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1

Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

2005-01-01

2

Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.  

PubMed

Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. PMID:23165165

Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

2012-10-16

3

Development of Hair Dye from Herbal Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The developments of hair dyes from herbal extracts are studied. Seven herbs, such as Jackfruit core, Sappan wood, Lac, Henna, Mangosteen, Amla and Turmeric were ex- tracted and used as pigment for hair dyes. The dyed hair conditions, which comprised concentrations of a developer (hydrogen peroxide), concentrations of crude herbal ex- tracts, and dyed hair treatment process were compared

Kongtun Janphuk Sumonthip; Suracherdkaiti Wichai

2009-01-01

4

Hair Loss Measurement Tool Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hair loss from cancer chemotherapy has received considerable attention in recent years in the field of cancer care because of the emotional and social distress it can cause patients. Many investigators have attempted to decrease hair loss by means of scal...

B. S. Mueggenborg

1983-01-01

5

Functional Development of Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic hair cells in chicks and mammals have functional transduction channels and voltage-gated outwardly rectifying potassium (K+) channels, fast inwardly rectifying channels, and voltage-gated sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) channels. Together these channels may participate in spiking by the immature hair cells, which may drive rhythmic or bursting activity of neurons at higher levels of the auditory pathway. The electrical

Ruth Anne Eatock; Karen M. Hurley

2003-01-01

6

Transient isolated scrotal hair development in infancy.  

PubMed

Isolated scrotal hair development in infancy is a rare disorder that has not been well characterized in the literature. We present a retrospective analysis of 5 male patients referred to the Endocrine Department at the age of 3 to 6 months for the assessment of isolated scrotal hair development. There were no other signs of androgenization and testes were of normal infant size. Three mothers were receiving dydrogesterone during pregnancy and one of them was also receiving desogestrel during breast-feeding. All infants were developing well. In all boys, complete regression of scrotal hair was noted after 4 to 7 months of observation. It seems that the condition is benign and probably occurs in boys with increased response of cells within hair follicles to raised androgen levels during "mini puberty" of early infancy. Nevertheless, all infants with signs of androgenization need urgent full investigation and probably further follow-up until puberty. PMID:23482727

Janus, Dominika; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Tyrawa, Katarzyna; Starzyk, Jerzy

2013-03-11

7

Kinocilia mediate mechanosensitivity in developing zebrafish hair cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mechanosensitive cilia are vital to signaling and development across many species. In sensory hair cells, sound and movement are transduced by apical hair bundles. Each bundle is comprised of a single primary cilium (kinocilium) flanked by multiple rows of actin-filled projections (stereocilia). Extracellular tip links that interconnect stereocilia are thought to gate mechanosensitive channels. In contrast to stereocilia, kinocilia are not critical for hair-cell mechanotransduction. However, by sequentially imaging the structure of hair bundles and mechanosensitivity of individual lateral-line hair cells in vivo, we uncovered a central role for kinocilia in mechanosensation during development. Our data demonstrate that nascent hair cells require kinocilia and kinocilial links for mechanosensitivity. Although nascent hair bundles have correct planar polarity, the polarity of their responses to mechanical stimuli is initially reversed. Later in development, a switch to correctly polarized mechanosensitivity coincides with the formation of tip links and the onset of tip link-dependent mechanotransduction.

Kindt, Katie S.; Finch, Gabriel; Nicolson, Teresa

2012-01-01

8

Dynamic signals for hair follicle development and regeneration.  

PubMed

Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth, regression, and relative quiescence. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Over the past decades, genetically engineered mouse models have been used to study hair follicle morphogenesis and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In contrast, much less is understood in signals regulating hair follicle regeneration. Like hair follicle development, hair follicle regeneration probably relies on populations of stem cells that undergo a highly coordinated and stepwise program of differentiation to produce the completed structure. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the molecular signals underlying hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration, with a focus on the initiation of the primary hair follicle structure placode. Knowledge about hair follicle morphogenesis may help develop novel therapeutic strategies to enhance cutaneous regeneration and improve wound healing. PMID:21787229

Wang, Xusheng; Tredget, Edward E; Wu, Yaojiong

2011-09-07

9

Characterization of Hair Follicle Development in Engineered Skin Substitutes  

PubMed Central

Generation of skin appendages in engineered skin substitutes has been limited by lack of trichogenic potency in cultured postnatal cells. To investigate the feasibility and the limitation of hair regeneration, engineered skin substitutes were prepared with chimeric populations of cultured human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskins and cultured murine dermal papilla cells from adult GFP transgenic mice and grafted orthotopically to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Non-cultured dissociated neonatal murine-only skin cells, or cultured human-only skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts without dermal papilla cells served as positive and negative controls respectively. In this study, neonatal murine-only skin substitutes formed external hairs and sebaceous glands, chimeric skin substitutes formed pigmented hairs without sebaceous glands, and human-only skin substitutes formed no follicles or glands. Although chimeric hair cannot erupt readily, removal of upper skin layer exposed keratinized hair shafts at the skin surface. Development of incomplete pilosebaceous units in chimeric hair corresponded with upregulation of hair-related genes, LEF1 and WNT10B, and downregulation of a marker of sebaceous glands, Steroyl-CoA desaturase. Transepidermal water loss was normal in all conditions. This study demonstrated that while sebaceous glands may be involved in hair eruption, they are not required for hair development in engineered skin substitutes.

Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Lynch, Kaari A.; McFarland, Kevin L.; Supp, Dorothy M.; Boyce, Steven T.

2013-01-01

10

Development of hair-washing robot equipped with scrubbing fingers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed the world's first hair-washing robot equipped with scrubbing fingers. This robot assists in washing hair in hospitals or care facilities, and it eases the burden of healthcare professionals and care workers while it brings a higher quality of life to patients and others in need of nursing care. It features the mechanical and control technologies needed for

Toshinori Hirose; Soichiro Fujioka; Osamu Mizuno; Tohru Nakamura

2012-01-01

11

LINKING DEAFNESS GENES TO HAIR-BUNDLE DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

The identification of genes underlying monogenic, early-onset forms of deafness in humans has provided unprecedented insight into the molecular mechanisms of hearing in the peripheral auditory system. The molecules involved in the development and function of the cochlea eluded characterization until recently due to the paucity of the principle cell types present in cochlear hair cells, yet a genetic approach has circumvented this problem and succeeded in identifying proteins and deciphering some of the molecular complexes that operate in these cells . In combination with mouse models, the genetic approach is now revealing some of the principles underlying the development and physiology of the cochlea. The review centers on this facet of the genetics of hearing. Focusing on the hair bundle, the mechanosensory device of the sensory hair cell, we highlight recent advances in understanding the way in which the hair bundle is formed, how it operates as a mechanotransducer and how it processes sound. In particular, we discuss how this work highlights the roles played by various hair-bundle link types.

Petit, Christine; Richardson, Guy P.

2012-01-01

12

Hairy tale of signaling in hair follicle development and cycling  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle is an appendage from the vertebrate skin epithelium, and is critical for environmental sensing, animal appearance, and body heat maintenance. Hair follicles arise from the embryonic ectoderm and regenerate cyclically during adult life. Distinct morphological and functional stages from development through homeostasis have been extensively studied for the past decades to dissect the critical molecular mechanisms. Accumulating work suggests that different signaling cascades, such as Wnt, Bmp, Shh, and Notch, together with specific combinations of transcription factors are at work at different stages. Here we provide a comprehensive review of mouse genetics studies, which include lineage tracing along with knockout and over-expression of core genes from key signaling pathways, to paint an updated view of the molecular regulatory network that govern each stage of hair follicle development and adult cycling.

Lee, Jayhun; Tumbar, Tudorita

2012-01-01

13

Impaired Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Cycling with Abnormal Epidermal Differentiation in nackt Mice, a Cathepsin L-Deficient Mutation  

PubMed Central

We previously described an autosomal-recessive mutation named nackt (nkt) exhibiting partial alopecia associated with CD4+ T-cell deficiency. Also, we recently reported that nkt (now Ctslnkt) comprises a deletion in the cathepsin L (Ctsl) gene. Another recent study reported that Ctsl knockout mice have CD4+ T-cell deficiency and periodic shedding of hair, which recapitulate the nkt mutation and the old furless (fs) mutation. The current study focuses on the dermatological aspects of the nkt mutation. Careful histological analysis of skin development of homozygous nkt mice revealed a delayed hair follicle morphogenesis and late onset of the first catagen stage. The skin of Ctslnkt/Ctslnkt mice showed mild epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, severe hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands, and structural alterations of hair follicles. Epidermal differentiation seems to be affected in nkt skin, with overexpression of involucrin and profilaggrin/filaggrin along with focal areas of keratin 6 expression in the interfollicular epidermis. Severe epidermal hyperplasia, acanthosis, orthokeratosis, and hyperkeratosis were only observed in mice maintained in nonpathogen-free environments. The analysis of Rag2?/? Ctslnkt/Ctslnkt double-mutant mice indicates that the skin defect remains under the absence of T and B cells. This animal model provides in vivo evidence that cysteine protease cathepsin L plays a critical role in hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling, as well as epidermal differentiation.

Benavides, Fernando; Starost, Matthew F.; Flores, Monica; Gimenez-Conti, Irma B.; Guenet, Jean-Louis; Conti, Claudio J.

2002-01-01

14

Development of tactile sensor for measuring hair touch feeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a tactile sensor system for evaluation of human hair under dry and wet conditions is developed. The polyvinylidene\\u000a fluoride (PVDF) film is used as the sensory material. The sensor consists of an acrylic base, a silicone rubber, a PVDF film.\\u000a A surface projection is put on the PVDF film as the contacting part. The sensor output is

Takeshi Okuyama; Makoto Hariu; Tomoyuki Kawasoe; Minori Kakizawa; Hideki Shimizu; Mami Tanaka

2011-01-01

15

Lornoxicam-induced hair loss: An unusual case.  

PubMed

A patient started on 8 mg lornoxicam twice daily for pain in the hips developed acute-onset scalp hair loss. History and clinical examination revealed no evident abnormalities. Temporal association of the onset of hair loss with the use of lornoxicam, inability to explain hair loss by alternate causes, possibility of hair loss with lornoxicam and resolution on dechallenge placed this reaction as a probable adverse reaction to lornoxicam. PMID:24029201

Keny, M S; Ghodge, R R; Bandekar, S M

16

Cytoplasmic free calcium distributions during the development of root hairs of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

In this study, confocal ratio analysis was used to image the relationship between cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c) and the development of root hairs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although a localized change in [Ca2+]c that preceded or predicted the site of root hair initiation could not be detected, once initiated the majority of emerging root hairs showed an elevated [Ca2+]c (> 1 microM) in their apical cytoplasm, compared with 100-200 nM in the rest of the cell. These emerging root hairs then moved into a 3-5 h phase of sustained elongation during which they showed variable growth rates. Root hairs that were rapidly elongating exhibited a highly localized, elevated [Ca2+]c at the tip. Non-growing root hairs did not exhibit the [Ca2+]c gradient. The rhd-2 mutant, which is defective in sustained root hair growth, showed an altered [Ca2+]c distribution compared with wild-type. These results implicate [Ca2+]c in regulating the tip growth process. Treatment of elongating wild-type root hairs with the Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil (50 microM) caused dissipation of the elevated [Ca2+]c at the tip and cessation of growth, suggesting a requirement for Ca2+ channel activity at the root hair tip to maintain growth. Manganese treatment also preferentially quenched Indo-1 fluorescence in the apical cytoplasm of the root hair. As manganese is thought to enter cells through Ca(2+)-permeable channels, this result also suggests increased Ca2+ channel activity at the tip of the growing hair. Taken together, these data suggest that although Ca2+ does not trigger the initiation of root hairs, Ca2+ influx at the tip of the root hair leads to an elevated [Ca2+]c that may be required to sustain root hair elongation. PMID:9301093

Wymer, C L; Bibikova, T N; Gilroy, S

1997-08-01

17

A Cytogenetic Study of Abnormal Sexual Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nineteen patients associated with sexual anomalies were studied for chromosome abnormalities. Five cases (26.3 per cent) were found to be chromosomally abnormal. They were one case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with an XY/XO mosaicism, two cases of Klinefel...

