

Late development of coronary artery abnormalities could be associated with persistence of non-fever symptoms in Kawasaki disease  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent fever after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is considered to be a major criterion of IVIG resistance in Kawasaki disease (KD), and a risk factor for the development of coronary artery abnormalities (CAA). However, the importance of persistent non-fever symptoms after defervescence has not yet been investigated. We examined the relationship between persistent non-fever symptoms and CAA in KD. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with KD at the National Center for Child Health and Development between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2009. Patients were divided into two groups; group A included patients who still had non-fever symptoms one month after onset of the illness and group B included patients who did not have persistent non-fever symptoms. Demographic, clinical variables were compared between the groups. Results Seventy-seven KD patients treated with IVIG were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups; group A included 12 (15.6%) patients and group B 65 (84.4%) patients. Demographic data, baseline laboratory data, and fever duration did not differ between the groups. In group A patients the most common persistent non-fever symptoms were lip erythema (n?=?6) and bulbar conjunctivitis (n?=?8). One month after onset of the illness CAA developed in seven of 77 patients (9.1%), four (33%) in group A and three (4.6%) in group B (odds ratio 10.3; 95% CI 1.9-54.8). Three patients in group A and one patient in group B developed CAA after the resolution of fever. Conclusions Persistence of non-fever symptoms after IVIG may suggest persistence of latent inflammation, which may increase the risk of CAA. Therefore, patients with persistent non-fever symptoms may be at risk of developing CAA, even after defervescence. A prospective trial of additional IVIG for such patients should be considered. PMID:23902667

2013-01-01

213

A model system to analyse the ability of human keratinocytes to form hair follicles.  

PubMed

Earlier studies showed that dermal cells lose trichogenic capacity with passage, but studies on the effect of keratinocyte passage on human hair follicle neogenesis and graft quality have been hampered by the lack of a suitable model system. We recently documented human hair follicle neogenesis in grafted dermal-epidermal composites, and in the present study, we determined the effects of keratinocyte passage on hair follicle neogenesis. Dermal equivalents were made with cultured human dermal papilla cells and were overlaid with either primary or passaged human keratinocytes to form dermal-epidermal composites; these were then grafted onto immunodeficient mice. Superior hair follicle neogenesis was observed using early keratinocyte cultures. Characteristics such as formation of hair shafts and sebaceous glands, presence of hair follicles with features of anagen or telogen follicles, and reproducible hair and skin function parameters make this model a tool to study human hair follicle neogenesis and development. PMID:24758480

Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Klover, Peter; Li, Shaowei; Wang, Ji-An; Sperling, Leonard; Darling, Thomas N

2014-06-01

214

Runx3 is involved in hair shape determination.  

PubMed

Transcriptional regulators of the Runx family play critical roles in normal organ development and, when mutated, lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Runx3 functions during cell lineage decisions in thymopoiesis and neurogenesis and mediates transforming growth factor-beta signaling in dendritic cells. Here, we study the function of Runx3 in the skin and its appendages, primarily the hair follicle, during mouse development. Runx3 is expressed predominantly in the dermal compartment of the hair follicles as they form and during the hair cycle, as well as in the nail and sweat gland skin appendages. Distinct expression is also detected periodically in isolated cells of the epidermis and in melanocytes, populating the hair bulb. Runx3-deficient mice display a perturbation of the normal hair coat, which we show to be due to hair type and hair shape changes. Thus, one of the functions of Runx3 in skin may be to regulate the formation of the epithelial derived structural hair by affecting dermal to epidermal interactions. PMID:15937937

Raveh, Eli; Cohen, Shulamit; Levanon, Ditsa; Groner, Yoram; Gat, Uri

2005-08-01

215

Red hair may increase melanoma risk  

Cancer.gov

A person’s skin pigment, which determines hair color and skin tone, is influenced by the melanocortin-1 (MC1R) gene receptor. For the population’s 1 to 2 percent of redheads, a mutation in MC1R accounts for their red hair color and typical light skin. Now researchers from Harvard Medical School (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) have discovered that the same MC1R mutation responsible for the red-hair phenotype also promotes an important cancer-causing pathway. The new findings, reported online August 22 in the journal Molecular Cell, help to explain the molecular mechanisms that underlie redheads’ well-known risk of developing melanoma, providing new insights for treating and preventing this dangerous type of skin cancer.

216

Hair loss in autoimmune systemic diseases.  

PubMed

Hair loss is commonly seen in autoimmune diseases. In pemphigus, although scalp involvement is common, hair loss is rarely reported. In classical bullous pemphigoid, alopecia is not reported while it is described in the Brusting-Perry variant of bullous pemphigoid and in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. In these two diseases alopecia is cicatricial. In connective tissue diseases, in lupus erythematosus (LE) hair loss is frequent; in particular in LE there are two types of alopecia: non scarring and scarring alopecia. The non scarring form is a finding of acute systemic LE and the scarring form develops when a typical discoid lesion is located on the scalp. In dermatomyositis alopecia is usually non scarring and generalized. In scleroderma, alopecia is associated with en coupe de sabre morphea. PMID:24566567

Parodi, A; Cozzani, E

2014-02-01

217

Unilateral straight hair and congenital horner syndrome.  

PubMed

Congenital Horner syndrome is a rare disorder that accounts for less than 5% of all cases of Horner syndrome. Like Horner syndrome in general, it consists primarily of ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis. Congenital Horner syndrome may manifest some special features such as iris heterochromia since the sympathetic nervous system is an essential component for the development and maintenance of eye color. We present 3 cases of unilateral straight hair in association with congenital Horner syndrome in which the patients had straight hair ipsilateral to the Horner syndrome, whereas on the contralateral side, it was curly, and we discuss possible mechanisms for this phenomenon. PMID:22622362

Wang, Frederick M; Wertenbaker, Christian; Cho, Hyung; Marmor, Maury A; Ahn-Lee, Sandra S; Bernard, Bruno A

2012-06-01

218

Characterization of the Skeletal Fusion with Sterility (sks) Mouse Showing Axial Skeleton Abnormalities Caused by Defects of Embryonic Skeletal Development  

PubMed Central

The development of the axial skeleton is a complex process, consisting of segmentation and differentiation of somites and ossification of the vertebrae. The autosomal recessive skeletal fusion with sterility (sks) mutation of the mouse causes skeletal malformations due to fusion of the vertebrae and ribs, but the underlying defects of vertebral formation during embryonic development have not yet been elucidated. For the present study, we examined the skeletal phenotypes of sks/sks mice during embryonic development and the chromosomal localization of the sks locus. Multiple defects of the axial skeleton, including fusion of vertebrae and fusion and bifurcation of ribs, were observed in adult and neonatal sks/sks mice. In addition, we also found polydactyly and delayed skull ossification in the sks/sks mice. Morphological defects, including disorganized vertebral arches and fusions and bifurcations of the axial skeletal elements, were observed during embryonic development at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E14.5. However, no morphological abnormality was observed at E11.5, indicating that defects of the axial skeleton are caused by malformation of the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs at an early developmental stage after formation and segmentation of the somites. By linkage analysis, the sks locus was mapped to an 8-Mb region of chromosome 4 between D4Mit331 and D4Mit199. Since no gene has already been identified as a cause of malformation of the vertebra and ribs in this region, the gene responsible for sks is suggested to be a novel gene essential for the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs. PMID:24521859

Akiyama, Kouyou; Katayama, Kentaro; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

219

iRootHair: a comprehensive root hair genomics database.  

PubMed

The specialized root epidermis cells of higher plants produce long, tubular outgrowths called root hairs. Root hairs play an important role in nutrient and water uptake, and they serve as a valuable model in studies of plant cell morphogenesis. More than 1,300 articles that describe the biological processes of these unique cells have been published to date. As new fields of root hair research are emerging, the number of new papers published each year and the volumes of new relevant data are continuously increasing. Therefore, there is a general need to facilitate studies on root hair biology by collecting, presenting, and sharing the available information in a systematic, curated manner. Consequently, in this paper, we present a comprehensive database of root hair genomics, iRootHair, which is accessible as a Web-based service. The current version of the database includes information about 153 root hair-related genes that have been identified to date in dicots and monocots along with their putative orthologs in higher plants with sequenced genomes. In order to facilitate the use of the iRootHair database, it is subdivided into interrelated, searchable sections that describe genes, processes of root hair formation, root hair mutants, and available references. The database integrates bioinformatics tools with a focus on sequence identification and annotation. iRootHair is a unique resource for root hair research that integrates the large volume of data related to root hair genomics in a single, curated, and expandable database that is freely available at www.iroothair.org. PMID:23129204

Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Nowakowska, Urszula; Szumera, Jakub; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Szarejko, Iwona

2013-01-01

220

Multiple Renal Cyst Development but Not Situs Abnormalities in Transgenic RNAi Mice against Inv::GFP Rescue Gene  

PubMed Central

In this study we generated RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown transgenic mice (transgenic RNAi mice) against the functional Inv gene. Inv mutant mice show consistently reversed internal organs (situs inversus), multiple renal cysts and neonatal lethality. The Inv::GFP-rescue mice, which introduced the Inv::GFP fusion gene, can rescue inv mutant mice phenotypes. This indicates that the Inv::GFP gene is functional in vivo. To analyze the physiological functions of the Inv gene, and to demonstrate the availability of transgenic RNAi mice, we introduced a short hairpin RNA expression vector against GFP mRNA into Inv::GFP-rescue mice and analyzed the gene silencing effects and Inv functions by examining phenotypes. Transgenic RNAi mice with the Inv::GFP-rescue gene (Inv-KD mice) down-regulated Inv::GFP fusion protein and showed hypomorphic phenotypes of inv mutant mice, such as renal cyst development, but not situs abnormalities or postnatal lethality. This indicates that shRNAi-mediated gene silencing systems that target the tag sequence of the fusion gene work properly in vivo, and suggests that a relatively high level of Inv protein is required for kidney development in contrast to left/right axis determination. Inv::GFP protein was significantly down-regulated in the germ cells of Inv-KD mice testis compared with somatic cells, suggesting the existence of a testicular germ cell-specific enhanced RNAi system that regulates germ cell development. The Inv-KD mouse is useful for studying Inv gene functions in adult tissue that are unable to be analyzed in inv mutant mice showing postnatal lethality. In addition, the shRNA-based gene silencing system against the tag sequence of the fusion gene can be utilized as a new technique to regulate gene expression in either in vitro or in vivo experiments. PMID:24586938

Kamijho, Yuki; Shiozaki, Yayoi; Sakurai, Eiki; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Daisuke

2014-01-01

221

Impaired Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Polarized Keratinocyte Movement upon Conditional Inactivation of Integrin-linked Kinase in the Epidermis  

PubMed Central

Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is key for cell survival, migration, and adhesion, but little is known about its role in epidermal development and homeostasis in vivo. We generated mice with conditional inactivation of the Ilk gene in squamous epithelia. These mice die perinatally and exhibit skin blistering and severe defects in hair follicle morphogenesis, including greatly reduced follicle numbers, failure to progress beyond very early developmental stages, and pronounced defects in follicular keratinocyte proliferation. ILK-deficient epidermis shows abnormalities in adhesion to the basement membrane and in differentiation. ILK-deficient cultured keratinocytes fail to attach and spread efficiently and exhibit multiple abnormalities in actin cytoskeletal organization. Ilk gene inactivation in cultured keratinocytes causes impaired ability to form stable lamellipodia, to directionally migrate, and to polarize. These defects are accompanied by abnormal distribution of active Cdc42 to cell protrusions, as well as reduced activation of Rac1 upon induction of cell migration in scraped keratinocyte monolayers. Significantly, alterations in cell spreading and forward movement in single cells can be rescued by expression of constitutively active Rac1 or RhoG. Our studies underscore a central and distinct role for ILK in hair follicle development and in polarized cell movements, two key aspects of epithelial morphogenesis and function. PMID:18234842

Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Welch, Ian; Dupuis, Holly; Bryce, Dawn; Pajak, Agnieszka; St. Arnaud, Rene; Dedhar, Shoukat

2008-01-01

222

The Female Pattern Hair Loss: Review of Etiopathogenesis and Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women. Initial signs may develop during teenage years leading to a progressive hair loss with a characteristic pattern distribution. The condition is characterized by progressive replacement of terminal hair follicles over the frontal and vertex regions by miniaturized follicles, that leads progressively to a visible reduction in hair density. Women diagnosed with FPHL may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. FPHL diagnosis is mostly clinical. Depending on patient history and clinical evaluation, further diagnostic testing may be useful. The purpose of the paper is to review the current knowledge about epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of FPHL. PMID:24812631

Vujovic, Anja; Del Marmol, Veronique

2014-01-01

223

Hair as a Biomarker of Environmental Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

The absence of well-validated biomarkers of manganese (Mn) exposure in children remains a major obstacle for studies of Mn toxicity. We developed a hair cleaning methodology to establish the utility of hair as an exposure biomarker for Mn and other metals (Pb, Cr, Cu), using ICP-MS, scanning electron microscopy, and laser ablation ICP-MS to evaluate cleaning efficacy. Exogenous metal contamination on hair that was untreated or intentionally contaminated with dust or Mn-contaminated water was effectively removed using a cleaning method of 0.5% Triton X-100 sonication plus 1N nitric acid sonication. This cleaning method was then used on hair samples from children (n=121) in an ongoing study of environmental Mn exposure and related health effects. Mean hair Mn levels were 0.121 ?g/g (median = 0.073 ?g/g, range = 0.011 – 0.736 ?g/g), which are ~4 to 70-fold lower than levels reported in other pediatric Mn studies. Hair Mn levels were also significantly higher in children living in the vicinity of active, but not historic, ferroalloy plant emissions compared to controls (P<0.001). These data show that exogenous metal contamination on hair can be effectively cleaned of exogenous metal contamination, and they substantiate the use of hair Mn levels as a biomarker of environmental Mn exposure in children. PMID:23259818

Eastman, Rachel R.; Jursa, Tom P.; Benedetti, Chiara; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Smith, Donald R.

2013-01-01

224

The evolution of root hairs and rhizoids  

PubMed Central

Background Almost all land plants develop tip-growing filamentous cells at the interface between the plant and substrate (the soil). Root hairs form on the surface of roots of sporophytes (the multicellular diploid phase of the life cycle) in vascular plants. Rhizoids develop on the free-living gametophytes of vascular and non-vascular plants and on both gametophytes and sporophytes of the extinct rhyniophytes. Extant lycophytes (clubmosses and quillworts) and monilophytes (ferns and horsetails) develop both free-living gametophytes and free-living sporophytes. These gametophytes and sporophytes grow in close contact with the soil and develop rhizoids and root hairs, respectively. Scope Here we review the development and function of rhizoids and root hairs in extant groups of land plants. Root hairs are important for the uptake of nutrients with limited mobility in the soil such as phosphate. Rhizoids have a variety of functions including water transport and adhesion to surfaces in some mosses and liverworts. Conclusions A similar gene regulatory network controls the development of rhizoids in moss gametophytes and root hairs on the roots of vascular plant sporophytes. It is likely that this gene regulatory network first operated in the gametophyte of the earliest land plants. We propose that later it functioned in sporophytes as the diploid phase evolved a free-living habit and developed an interface with the soil. This transference of gene function from gametophyte to sporophyte could provide a mechanism that, at least in part, explains the increase in morphological diversity of sporophytes that occurred during the radiation of land plants in the Devonian Period. PMID:22730024

Jones, Victor A.S.; Dolan, Liam

2012-01-01

225

Children's Preferences for Clothing and Hair Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes (1) the development and reliability and validity evaluation of the Person Preference Test; and (2) the utilization of the instrument to determine whether clothing style, hair style, global appearance, and part-whole perception influence children's preference for persons represented by stimulus figures. (SDH)

Haley, Elizabeth G.; Hendrickson, Norejane J.

1974-01-01

226

Endovascular Treatment of AVF after Hair Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the scalp is a very rare complication of hair transplantation. Only 9 cases have been reported in nearly half a century. The diagnosis is clinical but angiography is necessary for defining the angioarchitecture of the lesion. Due to technical developments, endovascular embolization has become the primary treatment for AVF of the scalp.

Dogan, Sozen; Cinar, Celal; Demirpolat, Gulen; Memis, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmemis@yahoo.co [Ege University, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-07-15

227

Hair Cell Afferent Synapses  

PubMed Central

This review will cover advances in the study of hair cell afferent synaptic function occurring between 2005 and 2008. During this time capacitance measurements of vesicular fusion have continued to be refined, optical methods have added insights regarding vesicle trafficking, and paired intracellular recordings have established the transfer function of the afferent synapse at high resolution. Further, genes have been identified with forms of deafness known as auditory neuropathy, and their role in afferent signaling explored in mouse models. With these advances, our view of the hair cell afferent synapse has continued to be refined, and surprising properties have been revealed that emphasize the unique role of this structure in neural function. PMID:18824101

Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Grant, Lisa; Fuchs, Paul

2008-01-01

228

Polymerization into Human Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis-THIOGLYCOLIC ACID (TGA)-CUMENE HYDROPEROXIDE (CHP) and BISULFITE--CHP systems are described for po)ymerizing METHYL METHACRYLATE (MMA) in HUMAN HAIR. An ethanol-water solvent system was employed. Diffusion rate control appears to predominate over a variety of reaction conditions. The influence of reagent concentrations and so)vent effects on the reaction is also describe:). POLY- MERIZATION is shown to occur more rapidly into either

CLARENCE ROBBINS; RICHARD CRAWFORD; D. W. McNEIL; JULIUS NACHTIGAL

229

Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and

Oh Sang Kwon; Jun Kyu Oh; Mi Hyang Kim; So Hyun Park; Hyun Keol Pyo; Kyu Han Kim; Kwang Hyun Cho; Hee Chul Eun

2006-01-01

230

Absent or reversed end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery and abnormal Doppler cerebroplacental ratio—cognitive, neurological and somatic development at 3 to 6 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the cognitive, neurological and somatic developments of children who had in utero an absent or reversed end-diastolic blood flow (ARED) in the umbilical artery or an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio (ABF). Methods: 16 children with ARED blood flow and 15 children with ABF were each matched to children with the same gestational age,

J Kutschera; J Tomaselli; B Urlesberger; U Maurer; M Häusler; E Gradnitzer; K Burmucic; W Müller

2002-01-01

231

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

232

EGFR-Ras-Raf Signaling in Epidermal Stem Cells: Roles in Hair Follicle Development, Regeneration, Tissue Remodeling and Epidermal Cancers  

PubMed Central

The mammalian skin is the largest organ of the body and its outermost layer, the epidermis, undergoes dynamic lifetime renewal through the activity of somatic stem cell populations. The EGFR-Ras-Raf pathway has a well-described role in skin development and tumor formation. While research mainly focuses on its role in cutaneous tumor initiation and maintenance, much less is known about Ras signaling in the epidermal stem cells, which are the main targets of skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we briefly discuss the properties of the epidermal stem cells and review the role of EGFR-Ras-Raf signaling in keratinocyte stem cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions. PMID:24071938

Doma, Eszter; Rupp, Christian; Baccarini, Manuela

2013-01-01

233

Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper

234

Effect of different human hair bleaching conditions on the hair coloration with hair boosting shampoo as colorant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, detailed simulation of human hair bleaching was conducted. The materials and chemical used as well as the hair\\u000a bleaching procedures were described. After bleaching, the colour change of the hair was evaluated in accordance with CIE Lab\\u000a system and the hair bleaching results was analysed. Following the hair bleaching process, hair coloration was employed with\\u000a the use

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; K. W. Lau; Y. L. Chow

2009-01-01

235

Morphological, genetic and molecular characteristics of barley root hair mutants.  