C. C. Lin K. S. W. Kim P. Y. Wei

1969-01-01

18

Rat hair follicle-constituting cells labeled by a newly-developed somatic stem cell-recognizing antibody: a possible marker of hair follicle development.  

PubMed

A3 was generated as an antibody recognizing somatic stem cells in rat tissues. We investigated the distribution of A3-positive cells in developing rat hair follicles by immunolabeling. A3-positive cells began to be seen in the hair germ and peg in fetuses and neonates; the positive cells were epithelial cells above basal cells. Furthermore, A3-positive cells were seen in the outer root sheath adjacent to the bulge in mature hair follicles. Double immunofluorescence revealed that these A3-positive epithelial cells reacted to E-cadherin (for all epithelial elements) but not to CK15 (for basal cells/epithelial stem cells) or to nestin (for stem cells), indicating that A3-positive epithelial cells are suprabasal cells in the developing epidermic hair follicle. Additionally, spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells surrounding the hair peg and mature hair follicle reacted to A3; in double immunofluorescence, the A3-positive cells were located outside collagen type IV-positive glassy membrane, and reacted to vimentin (for mesenchmal cells), Thy-1 (for immature mesenchymal cells), CD34 (for stem cells) and nestin, but not to ?-smooth muscle actin (for myofibroblasts); the positive cells were regarded as immature mesenchymal cells with stem cell nature in the connective tissue sheath of developing hair follicles. A3-positive epithelial and mesenchymal cells did not show proliferating activity. Collectively, it is considered that A3-positive cells seen in developing rat hair follicles may be quiescent post-progenitor cells with the potential to differentiate into either highly-differentiated epithelial or mesenchymal cells. A3 would become a useful antibody to know the kinetics of rat hair follicle-constituting cells. PMID:23275308

Ichikawa, Chisa; Izawa, Takeshi; Juniantito, Vetnizah; Tanaka, Miyuu; Hori, Mayuka; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

2013-02-01

19

Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.  

PubMed

Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Ma?gorzata

2013-10-01

20

NaRALF, a peptide signal essential for the regulation of root hair tip apoplastic pH in Nicotiana attenuata, is required for root hair development and plant growth in native soils.  

PubMed

Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is a 49-amino-acid peptide that rapidly alkalinizes cultivated tobacco cell cultures. In the native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, NaRALF occurs as a single-copy gene and is highly expressed in roots and petioles. Silencing the NaRALF transcript by transforming N. attenuata with an inverted-repeat construct generated plants (irRALF) with normal wild-type (WT) above-ground parts, but with roots that grew longer and produced trichoblasts that developed into abnormal root hairs. Most trichoblasts produced a localized 'bulge' without commencing root hair tip growth; fewer trichoblasts grew, but were only 10% as long as those of WT plants. The root hair phenotype was associated with slowed apoplastic pH oscillations, increased pH at the tips of trichoblasts and decreased accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the root hair initiation zone. The root hair growth phenotype was partially restored when irRALF lines were grown in a low-pH-buffered medium, and reproduced in WT plants grown in a high-pH-buffered medium. When irRALF plants were grown in pH 5.6, 6.7 and 8.1 soils together with WT plants in glasshouse experiments, they were out-competed by WT plants in basic, but not acidic, soils. When WT and irRALF lines were planted into the basic soils of the native habitat of N. attenuata in the Great Basin Desert, irRALF plants had smaller leaves, shorter stalks, and produced fewer flowers and seed capsules than did WT plants. We conclude that NaRALF is required for regulating root hair extracellular pH, the transition from root hair initiation to tip growth and plant growth in basic soils. PMID:17916115

Wu, Jinsong; Kurten, Erin L; Monshausen, Gabriele; Hummel, Grégoire M; Gilroy, Simon; Baldwin, Ian T

2007-10-03

21

Manipulation of root hair development and sorgoleone production in sorghum seedlings.  

PubMed

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) roots exude a potent bioherbicide sorgoleone. Previous work indicates that sorgoleone is produced in living root hairs. We have developed a mist system that resulted in abundant production of root hairs exuding sorgoleone and a mat system that significantly inhibited root hair development and consequently sorgoleone production. Applying Ag+ (an ethylene action inhibitor) at 1.2 mM to the seedlings grown in the mist system also inhibited root hair formation and elongation. Hypoxic conditions in the mist system did not result in the inhibition of root hair growth as compared to the standard air atmosphere (20.8% O2). Applying ethephon (an ethylene-releasing agent) at 0.031 mM to the roots of seedlings grown in the mat system with water running at 1 ml/min reversed the inhibition of root hair development by water movement. These results indicate that either water movement or ethylene can be utilized to manipulate root hair development and sorgoleone production in sorghum seedlings. It is hypothesized that water movement reduced the local ethylene concentration on the root surface and consequently inhibited root hair development of sorghum seedlings grown in the mat system. PMID:15074666

Yang, Xiaohan; Owens, Thomas G; Scheffler, Brian E; Weston, Leslie A

2004-01-01

22

Salt-induced plasticity of root hair development is caused by ion disequilibrium in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Root hair development is controlled by environmental signals. Studies on root hair plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana have mainly focused on phosphate and iron deficiency. Root hair growth and development and their physiological role in response to salt stress are largely unknown. Here, we show that root epidermal cell types and root hair development are highly regulated by salt stress. Root hair length and density decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner on both primary roots and junction sites between roots and shoots. The root hair growth and development were sensitive to inhibition by ions but not to osmotic stress. High salinity also alters anatomical structure of roots, leading to a decrease in cell number in N positions and enlargement of the cells. Moreover, analysis of the salt overly sensitive mutants indicated that salt-induced root hair response is caused by ion disequilibrium and appears to be an adaptive mechanism that reduces excessive ion uptake. Finally, we show that genes WER, GL3, EGL3, CPC, and GL2 might be involved in cell specification of root epidermis in stressed plants. Taken together, data suggests that salt-induced root hair plasticity represents a coordinated strategy for early stress avoidance and tolerance as well as a morphological sign of stress adaptation. PMID:18060349

Wang, Youning; Zhang, Wensheng; Li, Kexue; Sun, Feifei; Han, Chunyu; Wang, Yukun; Li, Xia

2007-12-04

23

Mimicking hair disorders by genetic manipulation of organ cultured human hair follicles  

PubMed Central

Human hair follicles can be dissected out of the scalp skin and cultured in vitro in defined growth medium. Hair follicle organ cultures have previously been used to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which various factors regulate the maintenance and cycling of adult hair follicles. In this issue, Samuelov et al. transfected organ-cultured human hair follicles with siRNA nucleotides and suppressed the expression of the endogenous P-cadherin gene in follicular keratinocytes. Knocking-down the expression of P-cadherin in hair follicles in vitro recapitulated the hair follicle phenotype observed in patients with hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD), and enabled the authors to establish a cause-effect relationship between loss of P-cadherin and suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and, upregulation of TGF?2 during the development of the hair abnormalities observed in HJMD patients.

Chen, Jiang; Roop, Dennis R.

2013-01-01

24

Negative regulation of Shh levels by Kras and Fgfr2 during hair follicle development  

PubMed Central

Activating mutations in the KRAS oncogene are associated with three related human syndromes, which vary in hair and skin phenotypes depending on the involved allele. How variations in RAS signals are interpreted during hair and skin development is unknown. In this study, we investigated the developmental and transcriptional response of skin and hair to changes in RAS activity, using mouse genetic models and microarray analysis. While activation of Kras (KrasG12D) in the skin had strong effects on hair growth and hair shape, steady state changes in downstream RAS/MAPK effectors were subtle and detected only by transcriptional responses. To model the transcriptional response of multiple developmental pathways to active RAS, the effects of growth factor stimulation were studied in skin explants. Here FGF acutely suppressed Shh transcription within 90 minutes but had significantly less effect on Eda, WNT, Notch or BMP pathways. Furthermore, in vivo Fgfr2 loss-of-function in the ectoderm caused derepression of Shh, revealing a role for FGF in Shh regulation in the hair follicle. These studies define both dosage sensitive effects of RAS signaling on hair morphogenesis and reveal acute mechanisms for fine-tuning Shh levels in the hair follicle.

Mukhopadhyay, Anandaroop; Krishnaswami, Suguna Rani; Cowing-Zitron, Christopher; Hung, Nai-Jung; Reilly-Rhoten, Heather; Burns, Julianne; Yu, Benjamin D.

2012-01-01

25

Chromosomal abnormalities and embryo development in recurrent miscarriage couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chromosomal abnormalities are an important cause of spontaneous abortion and recurrent mis- carriage (RM). Therefore, we have analysed the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and embryo development in patients with RM. METHODS: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was performed on 71 couples with RM and 28 couples undergoing PGD for sex-linked diseases (control group). Chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X

C. Rubio; C. Simon; F. Vidal; L. Rodrigo; T. Pehlivan; J. Remohi; A. Pellicer

2003-01-01

26

Fgf20 governs formation of primary and secondary dermal condensations in developing hair follicles  

PubMed Central

In hair follicle development, a placode-derived signal is believed to induce formation of the dermal condensation, an essential component of ectodermal organs. However, the identity of this signal is unknown. Furthermore, although induction and patterning of hair follicles are intimately linked, it is not known whether the mesenchymal condensation is necessary for inducing the initial epithelial pattern. Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor 20 (Fgf20) is expressed in hair placodes and is induced by and functions downstream from epithelial ectodysplasin (Eda)/Edar and Wnt/?-Catenin signaling to initiate formation of the underlying dermal condensation. Fgf20 governs formation of primary and secondary dermal condensations in developing hair follicles and subsequent formation of guard, awl, and auchene hairs. Although primary dermal condensations are absent in Fgf20 mutant mice, a regular array of hair placodes is formed, demonstrating that the epithelial patterning process is independent of known histological and molecular markers of underlying mesenchymal patterns during the initial stages of hair follicle development.

Huh, Sung-Ho; Narhi, Katja; Lindfors, Paivi H.; Haara, Otso; Yang, Lu; Ornitz, David M.; Mikkola, Marja L.

2013-01-01

27

Auxin and ethylene response interactions during Arabidopsis root hair development dissected by auxin influx modulators.  

PubMed

The plant hormones auxin and ethylene have been shown to play important roles during root hair development. However, cross talk between auxin and ethylene makes it difficult to understand the independent role of either hormone. To dissect their respective roles, we examined the effects of two compounds, chromosaponin I (CSI) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), on the root hair developmental process in wild-type Arabidopsis, ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1, and auxin influx mutants aux1-7, aux1-22, and double mutant aux1-7 ein2. Beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression analysis in the BA-GUS transgenic line, consisting of auxin-responsive domains of PS-IAA4/5 promoter and GUS reporter, revealed that 1-NOA and CSI act as auxin uptake inhibitors in Arabidopsis roots. The frequency of root hairs in ein2-1 roots was greatly reduced in the presence of CSI or 1-NOA, suggesting that endogenous auxin plays a critical role for the root hair initiation in the absence of an ethylene response. All of these mutants showed a reduction in root hair length, however, the root hair length could be restored with a variable concentration of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). NAA (10 nM) restored the root hair length of aux1 mutants to wild-type level, whereas 100 nM NAA was needed for ein2-1 and aux1-7 ein2 mutants. Our results suggest that insensitivity in ethylene response affects the auxin-driven root hair elongation. CSI exhibited a similar effect to 1-NOA, reducing root hair growth and the number of root hair-bearing cells in wild-type and ein2-1 roots, while stimulating these traits in aux1-7and aux1-7ein2 roots, confirming that CSI is a unique modulator of AUX1. PMID:12481073

Rahman, Abidur; Hosokawa, Satoko; Oono, Yutaka; Amakawa, Taisaku; Goto, Nobuharu; Tsurumi, Seiji

2002-12-01

28

Epithelium-Mesenchyme Interactions Control the Activity of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor  \\/  during Hair Follicle Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, which involves epithelium-mesenchyme interactions. We show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta\\/ delta (PPAR\\/) and Akt1 are highly expressed in follicular keratinocytes throughout hair follicle develop- ment. Interestingly, PPAR\\/- and Akt1-deficient mice exhibit similar retardation of postnatal hair follicle morphogenesis, particularly at the hair peg stage, revealing a

N. Di-Poi; Chuan Young Ng; Nguan Soon Tan; Zhongzhou Yang; Brian A. Hemmings; Beatrice Desvergne; Liliane Michalik; Walter Wahli

2005-01-01

29

The Very Large G-Protein-Coupled Receptor VLGR1: A Component of the Ankle Link Complex Required for the Normal Development of Auditory Hair Bundles  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair bundles in the inner ear are composed of stereocilia that can be interconnected by a variety of different link types, including tip links, horizontal top connectors, shaft connectors, and ankle links. The ankle link antigen is an epitope specifically associated with ankle links and the calycal processes of photoreceptors in chicks. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting were used to identify this antigen as the avian ortholog of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, the product of the Usher syndrome USH2C (Mass1) locus. Like ankle links, Vlgr1 is expressed transiently around the base of developing hair bundles in mice. Ankle links fail to form in the cochleae of mice carrying a targeted mutation in Vlgr1 (Vlgr1/del7TM), and the bundles become disorganized just after birth. FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammonium)propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide] dye loading and whole-cell recordings indicate mechanotransduction is impaired in cochlear, but not vestibular, hair cells of early postnatal Vlgr1/del7TM mutant mice. Auditory brainstem recordings and distortion product measurements indicate that these mice are severely deaf by the third week of life. Hair cells from the basal half of the cochlea are lost in 2-month-old Vlgr1/del7TM mice, and retinal function is mildly abnormal in aged mutants. Our results indicate that Vlgr1 is required for formation of the ankle link complex and the normal development of cochlear hair bundles.

McGee, JoAnn; Goodyear, Richard J.; McMillan, D. Randy; Stauffer, Eric A.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Locke, Kirsten G.; Birch, David G.; Legan, P. Kevin; White, Perrin C.; Walsh, Edward J.; Richardson, Guy P.

2009-01-01

30

Development of a micropulverized extraction method for rapid toxicological analysis of methamphetamine in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a rapid sample preparation method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine (the major metabolite of methamphetamine) in human hair by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS\\/MS), to facilitate fast screening and quantitation. Two milligrams of hair were mechanically micropulverized for 5min in a 2-ml plastic tube together with 100?l of an aqueous solvent containing 10% acetonitrile,

Hajime Miyaguchi; Masaya Kakuta; Yuko T. Iwata; Hideaki Matsuda; Hidekatsu Tazawa; Hiroko Kimura; Hiroyuki Inoue

2007-01-01

31

MicroRNA-183 family expression in hair cell development and requirement of microRNAs for hair cell maintenance and survival  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally repress complementary target gene expression and can contribute to cell differentiation. The coordinate expression of miRNA-183 family members (miR-183, miR-96, and miR-182) has been demonstrated in sensory cells of the mouse inner ear and other vertebrate sensory organs. To further examine hair cell miRNA expression in the mouse inner ear, we have analyzed miR-183 family expression in wild type animals and various mutants with defects in neurosensory development. miR-183 family member expression follows neurosensory cell specification, exhibits longitudinal (basal-apical) gradients in maturating cochlear hair cells, and is maintained in sensory neurons and most hair cells into adulthood. Depletion of hair cell miRNAs resulting from Dicer1 conditional knockout (CKO) in Atoh1-Cre transgenic mice leads to more disparate basal-apical gene expression profiles and eventual hair cell loss. Results suggest that hair cell miRNAs subdue cochlear gradient gene expression and are required for hair cell maintenance and survival.

Weston, Michael D.; Pierce, Marsha L.; Jensen-Smith, Heather C.; Fritzsch, Bernd; Rocha-Sanchez, Sonia; Beisel, Kirk W.; Soukup, Garrett A.

2011-01-01

32

Research and Development in Forensic Toxicology Development and Production of Reference Materials for Control and Calibration of Hair Drug Testing, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hair testing for drugs of abuse needs matrix-matched control materials to help ensure the laboratorys process and authenticity of its results. This project developed and produced four reference materials of hair fortified with controlled substances for us...

J. D. Ropero-Miller P. R. Stout

2008-01-01

33

The hair follicle as a dynamic miniorgan.  

PubMed

Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. After birth, mature and actively growing hair follicles eventually become anchored in the subcutis, and periodically regenerate by spontaneously undergoing repetitive cycles of growth (anagen), apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), and relative quiescence (telogen). Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on mouse mutants with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation. These mice have allowed novel insights into important general molecular and cellular processes beyond skin and hair biology, ranging from organ induction, morphogenesis and regeneration, to pigment and stem cell biology, cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. In this review, we present basic concepts of hair follicle biology and summarize important recent advances in the field. PMID:19211055

Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

2009-02-10

34

Hair analysis for nicotine and cotinine: evaluation of extraction procedures, hair treatments, and development of reference material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of nicotine and cotinine in human hair can provide information on nicotine intake and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke over a long period of time. Nonetheless, to better assess the usefulness of hair analysis to determine smoking habits or exposures, all procedures have to be standardized. Various solvents were tested as washing solvents to eliminate external contamination from nicotine.

Simona Pichini; Ilaria Altieri; Manuela Pellegrini; Roberta Pacifici; Piergiorgio Zuccaro

1997-01-01

35

Hair loss  

MedlinePLUS

... notice hair coming out in handfuls while you shampoo, comb, or run your hands through your hair. ... your hair? How often? How often do you shampoo your hair? What kind of shampoo, hair spray, ...

36

Activation of Arabidopsis seed hair development by cotton fiber-related genes.  

PubMed

Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1) that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY). Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2), a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) activated fiber-like hair production in 4-6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ?8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ?10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs) in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular. PMID:21779324

Guan, Xueying; Lee, Jinsuk J; Pang, Mingxiong; Shi, Xiaoli; Stelly, David M; Chen, Z Jeffrey

2011-07-11

37

Using social robots to study abnormal social development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social robots recognize and respond to hu- man social cues with appropriate behaviors. Social robots, and the technology used in their construction, can be unique tools in the study of abnormal social development. Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that is char- acterized by social and communicative im- pairments. Based on three years of integra- tion and immersion with a

Brian Scassellati

38

Development of a micropulverized extraction method for rapid toxicological analysis of methamphetamine in hair.  

PubMed

We developed a rapid sample preparation method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine (the major metabolite of methamphetamine) in human hair by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), to facilitate fast screening and quantitation. Two milligrams of hair were mechanically micropulverized for 5 min in a 2-ml plastic tube together with 100 microl of an aqueous solvent containing 10% acetonitrile, 100 mM trifluoroacetic acid and the corresponding deuterium analogues as internal standards. The pulverizing highly disintegrated the hair components, simultaneously allowing the extraction of any drugs present in the hair. After filtering the suspension with a membrane-filter unit, the clear filtrate was directly analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. No evaporation processes were required for sample preparation. Method optimization and validation study were carried out using real-case specimens and fortified samples in which the drugs had been artificially absorbed, respectively. Concentration ranges for quantitation were 0.040-125 and 0.040-25 ng/mg for methamphetamine and amphetamine, respectively. Real-case specimens were analyzed by the method presented here and by conventional ones to verify the applicability of our method to real-world analysis. Our method took less than 30 min for a set of chromatograms to be obtained from a washed hair sample. PMID:17597137

Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kakuta, Masaya; Iwata, Yuko T; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tazawa, Hidekatsu; Kimura, Hiroko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

2007-06-16

39

Epithelium-Mesenchyme Interactions Control the Activity of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ?/? during Hair Follicle Development  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, which involves epithelium-mesenchyme interactions. We show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR?/?) and Akt1 are highly expressed in follicular keratinocytes throughout hair follicle development. Interestingly, PPAR?/?- and Akt1-deficient mice exhibit similar retardation of postnatal hair follicle morphogenesis, particularly at the hair peg stage, revealing a new important function for both factors in the growth of early hair follicles. We demonstrate that a time-regulated activation of the PPAR?/? protein in follicular keratinocytes involves the up-regulation of the cyclooxygenase 2 enzyme by a mesenchymal paracrine factor, the hepatocyte growth factor. Subsequent PPAR?/?-mediated temporal activation of the antiapoptotic Akt1 pathway in vivo protects keratinocytes from hair pegs against apoptosis, which is required for normal hair follicle development. Together, these results demonstrate that epithelium-mesenchyme interactions in the skin regulate the activity of PPAR?/? during hair follicle development via the control of ligand production and provide important new insights into the molecular biology of hair growth.

Di-Poi, Nicolas; Ng, Chuan Young; Tan, Nguan Soon; Yang, Zhongzhou; Hemmings, Brian A.; Desvergne, Beatrice; Michalik, Liliane; Wahli, Walter

2005-01-01

40

External contamination of hair with cocaine: evaluation of external cocaine contamination and development of performance-testing materials.  

PubMed

The National Laboratory Certification Program undertook an evaluation of the dynamics of external contamination of hair with cocaine (COC) while developing performance testing materials for Federal Drug-Free Workplace Programs. This characterization was necessary to develop performance materials that could evaluate the efficacy of hair testing industry's decontamination procedures. Hair locks (blonde to dark brown/black) from five different individuals were contaminated with cocaine HCl. Hair locks were then treated with a synthetic sweat solution and hygienic treatments to model real-life conditions. Hair locks were shampooed daily (Monday through Friday) for 10 weeks, and samples of the hair locks were analyzed for COC, benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene (CE), and norcocaine (NCOC). Three commercial analytical laboratories analyzed samples under three protocols: no decontamination procedure, individual laboratory decontamination, or decontamination by an extended buffer procedure at RTI International. Results indicated substantial and persistent association of all four compounds with all hair types. Hair that was not decontaminated had significantly greater quantities of COC and BE than did hair that was decontaminated. The only hair samples below detection limits for all four compounds were those decontaminated 1 h after contamination. Additionally, BE/COC ratios increased significantly over the 10-week study (regardless of decontamination treatment). From 21 days postcontamination until the end of the study, the mean BE/COC ratio for all hair types exceeded 0.05, the proposed Federal Mandatory Guidelines requirement. The largest variability in results was observed for samples decontaminated by participant laboratories. This suggests that current laboratory decontamination strategies will increase variability of performance testing sample results. None of the decontamination strategies used in the study were effective at removing all contamination, and some of the contaminated hair in this study would have been reported as positive for cocaine use based on the proposed Federal Mandatory Guidelines. PMID:17132242

Stout, Peter R; Ropero-Miller, Jeri D; Baylor, Michael R; Mitchell, John M

2006-10-01

41

White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases.  