PubMed

Root hairs are tubular outgrowths of specialized epidermal cells called trichoblasts. They affect anchoring plants in soil, the uptake of water and nutrients and are the sites of the interaction between plants and microorganisms. Nineteen root hair mutants of barley representing different stages of root hair development were subjected to detailed morphological and genetic analyses. Each mutant was monogenic and recessive. An allelism test revealed that nine loci were responsible for the mutated root hair phenotypes in the collection and 1-4 mutated allelic forms were identified at each locus. Genetic relationships between the genes responsible for different stages of root hair formation were established. The linkage groups of four loci rhl1, rhp1, rhi1 and rhs1, which had previously been mapped on chromosomes 7H, 1H, 6H and 5H, respectively, were enriched with new markers that flank the genes at a distance of 0.16 cM to 4.6 cM. The chromosomal position of three new genes - two that are responsible for the development of short root hairs (rhs2 and rhs3) and the gene that controls an irregular root hair pattern (rhi2) - were mapped on chromosomes 6H, 2H and 1H, respectively. A comparative analysis of the agrobotanical parameters between some mutants and their respective parental lines showed that mutations in genes responsible for root hair development had no effect on the agrobotanical performance of plants that were grown under controlled conditions. The presented mutant collection is a valuable tool for further identification of genes controlling root hair development in barley. PMID:24899566

Chmielewska, Beata; Janiak, Agnieszka; Karcz, Jagna; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Forster, Brian P; Nawrot, Malgorzata; Rusek, Anna; Smyda, Paulina; Kedziorski, Piotr; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

2014-11-01

236

Excessive or unwanted hair in women  

MedlinePLUS

Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

237

Copy number variants and infantile spasms: evidence for abnormalities in ventral forebrain development and pathways of synaptic function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content

Alex R Paciorkowski; Liu Lin Thio; Jill A Rosenfeld; Marzena Gajecka; Christina A Gurnett; Shashikant Kulkarni; Wendy K Chung; Eric D Marsh; Mattia Gentile; James D Reggin; James W Wheless; Sandhya Balasubramanian; Ravinesh Kumar; Susan L Christian; Carla Marini; Renzo Guerrini; Natalia Maltsev; Lisa G Shaffer; William B Dobyns

2011-01-01

238

The predictive value of Doppler flow velocity waveforms in the development of abnormal fetal heart rate traces in intrauterine growth retardation: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

In a longitudinal, blinded study design the predictive value of Doppler velocimetry for the development of an abnormal fetal heart rate trace was assessed in 42 cases of intrauterine growth retardation. Doppler velocity waveform recordings were obtained at 2- to 3-day intervals and characterized by the standard deviation score of the pulsatility index in the umbilical artery and internal carotid artery, and the peak systolic and time-averaged velocity in the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery. Twenty-seven patients did not display an abnormal fetal heart rate trace on the day of entry into the study. During follow-up of these patients, the pulsatility index in the umbilical artery and internal carotid artery were the most predictive parameters for the development of an abnormal fetal heart rate trace. The resulting prognostic index was found to have an acceptable discriminative power in the prediction of abnormal fetal heart rate traces as established in a second group of growth-retarded fetuses. PMID:8486117

Groenenberg, I A; Hop, W C; Bogers, J W; Santema, J G; Wladimiroff, J W

1993-03-01

239

Quantitative determination of cationic modified polysaccharides on hair using LC–MS and LC–MS–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cationic polysaccharides containing N-hydroxypropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium substituents are widely used as conditioning agents for hair-care products. A sensitive method has been developed for the quantitation of these polymers. After acidic extraction from hair the polysaccharides are hydrolyzed using trifluoroacetic acid. The cationic monoglycosides are determined using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS). The developed method is independent of hair treatment. Even hair cut

Jan Ungewiß; Jens-Peter Vietzke; Claudius Rapp; Hartmut Schmidt-Lewerkühne; Klaus-Peter Wittern; Reiner Salzer

2005-01-01

240

Determination of Triazolam Involving Its Hydroxy Metabolites in Hair Shaft and Hair Root by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Application to Human Hair Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive method using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for simultaneous determination of triazolam and its hydroxy metabolites in hair. After the addition of deuterium-labeled 1-hydroxymethyltriazolam as an internal standard, the analytes in hair shaft and hair root samples were extracted with a basic medium, CH2Cl2:MeOH:28% NH4OH (20:80:2) at room temperature overnight. The

Toshimasa Toyo'oka; Masayoshi Kanbori; Yusuke Kumaki; Yuji Nakahara

2001-01-01

241

Immunochemical studies on blood group A substance from human hair.  

PubMed

Blood group A-active substance was extracted from urea-treated human hair uith methanol-ethyl ether 1:1, v/v) or chloroform-methanol (1:1, v/v). The serological activity of blood group A substance in the hair was destroyed by A-decomposing enzyme from Clostridium tertium with concomitant development of blood group H activity. It is concluded therefore that the extract from the hair of group A contained blood group A-active glycolipid with N-acetylgalactosamine as the non-reducing sugar. PMID:602448

Kishi, K; Iseki, S

1977-11-18

242

Robotic hair restoration.  

PubMed

The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

2014-01-01

243

Alopecia areata with white hair regrowth: case report and review of poliosis.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata is thought to be a T-cell mediated and cytokine mediated autoimmune disease that results in non-scarring hair loss. Poliosis has been described as a localized depigmentation of hair caused by a deficiency of melanin in hair follicles. A 57-year-old man with a history of alopecia areata developed white hair regrowth in areas of previous hair loss. We retrospectively reviewed the medical literature using PubMed, searching: (1) alopecia areata and (2) poliosis. Poliosis may be associated with autoimmune diseases including alopecia areata, as described in our case. However, it is also reported in patients who have cutaneous lesions, genetic syndromes, infections, medication use, and trauma. Hair regrowth following alopecia areata may be associated with poliosis. We hypothesize that the incidence of poliosis in areas of previous alopecia areata-related hair loss may be greater than reflected in the published literature. PMID:25244170

Jalalat, Sheila Z; Kelsoe, John R; Cohen, Philip R

2014-01-01

244

The G60S connexin43 mutant regulates hair growth and hair fiber morphology in a mouse model of human oculodentodigital dysplasia.  

PubMed

Patients expressing mutations in the gene encoding the gap junction protein Cx43 suffer from a disease called oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD). Patients with ODDD are often reported to develop hair that is dry, dull, sparse, and slow growing. To evaluate the linkage between Cx43 and hair growth, structure, and follicle density we employed a mouse model of ODDD that harbors a Cx43 G60S point mutant. Regionally sparse and overall dull hair were observed in mutant mice compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. However, histological analysis of overall hair follicle density in mutant and WT mice did not reveal any significant differences. After epilation, mutant mouse hair grew back slower, and hair growth was asynchronous. In addition, ultrastructural scanning electron microscopic imaging of hair fibers taken from mutant mice and two patients harboring the G143S mutation revealed severe cuticle weathering. Nodule formation was also observed in the proximal region of hair fibers taken from mutant mice. These results suggest that the G60S mutant mouse model mimics the hair phenotype found in at least some ODDD patients and suggests an important role for Cx43 in hair regeneration, growth, and cuticle formation. PMID:21716323

Churko, Jared M; Chan, Jason; Shao, Qing; Laird, Dale W

2011-11-01

245

Functional Conservation of a Root Hair Cell-Specific cis-Element in Angiosperms with Different Root Hair Distribution Patterns[W  

PubMed Central

Vascular plants develop distinctive root hair distribution patterns in the root epidermis, depending on the taxon. The three patterns, random (Type 1), asymmetrical cell division (Type 2), and positionally cued (Type 3), are controlled by different upstream fate-determining factors that mediate expression of root hair cell-specific genes for hair morphogenesis. Here, we address whether these root hair genes possess a common transcriptional regulatory module (cis-element) determining cell-type specificity despite differences in the final root hair pattern. We identified Arabidopsis thaliana expansinA7 (At EXPA7) orthologous (and paralogous) genes from diverse angiosperm species with different hair distribution patterns. The promoters of these genes contain conserved root hair–specific cis-elements (RHEs) that were functionally verified in the Type-3 Arabidopsis root. The promoter of At EXPA7 (Type-3 pattern) also showed hair cell–specific expression in the Type 2 rice (Oryza sativa) root. Root hair–specific genes other than EXPAs also carry functionally homologous RHEs in their promoters. The RHE core consensus was established by a multiple alignment of functionally characterized RHEs from different species and by high-resolution analysis of At EXPA7 RHE1. Our results suggest that this regulatory module of root hair–specific genes has been conserved across angiosperms despite the divergence of upstream fate-determining machinery. PMID:17098810

Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Sang-Bong; Won, Su-Kyung; Heo, Yoon-Kyung; Cho, Misuk; Park, Youn-Il; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

2006-01-01

246

The ovo gene required for cuticle formation and oogenesis in flies is involved in hair formation and spermatogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

The Drosophila svb/ovo gene gives rise to differentially expressed transcripts encoding a zinc finger protein. svb/ovo has two distinct genetic functions: shavenbaby (svb) is required for proper formation of extracellular projections that are produced by certain epidermal cells in late-stage differentiation; ovo is required for survival and differentiation of female germ cells. We cloned a mouse gene, movo1 encoding a nuclear transcription factor that is highly similar to its fly counterpart in its zinc-finger sequences. In mice, the gene is expressed in skin, where it localizes to the differentiating cells of epidermis and hair follicles, and in testes, where it is present in spermatocytes and spermatids. Using gene targeting, we show that movo1 is required for proper development of both hair and sperm. movo1(-/-) mice are small, produce aberrant hairs, and display hypogenitalism, with a reduced ability to reproduce. These mice also develop abnormalities in kidney, where movo1 is also expressed. Our findings reveal remarkable parallels between mice and flies in epidermal appendage formation and in germ-cell maturation. Furthermore, they uncover a phenotype similar to that of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, a human disorder that maps to the same locus as human ovo1. PMID:9808631

Dai, X; Schonbaum, C; Degenstein, L; Bai, W; Mahowald, A; Fuchs, E

1998-11-01

247

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

248

Photodamage determination of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been

Estibalitz Fernández; Clara Barba; Cristina Alonso; Meritxell Martí; José Luis Parra; Luisa Coderch

249

Effect of sun protection agent on preventing hair colour fading and hair damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effect of sun protection agent on different hair samples including, (i) unbleached hair sample, (ii) bleached\\u000a hair sample and (iii) bleached hair sample with subsequent hair coloration, were studied. This paper was aimed at evaluating\\u000a the effectiveness of sun protection agent on the different hair conditions. The hair samples were divided into two sets; one\\u000a was

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; Y. L. Chow

2010-01-01

250

Method validation for measurement of hair nicotine level in nonsmokers.  

PubMed

The development of strategies to address the growing worldwide burden of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) would be facilitated by sensitive and accurate methods for assessing SHS exposure. Hair provides a readily available matrix for assessing biomarkers of typical SHS exposure. We developed and applied an optimized analytical method using an isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for hair nicotine measurement. The utility of this optimized method is illustrated by presenting data on SHS exposure of women and children from 31 countries. Using this isotope dilution method with spiked samples (3.3 ng/mg), we found that the greatest hair nicotine extraction efficiency was obtained with a 60 min shaking time. In the field study (n = 2400), a positive association was evident between hair nicotine concentrations from nonsmokers and higher numbers of cigarettes smoked per day in a household. PMID:18814216

Kim, Sung Roul; Wipfli, Heather; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

2009-03-01

251

Chinese brushes: controllable liquid transfer in ratchet conical hairs.  

PubMed

The controllable liquid transfer of a Chinese brush is attributable to the unique anisotropic multi-scale structures of the freshly emergent hairs. A large mass of liquid an be dynamically balanced within the brush as a cooperative effect of the Laplace pressure difference, the asymmetrical retention force, and gravity. Inspired by this, a device is developed with parallel hairs that allows for direct writing of micro-lines. PMID:24781976

Wang, Qianbin; Su, Bin; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Lei

2014-07-23

252

High resolution imaging to assess oilseed species’ root hair responses to soil water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging method was developed to evaluate crop species differences in root hair morphology using high resolution scanners,\\u000a and to determine if the method could also detect root hair responses to soil water availability. High resolution (1890 picture\\u000a elements (pixels) cm?1) desktop scanners were buried in containers filled with soil to characterize root hair development under two water availability\\u000a levels

W. Ashley Hammac; William L. Pan; Ron P. Bolton; Rich T. Koenig

2011-01-01

253

Hair as Race: Why “Good Hair” May Be Bad for Black Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically examining the relationship between race, Black female beauty, and hair texture, this qualitative study used narratives from 38 Black females between the ages of 19 and 81, to determine messages that communicate hair valuations to Black females, definitions of good and bad hair, and motivations for desiring good hair. A legacy of slavery, hair valuations reflect racially motivated beauty

Cynthia L. Robinson

2011-01-01

254

Amino Acid Analysis of Cosmetically Altered Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis--Bleached and permanent waved hair, treated on the head by consumers, as well as unaltered hair, were hydrolyzed and examined by automatic amino acid analysis. The hydrolyzates of severely bleached hair were found to contain substantially less cystine and smaller quantities of tyrosine and methionine as compared to hydrolyzates from unaltered hair. Relatively large amounts of cysteic acid were also

CLARENCE R. ROBBINS; CHARLES KELLY

255

Progressive Hair Loss and Myocardial Degeneration in Rough Coat Mice: Reduced Lysyl Oxidase-Like (LOXL) in the Skin and Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rough coat (rc) is a spontaneous recessive mutation in mice. To identify the mutated gene, we have characterized the rc phenotype and initiated linkage mapping. The rc mice show growth retardation, cyclic and progressive hair loss, hyperplastic epidermis, abnormal hair follicles, cardiac muscle degeneration, and reduced amount of collagen and elastin in the skin and heart. The rc locus

Kimiko Hayashi; Tongyu Cao; Howard Passmore; Claude Jourdan-Le Saux; Ben Fogelgren; Subarna Khan; Ian Hornstra; Youngho Kim; Masando Hayashi; Katalin Csiszar

2004-01-01

256

Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior.  

PubMed

Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations. PMID:14514199

Weitzel, Erik K; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E

2003-09-01

257

Black Hole Hair Removal  

E-print Network

Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

2009-01-01

258

Black Hole Hair Removal  

E-print Network

Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

Nabamita Banerjee; Ipsita Mandal; Ashoke Sen

2009-01-05

259

COLLAPSED ABNORMAL POLLEN1 Gene Encoding the Arabinokinase-Like Protein Is Involved in Pollen Development in Rice1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

We isolated a pollen-defective mutant, collapsed abnormal pollen1 (cap1), from Tos17 insertional mutant lines of rice (Oryza sativa). The cap1 heterozygous plant produced equal numbers of normal and collapsed abnormal grains. The abnormal pollen grains lacked almost all cytoplasmic materials, nuclei, and intine cell walls and did not germinate. Genetic analysis of crosses revealed that the cap1 mutation did not affect female reproduction or vegetative growth. CAP1 encodes a protein consisting of 996 amino acids that showed high similarity to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) l-arabinokinase, which catalyzes the conversion of l-arabinose to l-arabinose 1-phosphate. A wild-type genomic DNA segment containing CAP1 restored mutants to normal pollen grains. During rice pollen development, CAP1 was preferentially expressed in anthers at the bicellular pollen stage, and the effects of the cap1 mutation were mainly detected at this stage. Based on the metabolic pathway of l-arabinose, cap1 pollen phenotype may have been caused by toxic accumulation of l-arabinose or by inhibition of cell wall metabolism due to the lack of UDP-l-arabinose derived from l-arabinose 1-phosphate. The expression pattern of CAP1 was very similar to that of another Arabidopsis homolog that showed 71% amino acid identity with CAP1. Our results suggested that CAP1 and related genes are critical for pollen development in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. PMID:23629836

Ueda, Kenji; Yoshimura, Fumiaki; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Wabiko, Hiroetsu

2013-01-01

260

CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES OF CRANIAL NERVE DEVELOPMENT: OVERVIEW, MOLECULAR MECHANISMS, AND FURTHER EVIDENCE OF HETEROGENEITY AND COMPLEXITY OF SYNDROMES WITH CONGENITAL LIMITATION OF EYE MOVEMENTS  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose The clinical and molecular genetic classification of syndromes with congenital limitation of eye movements and evidence of cranial nerve dysgenesis continues to evolve. This monograph details clinical and molecular genetic data on a number of families and isolated patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and related disorders, and presents an overview of the mechanisms of abnormal patterns of motor and sensory cranial nerve development in these rare syndromes. Methods Clinical examination of one patient with CFEOM1, one family with clinical features of CFEOM2, one family with recessive CFEOM3, one family with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), and four patients with various combinations of congenital cranial nerve abnormalities. Genotyping of families with CFEOM and HGPPS for polymorphic markers in the regions of the three known CFEOM loci and in the HGPPS region, and mutation analysis of the ARIX and KIF21A genes in patients with CFEOM were performed according to standard published protocols. Results The patient with CFEOM1 had the second most common mutation in KIF21A, a 2861 G>A mutation that resulted in an R954Q substitution. The family with CFEOM2 phenotype did not map to the CFEOM2 locus. The family with recessive CFEOM3 did not map to any of the known loci. The HGPPS family mapped to 11q23–q25. One patient had optic nerve hypoplasia and fifth nerve dysfunction. Two patients had the rare combination of Möbius syndrome and CFEOM. One patient had Möbius syndrome and fifth nerve dysfunction. Conclusions There is genetic heterogeneity in CFEOM2 and CFEOM3. Abnormalities in sensory nerves can also accompany abnormalities of motor nerves, further substantiating the effect of individual mutations on developing motor as well as sensory cranial nerve nuclei. PMID:15747768

Traboulsi, Elias I

2004-01-01

261

Dynamic gene expression by putative hair-cell progenitors during regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.  