PubMed

White lupin (Lupinus albus) is a legume that is very efficient in accessing unavailable phosphorus (Pi). It develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report, we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2) from white lupin and propose a role for these two GPX-PDEs in root hair growth and development and in a Pi stress-induced phospholipid degradation pathway in cluster roots. Both GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are highly expressed in Pi-deficient cluster roots, particularly in root hairs, epidermal cells, and vascular bundles. Expression of both genes is a function of both Pi availability and photosynthate. GPX-PDE1 Pi deficiency-induced expression is attenuated as photosynthate is deprived, while that of GPX-PDE2 is strikingly enhanced. Yeast complementation assays and in vitro enzyme assays revealed that GPX-PDE1 shows catalytic activity with glycerophosphocholine while GPX-PDE2 shows highest activity with glycerophosphoinositol. Cell-free protein extracts from Pi-deficient cluster roots display GPX-PDE enzyme activity for both glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoinositol. Knockdown of expression of GPX-PDE through RNA interference resulted in impaired root hair development and density. We propose that white lupin GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are involved in the acclimation to Pi limitation by enhancing glycerophosphodiester degradation and mediating root hair development. PMID:21464471

Cheng, Lingyun; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Zinn, Kelly; Miller, Susan; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Allan, Deborah; Shen, Jianbo; Vance, Carroll P

2011-04-04

42

[Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].  

PubMed

Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration. PMID:24066535

Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

2013-06-01

43

Chromosome abnormalities and their relationship to morphology and development of human embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers the relationship between chromosome abnormalities, morphological abnormalities and embryonic development. The baseline of chromosome abnormalities in human embryos produced by assisted reproduction is higher than 50%, regardless of maternal age. While aneuploidy increases with maternal age, abnormalities arising post-meiotically, such as mosaicism, chaoticism, polyploidy and haploidy, have similar incidence in all age groups (about 33%). Post-meiotic abnormalities

Santiago Munné

2006-01-01

44

FERONIA receptor-like kinase regulates RHO GTPase signaling of root hair development  

PubMed Central

Plant RHO GTPases (RAC/ROPs) mediate multiple extracellular signals ranging from hormone to stress and regulate diverse cellular processes important for polarized cell growth, differentiation, development, reproduction, and responses to the environment. They shuttle between the GDP-bound inactive state and the GTP-bound activated state and their activation is predominantly mediated by a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) referred to as ROPGEFs. Using the Arabidopsis ROPGEF1 as bait, we identified members of a receptor-like kinase (RLK) family as potential upstream regulators for RAC/ROP signaling. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as important regulators for growth and development and play a crucial role in mediating RAC/ROP-regulated root hair development, a polarized cell growth process. We therefore screened T-DNA insertion mutants in these RLKs for root hair defects and found that mutations in one of them, At3g51550 encoding the FERONIA (FER) receptor-like kinase, induced severe root hair defects. We show that the fer phenotypes correlated with reduced levels of active RAC/ROPs and NADPH oxidase-dependent, auxin-regulated ROS accumulation in roots and root hairs and that up-regulating RAC/ROP signaling in fer countered the mutant phenotypes. Taken together, these observations strongly support FER as an upstream regulator for the RAC/ROP-signaled pathway that controls ROS-mediated root hair development. Moreover, FER was pulled down by ROP2 GTPase in a guanine nucleotide-regulated manner implying a dynamic signaling complex involving FER, a ROPGEF, and a RAC/ROP.

Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Li, Chao; Cheung, Alice Y.; Wu, Hen-Ming

2010-01-01

45

FERONIA receptor-like kinase regulates RHO GTPase signaling of root hair development.  

PubMed

Plant RHO GTPases (RAC/ROPs) mediate multiple extracellular signals ranging from hormone to stress and regulate diverse cellular processes important for polarized cell growth, differentiation, development, reproduction, and responses to the environment. They shuttle between the GDP-bound inactive state and the GTP-bound activated state and their activation is predominantly mediated by a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) referred to as ROPGEFs. Using the Arabidopsis ROPGEF1 as bait, we identified members of a receptor-like kinase (RLK) family as potential upstream regulators for RAC/ROP signaling. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as important regulators for growth and development and play a crucial role in mediating RAC/ROP-regulated root hair development, a polarized cell growth process. We therefore screened T-DNA insertion mutants in these RLKs for root hair defects and found that mutations in one of them, At3g51550 encoding the FERONIA (FER) receptor-like kinase, induced severe root hair defects. We show that the fer phenotypes correlated with reduced levels of active RAC/ROPs and NADPH oxidase-dependent, auxin-regulated ROS accumulation in roots and root hairs and that up-regulating RAC/ROP signaling in fer countered the mutant phenotypes. Taken together, these observations strongly support FER as an upstream regulator for the RAC/ROP-signaled pathway that controls ROS-mediated root hair development. Moreover, FER was pulled down by ROP2 GTPase in a guanine nucleotide-regulated manner implying a dynamic signaling complex involving FER, a ROPGEF, and a RAC/ROP. PMID:20876100

Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Li, Chao; Cheung, Alice Y; Wu, Hen-Ming

2010-09-27

46

KGF and EGF signalling block hair follicle induction and promote interfollicular epidermal fate in developing mouse skin  

PubMed Central

Summary A key initial event in hair follicle morphogenesis is the localised thickening of the skin epithelium to form a placode, partitioning future hair follicle epithelium from interfollicular epidermis. Although many developmental signalling pathways are implicated in follicle morphogenesis, the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, also known as FGF7) receptors are not defined. EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands have previously been shown to inhibit developing hair follicles; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been characterised. Here we show that receptors for EGF and KGF undergo marked downregulation in hair follicle placodes from multiple body sites, whereas the expression of endogenous ligands persist throughout hair follicle initiation. Using embryonic skin organ culture, we show that when skin from the sites of primary pelage and whisker follicle development is exposed to increased levels of two ectopic EGFR ligands (HBEGF and amphiregulin) and the FGFR2(IIIb) receptor ligand KGF, follicle formation is inhibited in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We then used downstream molecular markers and microarray profiling to provide evidence that, in response to KGF and EGF signalling, epidermal differentiation is promoted at the expense of hair follicle fate. We propose that hair follicle initiation in placodes requires downregulation of the two pathways in question, both of which are crucial for the ongoing development of the interfollicular epidermis. We have also uncovered a previously unrecognised role for KGF signalling in the formation of hair follicles in the mouse.

Richardson, Gavin D.; Bazzi, Hisham; Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Waters, James M.; Crawford, Heather; Hynd, Phil; Christiano, Angela M.; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

2009-01-01

47

Abnormal Placental Development and Early Embryonic Lethality in EpCAM-Null Mice  

PubMed Central

Background EpCAM (CD326) is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM ?/? mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to ?geo. EpCAM +/? mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/? embryos revealed that ?geo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts), eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM ?/? mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM ?/? embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM ?/? placentas. Conclusion EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

Nagao, Keisuke; Zhu, Jianjian; Heneghan, Mallorie B.; Hanson, Jeffrey C.; Morasso, Maria I.; Tessarollo, Lino; Mackem, Susan; Udey, Mark C.

2009-01-01

48

Exploring Differentially Expressed Genes by RNA-Seq in Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus) Skin during Hair Follicle Development and Cycling  

PubMed Central

Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-? and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies.

Geng, Rongqing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yulin

2013-01-01

49

Exploring differentially expressed genes by RNA-Seq in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development and cycling.  

PubMed

Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-? and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies. PMID:23638136

Geng, Rongqing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yulin

2013-04-30

50

Insufficient maintenance DNA methylation is associated with abnormal embryonic development  

PubMed Central

Background Early pregnancy loss (EPL) is a frustrating clinical problem, whose mechanisms are not completely understood. DNA methylation, which includes maintenance methylation and de novo methylation directed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), is important for embryo development. Abnormal function of these DNMTs may have serious consequences for embryonic development. Methods To evaluate the possible involvement of DNA methylation in human EPL, the expression of DNMT proteins and global methylation of DNA were assessed in villous or decidua from EPL patients. The association of maintenance methylation with embryo implantation and development was also examined. Results We found that DNMT1 and DNMT3A were both expressed in normal human villous and decidua. DNMT1 expression and DNA global methylation levels were significantly down-regulated in villous of EPL. DNMT3A expression was not significantly changed in the EPL group compared to controls in either villous or decidua. We also found that disturbance of maintenance methylation with a DNMT1 inhibitor may result in a decreased global DNA methylation level and impaired embryonic development in the mouse model, and inhibit in vitro embryo attachment to endometrial cells. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that defects in DNA maintenance methylation in the embryo, not in the mother, are associated with abnormal embryonic implantation and development. The findings of the current study provide new insights into the etiology of EPL.

2012-01-01

51

Onset of breast and pubic hair development in 1231 preadolescent Lithuanian schoolgirls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Correct staging of puberty is essential in order to differentiate different pathologies, as various components of the endocrine system influence breast, pubic, and axillary hair development.Aims: To determine the current timing of adrenarche and breast development in Lithuanian preadolescent schoolgirls.Methods: Cross-sectional study of 1231 schoolgirls aged 7.0–11.6 years. Puberty was staged according to the method of Tanner. Mean age

S Z?ukauskaite?; D Las?iene?; L Las?as; B Urbonaite?; P Hindmarsh

2005-01-01

52

Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin  

SciTech Connect

We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Shiroi, Akira [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)

2006-06-30

53

Tanning and Increased Nevus Development in Very-Light-Skinned Children Without Red Hair  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between tanning and nevus development in very-light-skinned children. Design Prospective cohort nested within a randomized controlled trial. Skin examinations in 3 consecutive years (2004, 2005, and 2006) included full-body counts of nevi, skin color and tanning measurement using colorimetry, and hair and eye color evaluation by comparison with charts. Telephone interviews of parents provided sun exposure, sun protection, and sunburn history. Setting Large managed-care organization and private pediatric offices in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. Participants A total of 131 very-light-skinned white children without red hair and 444 darker-skinned white children without red hair born in Colorado in 1998. Main Outcome Measures Full-body nevus counts at ages 6 to 8 years. Results Among very-light-skinned white children, geometric mean numbers of nevi for minimally tanned children were 14.8 at age 6 years; 18.8 at age 7 years; and 22.3 at age 8 years. Mean numbers of nevi for tanned children were 21.2 at age 6 years; 27.9 at age 7 years; and 31.9 at age 8 years. Differences in nevus counts between untanned and tanned children were statistically significant at all ages (P < .05 for all comparisons). The relationship between tanning and number of nevi was independent of the child’s hair and eye color, parent-reported sun exposure, and skin phototype. Among darker-skinned white children, there was no relationship between tanning and nevi. Conclusions Very-light-skinned children who tan (based on objective measurement) develop more nevi than children who do not tan. These results suggest that light-skinned children who develop tans may be increasing their risk for developing melanoma later in life.

Aalborg, Jenny; Morelli, Joseph G.; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Asdigian, Nancy L.; Byers, Tim E.; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Box, Neil F.; Crane, Lori A.

2010-01-01

54

Does Nasal Hair (Vibrissae) Density Affect the Risk of Developing Asthma in Patients with Seasonal Rhinitis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Large particles entering the nose are collected by nasal hair present in the anterior nares. Increased hair density provides an improvement in the filtering efficiency of the nose, while reduced amounts of nasal hair cause a decrease in its efficiency. The amount of nasal hair can vary between individuals, which can make a difference in the filtering efficiency of

A. B. Ozturk; E. Damadoglu; G. Karakaya; A. F. Kalyoncu

2011-01-01

55

Immortalized rat whisker dermal papilla cells cooperate with mouse immature hair follicle buds to activate type IV procollagenases in collagen matrix coculture: correlation with ability to promote hair follicle development in nude mouse grafts.  

PubMed

An in vivo nude mouse graft model and an in vitro collagen matrix culture system were used to study interactions of immature hair follicle buds from newborn mice with clonally derived AdE1A-12S-immortalized rat whisker dermal papilla cell lines. Of the 19 available dermal papilla cell lines, four consistently supported good hair follicle development and hair growth in grafts. Seven cell lines were clearly negative in this assay, and the remaining eight cell lines yielded poor to moderate hair growth. As a correlate to in vivo extracellular matrix remodeling accompanying hair follicle development, type IV collagenase activity in the medium from cocultures of dermal papilla cells and hair follicle buds was analyzed by gelatin zymography. Hair follicle buds cultured alone secrete primarily the 92-kDa type IV procollagenase. Cocultivation of hair follicle buds with eight of the dermal papilla cell lines resulted in activation of this proenzyme and activation of the 72-kDa and 92-kDa type IV procollagenases produced by the dermal papilla cells. Seven of these eight dermal papilla cell lines support hair growth in the graft system. In the absence of dermal papilla cells, several growth factors induced activation of the 92-kDa procollagenase secreted by hair follicle buds cultured in serum-free medium: epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, acidic fibroblast growth factor, and keratinocyte growth factor. The current working hypothesis is that a) hair follicle epithelial cells interact with dermal papilla cells in coculture by mutual induction of growth factors and cytokines that stimulate the release and activation of matrix remodeling proteases; and b) the ability of dermal papilla cells to interact with hair follicle epithelial cells in this way may be crucial for controlled dermal matrix remodelling during HF development. PMID:7636298

Scandurro, A B; Wang, Q; Goodman, L; Ledbetter, S; Dooley, T P; Yuspa, S H; Lichti, U

1995-08-01

56

Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide modulates infection thread development in white clover root hairs.  

PubMed

The interaction between Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and white clover roots was examined. The Limulus lysate assay indicated that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (hereafter called R. trifolii) released LPS into the external root environment of slide cultures. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that purified LPS from R. trifolii 0403 bound rapidly to root hair tips and infiltrated across the root hair wall. Infection thread formation in root hairs was promoted by preinoculation treatment of roots with R. trifolii LPS at a low dose (up to 5 micrograms per plant) but inhibited at a higher dose. This biological activity of LPS was restricted to the region of the root present at the time of exposure to LPS, higher with LPS from cells in the early stationary phase than in the mid-exponential phase, incubation time dependent, incapable of reversing inhibition of infection by NO3- or NH4+, and conserved among serologically distinct LPSs from several wild-type R. trifolii strains (0403, 2S-2, and ANU843). In contrast, infections were not increased by preinoculation treatment of roots with LPSs from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 300, R. meliloti 102F28, or members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Most infection threads developed successfully in root hairs pretreated with R. trifolii LPS, whereas many infections aborted near their origins and accumulated brown deposits if pretreated with LPS from R. meliloti 102F28. LPS from R. leguminosarum 300 also caused most infection threads to abort. Other specific responses of root hairs to infection-stimulating LPS from R. trifolii included acceleration of cytoplasmic streaming and production of novel proteins. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicated that biologically active LPS from R. trifolii 0403 in the early stationary phase had less fucose but more 2-O-methylfucose, quinovosamine, 3,6-dideoxy-3-(methylamino)galactose, and noncarbohydrate substituents (O-methyl, N-methyl, and acetyl groups) on glycosyl components than did inactive LPS in the mid-exponential phase. We conclude that LPS-root hair interactions trigger metabolic events that have a significant impact on successful development of infection threads in this Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. PMID:1885517

Dazzo, F B; Truchet, G L; Hollingsworth, R I; Hrabak, E M; Pankratz, H S; Philip-Hollingsworth, S; Salzwedel, J L; Chapman, K; Appenzeller, L; Squartini, A

1991-09-01

57

Formin homology 1 (OsFH1) regulates submergence-dependent root hair development in rice plants.  

PubMed

By using a forward genetic approach, a formin homology 1 gene (OsFH1) was identified as a critical regulator of rice root hair development. The phenotypic effect of OsFH1 on root hair development was verified by using three independent mutants, one point mutation and two T-DNA insertions. The study showed that OsFH1 is required for the elongation of root-hairs. However, Osfh1 exhibited growth defect of root hairs only when roots were grown submerged in solution. To understand how OsFH1 impinges on plant responses to root submergence, the growth responses of Osfh1 root hairs to anoxia, carbohydrate supplementation and exogenous hormones (auxin and ethylene) and nutrients (Fe and Pi) were examined. However, none of these treatments rescued the growth defects of Osfhl1 root hairs. This study demonstrates that OsFH1 could be involved in preventing submergence-induced inhibition of root hair growth. PMID:23733059

Huang, Jin; Liu, Jingmiao; Han, Chang-Deok

2013-05-15

58

Abnormal cerebellar development and ataxia in CARP VIII morphant zebrafish.  

PubMed

Congenital ataxia and mental retardation are mainly caused by variations in the genes that affect brain development. Recent reports have shown that mutations in the CA8 gene are associated with mental retardation and ataxia in humans and ataxia in mice. The gene product, carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARP VIII), is predominantly present in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where it interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, a calcium channel. In this study, we investigated the effects of the loss of function of CARP VIII during embryonic development in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against the CA8 gene. Knockdown of CA8 in zebrafish larvae resulted in a curved body axis, pericardial edema and abnormal movement patterns. Histologic examination revealed gross morphologic defects in the cerebellar region and in the muscle. Electron microscopy studies showed increased neuronal cell death in developing larvae injected with CA8 antisense morpholinos. These data suggest a pivotal role for CARP VIII during embryonic development. Furthermore, suppression of CA8 expression leads to defects in motor and coordination functions, mimicking the ataxic human phenotype. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of CARP VIII in brain development and introduces a novel zebrafish model in which to investigate the mechanisms of CARP VIII-related ataxia and mental retardation in humans. PMID:23087022

Aspatwar, Ashok; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Jokitalo, Eija; Parikka, Mataleena; Ortutay, Csaba; Harjula, Sanna-Kaisa E; Rämet, Mika; Vihinen, Mauno; Parkkila, Seppo

2012-10-18

59

Cytoarchitecture and pattern of cytoplasmic streaming in root hairs of Medicago truncatula during development and deformation by nodulation factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The cytoarchitecture and the pattern of cytoplasmic streaming change during the development of root hairs ofMedicago truncatula and after a challenge with nodulation (Nod) factors. We measured the speed and orientation of movement of 1–2 ?m long organelles.\\u000a The speed of organelle movement in cytoplasmic strands in the basal part of growing root hairs is 8–14 ?m\\/s and is of

Björn Sieberer; Anne Mie C. Emons

2000-01-01

60

Abnormal development in the mouse caused by chromosome unbalance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A line of mice, designated as the T1 stock, which has been derived from a single male whose father was X-rayed, is characterised by the production of about 4·6\\u000a per cent. of abnormal embryos, and of a somewhat smaller percentage of abnormal young at term.\\u000a \\u000a The abnormality consists of a failure of the neural groove to close throughout a portion

George D. Snell; Dorothea Isabel Picken

1935-01-01

61

Hair Follicular Expression and Function of Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Mouse Skin*  

PubMed Central

Although perturbed lipid metabolism can often lead to skin abnormality, the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in skin homeostasis is poorly understood. In the present study we found that group X-secreted PLA2 (sPLA2-X) was expressed in the outermost epithelium of hair follicles in synchrony with the anagen phase of hair cycling. Transgenic mice overexpressing sPLA2-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed alopecia, which was accompanied by hair follicle distortion with reduced expression of genes related to hair development, during a postnatal hair cycle. Additionally, the epidermis and sebaceous glands of PLA2G10-Tg skin were hyperplasic. Proteolytic activation of sPLA2-X in PLA2G10-Tg skin was accompanied by preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine species with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as elevated production of some if not all eicosanoids. Importantly, the skin of Pla2g10-deficient mice had abnormal hair follicles with noticeable reduction in a subset of hair genes, a hypoplasic outer root sheath, a reduced number of melanin granules, and unexpected up-regulation of prostanoid synthesis. Collectively, our study highlights the spatiotemporal expression of sPLA2-X in hair follicles, the presence of skin-specific machinery leading to sPLA2-X activation, a functional link of sPLA2-X with hair follicle homeostasis, and compartmentalization of the prostanoid pathway in hair follicles and epidermis.

Yamamoto, Kei; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Seiko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Morioka, Kiyokazu; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Fukami, Kiyoko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Makoto

2011-01-01

62

Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... person's hair may look greasy. Time for a shampoo! Continue Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow! You have more ... When you wash your hair, use a gentle shampoo and warm water. Lather up using your fingertips, ...

63

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... type of hair loss, affecting both men and women. In men, hair often begins to recede from the ... of prostate cancer. Finasteride should be avoided by women of childbearing age. Surgery In the most common type of permanent hair loss, ...

64

Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development  

PubMed Central

Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth.

Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain

2013-01-01

65

Abnormal lymphoid organ development in immunodeficient mutant mice.  