PubMed

Hearing loss is most commonly caused by the destruction of mechanosensory hair cells in the ear. This condition is usually permanent: Despite the presence of putative hair-cell progenitors in the cochlea, hair cells are not naturally replenished in adult mammals. Unlike those of the mammalian ear, the progenitor cells of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate hair cells throughout life. The basis of this difference remains largely unexplored but may lie in molecular dissimilarities that affect how progenitors respond to hair-cell death. To approach this issue, we analyzed gene expression in hair-cell progenitors of the lateral-line system. We developed a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses a red fluorescent protein in the presumptive hair-cell progenitors known as mantle cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting from the skins of transgenic larvae, followed by microarray-based expression analysis, revealed a constellation of transcripts that are specifically enriched in these cells. Gene expression analysis after hair-cell ablation uncovered a cohort of genes that are differentially regulated early in regeneration, suggesting possible roles in the response of progenitors to hair-cell death. These results provide a resource for studying hair-cell regeneration and the biology of sensory progenitor cells. PMID:24706895

Steiner, Aaron B; Kim, Taeryn; Cabot, Victoria; Hudspeth, A J

2014-04-01

262

Streptomycin ototoxicity and hair cell regeneration in the adult pigeon utricle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to investigate the regeneration of utricular hair cells in the adult pigeon (Columba livia) following complete hair cell loss through administration of streptomycin. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups. Group 1 received 10 to 15 days of systemic streptomycin injections. Animals in Groups 2 and 3 received a single direct placement of a 1-, 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose into the perilymphatic space. Animals in Groups 1 and 2 were analyzed within 1 week from injection to investigate hair cell destruction, whereas Group 3 was investigated at later dates to study hair cell recovery. Group 4 animals received a control injection of saline into the perilymphatic space. Damage and recovery were quantified by counting hair cells in isolated utricles using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Although systemic injections failed to reliably achieve complete utricular hair cell destruction, a single direct placement of a 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose caused complete destruction within the first week. Incomplete hair cell loss was observed with the 1-mg dose. Over the long term, regeneration of the hair cells was seen with the 2-mg dose but not the 8-mg dose. Control injections of saline into the perilymphatic space caused no measurable hair cell loss. CONCLUSIONS: Direct placement of streptomycin into the perilymph is an effective, reliable method for complete destruction of utricular hair cells while preserving the regenerative potential of the neuroepithelium.

Frank, T. C.; Dye, B. J.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

1999-01-01

263

Dynamic gene expression by putative hair-cell progenitors during regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is most commonly caused by the destruction of mechanosensory hair cells in the ear. This condition is usually permanent: Despite the presence of putative hair-cell progenitors in the cochlea, hair cells are not naturally replenished in adult mammals. Unlike those of the mammalian ear, the progenitor cells of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate hair cells throughout life. The basis of this difference remains largely unexplored but may lie in molecular dissimilarities that affect how progenitors respond to hair-cell death. To approach this issue, we analyzed gene expression in hair-cell progenitors of the lateral-line system. We developed a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses a red fluorescent protein in the presumptive hair-cell progenitors known as mantle cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting from the skins of transgenic larvae, followed by microarray-based expression analysis, revealed a constellation of transcripts that are specifically enriched in these cells. Gene expression analysis after hair-cell ablation uncovered a cohort of genes that are differentially regulated early in regeneration, suggesting possible roles in the response of progenitors to hair-cell death. These results provide a resource for studying hair-cell regeneration and the biology of sensory progenitor cells. PMID:24706895

Kim, Taeryn; Cabot, Victoria; Hudspeth, A. J.

2014-01-01

264

Micronutrients for Hair and Nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the appearance of hair and nails is a major concern for woman worldwide, we have tried to collect the most reliable therapeutic\\u000a sources with a particular interest for micronutrients. The latter is a term used to include trace elements found in minerals,\\u000a vitamins, amino acids, and herbs. Some of them may be used in both hair and nails, for

E. Haneke; Robert Baran

265

Root hair length and rhizosheath mass depend on soil porosity, strength and water content in barley genotypes.  

PubMed

Selecting plants with improved root hair growth is a key strategy for improving phosphorus-uptake efficiency in agriculture. While significant inter- and intra-specific variation is reported for root hair length, it is not known whether these phenotypic differences are exhibited under conditions that are known to affect root hair elongation. This work investigates the effect of soil strength, soil water content (SWC) and soil particle size (SPS) on the root hair length of different root hair genotypes of barley. The root hair and rhizosheath development of five root hair genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was compared in soils with penetrometer resistances ranging from 0.03 to 4.45 MPa (dry bulk densities 1.2-1.7 g cm(-3)). A "short" (SRH) and "long" root hair (LRH) genotype was selected to further investigate whether differentiation of these genotypes was related to SWC or SPS when grown in washed graded sand. In low-strength soil (<1.43 MPa), root hairs of the LRH genotype were on average 25 % longer than that of the SRH genotype. In high-strength soil, root hair length of the LRH genotype was shorter than that in low-strength soil and did not differ from that of the SRH genotype. Root hairs were shorter in wetter soils or soils with smaller particles, and again SRH and LRH did not differ in hair length. Longer root hairs were generally, but not always, associated with larger rhizosheaths, suggesting that mucilage adhesion was also important. The root hair growth of barley was found to be highly responsive to soil properties and this impacted on the expression of phenotypic differences in root hair length. While root hairs are an important trait for phosphorus acquisition in dense soils, the results highlight the importance of selecting multiple and potentially robust root traits to improve resource acquisition in agricultural systems. PMID:24318401

Haling, Rebecca E; Brown, Lawrie K; Bengough, A Glyn; Valentine, Tracy A; White, Philip J; Young, Iain M; George, Timothy S

2014-03-01

266

Formation, encapsulation, and validation of membrane-based artificial hair cell sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair cell structures are one of the most common forms of sensing elements found in nature. In nearly all vertebrates hair cells are used for auditory and vestibular sensing. In humans, approximately 16,000 auditory hair cells can be found in the cochlea of the ear. Each hair cell contains a stereocilia, which is the primary structure for sound transduction. This study looks to develop and characterize an artificial hair cell that resembles the stereocilia of the human ear. Recently our research group has shown that a single artificial hair cell can be formed in an open substrate using a single aqueous droplet and a hydrogel. In this study, air was blown across the hair and analyzed using spectral analysis. The results of this study provided the foundation for our current work toward an artificial hair cell that uses two aqueous droplets. In the current study a test fixture was created in order to consistently measure various properties of the encapsulated hair cell. The response of the hair cell was measured with an impulse input at various locations on the test fixture. A frequency response function was then created using the impulse input and the output of the sensor. It was found that the vibration of the hair was only detectable if the test fixture was struck at the correct location. By changing the physical parameters of the hair sensor, such as hair length, we were able to alter the response of the sensor. It was also found that the sensitivity of the sensor was reliant on the size of the lipid bilayer.

Garrison, Kevin L.; Sarles, Stephen A.; Leo, Donald J.

2012-04-01

267

A sensitive fluorescence technique using dansyl chloride to assess hair damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and sensitive procedure amenable to visual or spectrofluorometric quantitation has been developed to detect certain types of hair damage. We have found that hair treated with the fluorescent dye 1-dimeth- ylamino-naphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl chloride) acquires fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The fluorescence intensity is a function of the amount of dansyl chloride binding to the hair and can be

SUKHVINDER S. SANDHU; CLARENCE R. ROBBINS

1989-01-01

268

Windows of detection of zolpidem in urine and hair: application to two drug facilitated sexual assaults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A LC–MS\\/MS method for the detection of zolpidem in hair was developed to detect this drug after a single dose in possible drug facilitated sexual assaults. To determine the window of detection of zolpidem in both urine and hair, three volunteers received a 10mg dose. Urine specimens were collected each 12h for 144h. Hair was sampled 3–5 weeks after exposure.

M Villain; M Chèze; A Tracqui; B Ludes; P Kintz

2004-01-01

269

Hair restoration approaches for early onset male androgenetic alopecia.  

PubMed

Society places great emphasis on the presence of hair. Some degree of hair loss is accepted as a normal part of the aging process, in line with the observation that more than 50% of men will develop androgenetic alopecia by the age of 50 years. However, it is possible to understand the psychosocial isolation and distress felt by men with a strong familial predisposition to androgenetic alopecia, who tend to display hair loss in their late teens or twenties. There are currently two drugs which have been licensed for the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: oral finasteride and topical minoxidil solution which are effective to some extent. Furthermore, upon discontinuing treatment, any gain that has been achieved is quickly lost. Added to which there is an entire market of unproven over the counter products: advertised in the electronic media, local hair salons, and various departmental stores. In this review, we highlight the important advances in the management of male androgenetic alopecia with emphasis on approaches that can lead to more successful and long-term hair restoration for young adults. In particular, we discuss the evidence supporting the use of the follicular unit grafting technique in conjunction with medical treatment before and after the procedure. Moreover, some other alterations of this most popular state of the art hair restoration technique have been mentioned briefly. As a result, patients and physicians seem equally satisfied from this procedure for its naturally looking results which are cosmetically more acceptable and esthetically pleasing for longer period of time. PMID:23992164

Bhatti, Hammad A; Basra, Mohammad K A; Patel, Girish K

2013-09-01

270

Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. PMID:23121872

Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

2012-11-01

271

Intelligent Image Analysis for Image-Guided Laser Hair Removal and Skin Therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the development of advanced automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for the hair follicles identification in digital skin images to accurately direct the laser beam to remove the hair. The ATR system first performs a wavelet filtering to enhance the contrast of the hair features in the image. The system then extracts the unique features of the targets and sends the features to an Adaboost based classifier for training and recognition operations. The ATR system automatically classifies the hair, moles, or other skin lesion and provides the accurate coordinates of the intended hair follicle locations. The coordinates can be used to guide a scanning laser to focus energy only on the hair follicles. The intended benefit would be to protect the skin from unwanted laser exposure and to provide more effective skin therapy.

Walker, Brian; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

2012-01-01

272

6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice  

PubMed Central

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

273

The Influence of Preservation Solution on the Viability of Grafts in Hair Transplantation Surgery  

PubMed Central

Summary: Hair transplantation techniques have changed in the last decades. Partial longitudinal follicular unit transplantation is a new hair transplantation technique, which differs from all other hair transplantation techniques by the size of the graft and therefore much more vulnerable grafts compared to the conventional hair transplantation grafts. In this study, we reveal the influence of the preservation solution on the viability of the grafts. We have extracted 15 hair transplantation grafts of 0.6?mm and 15 hair transplantation grafts of 0.7?mm from 3 different patients and investigated the influence of 2 commercially available preservation media, saline solution (Braun, Melsungen, Germany) and Ringer’s lactate (Braun), on the viability of grafts and compared these solutions with the preservation solution developed by Hair Science Institute with trypan blue. The grafts stored in the preservation solution developed by Hair Science Institute showed a significant better viability compared with the 2 commercially available preservation media saline solution and Ringer’s lactate. This study shows that a preservation solution could influence the viability of the grafts which could be essential for hair transplantations with small grafts such as in partial longitudinal follicular unit transplantation.

Neumann, H. A. Martino

2013-01-01

274

Validity of hair mineral testing.  

PubMed

The variance of testing was compared between the College of American Pathologists clinical survey and that of a recent review about hair mineral testing. The review suggested that the accuracy of hair mineral testing was unreliable. In general, there was a greater range of variance in the College of American Pathologists testing results. These latter results are based on laboratory testing and are used as a "yardstick" to determine if a laboratory passes or fails that analyte and are considered a "gold standard." An extract, which resulted from a method that avoided the washing step, was compared among five laboratories. Very good precision resulted, indicating that the varied washing steps used by the laboratories in a recent review were probably the source of much variance. Analysis of hair analysis seemed to yield important information in several historical or forensic cases involving Ludwig von Beethoven, Napoleon Bonaparte, ex-US-presidents Zachary Taylor and Andrew Jackson, and Charles Hall, an Arctic explorer. Several elements that were reviewed, including arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, germanium, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, and thallium, showed relationships between body burden, dosage, and exposure or toxicity. Evidence of toxicity could not be found by measuring hair aluminum or vanadium. Chromium, selenium, and zinc seemed to have nutritional value. Ratios of hair elements with clinical importance could not be found. PMID:12117220

Shamberger, R J

2002-01-01

275

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position in the womb Infections during pregnancy ...

276

Changes in hair morphology of mucopolysaccharidosis I patients treated with recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase (laronidase, Aldurazyme).  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are heritable, metabolic diseases caused by accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans, GAGs) in lysosomes. This accumulation is due to a deficiency in one of several specific enzymes involved in the degradation of GAGs. MPS type I (MPS I) is caused by low or undetectable activity of alpha-L-iduronidase, an enzyme involved in removing the terminal iduronic acid residues from heparan and dermatan sulfate. Recently, an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for MPS I, based on administration of recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase (laronidase, Aldurazyme), became available. The assessment of efficacy of ERT is especially important because MPS I is a highly variable and very rare disease, and the clinical trials involved relatively low number of patients. Among various significant clinical improvements during ERT, remarkable changes in hair morphology were noted. Detailed studies of hair samples from one patient, who did not have a hair cut from the beginning of ERT to the end of this study, and supported by results obtained for two other patients, revealed hair shaft structural abnormalities in MPS I hair. These hair abnormalities disappeared upon treatment with Aldurazyme. Although hair morphology is of limited clinical importance, the data suggest that changes in this parameter could be a useful, additional tool for a rapid, non-invasive, preliminary assessment of ERT efficacy. PMID:16283671

Kloska, Anna; Bohdanowicz, Jerzy; Konopa, Grazyna; Tylki-Szym?ska, Anna; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Czartoryska, Barbara; Liberek, Anna; Wegrzyn, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

2005-12-15

277

Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 Induces Hyper-?-Glutamyl Transpeptidasemia without Abnormal Head Development and Schizophrenia-Relevant Behaviors in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as “the Japan Mouse Clinic”. No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-?-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-?-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia. PMID:22242126

Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Ohba, Hisako; Sakaguchi, Toru; Honma, Yota; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Motoko; Watanabe, Kazutada; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yoshikawa, Takeo

2011-01-01

278

Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital and developmental abnormalities influencing life are rare. They mainly consist of pectus deformities, sternal fusion\\u000a abnormalities and clavicular pseudoarthrosis. The most life-threatening abnormality is cleft sternum which may leave the heart\\u000a and great vessels unprotected.

Anne Grethe Jurik

279

Measuring Abnormal Bond Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the empirical power and specification of test statistics designed to detect abnormal bond returns in corporate event studies, using monthly and daily data. We find that test statistics based on frequently used methods of calculating abnormal monthly bond returns are biased. Most methods implemented in monthly data also lack power to detect abnormal returns. We also consider unique

Hendrik Bessembinder; Kathleen M. Kahle; William F. Maxwell; Danielle Xu

2009-01-01

280

Autonomous functions of murine thyroid hormone receptor TR? and TR? in cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone acts on gene transcription by binding to its nuclear receptors TR?1 and TR?. Whereas global deletion of TR? causes deafness, global TR?-deficient mice have normal hearing thresholds. Since the individual roles of the two receptors in cochlear hair cells are still unclear, we generated mice with a hair cell-specific mutation of TR?1 or deletion of TR? using the Cre-loxP system. Hair cell-specific TR? mutant mice showed normal hearing thresholds but delayed BK channel expression in inner hair cells, slightly stronger outer hair cell function, and slightly reduced amplitudes of auditory brainstem responses. In contrast, hair cell-specific TR? mutant mice showed normal timing of BK channel expression, slightly reduced outer hair cell function, and slightly enhanced amplitudes of auditory brainstem responses. Our data demonstrate that TR?-related deafness originates outside of hair cells and that TR? and TR? play opposing, non-redundant roles in hair cells. A role for thyroid hormone receptors in controlling key regulators that shape signal transduction during development is discussed. Thyroid hormone may act through different thyroid hormone receptor activities to permanently alter the sensitivity of auditory neurotransmission. PMID:24012852

Dettling, Juliane; Franz, Christoph; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Lee, Sze Chim; Bress, Andreas; Brandt, Niels; Feil, Robert; Pfister, Markus; Engel, Jutta; Flamant, Frédéric; Rüttiger, Lukas; Knipper, Marlies

2014-01-25

281

Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

2010-03-01

282

Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

2009-12-01

283

[Green hair: clinical, chemical and epidemiologic study. Apropos of a case].  

PubMed

A 36-year-old blond woman suddenly developed green tinted hair following exposure to swimming pool water. This was the first green discoloration she noticed, although she had been an active swimmer for several years. Clinical examination showed green tinting toward the distal ends of the most superficial strands of hair. The copper content of plucked green hair measured by atomic absorption was elevated to 3,900 ppm and the copper concentration in water from the swimming pool implicated was 9.94 ppm. Following renewal, the latter value decreased to 107 ppb. Hair examination under polarizing light was normal, and a scanning electronmicroscopic study of hair samples showed a total loss of cuticle with micropits scattered over the hair shaft surface mimicking a "dead tree trunk". Epidemiological investigations showed that the increased copper content of swimming pool water was due to added algaecides without adequate replacement of the water. Hair damage resulting from repeated waving and/or bleaching of the hair turns out to be an important factor in the deposition of copper by inducing an increase in keratin content of cysteic acid and related anionic sulfonate groups which participate in copper adsorption. On the ocassion of this case-report, epidemiological data published by others, together with the chemical and therapeutic aspects of green hair are reviewed. PMID:3202580

Blanc, D; Zultak, M; Rochefort, A; Faivre, B; Claudet, M H; Drobacheff, C

1988-01-01

284

Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata. PMID:25097478

Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing; Li, Cheng-Rang

2014-05-01

285

Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series  

PubMed Central

Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata. PMID:25097478

Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing

2014-01-01

286

A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching Hong Chen and Song Chun Zhu  

E-print Network

and wisps which create diverse hair styles. Hair appearance plays an important role in graphics, digital of artist hair draw- ings. The sketches are concise and grasp the essences of hair perception. tions- tion cannot perceive or may not care about many details, as it was demonstrated in texture perception[1

Zhu, Song Chun

287

THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HAIR II. CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS AND PATHOLOGICAL HAIRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct measurement of the ultrasonically determined modulus of elasticity (UME) has been extended to chemically modified hair and to pathological hairs. Single hairs are equilibrated at 75% relative humidity and studied with simultaneous stress-strain tests and direct measurements of the UME. Disulfide reduction with IM dithiothreitol produced more extensible hairs in which the UME retains its characteristic relationship to

Lowell A. Goldsmith; Howard P. Baden

1971-01-01

288

A comparison study of the efficacy and side effects of different light sources in hair removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unwanted hairs are a common problem in which different light sources were developed as the treatment of choice. Alexandrite laser, diode laser, and intense pulsed light (IPL) were clinically used for this purpose with long-term scarce comparative results. The objective of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy, complications, and long-term hair reduction of alexandrite laser, diode laser, and

Parviz Toosi; Afshin Sadighha; Ali Sharifian; Gita Meshkat Razavi

2006-01-01

289

Effect of hair color on luster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of color on instrumentally evaluated luster of hair dyed to different colors and depths of shades is studied. For natural hair colors, such as blond, brown, and black, the increase in luster with increasing color is associated with a decrease in diffusely scattered light as a result of light absorption by melanin granules. On dyed hair the interpretation

K. KEIS; K. R. RAMAPRASAD; Y. K. KAMATH

2004-01-01

290

Hair cycle regulation of Hedgehog signal reception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper patterning of self-renewing organs, like the hair follicle, requires exquisite regulation of growth signals. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in skin controls the growth and morphogenesis of hair follicle epithelium in part through regulating the Gli transcription factors. While ectopic induction of Shh target genes leads to hair follicle tumors, such as basal cell carcinomas, how Shh signaling normally functions

Anthony E Oro; Kay Higgins

2003-01-01

291

Woolly Hair Nevus: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Woolly hair nevus is a rare non-hereditary focal condition characterized by unruly and tightly coiled hair. It can appear in childhood or adolescence and may be associated with epidermal or melanocytic nevus. Patients presenting with woolly hair must be examined completely to rule out cardiofaciocutaneous and Noonan syndrome. PMID:22628991

Venugopal, V; Karthikeyan, Subashini; Gnanaraj, Pushpa; Narasimhan, Murali

2012-01-01

292

Woolly hair nevus: a rare entity.  