PubMed

Development of the primary and secondary lymphoid organs is a tightly controlled process. These tissues are highly organized to maximize efficiency of the immune response. Spontaneous and targeted mutations in laboratory mice have led to better understanding of the molecular interactions and signaling pathways essential to the development and organization of lymphoid tissues, and the functional consequences of loss or disruption of the normal structures. On the basis of studies of mutations in mice and other species, it has been determined that a wild-type allele of the Foxn1 gene is required for normal thymic development and function. The Tlx1, Bapx1, Tcf21, Wt1 and Dh genes are essential for development of the spleen, while mutations of Nkx2-3, Lta, Ltb, Ltbr, Map3k14, Relb, Tnf, Tnfrsf1a, Cxcl13, Blr1 (Cxcr5), or cpdm genes result in disruption of normal splenic microarchitecture. The requirements for organized lymph nodes vary according to anatomic location, but most rely on Id2 (Idb2) and Rorc, in addition to lymphotoxins and Tnfrsf11a, Tnfsf11, Relb, Map3k14, Cxcl13, and Blr1 genes. Development of Peyer's patches is dependent on Id2 and Rorc genes, lymphotoxins, and Relb, Map3k14, Il7r, and cpdm genes. Less is known about the requirements for nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT), but Id2 is a requirement. Here we review abnormalities of lymphoid organ development in immunodeficient mutant mice, including spontaneous and targeted mutations of Id2, Rorc, Tnf, Tnfrsf1a, Lta, Ltb, Ltbr, Tnfrsf11a, Tnfsf11, Relb, Map3k14, IL7r, Blr1, and Cxcl13 genes. PMID:16846982

Seymour, R; Sundberg, J P; Hogenesch, H

2006-07-01

66

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS FOR HAIR GROWTH-PROMOTING ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk ( Asteraceae), Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn (Malvaceae), Nardostachys Jatamansi ( Valerianaceae) is a well known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. Hair formulation of Eclipta alba Hassk ( Asteraceae ) 10% w\\/v, Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn ( Malvaceae ) 10 %

R. M. Thorat; V. M. Jadhav; V. J. Kadam

67

Hormones act downstream of TTG and GL2 to promote root hair outgrowth during epidermis development in the Arabidopsis root.  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis root produces a position-dependent pattern of hair-bearing and hairless cell types during epidermis development. Five loci (TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA [TTG], GLABRA2 [GL2], ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6 [RHD6], CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 [CTR1], and AUXIN RESISTANT2 [AXR2]) and the plant hormones ethylene and auxin have been reported to affect the production of root hair and hairless cells in the Arabidopsis root. In this study, genetic, molecular, and physiological tests were employed to define the roles of these loci and hormones. Epistasis tests and reporter gene studies indicated that the hairless cell-promoting genes TTG and GL2 are likely to act early to negatively regulate the ethylene and auxin pathways. Studies of the developmental timing of the hormone effects indicated that ethylene and auxin pathways promote root hair outgrowth after cell-type differentiation has been initiated. The genetic analysis of ethylene-and auxin-related mutations showed that root hair formation is influenced by a network of hormone pathways, including a partially redundant ethylene signaling pathway. A model is proposed in which the patterning of root epidermal cells in Arabidopsis is regulated by the cell position-dependent action of the TTG/GL2 pathway, and the ethylene and auxin hormone pathways act to promote root hair outgrowth at a relatively late stage of differentiation.

Masucci, J D; Schiefelbein, J W

1996-01-01

68

Cytodifferentiation of hair cells during the development of a basal chordate.  

PubMed

Tunicates are unique animals for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates because they are considered vertebrates' closest living relatives and share the vertebrate body plan and many specific features. Both possess neural placodes, transient thickenings of the cranial ectoderm that give rise to various types of sensory cells, including axonless secondary mechanoreceptors. In vertebrates, these are represented by the hair cells of the inner ear and the lateral line, which have an apical apparatus typically bearing cilia and stereovilli. In tunicates, they are found in the coronal organ, which is a mechanoreceptor located at the base of the oral siphon along the border of the velum and tentacles and is formed of cells bearing a row of cilia and short microvilli. The coronal organ represents the best candidate homolog for the vertebrate lateral line. To further understand the evolution of secondary sensory cells, we analysed the development and cytodifferentiation of coronal cells in the tunicate ascidian Ciona intestinalis for the first time. Here, coronal sensory cells can be identified as early as larval metamorphosis, before tentacles form, as cells with short cilia and microvilli. Sensory cells gradually differentiate, acquiring hair cell features with microvilli containing actin and myosin VIIa; in the meantime, the associated supporting cells develop. The coronal organ grows throughout the animal's lifespan, accompanying the growth of the tentacle crown. Anti-phospho Histone H3 immunostaining indicates that both hair cells and supporting cells can proliferate. This finding contributes to the understanding of the evolution of secondary sensory cells, suggesting that both ancestral cell types were able to proliferate and that this property was progressively restricted to supporting cells in vertebrates and definitively lost in mammals. PMID:23876523

Gasparini, Fabio; Caicci, Federico; Rigon, Francesca; Zaniolo, Giovanna; Burighel, Paolo; Manni, Lucia

2013-07-20

69

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

70

Hair transplantation.  

PubMed

Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation. PMID:23409484

Avram, Marc R

2012-12-01

71

Intravital imaging of hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish.  

PubMed

Direct videomicroscopic visualization of organ formation and regeneration in toto is a powerful strategy to study cellular processes that often cannot be replicated in vitro. Intravital imaging aims at quantifying changes in tissue architecture or subcellular organization over time during organ development, regeneration or degeneration. A general feature of this approach is its reliance on the optical isolation of defined cell types in the whole animals by transgenic expression of fluorescent markers. Here we describe a simple and robust method to analyze sensory hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line by high-resolution intravital imaging using laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). The main advantage of studying hair-cell regeneration in the lateral line is that it occurs throughout the life of the animal, which allows its study in the most natural context. We detail protocols to achieve continuous videomicroscopy for up to 68 hours, enabling direct observation of cellular behavior, which can provide a sensitive assay for the quantitative classification of cellular phenotypes and cell-lineage reconstruction. Modifications to this protocol should facilitate pharmacogenetic assays to identify or validate otoprotective or reparative drugs for future clinical strategies aimed at preserving aural function in humans. PMID:24130521

Pinto-Teixeira, Filipe; Muzzopappa, Mariana; Swoger, Jim; Mineo, Alessandro; Sharpe, James; López-Schier, Hernán

2013-10-11

72

Intravital imaging of hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Direct videomicroscopic visualization of organ formation and regeneration in toto is a powerful strategy to study cellular processes that often cannot be replicated in vitro. Intravital imaging aims at quantifying changes in tissue architecture or subcellular organization over time during organ development, regeneration or degeneration. A general feature of this approach is its reliance on the optical isolation of defined cell types in the whole animals by transgenic expression of fluorescent markers. Here we describe a simple and robust method to analyze sensory hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line by high-resolution intravital imaging using laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). The main advantage of studying hair-cell regeneration in the lateral line is that it occurs throughout the life of the animal, which allows its study in the most natural context. We detail protocols to achieve continuous videomicroscopy for up to 68 hours, enabling direct observation of cellular behavior, which can provide a sensitive assay for the quantitative classification of cellular phenotypes and cell-lineage reconstruction. Modifications to this protocol should facilitate pharmacogenetic assays to identify or validate otoprotective or reparative drugs for future clinical strategies aimed at preserving aural function in humans.

Pinto-Teixeira, Filipe; Muzzopappa, Mariana; Swoger, Jim; Mineo, Alessandro; Sharpe, James; Lopez-Schier, Hernan

2013-01-01

73

Hair Loss (Alopecia)  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Hair loss Hair loss Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE-shah) Hereditary hair loss. Millions ... our skin, hair, and nails. Learn more about hair loss: Hair loss: Signs and symptoms Hair loss: Who ...

74

Root gravitropism and root hair development constitute coupled developmental responses regulated by auxin homeostasis in the Arabidopsis root apex.  

PubMed

Active polar transport establishes directional auxin flow and the generation of local auxin gradients implicated in plant responses and development. Auxin modulates gravitropism at the root tip and root hair morphogenesis at the differentiation zone. Genetic and biochemical analyses provide evidence for defective basipetal auxin transport in trh1 roots. The trh1, pin2, axr2 and aux1 mutants, and transgenic plants overexpressing PIN1, all showing impaired gravity response and root hair development, revealed ectopic PIN1 localization. The auxin antagonist hypaphorine blocked root hair elongation and caused moderate agravitropic root growth, also leading to PIN1 mislocalization. These results suggest that auxin imbalance leads to proximal and distal developmental defects in Arabidopsis root apex, associated with agravitropic root growth and root hair phenotype, respectively, providing evidence that these two auxin-regulated processes are coupled. Cell-specific subcellular localization of TRH1-YFP in stele and epidermis supports TRH1 engagement in auxin transport, and hence impaired function in trh1 causes dual defects of auxin imbalance. The interplay between intrinsic cues determining root epidermal cell fate through the TTG/GL2 pathway and environmental cues including abiotic stresses modulates root hair morphogenesis. As a consequence of auxin imbalance in Arabidopsis root apex, ectopic PIN1 mislocalization could be a risk aversion mechanism to trigger root developmental responses ensuring root growth plasticity. PMID:23252740

Rigas, Stamatis; Ditengou, Franck Anicet; Ljung, Karin; Daras, Gerasimos; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

2012-12-18

75

Epidermal transglutaminase (TGase 3) is required for proper hair development, but not the formation of the epidermal barrier.  

PubMed

Transglutaminases (TGase), a family of cross-linking enzymes present in most cell types, are important in events as diverse as cell-signaling and matrix stabilization. Transglutaminase 1 is crucial in developing the epidermal barrier, however the skin also contains other family members, in particular TGase 3. This isoform is highly expressed in the cornified layer, where it is believed to stabilize the epidermis and its reduction is implicated in psoriasis. To understand the importance of TGase 3 in vivo we have generated and analyzed mice lacking this protein. Surprisingly, these animals display no obvious defect in skin development, no overt changes in barrier function or ability to heal wounds. In contrast, hair lacking TGase 3 is thinner, has major alterations in the cuticle cells and hair protein cross-linking is markedly decreased. Apparently, while TGase 3 is of unique functional importance in hair, in the epidermis loss of TGase 3 can be compensated for by other family members. PMID:22496784

John, Susan; Thiebach, Lars; Frie, Christian; Mokkapati, Sharada; Bechtel, Manuela; Nischt, Roswitha; Rosser-Davies, Sally; Paulsson, Mats; Smyth, Neil

2012-04-04

76

Approach towards developing a novel procedure to selectively quantify topically applied substances in the hair follicles of the model tissue porcine ear skin.  

PubMed

Hair follicles represent reservoirs for localized drug therapy and transport pathways for systemic drug delivery. This study describes an approach towards developing a novel procedure for quantifying topically applied substances located in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin, a model for human in vivo skin, using a fluorescent dye. Approximately 5% of the topically applied dye was recovered from the hair follicles, which is in accordance with a previous study. PMID:23489479

Knorr, Fanny; Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Schanzer, Sabine; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

2013-03-12

77

A search for factors specifying tonotopy implicates DNER in hair-cell development in the chick's cochlea  

PubMed Central

The accurate perception of sound frequency by vertebrates relies upon the tuning of hair cells, which are arranged along auditory organs according to frequency. This arrangement, which is termed a tonotopic gradient, results from the coordination of many cellular and extracellular features. Seeking the mechanisms that orchestrate those features and govern the tonotopic gradient, we used expression microarrays to identify genes differentially expressed between the high- and low-frequency cochlear regions of the chick (Gallus gallus). Of the three signaling systems that were represented extensively in the results, we focused on the notch pathway and particularly on DNER, a putative notch ligand, and PTP?, a receptor phosphatase that controls DNER trafficking. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that both proteins are expressed more strongly in hair cells at the cochlear apex than in those at the base. At the apical surface of each hair cell, the proteins display polarized, mutually exclusive localization patterns. Using morpholinos to decrease the expression of DNER or PTP? as well as a retroviral vector to overexpress DNER, we observed disturbances of hair-bundle morphology and orientation. Our results suggest a role for DNER and PTP? in hair-cell development and possibly in the specification of tonotopy.

Kowalik, Lukasz; Hudspeth, A. J.

2011-01-01

78

The Drosophila Tissue Polarity Gene inturned Functions Prior to Wing Hair Morphogenesis in the Regulation of Hair Polarity and Number  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult cuticular wing of Drosophila is covered with an array of distally pointing hairs. Mutations in the inturned (in) gene result in both abnormal hair polarity (i.e., hairs no longer point distally), and, in most cells forming more than one hair. We have isolated and characterized a collection of in alleles. Among this collection of alleles are a number

Paul N. Adler; Jeannette Charlton; Woo Jin Park

1994-01-01

79

Comparison of hair from rectum cancer patients and from healthy persons by Raman microspectroscopy and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectra of hair from cancer patients show some abnormality.Raman imaging provides more details by identifying patient hair micro-structures.Raman microspectroscopy and imaging of hair may be useful for cancer diagnosis.

Wei, Xiaoli; Wang, Xin; Fang, Yusheng; Huang, Qing

2013-09-01

80

Allergic contact dermatitis from hair dye and development of lichen simplex chronicus.  

PubMed

Those who dye their hair frequently manifest allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dye. PPD is known to be the most frequent sensitizer in hair dye, but there has been no documentation of this sensitizer having a role in chronic dermatologic conditions. Our department experienced a case of a 62-year-old woman with lichen simplex chronicus (LSC), who complained of aggravation after hair dyeing and made such an association. We conducted a prospective and retrospective study to further evaluate the clinical associations between the two. In our prospective study, patch testing was performed in selected patients who regularly carried out hair dyeing and also had clinical manifestations of LSC. Also a retrospective examination was conducted in cases where patch testing had been performed with PPD in the past for suspected ACD and further selected cases with concurrent LSC and/or other neurodermatitis. 11 and 14 patients in our prospective and retrospective study, respectively, presented with both LSC and positive findings to PPD. 5 (45.5%) and 4 (28.6%) patients in our prospective and retrospective study showed clinical relevance from clinical improvement after stopping use and rechallenge. We report several cases of patients diagnosed as having LSC and/or prurigo nodularis who showed clinical improvement after discontinuing the use of hair dye. The suggestion can therefore be made that hair dye could be a possible aetiologic agent causing LSC in those using hair dyes. PMID:15291824

Chey, Won Young; Kim, Kyung Lok; Yoo, Tae-Yeon; Lee, Ai-Young

2004-07-01

81

Changing Patterns of Cell Adhesion Molecules during Mouse Pelage Hair Follicle Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphogenesis of hairs is initiated and maintained by reciprocal interactions between groups of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. To examine whether cell adhesion molecules play a role in this process, prenatal distribution patterns of various cell adhesion molecules were studied during hair follicle morphogenesis in the dorsal skin of C57BL mouse embryos, using monoclonal antibodies. E-cadherin was present on all

M. H. Hardy; U. Vielkind

1996-01-01

82

Transient expression of an inwardly rectifying potassium conductance in developing inner and outer hair cells along the mouse cochlea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inwardly rectifying K+ currents in inner and outer hair cells (IHCs, OHCs) were studied during postnatal development of the mouse cochlea. Hyperpolarizing steps from a holding potential of -64 mV induced a rapidly activating current in both cell types. This current showed strong inward rectification around the K+ equilibrium potential and, at potentials negative to -130 mV, partial inactivation. The

Walter Marcotti; G. S. G. Géléoc; G. W. T. Lennan; C. J. Kros

1999-01-01

83

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will ...

84

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

2006-11-24

85

Myosin XVa and whirlin, two deafness gene products required for hair bundle growth, are located at the stereocilia tips and interact directly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in myosin XVa and the PDZ domain-containing protein, whirlin, underlie deafness in humans and mice. Hair bundles of mutant mice defective for either protein have abnormally short stereocilia. Here, we show that whirlin, like myosin XVa, is present at the very tip of each stereocilium in the developing and mature hair bundles of the cochlear and vestibular system. We

Benjamin Delprat; Vincent Michel; Richard Goodyear; Yasuhiro Yamasaki; Nicolas Michalski; Aziz El-Amraoui; Isabelle Perfettini; Pierre Legrain; Guy Richardson; Jean-Pierre Hardelin; Christine Petit

2005-01-01

86

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

87

Control of Plant Trichome and Root-Hair Development by a Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) R3 MYB Transcription Factor  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis thaliana the CPC-like MYB transcription factors [CAPRICE (CPC), TRIPTYCHON (TRY), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC 1, 2, 3/CPC-LIKE MYB 3 (ETC1, ETC2, ETC3/CPL3), TRICHOMELESS 1, 2/CPC-LIKE MYB 4 (TCL1, TCL2/CPL4)] and the bHLH transcription factors [GLABRA3 (GL3) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3)] are central regulators of trichome and root-hair development. We identified TRY and GL3 homologous genes from the tomato genome and named them SlTRY and SlGL3, respectively. Phylogenic analyses revealed a close relationship between the tomato and Arabidopsis genes. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that SlTRY and SlGL3 were predominantly expressed in aerial parts of developing tomato. After transformation into Arabidopsis, CPC::SlTRY inhibited trichome formation and enhanced root-hair differentiation by strongly repressing GL2 expression. On the other hand, GL3::SlGL3 transformation did not show any obvious effect on trichome or non-hair cell differentiation. These results suggest that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for epidermal cell differentiation, and that a CPC-like R3 MYB may be a key common regulator of plant trichome and root-hair development.

Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Sato, Shusei; Wada, Takuji

2013-01-01

88

Development and Regeneration of Sensory Transduction in Auditory Hair Cells Requires Functional Interaction Between Cadherin-23 and Protocadherin-15  

PubMed Central

Tip links are extracellular filaments that connect pairs of hair cell stereocilia and convey tension to mechanosensitive channels. Recent evidence suggests that tip links are formed by calcium-dependent interactions between the N-terminal domains of cadherin-23 (CDH23) and protocadherin-15 (PCDH15). Mutations in either CDH23 or PCDH15 cause deafness in mice and humans indicating the molecules are required for normal inner ear function. However, there is little physiological evidence to support a direct role for CDH23 and PCDH15 in hair-cell mechanotransduction. To investigate the contributions of CDH23 and PCDH15 to mechanotransduction and tip link formation we examined outer hair cells of mouse cochleas during development and following chemical disruption of tip links. We found that tip links and mechanotransduction with all the qualitative properties of mature transduction recovered within 24 hours after disruption. To probe tip link formation we measured transduction currents following extracellular application of recombinant CDH23 and PCDH15 fragments, which included putative interaction domains (EC1). Both fragments inhibited development and regeneration of transduction but did not disrupt transduction in mature cells. PCDH15 fragments that carried a mutation in EC1 that causes deafness in humans did not inhibit transduction development or regeneration. Immunolocalization revealed wild-type fragments bound near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that hair bundles exposed to fragments had a reduced number of linkages aligned along the bundle’s morphological axis of sensitivity. Together, the data provide direct evidence implicating CDH23 and PCDH15 proteins in the formation of tip links during development and regeneration of mechanotransduction.

Lelli, Andrea; Kazmierczak, Piotr; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Muller, Ulrich; Holt, Jeffrey R.

2010-01-01

89

Imaging Normal and Abnormal Brain Development: New Perspectives for Child Psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The availability of non-invasive brain imaging permits the study of normal and abnormal brain development in childhood and adolescence. This paper summarizes current knowledge of brain abnormalities of two conditions, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS), and illustrates how such findings are bringing clinical and preclinical perspectives closer together.Method: A selected review is presented of

Judith L. Rapoport; Xavier F. Castellanos; Nitin Gogate; Kristin Janson; Shawn Kohler; Phillip Nelson

2001-01-01

90

When whorls collide: the development of hair patterns in frizzled 6 mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Surface appendages such as bristles, feathers and hairs exhibit both long- and short-range order. In the frizzled 6 null (Fz6–/–) mouse the orientations of the earliest born hair follicles are uncorrelated, but over time the follicles reorient to create patterns that are characterized by a high degree of local order. By quantifying follicle orientations over time, in both living and fixed tissues, we define the time course of local hair follicle refinement and the resulting evolution of a montage of competing patterns in Fz6–/– skin. We observe an apparently local process that within one week can organize a field of many tens of thousands of follicles, generating long-range order that extends over distances of more than one centimeter. Physical systems that undergo an analogous ordering of vector components suggest potential mechanisms that might apply to the patterning of hair follicles and related biological structures.

Wang, Yanshu; Chang, Hao; Nathans, Jeremy

2010-01-01

91

Essential role of retinoblastoma protein in mammalian hair cell development and hearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retinoblastoma protein pRb is required for cell-cycle exit of embryonic mammalian hair cells but not for their early differentiation. However, its role in postnatal hair cells is unknown. To study the function of pRb in mature animals, we created a new conditional mouse model, with the Rb gene deleted primarily in the inner ear. Progeny survive up to 6

Cyrille Sage; Mingqian Huang; Melissa A. Vollrath; M. Christian Brown; Philip W. Hinds; David P. Corey; Douglas E. Vetter; Zheng-Yi Chen

2006-01-01

92

Hair morphology and systematics of Physalis ( Solanaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair morphology was exammed on developing seedlings and mature plants of ten species from five of seven series inPhysalis. The taxonomic importance of hair development and the distribution of hair types then was evaluated with respect to other comparative data. Two classes of hair types were observed, as found in earlier investigations ofSolanum andRhododendron. The first hair class comprises a

Almut Seithe; Janet R. Sullivan

1990-01-01

93

Inhibition of the development of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in protein kinase C epsilon transgenic mice by alpha-difluoromethylornithine accompanied by marked hair follicle degeneration and hair loss.  

PubMed

The role of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated polyamine biosynthesis in the development of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (mSCC) in protein kinase C epsilon (PKC epsilon) transgenic mice was determined. TPA treatment induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and putrescine levels approximately 3-4-fold more in PKC epsilon transgenic mice than their wild-type littermates. Development of mSCC by the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (100 nmol)-TPA (5 nmol) protocol in PKC epsilon transgenic mice was completely prevented by administration of the suicide inhibitor of ODC alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, 0.5% w/v) in the drinking water during TPA promotion. However, DFMO treatment led to marked hair loss in PKC epsilon transgenic mice. DFMO treatment-associated hair loss in PKC epsilon transgenic mice was accompanied by a decrease in the number of intact hair follicles. These results indicate that TPA-induced ODC activity and the resultant accumulation of putrescine in PKC epsilon transgenic mice are linked to growth and maintenance of hair follicles, and the development of mSCC. Severe hair loss observed in PKC epsilon transgenic mice on DFMO during skin tumor promotion has not been reported before in the prevention of cancer in other animal models or in human cancer prevention trials. PMID:12810623

Wheeler, Deric L; Ness, Kristin J; Oberley, Terry D; Verma, Ajit K

2003-06-15

94

The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232

Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

2005-09-01

95

Prenatal exposure to infection: a primary mechanism for abnormal dopaminergic development in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Prenatal exposure to infection is a notable environmental risk factor in the development of schizophrenia. One prevalent hypothesis\\u000a suggests that infection-induced disruption of early prenatal brain development predisposes the organism to long-lasting structural\\u000a and functional brain abnormalities. Many of the prenatal infection-induced functional brain abnormalities appear to be closely\\u000a associated with imbalances in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system in adult life,

Urs Meyer; Joram Feldon

2009-01-01

96

Faculty Development: An Experimental Psychologist Teaches Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the benefits and drawbacks of teaching a course outside one's area of expertise. Claims this enhances faculty development and alleviates burnout. Finds the positive aspects, personal and institutional, outweigh the negative. Results show favorable student evaluations. (Author/NL)|

Smith, Randolph A.