PubMed

Woolly hair nevus is a rare non-hereditary focal condition characterized by unruly and tightly coiled hair. It can appear in childhood or adolescence and may be associated with epidermal or melanocytic nevus. Patients presenting with woolly hair must be examined completely to rule out cardiofaciocutaneous and Noonan syndrome. PMID:22628991

Venugopal, V; Karthikeyan, Subashini; Gnanaraj, Pushpa; Narasimhan, Murali

2012-01-01

293

A glossary of plant hair terminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a compilation of English terms having to do with hairs and hairy surfaces of plants. The glossary is divided into\\u000a two sections. Part I includes terms for types and attributes of individual hair kinds and hair clusters. Part II deals with\\u000a kinds and characteristics of induments.

Willard W. Payne

1978-01-01

294

Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer  

PubMed Central

Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

2011-01-01

295

Hypoxia induces abnormal larval development and affects biofilm-larval interaction in the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans.  

PubMed

Hydroides elegans, a worldwide fouling polychaete, can spawn throughout the year, but its recruitment drops during summer when hypoxia prevails. Here, the influence of hypoxia on larval development and settlement of H. elegans was investigated. Results showed that larval development was compromised at 1mg O2 l(-1) with a lower proportion of competent larvae and a higher proportion of malformed larvae, probably due to reduction in clearance rate. Regarding larval settlement, although most of the larvae were reluctant to settle at 1mg O2 l(-1), regardless of the biofilm nature, they settled quickly within 24h in response to the resumption of dissolved oxygen. Furthermore, only about 5% of the larvae settled on the biofilms developed under hypoxia, regardless of dissolved oxygen levels of the seawater. The delayed larval development and potential alteration of biofilm nature owing to hypoxia explained why the recruitment of H. elegans declines during summer. PMID:24050126

Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G

2013-11-15

296

A Review of Gene Delivery and Stem Cell Based Therapies for Regenerating Inner Ear Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Sensory neural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction have become the most common forms of sensory defects, affecting millions of people worldwide. Developing effective therapies to restore hearing loss is challenging, owing to the limited regenerative capacity of the inner ear hair cells. With recent advances in understanding the developmental biology of mammalian and non-mammalian hair cells a variety of strategies have emerged to restore lost hair cells are being developed. Two predominant strategies have developed to restore hair cells: transfer of genes responsible for hair cell genesis and replacement of missing cells via transfer of stem cells. In this review article, we evaluate the use of several genes involved in hair cell regeneration, the advantages and disadvantages of the different viral vectors employed in inner ear gene delivery and the insights gained from the use of embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells in generating inner ear hair cells. Understanding the role of genes, vectors and stem cells in therapeutic strategies led us to explore potential solutions to overcome the limitations associated with their use in hair cell regeneration. PMID:24956306

Devarajan, Keerthana; Staecker, Hinrich; Detamore, Michael S.

2011-01-01

297

Clinically applicable transplantation procedure of dermal papilla cells for hair follicle regeneration.  

PubMed

Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) interact with epithelial stem cells and induce hair folliculogenesis. Cell-based therapies using expanded DPCs for hair regeneration have been unsuccessful in humans. Two major challenges remain: first, expanded DPCs obtained from adult hair follicles have functional limitations; second, a clinically applicable method is needed for transplanting DPCs. This study aimed to identify an efficient, minimally invasive and economical DPC transplantation procedure for use in clinical settings. Five clinically applicable transplantation procedures were tested, termed the Pinhole, Laser, Slit, Non-vascularized sandwich (NVS) and Hemi-vascularized sandwich (HVS) methods. Labelled rat dermal papilla tissue was transplanted into rat sole skin, and hair follicle regeneration was evaluated histologically. Regenerated follicles and labelled DPCs were detected for all methods, although some follicles showed abnormal growth, i.e. a cystic or inverted appearance. The HVS method, pioneered here, resulted in significantly larger number of regenerated follicles that were more mature and regular than those observed using the other methods. Moreover, hair growth was detected after expanded adult-derived DPC transplantation using the HVS method. These results suggest that direct contact of epithelial and dermal components and better vascularization/oxygenation of the recipient site are critical for hair regeneration in cell-based therapies. PMID:21305700

Aoi, Noriyuki; Inoue, Keita; Kato, Harunosuke; Suga, Hirotaka; Higashino, Takuya; Eto, Hitomi; Doi, Kentaro; Araki, Jun; Iida, Takuya; Katsuta, Tomoya; Yoshimura, Kotaro

2012-02-01

298

The Role of Chronic Hypoxia in the Development of Neurocognitive Abnormalities in Preterm Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common pulmonary morbidity in preterm infants and is associated with chronic hypoxia. Animal studies have demonstrated structural, neurochemical and functional alterations due to chronic hypoxia in the developing brain. Long-term impairments in visual-motor, gross and fine motor, articulation, reading,…

Raman, Lakshmi; Georgieff, Michael K.; Rao, Raghavendra

2006-01-01

299

Abnormal waves during Hurricane Camille  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reanalysis is reported of the wave time series recorded during Hurricane Camille having as objective the identification of individual waves that satisfy current criteria defining abnormal or freak waves. It is shown that during the hurricane development, a very nonstationary situation has occurred during which the second-order sea state parameters changed significantly with time. The parameters of the largest individual waves in sea states which identify abnormal waves did not show any clear trend, and such waves occurred during the development stage and not when the significant wave height was the largest. It is argued that the present criteria of identification of abnormal waves are not satisfactory, as they do not take into account the nature of the sea states in which the waves occur.

Guedes Soares, C.; Cherneva, Z.; AntãO, E. M.

2004-08-01

300

Nonsurgical therapy for hair loss.  

PubMed

This article is an update of the currently available options for medical therapies to treat androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Emerging novel therapeutic modalities with potential for treating these patients are discussed. Because androgenetic alopecia is progressive in nature, stabilization of the process using medical therapy is an important adjunct to any surgical hair-restoration plan. PMID:24017975

Nusbaum, Aron G; Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard P

2013-08-01

301

Modulation of hair cell efferents  

PubMed Central

Outer hair cells (OHCs) amplify the sound-evoked motion of the basilar membrane to enhance acoustic sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents inhibit OHCs to reduce the sound-evoked response of cochlear afferent neurons. OHC inhibition occurs through the activation of postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors tightly coupled to calcium-dependent SK2 channels that hyperpolarize the hair cell. MOC neurons are cholinergic but a number of other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been proposed to participate in efferent transmission, with emerging evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Cochlear inhibition in vivo is maximized by repetitive activation of the efferents, reflecting facilitation and summation of transmitter release onto outer hair cells. This review summarizes recent studies on cellular and molecular mechanisms of cholinergic inhibition and the regulation of those molecular components, in particular the involvement of intracellular calcium. Facilitation at the efferent synapse is compared in a variety of animals, as well as other possible mechanisms of modulation of ACh release. These results suggest that short-term plasticity contributes to effective cholinergic inhibition of hair cells. PMID:21187136

Wersinger, Eric; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2011-01-01

302

The Mechanism of Hair Bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis--The color of mammalian HAIRS is due mainly to the inclusion of discrete, darkly colored MELANIN granules in the keratinized cytoplasmic protein of the fiber-forming cells. During BLEACHING the melanin pigment undergoes irreversible physicochemical changes which result either in the toning down or complete elimination of the original fiber color. The modification of the fiber protein (KERATIN) attendant upon bleaching

LESZEK J. WOLFRAM; I. HUI

303

[[Hair zinc levels in children].  

PubMed

Study with the objective to assess the capillary zinc concentrations in children, considering differences according to sex, age, growth, and socioeconomic status and hair characteristics. A random sample comprised of 282 children. Capillary zinc concentrations were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique. The capillary level of zinc less than 70 ?g/g was considered as deficient. Reference curves of the World Health Organization were used to rate children with height deficit. Domiciliary characteristics and benefit of government assistance were considered as socioeconomic condition. Color, type and size were considered as characteristics of hair. Zinc deficiency was observed in 9.1% of 276 children studied, with mean of 306.06 ?g/g ± 245.13. Lower capillary zinc concentrations were found in children whose households had fewer rooms, fewer individuals and were rented. Children 37-72 months showed higher zinc concentrations than children aged 6-12 and 13-3 6 months. Capillary zinc concentrations showed no statistical difference according to sex and growth, unlike that found for some hair characteristics that showed variations. Zinc deficiency is a health problem in the population studied with more vulnerability in children of lower age; socioeconomic conditions and hair characteristics can affect the capillary zinc concentration. PMID:25362824

Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

2013-09-01

304

Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection  

PubMed Central

Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection. PMID:22171023

Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

2012-01-01

305

Developmental and activity-dependent plasticity of filiform hair receptors in the locust  

PubMed Central

A group of wind sensitive filiform hair receptors on the locust thorax and head makes contact onto a pair of identified interneuron, A4I1. The hair receptors' central nervous projections exhibit pronounced structural dynamics during nymphal development, for example, by gradually eliminating their ipsilateral dendritic field while maintaining the contralateral one. These changes are dependent not only on hormones controlling development but on neuronal activity as well. The hair-to-interneuron system has remarkably high gain (close to 1) and makes contact to flight steering muscles. During stationary flight in front of a wind tunnel, interneuron A4I1 is active in the wing beat rhythm, and in addition it responds strongly to stimulation of sensory hairs in its receptive field. A role of the hair-to-interneuron in flight steering is thus suggested. This system appears suitable for further study of developmental and activity-dependent plasticity in a sensorimotor context with known connectivity patterns. PMID:23986712

Pfluger, Hans-Joachim; Wolf, Harald

2013-01-01

306

Chondrodysplasia and Abnormal Joint Development Associated with Mutations in IMPAD1, Encoding the Golgi-Resident Nucleotide Phosphatase, gPAPP  

PubMed Central

We used whole-exome sequencing to study three individuals with a distinct condition characterized by short stature, chondrodysplasia with brachydactyly, congenital joint dislocations, cleft palate, and facial dysmorphism. Affected individuals carried homozygous missense mutations in IMPAD1, the gene coding for gPAPP, a Golgi-resident nucleotide phosphatase that hydrolyzes phosphoadenosine phosphate (PAP), the byproduct of sulfotransferase reactions, to AMP. The mutations affected residues in or adjacent to the phosphatase active site and are predicted to impair enzyme activity. A fourth unrelated patient was subsequently found to be homozygous for a premature termination codon in IMPAD1. Impad1 inactivation in mice has previously been shown to produce chondrodysplasia with abnormal joint formation and impaired proteoglycan sulfation. The human chondrodysplasia associated with gPAPP deficiency joins a growing number of skeletoarticular conditions associated with defective synthesis of sulfated proteoglycans, highlighting the importance of proteoglycans in the development of skeletal elements and joints. PMID:21549340

Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; Lausch, Ekkehart; Unger, Sheila; Campos-Xavier, Ana Belinda; Gilissen, Christian; Rossi, Antonio; Del Rosario, Marisol; Venselaar, Hanka; Knoll, Ute; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Nair, Mohandas; Spranger, Jurgen; Brunner, Han G.; Bonafe, Luisa; Veltman, Joris A.; Zabel, Bernhard; Superti-Furga, Andrea

2011-01-01

307

From genetic abnormality to metastases: murine models of breast cancer and their use in the development of anticancer therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Numerous mouse models of mammary cancer have been developed that mimic selective aspects of human disease. The use of these\\u000a models has enabled preclinical chemotherapeutic, chemoprevention, and genetic therapy studies in vivo, the testing of gene delivery systems, and the identification of tumour and metastasis suppressor and inducer genes. This\\u000a review has discussed the most abundantly used murine models of

P. D. Ottewell; R. E. Coleman; I. Holen

2006-01-01

308

Ectopic expression of nolz-1 in neural progenitors promotes cell cycle exit/premature neuronal differentiation accompanying with abnormal apoptosis in the developing mouse telencephalon.  

PubMed

Nolz-1, as a murine member of the NET zinc-finger protein family, is expressed in post-mitotic differentiating neurons of striatum during development. To explore the function of Nolz-1 in regulating the neurogenesis of forebrain, we studied the effects of ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors. We generated the Cre-loxP dependent conditional transgenic mice in which Nolz-1 was ectopically expressed in proliferative neural progenitors. Ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors by intercrossing the Nolz-1 conditional transgenic mice with the nestin-Cre mice resulted in hypoplasia of telencephalon in double transgenic mice. Decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells were found in the telencephalon, as evidenced by the reduction of BrdU-, Ki67- and phospho-histone 3-positive cells in E11.5-12.5 germinal zone of telencephalon. Transgenic Nolz-1 also promoted cell cycle exit and as a consequence might facilitate premature differentiation of progenitors, because TuJ1-positive neurons were ectopically found in the ventricular zone and there was a general increase of TuJ1 immunoreactivity in the telencephalon. Moreover, clusters of strong TuJ1-expressing neurons were present in E12.5 germinal zone. Some of these strong TuJ1-positive clusters, however, contained apoptotic condensed DNA, suggesting that inappropriate premature differentiation may lead to abnormal apoptosis in some progenitor cells. Consistent with the transgenic mouse analysis in vivo, similar effects of Nozl-1 over-expression in induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of neuronal differentiation were also observed in three different N18, ST14A and N2A neural cell lines in vitro. Taken together, our study indicates that ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors promotes cell cycle exit/premature neuronal differentiation and induces abnormal apoptosis in the developing telencephalon. PMID:24073229

Chang, Sunny Li-Yun; Chen, Shih-Yun; Huang, Huai-Huei; Ko, Hsin-An; Liu, Pei-Tsen; Liu, Ya-Chi; Chen, Ping-Hau; Liu, Fu-Chin

2013-01-01

309

Hair analysis, a reliable and non-invasive method to evaluate the contamination by clenbuterol.  

PubMed

The illegal use of clenbuterol has been an increasingly serious issue in today's livestock products industry. It becomes an important project to develop a reliable approach to detect its content in food animals. A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed to detect clenbuterol residue in hair, with the low limit of quantitation (LLOQ) about 0.5ng/g. Hogs fed with 340µg/day of clenbuterol for 2 weeks were found a high clenbuterol residue in their hair approximately at 1-2 months after withdrawal. There remained 3.31ng/g clenbuterol in hog hair approximately 5 months after the last administration, focused on the tip of the hair (mainly in hogs with dark hair). An extensive contamination was observed in twenty investigated market hogs whose dark hair obviously had a higher clenbuterol residue than the light ones (p=0.017, t test). Volunteers (60.3 percent) from Xuhui district (Shanghai) were found to have a detectable amount of clenbuterol in their hair (>0.5ng/g). In conclusion, hair residue detection is a reliable method to evaluate the clenbuterol contamination in animals and humans. Meat supply in the Xuhui district might have serious potential safety risks which should be further investigated and discussed to determine the safety range of clenbuterol residue. PMID:23607973

Jia, Jing-Ying; Zhang, Lu-Nan; Lu, You-Li; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Liu, Gang-Yi; Liu, Yan-Mei; Lu, Chuan; Li, Shui-Jun; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Rui-Wen; Yu, Chen

2013-07-01

310

Biomonitoring of hair samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical method for determining essential elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) and toxic elements (Cr, Pb and U) on single hair strands by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-SFMS) using a double focusing sector field mass spectrometer was developed. Results obtained directly using LA-ICP-SFMS of hair were compared with those measured by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) of solutions of digested hair samples and the analytical methods were found to agree well. Different quantification strategies for trace element determination in hair samples such as external calibration, standard addition and isotope dilution were compared and demonstrated for uranium. For uranium determination in powdered hair by LA-ICP-MS solution-based calibration was applied by coupling the laser ablation chamber to an ultrasonic nebulizer. The significance of single hair analysis by LA-ICP-SFMS was demonstrated by a case study of a person who changed living environment. Differences in the uranium content observed along the single hair strand correlated with the changes in the level of uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in a single hair decreased from 212 to 18 ng g-1 with a change in the uranium concentration in drinking water from 2000 to 30 ng l-1. In addition, measurements of uranium isotope ratios showed a natural isotopic composition throughout the whole period in the drinking water, as well as in the hair samples. This paper demonstrates the potential use of laser ablation ICP-MS to provide measurements on a single hair strand and its potential to become a very powerful tool in hair analysis for biological monitoring.

Sela, H.; Karpas, Z.; Zoriy, M.; Pickhardt, C.; Becker, J. S.

2007-03-01

311

[Histophysiology of hair follicles: current concept].  

PubMed

Hair follicle histophysiology importance isn't limited by hair role in psychosocial consequences. More scientists consider the hair follicle as an attractive system for studying major biological phenomena because the hair follicle is a regenerating system. In this review we revisit the current information about histophysiology and control of hair follicle cycling. All mature follicles undergo a growth cycle consisting of following phases: growth (anagen), regression (catagen) and rest (telogen). We attempt to integrate the morphology with the physiology and molecular biology. Hair follicles are influenced by environmental, systemic and local factors. The most interesting point of this problem is discussed--an integral regulation of hair follicle cycle by systemic, intertissue and intercellular interactions. PMID:15573887

Barinov, E F; Sulaeva, O N

2004-01-01

312

Abnormalities of sexual development in male rats with in utero and lactational exposure to the antiandrogenic plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.  

PubMed

Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP (0, 375, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg/day, per os) from gestation day 3 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Dose-related effects on male offspring included reduced anogenital distance, areola and nipple retention, undescended testes, and permanently incomplete preputial separation. Testis, epididymis, glans penis, ventral prostate, dorsolateral prostate, anterior prostate, and seminal vesicle weights were reduced at PND 21, 63, and/or 105-112. Additional dose-related effects included a high incidence of anterior prostate agenesis, a lower incidence of partial or complete ventral prostate agenesis, occasional dorsolateral prostate and seminal vesicle agenesis, reduced sperm counts, and testicular, epididymal, and penile malformations. Many DEHP-exposed males were sexually inactive in the presence of receptive control females, but sexual inactivity did not correlate with abnormal male reproductive organs. These results suggest that in utero and lactational DEHP exposure also inhibited sexually dimorphic central nervous system development. No major abnormalities were found in any of eight control litters, but DEHP caused severe male reproductive system toxicity in five of eight litters at 375 mg/kg/day, seven of eight litters at 750 mg/kg/day, and five of five litters at 1,500 mg/kg/day. These results demonstrate that the male reproductive system is far more sensitive to DEHP early in development than when animals are exposed as juveniles or adults. The effects of DEHP on male reproductive organs and sexual behaviors and the lack of significant effects on time to vaginal opening and first estrus in their littermates demonstrate that DEHP (and/or its metabolites) affects development of the male reproductive system primarily by acting as an antiandrogen. The pattern of effects of in utero and lactational DEHP exposure differed from patterns caused by other phthalate esters, and the preponderance of anterior prostate agenesis appears to be unique among all chemicals. These results suggest that DEHP acts partly by mechanisms distinct from those of other antiandrogens. PMID:11333183

Moore, R W; Rudy, T A; Lin, T M; Ko, K; Peterson, R E

2001-03-01

313

Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345

Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vila, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumi, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

2011-01-01

314

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical ``heartprints'' which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing ~105 heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-09-01

315

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

316

Mass imaging of ketamine in a single scalp hair by MALDI-FTMS.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) coupled with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a rapidly emerging technology that produces distribution maps of small pharmaceutical molecules in situ in tissue sections. Segmental hair analysis provides useful information regarding the state and history of drug use. A preliminary MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MSI method was developed for direct identification and imaging of ketamine in hair samples. After decontamination, the scalp hair samples from ketamine users were scraped gently and were fixed onto a stainless steel MALDI plate using double-sided adhesive tape. A Bruker 9.4 T solariX FTICR mass spectrometer with continuous accumulation of selected ions function was used in the positive ion mode. Four single hairs from the same drug abuser were analyzed. Three of four single hairs demonstrated ketamine spatial distribution, while only traces of ketamine were identified in the other one. The platform could provide detection power of ketamine down to the 7.7 ng/mg level in hair. MALDI-FTICR-MSI demonstrated the drug distribution over the whole hair length with higher spatial resolution compared with the traditional LC-MS/MS method after scissor cutting. Greater caution is needed in the interpretation of a single hair result because of the considerable variations in the growth rate and sample collection. PMID:24906693

Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Shi, Yan; Pu, Hai; Yan, Hui; Shen, Baohua

2014-07-01

317

Live imaging of stem cell and progeny behaviour in physiological hair-follicle regeneration  

PubMed Central

Tissue development and regeneration depend on cell–cell interactions and signals that target stem cells and their immediate progeny1. However, the cellular behaviours that lead to a properly regenerated tissue are not well understood. Using a new, non-invasive, two-photon (intravital instead of two-photon?) imaging approach we study physiological hair-follicle regeneration in real time in live mice. By these means we have monitored the behaviour of epithelial stem cells and their progeny2–4 during physiological hair regeneration and addressed how the mesenchyme5 influences their behaviour. Consistent with earlier studies6, stem cells are quiescent during the initial stages of hair regeneration, whereas the progeny is more actively dividing. Moreover, stem cell progeny divisions are spatially organized within follicles. In addition to cell divisions, coordinated cell movements of the progeny allow the rapid expansion of the hair follicle. Finally, we show the requirement of the mesenchyme for hair regeneration through targeted cell ablation and long-term tracking of live hair follicles. Thus, we have established an in vivo approach that has led to the direct observation of cellular mechanisms of growth regulation within the hair follicle and that has enabled us to precisely investigate functional requirements of hair-follicle components during the process of physiological regeneration. PMID:22763436

Rompolas, Panteleimon; Deschene, Elizabeth R.; Zito, Giovanni; Gonzalez, David G.; Saotome, Ichiko; Haberman, Ann M.; Greco, Valentina

2013-01-01

318

Live imaging of stem cell and progeny behaviour in physiological hair-follicle regeneration.  

PubMed

Tissue development and regeneration depend on cell-cell interactions and signals that target stem cells and their immediate progeny. However, the cellular behaviours that lead to a properly regenerated tissue are not well understood. Using a new, non-invasive, intravital two-photon imaging approach we study physiological hair-follicle regeneration over time in live mice. By these means we have monitored the behaviour of epithelial stem cells and their progeny during physiological hair regeneration and addressed how the mesenchyme influences their behaviour. Consistent with earlier studies, stem cells are quiescent during the initial stages of hair regeneration, whereas the progeny are more actively dividing. Moreover, stem cell progeny divisions are spatially organized within follicles. In addition to cell divisions, coordinated cell movements of the progeny allow the rapid expansion of the hair follicle. Finally, we show the requirement of the mesenchyme for hair regeneration through targeted cell ablation and long-term tracking of live hair follicles. Thus, we have established an in vivo approach that has led to the direct observation of cellular mechanisms of growth regulation within the hair follicle and that has enabled us to precisely investigate functional requirements of hair-follicle components during the process of physiological regeneration. PMID:22763436

Rompolas, Panteleimon; Deschene, Elizabeth R; Zito, Giovanni; Gonzalez, David G; Saotome, Ichiko; Haberman, Ann M; Greco, Valentina

2012-07-26

319

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity in Bengalese finches.  

PubMed

Birds regenerate auditory hair cells when original hair cells are lost. Regenerated hair cells become innervated and restore hearing function. Functional recovery during hair cell regeneration is particularly interesting in animals that depend on hearing for vocal communication. Bengalese finches are songbirds that depend on auditory feedback for normal song learning and maintenance. We examined the structural and functional recovery of the Bengalese finch basilar papilla after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Birds were treated with the ototoxic aminoglycoside, amikacin, daily for 1 week. Treatment resulted in hair cell loss across the basal half of the basilar papilla and corresponding high frequency hearing loss. Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory brainstem responses were compared in the same animals. Survival times following treatment were between 1 day and 12 weeks. Analysis of structural recovery at weekly intervals indicated that hair cells in the Bengalese finch papilla require a maximum of 1 week to regenerate and appear with immature morphology at the epithelial surface. An additional 6 days are required for adult-like morphology to develop. Repopulation of the damaged region was complete by 8 weeks. Recovery of auditory thresholds began 1 week after treatment and reached asymptote by 4 weeks. Slight residual threshold shifts at 2.0 kHz and above were observed up to 12 weeks after treatment. Direct comparison of structural and functional recovery indicates that auditory thresholds recover maximally before a full complement of hair cells has regenerated. PMID:11223308

Woolley, S M; Wissman, A M; Rubel, E W

2001-03-01

320

Hair as a noninvasive tool for risk assessment: do the concentrations of cadmium and lead in the hair of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) reflect internal concentrations?  

PubMed

There is an increasing need for developing noninvasive markers of accumulation when studying the transfer of pollutants in wildlife, in response to problems caused by sacrifice of animals (disturbed population dynamics, respect of ethical protocols). Thus, the aim of this work was to determine whether trace metal (TM) concentrations in hair could be used as an accurate noninvasive estimator of internal and environmental concentrations. For that purpose, on a 40km² site surrounding an ancient smelter, 321 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were sampled on seven squares (500×500m) and 4 squares in fall 2010 and spring 2011, respectively. The relationships between the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations in hair and those in the liver, kidneys, and soils were described. The results indicated that hair concentration was a relatively good predictor of Pb concentrations in organs (p<0.001, 0.46hair concentrations in session 2010 (p<0.001, R²=0.10 for both organs), and no significant relationship was found in session 2011 (p=0.252 for liver and p=0.971 for kidneys). The Cd and Pb concentrations in the soil and in hair were not linearly related, but concentrations in hair increased with soil concentrations (Spearman's rank correlations). Linear relationships between internal and hair concentrations differed significantly between the sampling sessions, especially for Cd. When they were included in models analyzing the relationships between TM concentrations in organs and in hair, individual characteristics (gender and body mass as a non-lethal estimation of relative age) increased the explained variability of Cd in organs but not of Pb. In conclusion, hair should be used cautiously to predict internal Cd concentrations but can be considered as an accurate noninvasive estimator of internal Pb concentrations. Further studies should be performed to develop, generalize, and apply this useful possible tool for risk assessment in ecotoxicology. PMID:25090089

Tête, Nicolas; Afonso, Eve; Crini, Nadia; Drouhot, Séverine; Prudent, Anne-Sophie; Scheifler, Renaud

2014-10-01

321

Ethnic Variation in Vellus Hair Follicle Size and Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a given fact that hair follicles play an important role in the penetration process of topically applied drugs and cosmetics. Since exact knowledge of the potential follicular reservoir is essential for understanding and calculating the penetration process, this knowledge may indeed help to optimize the development of topically applied drugs and cosmetic products. We know that variability in

S. Mangelsdorf; N. Otberg; H. I. Maibach; R. Sinkgraven; W. Sterry; J. Lademann

2006-01-01

322

Array of biomimetic hair sensor dedicated for flow pattern recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow sensor arrays can be used to extract features from flow fields rather than averaging or providing local measurements provided the sensors in the array structure can be interrogated individually. This paper addresses the latest developments in fabrication and array interfacing of biomimetic artificial air-flow sensors. Hair flow sensors in wafer level arrays have been successfully fabricated using SOI wafers

Ahmad Dagamseh; Christiaan Bruinink; Marcel Kolster; Remco Wiegerink; Theo Lammerink; Gijs Krijnen

2010-01-01

323

Interfacing of artificial hairs array for complex flow pattern recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on the latest developments in characterising and interfacing biomimetic flow-sensor array based on the flow sensitive mechano-sensors of crickets. Capacitive hair sensors have been fabricated using a surface micromachining technology and implemented to detect air flows. We have realized readout electronics to detect the movements capacitively using electrodes integrated on the membrane. A charge amplifier,

A. M. K. Dagamseh; R. J. Wiegerink; T. S. J. Lammerink; G. J. M. Krijnen

2008-01-01

324

Detection of Human Papillomavirus Types 6 and 11 in Pubic and Perianal Hair from Patients with Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 are of clinical importance due to their role in the development of anogenital warts. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether DNAs from HPV types 6 and 11 are present in hairs plucked from the pubic and perianal regions and eyebrows of patients with genital warts at present and patients with a recent history of genital warts. Genital HPV DNA was detected in 9 of 25 (36%) pubic hair samples and in 11 of 22 (50%) perianal hair samples by the CPI/CPIIg PCR. After sequencing of 17 of 20 samples, HPV type 6 or 11 was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) hair samples from the pubis and 8 of 22 (36%) hair samples from the perianal region. These types were not detected in plucked eyebrow hairs. In contrast, the HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis were detected in similar proportions (62%) in both samples of pubic and eyebrow hairs. Moreover, HPV type 6 and 11 DNAs were detected in pubic hairs plucked from two patients who had been successfully treated and who did not show any lesion at the time of hair collection; this finding is an argument that HPV DNA may persist in this region. The presence of genital HPV types in plucked pubic and perianal hair suggests that there is an endogenous reservoir for HPV which may play a role in the recurrences of genital warts. PMID:10364596

Boxman, Ingeborg L. A.; Hogewoning, Arjan; Mulder, Linda H. C.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; ter Schegget, Jan

1999-01-01

325

Detection of human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 in pubic and perianal hair from patients with genital warts.  

PubMed

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 are of clinical importance due to their role in the development of anogenital warts. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether DNAs from HPV types 6 and 11 are present in hairs plucked from the pubic and perianal regions and eyebrows of patients with genital warts at present and patients with a recent history of genital warts. Genital HPV DNA was detected in 9 of 25 (36%) pubic hair samples and in 11 of 22 (50%) perianal hair samples by the CPI/CPIIg PCR. After sequencing of 17 of 20 samples, HPV type 6 or 11 was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) hair samples from the pubis and 8 of 22 (36%) hair samples from the perianal region. These types were not detected in plucked eyebrow hairs. In contrast, the HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis were detected in similar proportions (62%) in both samples of pubic and eyebrow hairs. Moreover, HPV type 6 and 11 DNAs were detected in pubic hairs plucked from two patients who had been successfully treated and who did not show any lesion at the time of hair collection; this finding is an argument that HPV DNA may persist in this region. The presence of genital HPV types in plucked pubic and perianal hair suggests that there is an endogenous reservoir for HPV which may play a role in the recurrences of genital warts. PMID:10364596

Boxman, I L; Hogewoning, A; Mulder, L H; Bouwes Bavinck, J N; ter Schegget, J

1999-07-01

326

Endoplasmic Microtubules Configure the Subapical Cytoplasm and Are Required for Fast Growth of Medicago truncatula Root Hairs1  

PubMed Central

To investigate the configuration and function of microtubules (MTs) in tip-growing Medicago truncatula root hairs, we used immunocytochemistry or in vivo decoration by a GFP linked to a MT-binding domain. The two approaches gave similar results and allowed the study of MTs during hair development. Cortical MTs (CMTs) are present in all developmental stages. During the transition from bulge to a tip-growing root hair, endoplasmic MTs (EMTs) appear at the tip of the young hair and remain there until growth arrest. EMTs are a specific feature of tip-growing hairs, forming a three-dimensional array throughout the subapical cytoplasmic dense region. During growth arrest, EMTs, together with the subapical cytoplasmic dense region, progressively disappear, whereas CMTs extend further toward the tip. In full-grown root hairs, CMTs, the only remaining population of MTs, converge at the tip and their density decreases over time. Upon treatment of growing hairs with 1 ?m oryzalin, EMTs disappear, but CMTs remain present. The subapical cytoplasmic dense region becomes very short, the distance nucleus tip increases, growth slows down, and the nucleus still follows the advancing tip, though at a much larger distance. Taxol has no effect on the cytoarchitecture of growing hairs; the subapical cytoplasmic dense region remains intact, the nucleus keeps its distance from the tip, but growth rate drops to the same extent as in hairs treated with 1 ?m oryzalin. The role of EMTs in growing root hairs is discussed. PMID:12376661

Sieberer, Bjorn J.; Timmers, Antonius C.J.; Lhuissier, Franck G.P.; Emons, Anne Mie C.

2002-01-01

327

Determination of opiates in human fingernail--comparison to hair.  

PubMed

6-Monoacetylmorphine in keratinized matrices can be used to discriminate between heroin users and individuals exposed to other sources of morphine alkaloids. Frozen pulverization is effective in preventing 6-monoacetylmorphine hydrolysis. The main aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of five opiates in human fingernails using a frozen pulverization preparation method and to investigate the correlation between the concentration of opiates in nail and hair samples from subjects whose urine specimens were positive for morphine. Borate buffer (500 ?L; pH 9.2) was added to 20mg of pulverized fingernail, followed by ultrasonication and liquid-liquid extraction. Analytes were analyzed on an Allure PFP propyl column by gradient elution. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode and multiple reactions monitoring mode. A total of 12 of 18 fingernail samples contained detectable 6-monoacetylmorphine (mean=0.43 ng/mg, range=0.10-1.37 ng/mg), morphine (mean=1.74 ng/mg, range=0.58-3.16 ng/mg) and codeine (range from hair samples obtained from the same subjects were positive at the revised Society of Hair Testing cutoff level of 0.2 ng/mg. The concentrations of 6-monoacetylmorphine, acetylcodeine and codeine in hair were significantly higher than those in nails. However, the concentration of MOR in nails was significantly higher than that in hair, except for one sample. All of the ratios of 6-MAM/MOR were below 0.57. It is proposed that nails may be an alternative to hair for documenting heroin abuse. PMID:25086417

Shen, Min; Chen, Hang; Xiang, Ping

2014-09-15

328

Usher protein functions in hair cells and photoreceptors.  

PubMed

The 10 different genes associated with the deaf/blind disorder, Usher syndrome, encode a number of structurally and functionally distinct proteins, most expressed as multiple isoforms/protein variants. Functional characterization of these proteins suggests a role in stereocilia development in cochlear hair cells, likely owing to adhesive interactions in hair bundles. In mature hair cells, homodimers of the Usher cadherins, cadherin 23 and protocadherin 15, interact to form a structural fiber, the tip link, and the linkages that anchor the taller stereocilia's actin cytoskeleton core to the shorter adjacent stereocilia and the elusive mechanotransduction channels, explaining the deafness phenotype when these molecular interactions are perturbed. The conundrum is that photoreceptors lack a synonymous mechanotransduction apparatus, and so a common theory for Usher protein function in the two neurosensory cell types affected in Usher syndrome is lacking. Recent evidence linking photoreceptor cell dysfunction in the shaker 1 mouse model for Usher syndrome to light-induced protein translocation defects, combined with localization of an Usher protein interactome at the periciliary region of the photoreceptors suggests Usher proteins might regulate protein trafficking between the inner and outer segments of photoreceptors. A distinct Usher protein complex is trafficked to the ribbon synapses of hair cells, and synaptic defects have been reported in Usher mutants in both hair cells and photoreceptors. This review aims to clarify what is known about Usher protein function at the synaptic and apical poles of hair cells and photoreceptors and the prospects for identifying a unifying pathobiological mechanism to explain deaf/blindness in Usher syndrome. PMID:24239741

Cosgrove, Dominic; Zallocchi, Marisa

2014-01-01

329

Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.  

PubMed

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-01-01

330

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

331

Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts  

PubMed Central

In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA) increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line.

He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

2014-01-01

332

Characterization of hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes provides insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans  

PubMed Central

Background Hair is one of the main distinguishing characteristics of mammals and it has many important biological functions. Cetaceans originated from terrestrial mammals and they have evolved a series of adaptations to aquatic environments, which are of evolutionary significance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their aquatic adaptations have not been well explored. This study provided insights into the evolution of hair loss during the transition from land to water by investigating and comparing two essential regulators of hair follicle development and hair follicle cycling, i.e., the Hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes, in representative cetaceans and their terrestrial relatives. Results The full open reading frame sequences of the Hr and FGF5 genes were characterized in seven cetaceans. The sequence characteristics and evolutionary analyses suggested the functional loss of the Hr gene in cetaceans, which supports the loss of hair during their full adaptation to aquatic habitats. By contrast, positive selection for the FGF5 gene was found in cetaceans where a series of positively selected amino acid residues were identified. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the molecular basis of the hair loss in cetaceans. Our investigation of Hr and FGF5, two indispensable regulators of the hair cycle, provide some new insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans. The results suggest that positive selection for the FGF5 gene might have promoted the termination of hair growth and early entry into the catagen stage of hair follicle cycling. Consequently, the hair follicle cycle was disrupted and the hair was lost completely due to the loss of the Hr gene function in cetaceans. This suggests that cetaceans have evolved an effective and complex mechanism for hair loss. PMID:23394579

2013-01-01

333

Quo vadis, hair cell regeneration?  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is a global health problem with profound socioeconomic impact. We contend that acquired hearing loss is mainly a modern disorder caused by man-made noise and modern drugs, among other causes. These factors, combined with increasing lifespan, have exposed a deficit in cochlear self-regeneration that was irrelevant for most of mammalian evolution. Nevertheless, the mammalian cochlea has evolved from phylogenetically older structures, which do have the capacity for self-repair. Moreover, nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate auditory hair cells that restore sensory function. We will offer a critical perspective on recent advances in stem cell biology, gene therapy, cell cycle regulation and pharmacotherapeutics to define and validate regenerative medical interventions for mammalian hair cell loss. Although these advances are promising, we are only beginning to fully appreciate the complexity of the many challenges that lie ahead. PMID:19471265

Brigande, John V; Heller, Stefan

2010-01-01

334

Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair: a new syndrome?  

PubMed

We present three children with short stature, the same facial phenotype, macrocephaly, enlarged cerebral spinal fluid spaces, short neck with redundant skin, severe GH deficiency, mild psychomotor delay with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mild dilatation of the pulmonary root in two of them, and a unique combination of ectodermal abnormalities. Their appearance, not completely typical of Noonan syndrome, the behavioral phenotype, GH deficiency, darkly pigmented and hairless skin, and the unusual aspect of the hair, defined as loose anagen hair syndrome did not fit any known condition. We postulate that these children may represent a distinct, previously unreported syndrome that we would name "Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair". PMID:12673660

Mazzanti, Laura; Cacciari, Emanuele; Cicognani, Alessandro; Bergamaschi, Rosalba; Scarano, Emanuela; Forabosco, Antonino

2003-04-30

335

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome with low expression of TRPS1 on epidermal and hair follicle epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is an autosomal-dominant congenital hair loss disease characterized by sparse and slow-growing scalp hair, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, pear-shaped nose, thin upper lip, brittle and thin toenails, and bilateral brachydactyly of the big toes. We report a case of TRPS1 exhibiting these clinical features with a novel heterozygous single nucleotide substitution in exon 3 of the TRPS1 gene. By immunohistochemical analysis of a biopsied specimen of the patient's alopecia lesion, we found for the first time that the expression level of TRPS1 was markedly reduced in the epidermis and the outer root sheath of hair follicles as compared to a normal subject. In addition, higher expression of phospho-Stat3 was found consequent to the loss of TRPS1 in the outer root sheath. PMID:23451857

Ito, Taisuke; Shimomura, Yutaka; Farooq, Muhammad; Suzuki, Noriko; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

2013-05-01

336

N-Myc and L-Myc are Essential for Hair Cell Formation but not Maintenance  

PubMed Central

Sensorineural hearing loss results from damage to the hair cells of the organ of Corti and is irreversible in mammals. While hair cell regeneration may prove to be the ideal therapy after hearing loss, prevention of initial hair cell loss could provide even more benefit at a lower cost. Previous studies have shown that the deletion of Atoh1 results in embryonic loss of hair cells while the absence of Barhl1, Gfi1, and Pou4f3 leads to the progressive loss of hair cells in newborn mice. We recently reported that in the early embryonic absence of N-Myc (using Pax2-Cre), hair cells in the organ of Corti develop and remain until at least seven days after birth, with subsequent progressive loss. Thus, N-Myc plays a role in hair cell viability; however, it is unclear if this is due to its early expression in hair cell precursors and throughout the growing otocyst as it functions through proliferation or its late expression exclusively in differentiated hair cells. Furthermore, the related family member L-Myc is mostly co-expressed in the ear, including in differentiated hair cells, but its function has not been studied and could be partially redundant to N-Myc. To test for a long-term function of the Mycs in differentiated hair cells, we generated nine unique genotypes knocking out N-Myc and/or L-Myc after initial formation of hair cells using the well-characterized Atoh1-Cre. We tested functionality of the auditory and vestibular systems at both P21 and four months of age and under the administration of the ototoxic drug cisplatin. We conclude that neither N-Myc nor L-Myc is likely to play important roles in long-term hair cell maintenance. Therefore, it is likely that the late-onset loss of hair cells resulting from early deletion of the Mycs leads to an unsustainable developmental defect. PMID:23022312

Kopecky, Benjamin; DeCook, Rhonda; Fritzsch, Bernd

2012-01-01

337

Abnormal peripubertal development of the rat mammary gland following exposure in utero and during lactation to a mixture of genistein and the food contaminant vinclozolin.  

PubMed

The impact of early exposure to endocrine disruptor mixtures on mammary gland development is poorly known. Here, we identify the effects of a conception to weaning exposure of rats to the phytoestrogen genistein (G) and/or the antiandrogen vinclozolin (V) at 1mg/kg-d, alone or in association. Using several approaches, we found that G- and GV-exposed rats displayed significantly greater epithelial branching and proliferation, wider terminal end buds than controls at PND35, as well as ductal hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis. Focal branching defects were present in V-exposed rats. An increased ER and AR expression was observed in G- and GV- as compared to V-exposed rats at PND35. Surprisingly, a significant number of GV- and to a lesser extent, V-exposed animals displayed abnormal hyperplasic alveolar structures at PND50. Thus, gestational and lactational exposure to low doses of genistein plus vinclozolin may seriously affect peripubertal development of the rat mammary gland. PMID:21539910

El Sheikh Saad, H; Meduri, G; Phrakonkham, P; Bergès, R; Vacher, S; Djallali, M; Auger, J; Canivenc-Lavier, M C; Perrot-Applanat, M

2011-07-01

338

AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-Binding Domain Deficient Mice Develop Normally but Have an Abnormal Response to ?-Adrenergic-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

Background A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA) and D (PKD) and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction. Conclusions These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23658642

Spindler, Matthew J.; Burmeister, Brian T.; Huang, Yu; Hsiao, Edward C.; Salomonis, Nathan; Scott, Mark J.; Srivastava, Deepak; Carnegie, Graeme K.; Conklin, Bruce R.

2013-01-01

339

Spontaneous hair cell regeneration in the mouse utricle following gentamicin ototoxicity  

PubMed Central

Whereas most epithelial tissues turn-over and regenerate after a traumatic lesion, this restorative ability is diminished in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear; it is absent in the cochlea and exists only in a limited capacity in the vestibular epithelium. The extent of regeneration in vestibular hair cells has been characterized for several mammalian species including guinea pig, rat, and chinchilla, but not yet in mouse. As the fundamental model species for investigating hereditary disease, the mouse can be studied using a wide variety of genetic and molecular tools. To design a mouse model for vestibular hair cell regeneration research, an aminoglycoside-induced method of complete hair cell elimination was developed in our lab and applied to the murine utricle. Loss of utricular hair cells was observed using scanning electron microscopy, and corroborated by a loss of fluorescent signal in utricles from transgenic mice with GFP-positive hair cells. Regenerative capability was characterized at several time points up to six months following insult. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed that as early as two weeks after insult, a few immature hair cells, demonstrating the characteristic immature morphology indicative of regeneration, could be seen in the utricle. As time progressed, larger numbers of immature hair cells could be seen along with some mature cells resembling surface morphology of type II hair cells. By six months post-lesion, numerous regenerated hair cells were present in the utricle, however, neither their number nor their appearance was normal. A BrdU assay suggested that at least some of the regeneration of mouse vestibular hair cells involved mitosis. Our results demonstrate that the vestibular sensory epithelium in mice can spontaneously regenerate, elucidate the time course of this process, and identify involvement of mitosis in some cases. These data establish a road map of the murine vestibular regenerative process, which can be used for elucidating the molecular events that govern this process. PMID:18809482

Kawamoto, Kohei; Izumikawa, Masahiko; Beyer, Lisa A.; Atkin, Graham M.; Raphael, Yehoash

2010-01-01

340

Induction of the hair growth phase in postnatal mice by localized transient expression of Sonic hedgehog.  

PubMed

Hair follicles form in prenatal skin and mature in the postnatal period, establishing a growth cycle in 3 phases: telogen (resting), anagen (growth), and catagen (regression). Based on the knowledge that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression is necessary for the embryonic development of hair follicles, and that anagen in the postnatal cycling follicle has morphologic similarities to the epithelial invagination process in embryonic skin, we hypothesized that localized, but transient, enhanced expression of the Shh gene in postnatal skin would accelerate initiation of anagen in the hair follicle cycle, with concomitant accelerated hair growth. To assess this concept, an E1(-) adenovirus vector, AdShh, was used to transfer the murine Shh cDNA to skin of postnatal day 19 C57BL/6 mice. The treated skin showed increased mRNA expression of Shh, Patched (the Shh receptor), and Gli1 (a transcription factor in the Shh pathway). In mice receiving AdShh, but not in controls, acceleration into anagen was evident, since hair follicle size and melanogenesis increased and the hair-specific keratin ghHb-1 and the melanin synthesis-related tyrosinase mRNAs accumulated. Finally, C57BL/6 mice showed marked acceleration of the onset of new hair growth in the region of AdShh administration to skin 2 weeks after treatment, but not in control vector-treated or untreated areas. After 6 months, AdShh-treated skin showed normal hair and normal skin morphology. Together, these observations are consistent with the concept that upregulation of Shh activity in postnatal skin functions as a biologic switch that induces resting hair follicles to enter anagen with consequent hair growth. PMID:10510326

Sato, N; Leopold, P L; Crystal, R G

1999-10-01

341

Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

Andreas Schedl

2007-01-01

342

Active Hair-Bundle Motility of the Hair Cells of Vestibular and Auditory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair bundle is the mechanosensitive organelle that protrudes from the hair cell’s apical surface. Sound in hearing organs, head acceleration in vestibular organs and water flow in the lateral line of fish and amphibians ultimately evoke hair-bundle deflections, to which the hair cell responds by generating an electrical signal. Mechanical-to-electrical transduction, a process that is fast enough to enable

Pascal Martin

343

Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

2005-07-01

344

Generalized hair casts due to traction.  

PubMed

Peripilar keratin casts, also called pseudonits or hair casts, are thin, elongated, greyish-white, cylindrical, sleeve-like structures that encircle the hair shaft and can easily be slid along the hair. They may be clinically misdiagnosed as nits. In addition to physical removal, keratolytic lotions or shampoos are helpful. We report an 11-year-old girl with pseudonits. Although it is not a rare condition, underdiagnosis is common. PMID:23909653

Ozuguz, Pinar; Kacar, Seval; Takci, Zennure; Ekiz, Ozlem; Kalkan, Goknur; Bulbul Sen, Bilge

2013-01-01

345

Estimate of the melanin content in human hairs by the inverse Monte-Carlo method using a system for digital image analysis  

SciTech Connect

Based on the digital image analysis and inverse Monte-Carlo method, the proximate analysis method is deve-loped and the optical properties of hairs of different types are estimated in three spectral ranges corresponding to three colour components. The scattering and absorption properties of hairs are separated for the first time by using the inverse Monte-Carlo method. The content of different types of melanin in hairs is estimated from the absorption coefficient. It is shown that the dominating type of melanin in dark hairs is eumelanin, whereas in light hairs pheomelanin dominates. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)

Bashkatov, A N; Genina, Elina A; Kochubei, V I; Tuchin, Valerii V [Department of Optics and Biomedical Physics, N.G.Chernyshevskii Saratov State University (Russian Federation)

2006-12-31

346

The normal trichogram of pubic hair.  

PubMed

The parameters of the trichogram of the pubic hair were studied with a previously described technique. Measurements were made on males and on non-pregnant, pregnant and post-partum females. In males and non-pregnant females denisty and rate of growth steadily decrease with age. There was a higher percentage of telogens in women. Hair thickness was not modified. The most important findings are related to pregnancy and post-partum which did not induce any change in the parameters of the trichogram of the public area. These findings indicate a behaviour of the pubic hair different from the scalp and axillary hair. PMID:508610

Astore, I P; Pecoraro, V; Pecoraro, E G

1979-10-01

347

Heterozygous Mutation of Drosophila Opa1 Causes the Development of Multiple Organ Abnormalities in an Age-Dependent and Organ-Specific Manner  

E-print Network

mutation resulted in abnormal electroretino- grams (ERG) in an age-mutation of dOpa1 resulted in perturbed ERG profiles in an age-mutation causes a progressive reduction in on-transient amplitudes in an age-

2009-01-01

348

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HAIRS FROM PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF HAIR DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following mechanical properties of hair have been studied: tensile strength, strain at break, and elastic modulus. The determinations were made at constant temperature and humidity on fifty separate hairs from each patient. The mechanical properties of the fibrous material were similar for thick and thin hair. The elastic modulus and tensile strength showed a good correlation. Five patients with

Gunnar Swanbeck; Jan Nyren; Lennart Juhlin

1970-01-01

349

Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells in the sacculus  

E-print Network

transduction by the inner ear. We present evidence for a single-cell correlate of this phenomenon, hair-bundleHair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells treatments allow us to distinguish two mechanisms that mediate the electrical responses: myosin-based

Hudspeth, A. James

350

Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato

1995-01-01

351

Disrupted ERK signaling during cortical development leads to abnormal progenitor proliferation, neuronal and network excitability and behavior, modeling human neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous and related syndromes.  

PubMed

Genetic disorders arising from copy number variations in the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases or mutations in their upstream regulators that result in neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous syndromes are associated with developmental abnormalities, cognitive deficits, and autism. We developed murine models of these disorders by deleting the ERKs at the beginning of neurogenesis and report disrupted cortical progenitor generation and proliferation, which leads to altered cytoarchitecture of the postnatal brain in a gene-dose-dependent manner. We show that these changes are due to ERK-dependent dysregulation of cyclin D1 and p27(Kip1), resulting in cell cycle elongation, favoring neurogenic over self-renewing divisions. The precocious neurogenesis causes premature progenitor pool depletion, altering the number and distribution of pyramidal neurons. Importantly, loss of ERK2 alters the intrinsic excitability of cortical neurons and contributes to perturbations in global network activity. These changes are associated with elevated anxiety and impaired working and hippocampal-dependent memory in these mice. This study provides a novel mechanistic insight into the basis of cortical malformation which may provide a potential link to cognitive deficits in individuals with altered ERK activity. PMID:22723706

Pucilowska, Joanna; Puzerey, Pavel A; Karlo, J Colleen; Galán, Roberto F; Landreth, Gary E

2012-06-20

352

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions may involve: When the abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history Exposure to fluoride Oral care habits Other symptoms ...

353

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

354

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants,...

2011-04-01

355

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair...

2010-04-01

356

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

...polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are surgically removed from one location on the person's...

2014-04-01

357

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are surgically removed from one location on the person's...

2013-04-01

358

Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells  

E-print Network

Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

Bramhall, Naomi F

2012-01-01

359

Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and

Sven Hartwig; Volker Auwärter; Fritz Pragst

2003-01-01

360

Hair: what is new in diagnosis and management? Female pattern hair loss update: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women. FPHL is characterized histologically with increased numbers of miniaturized, velluslike hair follicles. The goal of treatment of FPHL is to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate hair regrowth. The treatments for FPHL can be divided into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent. There is an important adjuvant role for nutritional supplements, light therapy, and hair transplants. All treatments work best when initiated early. Combinations of treatments tend to be more efficacious. PMID:23159181

Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Bergfeld, Wilma F

2013-01-01

361

Hair bleaching and skin burning  

PubMed Central

Summary Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754

Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

2012-01-01

362

Discovery of syn-/anti-cocaine-N-oxide diastereomers in unwashed postmortem hair via LC-MS-MS.  

PubMed

The discovery of two cocaine-N-oxide (CNO) diastereomers, syn- and anti-CNO, is reported for the first time. Prior to this study, only one structural form of CNO was known to exist and has not been analyzed in hair before. CNO is a metabolite of cocaine (COC) and may be considered as an additional biomarker of COC use, along with other known COC metabolites. The analysis of COC in hair for forensic applications is under scrutiny due to the possibility of external contamination. A qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, validated and applied to unwashed postmortem hair samples from drug users. The limit of detection in hair was 8 pg/mg (using 10 mg of unwashed hair) for each CNO diastereomer. The presence of both syn- and anti-forms of CNO was verified in vivo using hair samples collected from known COC-using individuals. Due to the low levels of CNO, it will not always be detectable in COC user hair. In the hair samples analyzed, syn-CNO was detected in more samples than anti-CNO. The stereoselective N-oxidation of COC which favors syn-CNO could have a diagnostic value for COC ingestion determination in hair analysis. PMID:24782141

Marsh, Christine M; Crawley, Lindsey R; Himes, Sarah K; Aranda, Roman; Miller, Mark L

2014-01-01

363

Root Hair Initiation Is Coupled to a Highly Localized Increase of Xyloglucan Endotransglycosylase Action in Arabidopsis Roots1  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are formed by two separate processes: initiation and subsequent tip growth. Root hair initiation is always accompanied by a highly localized increase in xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) action at the site of future bulge formation, where the trichoblast locally loosens its cell wall. This suggests an important role of XET in the first stages of root hair initiation. The tip of growing root hairs is not marked by localized high XET action. Experiments in which root hair initiation was modulated and observations on root hair mutants support this view. The ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid shifts both root hair initiation and the local increase in XET action toward the root tip. On the other hand, roots treated with the ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine, as well as roots of mutants affected in root hair initiation (rhl1, rhd6-1, and axr2-1) revealed no localized increases of XET action at all and consequently did not initiate root hairs. Disruption of actin and microtubules did not prevent the localized increase in XET action. Also, the temporal and spatial pattern of action as the specific pH dependence suggest that different isoforms of XET act in different processes of root development. PMID:11706192

Vissenberg, Kris; Fry, Stephen C.; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre

2001-01-01

364

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity in Bengalese nches  

E-print Network

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity Birds regenerate auditory hair cells when original hair cells are lost. Regenerated hair cells become innervated and restore hearing function. Functional recovery during hair cell regeneration is particularly

Rubel, Edwin

365

Hair braiding method to prevent hair from entering the operating field on the scalp.  

PubMed

In scalp and cranial surgeries, it had been conventional to shave hair for surgical manipulations and prevention of infection. In recent years, it has been conventional to perform surgeries with minimal hair shaving. Such a method has been found to have a low risk of infection, and it takes into account esthetic considerations for patients. However, since long hair can become a hindrance to surgery, it is essential to preoperatively manage such hair and maintain a clear operating field. In this study, we braided patients' long hair to obtain a good operating field during scalp or cranial surgery. The advantages of our method are that it can be performed easily in a short period of time, does not require special instruments, and does not damage hair because rubber bands are used minimally. It is a useful method that minimizes shaving of long-haired patients for surgeries of the head and reduces cumbersome steps. PMID:23714960

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Kaneshige

2013-05-01

366

An artist friendly hair shading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rendering hair in motion pictures is an important and challenging task. Despite much research on physically based hair rendering, it is currently difficult to benefit from this work because physically based shading models do not offer artist friendly controls. As a consequence much production work so far has used ad hoc shaders that are easier to control, but often lack

Iman Sadeghi; Heather Pritchett; Henrik Wann Jensen; Rasmus Tamstorf

2010-01-01

367

Photoageing of Hair Fiber and Photoprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination by transmission electron microscopy of hair exposed to sunlight has revealed important damage. Findings indicate an alteration of various cell components. Damage occurs in the cuticle and leads to its loss. Separation of macro-fibrils and destruction of melanin pigments result in cortex damage. Some of the chemical and physical changes which occur in hair exposed to sunlight were studied:

Damarys Braida; Claude Dubief; Gérard Lang

1994-01-01

368

Hair tourniquet syndrome in the dental patient.  

PubMed

Hair tourniquet syndrome is a condition where a hair becomes entangled around an appendage. In some cases a knot will form and the resulting tightened noose will slowly strangulate the appendage. Rarely, this condition will affect the oral cavity, but even more rarely, this condition will affect a dental structure. PMID:25191985

Flores, Jason R

2014-01-01

369

Cochlear implantation: Minimal hair removal technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and patient acceptance of minimal hair removal during cochlear implantation. Forty-six consecutive patients (17 adults, 29 children; age range 13 months to 84 years) received cochlear implantation with a minimal hair removal technique. A questionnaire was used to evaluate acceptance and value of this technique among the first 15 patients and

JOSEPH B. ROBERSON; KATRINA R. STIDHAM; KENNETH M. SCOTT; LISA TONOKAWA

2000-01-01

370

The Value of Hair Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

As early as can be traced, written documents testify endeavors shown by humanity to please by means of the hair. Hair care, color and style play an important role in people’s physical appearance and self-perception. Dermatologists should be knowledgeable about the procedures people follow to look their best and should have the competence to provide patients with information on the

R. M. Trüeb

2001-01-01

371

Fouriertransform Raman spectroscopic study of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier-transform Raman microscopic spectra of normal, untreated and bleached hair fibres are presented. Vibrational assignments are made and differences are ascribed to the production of cysteic acid from cysteine. Changes in conformation associated with the disulphide bond in the keratotic component are noted from the ?(CSSC) vibrational modes at wave numbers near 500 cm?1. Raman spectra of hair root ends

W. Akhtar; H. G. M. Edwards; D. W. Farwell; M. Nutbrown

1997-01-01

372

The characterisation of treated and dyed hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have been undertaken to evaluate some of the factors that influence the dyeing of hair with dyes from the Arianor series. Dyed, bleached and untreated hair was examined by differential thermal analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and surface potential assessment. It has been found that marked changes in surface potentials arise on relatively mild treatment of

J. T. Guthrie; A. Kazlauciunas; L. Rongong; S. Rush

1995-01-01

373

Hair testing and doping control in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard in drug testing for doping control is gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry conducted on a urine sample. For the past 20 years, hair analysis has been proposed for identifying drug abusers in forensic science. Specimens can be collected under close supervision without embarrassment and are not subject to evasive maneuvers. In contrast with urine, hair analysis has a wide window

Pascal Kintz

1998-01-01

374

Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods A total of 44 female subjects were randomly treated with either APHG-1001 or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. Using the phototrichogram analysis, a count of newly developed gray hair was estimated. Investigator assessment and subject self-assessment were also performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the compound. Results The mean number of newly developed gray hair at 24 weeks was 6.3/cm2 in the APHG-1001 group and 11.4/cm2 in the placebo group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, the investigator assessment and subject self-assessment did not show any significant change in the gross appearance of hair grayness by the end of the study. No severe adverse events in either group were observed. Moreover, the incidence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. Conclusion This clinical trial revealed that APHG-1001, which contains an extract of P. lobata, could prevent the development of new gray hair without any remarkable adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a viable treatment option for the prevention of gray hair. PMID:23717015

Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na

2013-01-01

375

Is one hair lock really representative?  

PubMed

When investigating someone's hair a single lock is cut, washed, extracted and analysed. The forensic institutes in Switzerland agreed to retain a second lock for a possible reassessment. We were interested in the reproducibility of the concentrations of analytes in hair locks taken from different areas of the head of the same person covering the same time period. Therefore we analysed ethyl glucuronide and caffeine as model substances in 10 hair locks from three individuals categorised as social drinkers. The individual coefficients of variation varied between 14% and 28% for ethyl glucuronide and between 13% and 62% for caffeine corresponding to factors of 1.6 to 4.2 for the highest to the lowest concentrations between the hair locks. This finding has a significant importance both when the second hair lock has to be analysed in a forensic case and if the interpretation of the result is depending on a cut-off value. PMID:24817042

Dussy, Franz; Carson, Nicholas; Hangartner, Sarah; Briellmann, Thomas

2014-06-01

376

Studies on abnormal moulting in the farm-raised blue fox (Alopex lagopus).  

PubMed

In a farm-raised, adult female blue fox (Alopex lagopus) it was observed that apparently the winter coat was shed abnormally. Furthermore, the individual was never recorded as being on heat. Comparative histological and clinical-chemical examinations showed that the winter coat cycle was postponed approximately 6 months, and that the hair growth therefore took place in the spring. At first a kind of biological summer coat was produced, and then a biological mature winter coat. This was compared with and partly documented by changes in plasma estradiol and cortisol profiles. It could be concluded that the hair growth cycle and the plasma estradiol profile showed an abnormal seasonal variation in the abnormal fox. The two variables seemed, however, to be correlated as in a normal animal. PMID:1455916

Rasmussen, P V; Damgaard, B M

1992-09-01

377

Hair-based sensors for micro-autonomous systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We seek to harness microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies to build biomimetic devices for low-power, high-performance, robust sensors and actuators on micro-autonomous robot platforms. Hair is used abundantly in nature for a variety of functions including balance and inertial sensing, flow sensing and aerodynamic (air foil) control, tactile and touch sensing, insulation and temperature control, particle filtering, and gas/chemical sensing. Biological hairs, which are typically characterized by large surface/volume ratios and mechanical amplification of movement, can be distributed in large numbers over large areas providing unprecedented sensitivity, redundancy, and stability (robustness). Local neural transduction allows for space- and power-efficient signal processing. Moreover by varying the hair structure and transduction mechanism, the basic hair form can be used for a wide diversity of functions. In this paper, by exploiting a novel wafer-level, bubble-free liquid encapsulation technology, we make arrays of micro-hydraulic cells capable of electrostatic actuation and hydraulic amplification, which enables high force/high deflection actuation and extremely sensitive detection (sensing) at low power. By attachment of cilia (hair) to the micro-hydraulic cell, air flow sensors with excellent sensitivity (< few cm/s) and dynamic range (> 10 m/s) have been built. A second-generation design has significantly reduced the sensor response time while maintaining sensitivity of about 2 cm/s and dynamic range of more than 15 m/s. These sensors can be used for dynamic flight control of flying robots or for situational awareness in surveillance applications. The core biomimetic technologies developed are applicable to a broad range of sensors and actuators.

Sadeghi, Mahdi M.; Peterson, Rebecca L.; Najafi, Khalil

2012-06-01

378

Intraindividual stability of hair cortisol concentrations.  

PubMed

The analysis of cortisol in human hair constitutes a promising method for the retrospective assessment of cumulative cortisol secretion over extended periods of time. An implicit assumption underlying the use of this method is that in the absence of major life changes hair cortisol concentrations show a high level of intraindividual stability, i.e. single hair cortisol assessments exhibit considerable trait-specificity and are only to a smaller extent influenced by state-dependent factors. Here, we present data from two independent studies examining patterns of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels. In study I, 45 participants were examined at two sampling points carried out one year apart from each other. In study II, 64 individuals provided data at three sampling points which occurred at two-month intervals. In both studies, at each time point hair was sampled and relevant psychosocial and hair-related variables were assessed. Results of both studies consistently revealed strong test-retest associations for repeated hair cortisol measurements ('r's between 0.68 and 0.79, 'p's <0.0001). Findings of structural equation modelling applied to data of study II showed that single hair cortisol assessments comprise a strong trait component, explaining between 59 and 82% of variance, and are only to a lesser extent influenced by state-related factors. Only inconsistent evidence for covariation of changes in hair cortisol concentrations and simultaneous changes in perceived stress or other relevant variables was seen across the two studies. The current findings suggest a considerable degree of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels which highlights the utility of this method for obtaining trait estimates of long-term cortisol secretion in psychoneuroendocrinological research. PMID:21917384

Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Miller, Robert; Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2012-05-01

379

What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?  

PubMed Central

The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

2012-01-01

380

Disappearance of 6-acetylmorphine, morphine and codeine from human scalp hair after discontinuation of opiate abuse.  

PubMed

Opiates continue to be used at high rates in East and Southeast Asia. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse has been developed into a powerful and widely used tool in forensic and clinical toxicology. Specifically, testing the proximal segment of scalp hair to confirm morphine (MOR) positive urine samples could solve the poppy seed problem. Human scalp hair grows approximately 1cm per month and can therefore reflect a retrospective timeline of drug exposure. This study is the first to investigate the disappearance of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), MOR and codeine (COD) from human scalp hair after the discontinuation of drug use. Thirty-two healthy women (ages 21-51 years) with a known history of heroin abuse, who went to a rehabilitation centre and ceased consuming heroin (for 4-5 months), were recruited into the study. A pharmacokinetic analysis in seven individual hair segments was performed using a first-order kinetic. Assuming a rate of hair growth of 1cm/month, the mean hair elimination half-lives of 6-AM, MOR and COD were 0.88 months (95% CI, 0.74-1.03), 0.73 months (95% CI, 0.64-0.81), and 0.61 months (95% CI, 0.54-0.69), respectively. Our results suggest that to evaluate the discontinuation of opiate abuse after a 6-month period of abstinence, the results from a 3-cm proximal hair segment should be free of 6-AM at the proposed 0.2 ng/mg cutoff level. This finding should become the basis for the interpretation of results from segmental hair analyses in the evaluation of drug abstinence. PMID:23165127

Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Sun, Yingying; Shen, Baohua

2013-04-10

381

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

382

A 5YearOld Boy with Cryptorchidism and Pubic Hair: Investigation and Management of Apparent Male Disorders of Sex Development in Mid-Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Late presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a 46,XX disorder of sex development due to 11-? hydroxylase deficiency is uncommon. Such a case raises issues regarding appropriate investigation and management. Case History: A 5-year-old boy who had recently moved to the United Kingdom presented at the endocrinology clinic with recurrent abdominal pain. He was normotensive and had a history

L. S. Keir; S. O’Toole; A. L. Robertson; A. M. Wallace; S. F. Ahmed

2009-01-01

383

Simultaneous Determination of Nalbuphine and Opiates in Human Hair by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method for simultaneous determination of nalbuphine and opiates (codeine, morphine, and 6-monoacetylmorphine) in human hair was developed in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Thirty-milligram hair samples were incubated in 0.01 M HCl overnight at 50 °C. We extracted the drugs from resulting hydrolyzed solutions with a mixture of chloroform-isopropanol- n-heptane (50:17:33, v\\/ v\\/

Jin Young Kim; Moon Kyo In; Ki-Jung Paeng; Bong Chul Chung

2004-01-01

384

Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

2007-01-01

385

iRootHair: A Comprehensive Root Hair Genomics Database1[W  

PubMed Central

The specialized root epidermis cells of higher plants produce long, tubular outgrowths called root hairs. Root hairs play an important role in nutrient and water uptake, and they serve as a valuable model in studies of plant cell morphogenesis. More than 1,300 articles that describe the biological processes of these unique cells have been published to date. As new fields of root hair research are emerging, the number of new papers published each year and the volumes of new relevant data are continuously increasing. Therefore, there is a general need to facilitate studies on root hair biology by collecting, presenting, and sharing the available information in a systematic, curated manner. Consequently, in this paper, we present a comprehensive database of root hair genomics, iRootHair, which is accessible as a Web-based service. The current version of the database includes information about 153 root hair-related genes that have been identified to date in dicots and monocots along with their putative orthologs in higher plants with sequenced genomes. In order to facilitate the use of the iRootHair database, it is subdivided into interrelated, searchable sections that describe genes, processes of root hair formation, root hair mutants, and available references. The database integrates bioinformatics tools with a focus on sequence identification and annotation. iRootHair is a unique resource for root hair research that integrates the large volume of data related to root hair genomics in a single, curated, and expandable database that is freely available at www.iroothair.org. PMID:23129204

Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Nowakowska, Urszula; Szumera, Jakub; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Szarejko, Iwona

2013-01-01

386

Detection of Abnormal Hemoglobins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An intensive literature survey was performed to review the methods and products used to detect, identify and/or quantitate abnormal or variant hemoglobins in human erythrocytes. The report consists of a bibliography (198 citations, 1968-1979) and a summar...

J. Atwater, B. E. Hindman, K. Joseph

1979-01-01

387

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

psychopathology perspective to understand: 2.1. risk and protective factors influencing the etiology abnormal behavior in everyday life and we need to gain a better understanding of the etiology, social worker, therapist, etc.) directly rely on having extensive knowledge of psychopathology. #12

Liu, Taosheng

388

Hair bulb accumulation of Langerhans cells in allergic patch tests.  

PubMed

The occurrence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (EPTMAC) is reported and supplemented with immunohistochemical and electron microscopic observations. Four young workers developed hand dermatitis at a factory in which modified, cationic starch is manufactured. EPTMAC, a quaternary ammonium compound used as a cationizing chemical in the process, produced allergic reactions in all four patients in epicutaneous testing. The patients had only been in contact with EPTMAC for a short time (one to three months) before developing allergic eczema, which indicates that EPTMAC is a strong sensitizer. Immunohistochemistry showed that dendritic OKT6+ cells (Langerhans cells) increase in the hair follicles and the peribulbar infiltrate during the allergic patch test indicating that hair follicles might actively be involved in delayed type allergic reactions, possibly as a shunt way for allergens. Using electron microscopy, mitotic immunocompetent cells were found in the epidermis during the allergic patch test. PMID:2965484

Kanerva, L; Jolanki, R; Estlander, T

1987-01-01

389

Hair Evaluation Methods: Merits and Demerits  

PubMed Central

Various methods are available for evaluation (for diagnosis and/or quantification) of a patient presenting with hair loss. Hair evaluation methods are grouped into three main categories: Non-invasive methods (e.g., questionnaire, daily hair counts, standardized wash test, 60-s hair count, global photographs, dermoscopy, hair weight, contrasting felt examination, phototrichogram, TrichoScan and polarizing and surface electron microscopy), semi-invasive methods (e.g., trichogram and unit area trichogram) and invasive methods (e.g., scalp biopsy). Any single method is neither 'ideal' nor feasible. However, when interpreted with caution, these are valuable tools for patient diagnosis and monitoring. Daily hair counts, wash test, etc. are good methods for primary evaluation of the patient and to get an approximate assessment of the amount of shedding. Some methods like global photography form an important part of any hair clinic. Analytical methods like phototrichogram are usually possible only in the setting of a clinical trial. Many of these methods (like the scalp biopsy) require expertise for both processing and interpreting. We reviewed the available literature in detail in light of merits and demerits of each method. A plethora of newer methods is being introduced, which are relevant to the cosmetic industry/research. Such methods as well as metabolic/hormonal evaluation are not included in this review. PMID:20927232

Dhurat, Rachita; Saraogi, Punit

2009-01-01

390

Nodules on the Hair: A Rare Case of Mixed Piedra  

PubMed Central

Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair. PMID:24778538

Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

2013-01-01

391

Nodules on the hair: a rare case of mixed piedra.  

PubMed

Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair. PMID:24778538

Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

2013-10-01

392

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans,in computer,graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it

Kelly Ward; Florence Bertails; Tae-yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

2007-01-01

393

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make

Kelly Ward; Florence Bertalis; Tae Yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

2007-01-01

394

Morphological analysis of hair follicles in alopecia areata  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes hair follicles from early alopecia areata lesions at both the light and electron microscopic levels and describes how affected hair follicles differ from normal hair growth. The study focuses on acute and active lesions where hair follicles show greatest divergence from the normal growth pattern and are most likely to display features of primary pathology. Morphologic analysis

Desmond J. Tobin

1997-01-01

395

Elasticity and Tensile Properties Human Hair. I. Single  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis To evaluate hair products properly, the cosmetic chemist needs a quantitative method for the evaluation of hair condition that will yield statistically significant results using relatively small samples. The procedure must also be sensitive to minor changes in hair condition. The method described here is based on measuring the yield point of a single hair fiber and correlating changes

396

Influence of bleaching on stability of benzodiazepines in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the influence of hair bleaching on benzodiazepines concentrations, hair was treated with a bleaching product (Poly Blonde, Schwarzkopf & Henkel) for 20 min. The treated hair specimen was obtained from a person who died after an overdose of several illicit drugs associated with benzodiazepines. Bleached and non bleached hair were washed (acetone and water), pulverised and

M. Yegles; Y. Marson; R. Wennig

2000-01-01

397

Regenerated hair cells exhibit a transient resistance to aminoglycoside toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated that sensory hair cells in the avian inner ear are reproduced by cell proliferation in response to the death of the original hair cell population. The regenerated hair cells appear to construct functional synaptic contacts, thereby transmitting acoustic signals to the peripheral nervous system. One of the most extraordinary, but overlooked characteristics of these regenerated hair

Eri Hashino; Richard J. Salvi

1996-01-01

398

A Novel Atoh1 "Self-Terminating" Mouse Model Reveals the Necessity of Proper Atoh1 Level and Duration for Hair Cell Differentiation and Viability  

PubMed Central

Atonal homolog1 (Atoh1) is a bHLH transcription factor essential for inner ear hair cell differentiation. Targeted expression of Atoh1 at various stages in development can result in hair cell differentiation in the ear. However, the level and duration of Atoh1 expression required for proper hair cell differentiation and maintenance remain unknown. We generated an Atoh1 conditional knockout (CKO) mouse line using Tg(Atoh1-cre), in which the cre expression is driven by an Atoh1 enhancer element that is regulated by Atoh1 protein to “self-terminate” its expression. The mutant mice show transient, limited expression of Atoh1 in all hair cells in the ear. In the organ of Corti, reduction and delayed deletion of Atoh1 result in progressive loss of almost all the inner hair cells and the majority of the outer hair cells within three weeks after birth. The remaining cells express hair cell marker Myo7a and attract nerve fibers, but do not differentiate normal stereocilia bundles. Some Myo7a-positive cells persist in the cochlea into adult stages in the position of outer hair cells, flanked by a single row of pillar cells and two to three rows of disorganized Deiters cells. Gene expression analyses of Atoh1, Barhl1 and Pou4f3, genes required for survival and maturation of hair cells, reveal earlier and higher expression levels in the inner compared to the outer hair cells. Our data show that Atoh1 is crucial for hair cell mechanotransduction development, viability, and maintenance and also suggest that Atoh1 expression level and duration may play a role in inner vs. outer hair cell development. These genetically engineered Atoh1 CKO mice provide a novel model for establishing critical conditions needed to regenerate viable and functional hair cells with Atoh1 therapy. PMID:22279587

Pan, Ning; Jahan, Israt; Kersigo, Jennifer; Duncan, Jeremy S.; Kopecky, Benjamin; Fritzsch, Bernd

2012-01-01

399

A novel air flow sensor from printed PEDOT micro-hairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the creation of a low flow rate sensor from PEDOT micro-hairs. The hairs are printed as pipette-defined depositions using a nanopositioning system. The printing technique was developed for fabricating structures in 2D and 3D. Here micro-hairs with diameters of 4.4 ?m were repeatedly extruded with constant heights. These hairs were then applied to produce a prototype flow rate sensor, which was shown to detect flows of 3.5 l min-1. Structural analysis was performed to demonstrate that the design can be modified to potentially observe flows as low as 0.5 l min-1. The results are extended to propose a practical digital flow rate sensor.

Parcell, J.; Aydemir, N.; Devaraj, H.; Travas-Sejdic, J.; Williams, D. E.; Aw, K. C.

2013-11-01

400

Chick cochlear hair cell exocytosis mediated by dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels  

PubMed Central

A semi-intact preparation of the chick basilar papilla was developed to study calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release by tall hair cells (avian equivalent of cochlear inner hair cells). Tall hair cell depolarization resulted in changes in cell membrane capacitance (?Cm) that reflected cell surface area increases following synaptic vesicle exocytosis and provided a surrogate measure of neurotransmitter release. Both calcium current (ICa) and ?Cm were reversibly blocked by cobalt, and exhibited a similar bell-shaped dependency on voltage with a peak response around ?10 mV. Pharmacological agents selective for L-type calcium channels were employed to assess the role of this channel type in neurotransmitter exocytosis. Nimodipine, a dihydropyridine (DHP) antagonist, suppressed ICa and blocked ?Cm. Conversely, the DHP agonist Bay K 8644 increased both ICa and ?Cm amplitude nearly 3-fold. These findings suggest that chick tall hair cell neurotransmitter release is mediated by calcium influx through L-type calcium channels. PMID:11559767

Spassova, Maria; Eisen, Marc D; Saunders, James C; Parsons, Thomas D

2001-01-01

401

Severe facial swelling in a pregnant woman after using hair dye.  

PubMed

A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks' gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction was made. Permanent hair dyes are the most frequently used professional hair dyes and are most commonly based on paraphenylenediamine (PPD) or related chemicals. PPD is known to be one of the most potent allergens which cause allergic contact dermatitis. After treatment with intravenous antihistamines and steroids, the facial swelling reduced and the patient had completely recovered by the following day. PMID:24686800

van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan

2014-01-01

402

Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.  

PubMed

The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair. PMID:3581794

Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

1987-01-01

403

A teenage girl with green hair.  

PubMed

An adolescent girl with blond hair, her family, and classmates noted that her hair was progressively turning green. Initially the green color was thought to be secondary to chlorine from the local swimming pool. This was not the real cause. The chlorotrichosis was actually caused by an excessive amount of dissolved copper from copper pipes in the home plumbing system. Copper had leached from the plumbing and accumulated in the pipes because the rented house had been vacant for many months. Risk factors for chlorotrichosis include light-colored hair, copper plumbing, long periods when the water was not thoroughly flushed out of the copper pipes, and frequent shampooing. PMID:25039704

Schwartz, Richard H; Yasin, Shima K; Yoo, Jinny K

2014-01-01

404

Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

1995-01-01

405

Comparative Transduction Mechanisms of Vestibular Otolith Hair Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs regenerate following aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells in these organs are differentially sensitive to gentamicin, with saccular hair cells and hair cells in the utricular striola being damaged at lower gentamicin concentrations than hair cells in the utricular extrastriola. Regenerating hair cells in these organs have short hair bundles and can be classified into a number of phenotypes using the same morphological criteria used to identify their mature counterparts. Our studies suggest that some supporting cells can convert, or transdifferentiate,into hair cells without an intervening cell division. By stimulating these processes in humans, clinicians may be able to alleviate human deafness and peripheral vestibular disorders by regenerating and replacing lost hair cells. In vivo and in vitro studies were done on cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration.

Baird, Richard A.

1994-01-01

406

Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the voltage responses of individual hair cells were compared to both hair bundle displacement and intracellular current.

Baird, Richard A.

1994-01-01

407

miR-24 affects hair follicle morphogenesis targeting Tcf-3  

PubMed Central

During embryonic development, hair follicles (HFs) develop from an epidermal–mesenchymal cross talk between the ectoderm progenitor layer and the underlying dermis. Epidermal stem cell activation represents a crucial point both for HF morphogenesis and for hair regeneration. miR-24 is an anti-proliferative microRNA (miRNA), which is induced during differentiation of several cellular systems including the epidermis. Here, we show that miR-24 is expressed in the HF and has a role in hair morphogenesis. We generated transgenic mice ectopically expressing miR-24 under the K5 promoter. The K5::miR-24 animals display a marked defect in HF morphogenesis, with thinning of hair coat and altered HF structure. Expression of miR-24 alters the normal process of hair keratinocyte differentiation, leading to altered expression of differentiation markers. MiR-24 directly represses the hair keratinocyte stemness regulator Tcf-3. These results support the notion that microRNAs, and among them miR-24, have an important role in postnatal epidermal homeostasis. PMID:24232098

Amelio, I; Lena, A M; Bonanno, E; Melino, G; Candi, E

2013-01-01

408

Cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the ear of the goldfish, Carassius auratus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cell proliferation and hair cell addition have not been studied in the ears of otophysan fish, a group of species who have specialized hearing capabilities. In this study we used the mitotic S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify proliferating cells in the ear of one otophysan species, Carassius auratus (the goldfish). Animals were sacrificed at 3 h or 5 days postinjection with BrdU and processed for immunocytochemistry. The results of the study show that cell proliferation occurs in all of the otic endorgans and results in the addition of new hair cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout all epithelia, including the primary auditory endorgan (saccule), where hair cell phenotypes vary considerably along the rostrocaudal axis. This study lays the groundwork for our transmission electron microscopy study of proliferative cells in the goldfish ear (Presson et al., Hearing Research 100 (1996) 10-20) as well as future studies of hair cell development in this species. The ability to predict, based on epithelial location, the future phenotype of developing hair cells in the saccule of the goldfish make that endorgan a particularly powerful model system for the investigation of early hair cell differentiation.

Lanford, P. J.; Presson, J. C.; Popper, A. N.

1996-01-01

409

A comparison of temperature profile depending on skin types for laser hair removal therapy.  

PubMed

Although numerous lasers with different wavelengths are available for laser hair removal, their use in individuals with dark-pigmented skin remains a challenge. The present study aims to develop a numerical heat diffusion model considering skin types over various wavelengths. This numerical mode uses Pennes approximation to represent heat from metabolism, blood perfusion and an external heating source. The heat diffusion model is experimentally validated by using agar-based skin tissue phantoms. Diode lasers with four different wavelengths were used with two antithetical skin models. The pulse width and beam spot size were set to 200 ms and 1 cm(2), respectively. Temperature distribution along the hair structure and skin tissue was examined to determine both thermal confinement and heat transfer to the hair follicle. Experimental results are well matched with the numerical results. The results show that for the light skin model, thermal confinement is well achieved over various wavelengths, and treatment efficacy is expected to be better at a shorter wavelength. Otherwise, for the dark skin model, thermal confinement is poorly achieved as the wavelength decreases (<808 nm) and the temperature gap between the hair tip and the hair root is significantly large compared with the light skin model, which may lead to adverse effects. We believe that the developed numerical model will help to establish optimal laser parameters for different individuals during laser hair removal. PMID:24828108

Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Gwi-Won; Youn, Jong-In

2014-11-01

410

African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

Mahan, Meredith Grace

2014-01-01

411

Expression of enhancing factor/phospholipase A2 in skin results in abnormal epidermis and increased sensitivity to chemical carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Enhancing factor (EF), a growth factor modulator, is the mouse homologue of human secretory group II phospholipase A(2). EF exhibits growth-promoting activity in vitro, in the presence of epidermal growth factor, and also brings about phenotypic transformation of normal cells. In order to ascertain the role of EF in vivo, a human keratin-14 promoter was used to drive the expression of EF ectopically to squamous epithelial cells. The founder mouse and its progeny showed abnormal whiskers and a scaly, beaded tail. In these mice, keratinization pattern of the epidermis was disturbed and parakeratosis and acanthosis were noted. The transgenic mice, TgK14-EF, expressed EF in the suprabasal layers of tail epidermis as well as in the epithelial cells of hair follicle and sebaceous glands of skin. Expression of EF along with hyperplasia was also observed in other squamous epithelia such as buccal mucosa, tongue and oesophagus. TgK14-EF mice homozygous for the transgene showed delayed and scanty hair growth although the mice were healthy and fertile. The hemizygous TgK14-EF mice were sensitive to a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis and developed a higher number of papillomas than their normal littermates over the course of the experiment. The conversion rate of papilloma to carcinoma was two fold higher in the transgenic mice. PMID:12673199

Mulherkar, Rita; Kirtane, Bhakti M; Ramchandani, Asha; Mansukhani, Nirmala P; Kannan, Sadhana; Naresh, Kikkeri N

2003-04-01

412

Adequately address abnormal operations  

SciTech Connect

Abnormal situation management (ASM) is a safety issue, and safety long has been a top priority for companies in the chemical process industries (CPI). To investigate and identify root causes of abnormal operations and to pinpoint best practices for preventing these situations or at least handling them most effectively, the author formed a team and conducted surveys around the world, including the US, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Japan. The author visited a variety of facilities, including gas processing plants, oil refineries, a coker, ethylene plant, polyethylene units, steam-generating stations, as well as transportation and storage facilities. The team identified eight key issues: lack of management leadership; the significant role of human errors; inadequate design of the work environment; absence of procedures for dealing with abnormal operations (as opposed to emergencies); loss of valuable information from earlier minor incidents; the potential economic return; transferability of good ASM performance to other plants; and the importance of teamwork and job design. The paper looks at each of these in more detail, as well as what`s involved in assessing the ASM at a site.

Nimmo, I. [Honeywell Industrial Automation and Control, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

413

Point-based hair global illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A point-based representation was extensively used on Tangled to generate occlusion and indirect illumination involving the characters' hair. We describe how this was achieved in reasonable rendering times. 1 Motivation

Ramón Montoya-Vozmediano; Walt Disney; Animation Studios

2010-01-01

414

Women with Red Hair Report A Slightly Increased Rate of Bruising, but Have Normal Coagulation Tests  

PubMed Central

There is an anecdotal impression that redheads experience more perioperative bleeding complications than those with other hair colors. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that perceived problems with hemostasis could be detected with commonly used coagulation tests. Se studied healthy female Caucasian volunteers, 18 to 40 years, comparable in terms of height, weight, and age, with natural bright red (n = 25) or black or dark brown (n = 26) hair. Volunteers were questioned about their bleeding history and the following tests were performed: complete blood count, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet function analysis (PFA-100), and platelet aggregation using standard turbidimetric methodology. Agonists for aggregation were adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid, collagen, epinephrine, and two concentrations of ristocetin. The red-haired volunteers reported significantly more bruising, but there were no significant differences between the red- and dark-haired groups in hemoglobin concentration, platelet numbers, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, or activated partial thromboplastin time. Furthermore, no significant differences in platelet function, as measured with the PFA-100 or with platelet aggregometry, were observed. We conclude that if redheads have hemostasis abnormalities, they are subtle. PMID:16368849

Liem, Edwin B.; Hollensead, Sandra C.; Joiner, Teresa V.

2005-01-01

415

Mutations in the Cholesterol Transporter Gene ABCA5 Are Associated with Excessive Hair Overgrowth  

PubMed Central

Inherited hypertrichoses are rare syndromes characterized by excessive hair growth that does not result from androgen stimulation, and are often associated with additional congenital abnormalities. In this study, we investigated the genetic defect in a case of autosomal recessive congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis (CGHT) (OMIM135400) using whole-exome sequencing. We identified a single base pair substitution in the 5? donor splice site of intron 32 in the ABC lipid transporter gene ABCA5 that leads to aberrant splicing of the transcript and a decrease in protein levels throughout patient hair follicles. The homozygous recessive disruption of ABCA5 leads to reduced lysosome function, which results in an accumulation of autophagosomes, autophagosomal cargos as well as increased endolysosomal cholesterol in CGHT keratinocytes. In an unrelated sporadic case of CGHT, we identified a 1.3 Mb cryptic deletion of chr17q24.2-q24.3 encompassing ABCA5 and found that ABCA5 levels are dramatically reduced throughout patient hair follicles. Collectively, our findings support ABCA5 as a gene underlying the CGHT phenotype and suggest a novel, previously unrecognized role for this gene in regulating hair growth. PMID:24831815

DeStefano, Gina M.; Kurban, Mazen; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Feenstra, Heather; Silverberg, Nanette; Rohena, Luis; López-Cepeda, Larissa D.; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Kiuru, Maija; Tadin-Strapps, Marija; Sobrino, Antonio; Vitebsky, Anna; Warburton, Dorothy; Levy, Brynn; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.; Christiano, Angela M.

2014-01-01

416

Hair analysis and detectability of single dose administration of androgenic steroid esters.  

PubMed

Detection of anabolic steroids in hair samples has been possible only in fatal cases or in cases of high-continuous dosages. In order to verify the possibility of detecting an acute administration, a sensitive and specific assay has been developed for the simultaneous determination of testosterone, nandrolone and some of their esters in hair. The analytes were extracted from finely cut hair with methanol-trifluoroacetic acid overnight. After the incubation, the mixture was evaporated to dryness, redissolved and extracted with hexane. The dried organic layer was silanised and analysed by GC-MS and GC-MS-MS. A sensitivity of at least 20 pg injected was obtained for all the analytes. In guinea pigs treated with a single intramuscular dose of 10 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate, neither nandrolone decanoate nor nandrolone were found in hair collected after 13 days, while both compounds were clearly detectable after four repeated doses (each dose every 3-4 days) of 20 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate. Neither nandrolone decanoate nor nandrolone could be detected in hair from a male healthy volunteer 1 month after treatment with 50 mg nandrolone decanoate, while his urine still tested highly positive for the main nandrolone metabolite (> 100 ng/ml). Testosterone esters could not be detected in hair of healthy subjects collected respectively 3, 2 and 1 month after a single intramuscular administration of 250 mg testosterone enanthate (five subjects), a single intramuscular coadministration of 25 mg testosterone propionate plus 110 mg testosterone enanthate (one subject), or a single oral administration of 120 mg testosterone undecanoate (three subjects). Otherwise, hair analysis revealed an increase of testosterone concentration corresponding to the period of treatment. Analysis of blood and urine samples confirmed the absorption of those compounds. At the sensitivity achieved by the present method, no detection of nandrolone, nandrolone decanoate nor testosteron esters in hair seems to be obvious after a single dose administration. PMID:10689586

Segura, J; Pichini, S; Peng, S H; de la Torre, X

2000-01-10

417

Early adolescent cocaine use as determined by hair analysis in a prenatal cocaine exposure cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Preclinical and other research suggest that youth with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may be at high risk for cocaine use due to both altered brain development and exposure to unhealthy environments. Methods Participants are early adolescents who were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study of PCE prior to or at birth. Hair samples were collected from the youth at ages 10½ and 12½ (N=263). Samples were analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites using ELISA screening with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) confirmation of positive samples. Statistical analyses included comparisons between the hair-positive and hair-negative groups on risk and protective factors chosen a priori as well as hierarchical logistical regression analyses to predict membership in the hair-positive group. Results Hair samples were positive for cocaine use for 14% (n=36) of the tested cohort. Exactly half of the hair-positive preteens had a history of PCE. Group comparisons revealed that hair-negative youth had significantly higher IQ scores at age 10½; the hair-positive youth had greater availability of cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs in the home; caregivers with more alcohol problems and depressive symptoms; less nurturing home environments; and less positive attachment to their primary caregivers and peers. The caregivers of the hair-positive preteens reported that the youth displayed more externalizing and social problems, and the hair-positive youth endorsed more experimentation with cigarettes, alcohol, and/or other drugs. Mental health problems, peer drug use, exposure to violence, and neighborhood characteristics did not differ between the groups. Regression analyses showed that the availability of drugs in the home had the greatest predictive value for hair-positive group membership while higher IQ, more nurturing home environments, and positive attachment to caregivers or peers exerted some protective effect. Conclusion The results do not support a direct relationship between PCE and early adolescent experimentation with cocaine. Proximal risk and protective factors—those associated with the home environment and preteens' caregivers—were more closely related to early cocaine use than more distal factors such as neighborhood characteristics. Consistent with theories of adolescent problem behavior, the data demonstrate the complexity of predicting pre-adolescent drug use and identify a number of individual and contextual factors that could serve as important foci for intervention. PMID:20647046

Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Szabo, Nancy J.

2010-01-01

418

Restoration of the eyebrows by hair transplantation.  

PubMed

Partial loss of the eyebrows can be the result of epilation, scars, and inflammatory diseases. Facial hair and eyebrows play a major role in our mimetic expression and interaction. Therefore, facial hair restoration of the eyebrows can improve the appearance and psychological well-being of patients. We report the use of partial longitudinal follicular unit transplantation (PLFUT) to restore eyebrows. A total of 10 patients (age between 18 and 59 years