1989-01-01

97

A comparative analysis of proteins that accumulate during the initial stage of root hair development in barley root hair mutants and their parent varieties.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of root hair formation have been studied extensively in Arabidopsis but knowledge about these processes in monocot species is still limited, especially in relation to the proteome level. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins that are involved in the initiation and the early stage of root hair tip growth in barley using two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A comparison of proteins that accumulate differentially in two root hair mutants and their respective parent varieties resulted in the identification of 13 proteins that take part in several processes related to the root hair morphogenesis, such as the control of vesicular trafficking, ROS signalling and homeostasis, signal transduction by phospholipids metabolism and ATP synthesis. Among the identified proteins, two ATP synthases, two ABC transporters, a small GTPase from the SAR1 family, a PDI-like protein, a monodehydroascorbate reductase, a C2 domain-containing protein and a Wali7 domain-containing protein were found. This study is the first report on the proteins identified in the initial stage of root hair formation in barley and gives new insights into the mechanisms of root hair morphogenesis in a monocot species. PMID:22847350

Janiak, Agnieszka; Piórko, Stanis?aw; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter; Kwa?niewski, Miros?aw; Chwia?kowska, Karolina; Chmielewska, Beata; Szarejko, Iwona

2012-07-31

98

Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral\\u000a hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was\\u000a not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing\\u000a may interfere with the normal

C. Jacquemin; P. Mullaney; T. M. Bosley

2001-01-01

99

Hair today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable levels of a heteroplasmic point mutation in individual hair roots Bendall, K.E. et al. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61, 1303–1308Characterization of melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor variant alleles in twins with red hair Box, N.F. et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 6, 1891–1897

M Jobling

1998-01-01

100

Hair Motion Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hair motion simulation in computer graphics has been an attraction for many researchers. The application we have developed\\u000a has been inspired by the related previous work as well as our own efforts in finding useful algrithms to handle this problem.\\u000a The work we present uses a set of representations, including hair strands, clusters and strips, that are derived from the

Yusuf Sahillioglu; Bülent Özgüç

2004-01-01

101

Hair removal.  

PubMed

Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices. PMID:21865803

Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

2011-08-16

102

Chemistry of hair colorant processesScience as an aid to formulation and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry of color formation in permanent hair colorants is discussed with particular reference to the in-fiber production of blue, red, and yellow dyes and to the effect of pH on the relative rates of formation of these dyes. The formulation of semipermanent (direct) colorants requires consideration of molecular size, wash fastness, light fastness, and color of the dyes used.

JOHN F. CORBETT

103

Tanning and Increased Nevus Development in Very-Light-Skinned Children Without Red Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design: Prospective cohort nested within a randomized controlled trial. Skin examinations in 3 consecutive years (2004, 2005, and 2006) included full-body counts of nevi, skin color and tanning measurement using colorimetry, and hair and eye color evaluation by comparison with charts. Telephone interviews of parents provided sun ex- posure, sun protection, and sunburn history. Setting: Large managed-care organization and private

Jenny Aalborg; Joseph G. Morelli; Stefan T. Mokrohisky; Nancy L. Asdigian; Tim E. Byers; Robert P. Dellavalle; Neil F. Box; Lori A. Crane

2009-01-01

104

Temperature Sensitive Dynamic Cushioning Function Development and Validation for BLOCKSOM Rubberized Hair.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After acquisition of drop test data on the cushioning performance of Type V Rubberized Hair, an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted which was based upon the split-split plot experimental design to establish the statistical significance of the tempe...

R. M. Wyskida M. R. Wilhelm J. D. Bynum

1975-01-01

105

Hair mercury levels, fish consumption, and cognitive development in preschool children from Granada, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main source of human exposure to mercury is the consumption of fish contaminated with methylmercury, which may adversely affect early neurodevelopment. This study assessed mercury levels in hair of preschoolers in Spain, where fish consumption is elevated, with the aim of investigating the influence of their fish intake and other factors on mercury exposure, and evaluating their association with

Carmen Freire; Rosa Ramos; Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa; Sergi Díez; Jesús Vioque; Ferrán Ballester; Mariana-Fátima Fernández

2010-01-01

106

Modulation of development, growth dynamics, wall crystallinity, and infection sites in white clover root hairs by membrane chitolipooligosaccharides from Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii.  

PubMed Central

We used bright-field, time-lapse video, cross-polarized, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopies to examine the influence of isolated chitolipooligosaccharides (CLOSs) from wild-type Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii on development of white clover root hairs, and the role of these bioactive glycolipids in primary host infection. CLOS action caused a threefold increase in the differentiation of root epidermal cells into root hairs. At maturity, root hairs were significantly longer because of an extended period of active elongation without a change in the elongation rate itself. Time-series image analysis showed that the morphological basis of CLOS-induced root hair deformation is a redirection of tip growth displaced from the medial axis as previously predicted. Further studies showed several newly described infection-related root hair responses to CLOSs, including the localized disruption of the normal crystallinity in cell wall architecture and the induction of new infection sites. The application of CLOS also enabled a NodC- mutant of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii to progress further in the infection process by inducing bright refractile spot modifications of the deformed root hair walls. However, CLOSs did not rescue the ability of the NodC- mutant to induce marked curlings or infection threads within root hairs. These results indicate that CLOS Nod factors elicit several host responses that modulate the growth dynamics and symbiont infectibility of white clover root hairs but that CLOSs alone are not sufficient to permit successful entry of the bacteria into root hairs during primary host infection in the Rhizobium-clover symbiosis.

Dazzo, F B; Orgambide, G G; Philip-Hollingsworth, S; Hollingsworth, R I; Ninke, K O; Salzwedel, J L

1996-01-01

107

Transcriptome and phenotypic analysis reveals Gata3-dependent signalling pathways in murine hair follicles.  

PubMed

The transcription factor Gata3 is crucially involved in epidermis and hair follicle differentiation. Yet, little is known about how Gata3 co-ordinates stem cell lineage determination in skin, what pathways are involved and how Gata3 differentially regulates distinct cell populations within the hair follicle. Here, we describe a conditional Gata3-/- mouse (K14-Gata3-/-) in which Gata3 is specifically deleted in epidermis and hair follicles. K14-Gata3-/- mice show aberrant postnatal growth and development, delayed hair growth and maintenance, abnormal hair follicle organization and irregular pigmentation. After the first hair cycle, the germinative layer surrounding the dermal papilla was not restored; instead, proliferation was pronounced in basal epidermal cells. Transcriptome analysis of laser-dissected K14-Gata3-/- hair follicles revealed mitosis, epithelial differentiation and the Notch, Wnt and BMP signaling pathways to be significantly overrepresented. Elucidation of these pathways at the RNA and protein levels and physiologic endpoints suggests that Gata3 integrates diverse signaling networks to regulate the balance between hair follicle and epidermal cell fates. PMID:17151017

Kurek, Dorota; Garinis, George A; van Doorninck, J Hikke; van der Wees, Jacqueline; Grosveld, Frank G

2006-12-06

108

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image. PMID:3608250

O'Donoghue, M N

1987-07-01

109

A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

Phelps, William R.

110

Hair diseases.  

PubMed

A few common causes of hair loss account for the vast majority of cases. A well-directed history and simple physical examination is often sufficient to make a diagnosis. Laboratory testing is often unnecessary. A scalp biopsy can be useful, but only if processed and interpreted correctly. Androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, senescent alopecia, telogen effluvium, traction alopecia, trichotillomania, and cosmetic hair damage are common causes of non-scarring alopecia. Discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, and central, centrifugal scarring alopecia are the most common forms of scarring hair loss. PMID:9769798

Sperling, L C; Mezebish, D S

1998-09-01

111

Congenital hypothyroidism, spiky hair, and cleft palate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two brothers are described with athyroidal hypothyroidism, spiky hair, choanal atresia, cleft palate, and bifid epiglottis. Polyhydramnios was present in the third trimester of each pregnancy. These abnormalities appear to represent a new syndrome.

J S Bamforth; I A Hughes; J H Lazarus; C M Weaver; P S Harper

1989-01-01

112

Hair collection  

Treesearch

Noninvasive survey methods for North American carnivores. ... Description: The identification of species from hair samples is probably as old as ... but did not receive much scientific attention until efficient and relatively inexpensive methods for ...

113

Biology and genetics of hair.  

PubMed

The mammalian hair follicle (HF) is a complex structure composed of several distinct cell layers. The HF is an ectodermal appendage that resides in the skin, and unlike other tissues and organs, it possesses the remarkable ability to self-renew and undergoes a hair cycle that persists in adult life. Stem cells in the bulge region of the HF, as well as dermal papilla cells, play key roles in the regulation of successive hair cycles. Recent advances in molecular genetics have enabled the identification of many genes and pathways that are involved in HF morphogenesis and cycling. Furthermore, mutations in some of these genes are associated with hereditary hair diseases in humans. Identification of causative genes for hair diseases has provided a better understanding of the crucial roles of these genes in HF morphogenesis, development, and hair growth in humans. PMID:20590427

Shimomura, Yutaka; Christiano, Angela M

2010-01-01

114

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

115

MicroRNAs are essential for development and function of inner ear hair cells in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) inhibit the translation of target mRNAs and affect, directly or indirectly, the expression of a large portion of the protein-coding genes. This study focuses on miRNAs that are expressed in the mouse cochlea and vestibule, the 2 inner ear compartments. A conditional knock-out mouse for Dicer1 demonstrated that miRNAs are crucial for postnatal survival of functional hair cells

Lilach M. Friedman; Amiel A. Dror; Eyal Mor; Tamar Tenne; Ginat Toren; Takunori Satoh; Deborah J. Biesemeier; Noam Shomron; Donna M. Fekete; Eran Hornstein; Karen B. Avraham

2009-01-01

116

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... hair dye you use, follow directions carefully. Pay attention to all “Caution” or “Warning” statements. What problems ... safely? • Follow the directions in the package. Pay attention to all “Caution” and “Warning” statements. • Do a ...

117

Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.  

PubMed Central

Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening and management strategies for when an abnormality is detected.

Walsh, J M

1998-01-01

118

The development, distribution and density of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 calcium pump in rat cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed

Calcium is tightly regulated in cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). It enters mainly via mechanotransducer (MT) channels and is extruded by the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA)2 isoform of the PMCA, mutations in which cause hearing loss. To assess how pump expression matches the demands of Ca(2+) homeostasis, the distribution of PMCA2 at different cochlear locations during development was quantified using immunofluorescence and post-embedding immunogold labeling. The PMCA2 isoform was confined to stereociliary bundles, first appearing at the base of the cochlea around post-natal day (P)0 followed by the middle and then the apex by P3, and was unchanged after P8. The developmental appearance matched the maturation of the MT channels in rat OHCs. High-resolution immunogold labeling in adult rats showed that PMCA2 was distributed along the membranes of all three rows of OHC stereocilia at similar densities and at about a quarter of the density in inner hair cell stereocilia. The difference between OHCs and inner hair cells was similar to the ratio of their MT channel resting open probabilities. Gold particle counts revealed no difference in PMCA2 density between low- and high-frequency OHC bundles despite larger MT currents in high-frequency OHCs. The PMCA2 density in OHC stereocilia was determined in low- and high-frequency regions from calibration of immunogold particle counts as 2200/?m(2) from which an extrusion rate of ?200 ions/s per pump was inferred. The limited ability of PMCA2 to extrude the Ca(2+) load through MT channels may constitute a major cause of OHC vulnerability and high-frequency hearing loss. PMID:22672315

Chen, Qingguo; Mahendrasingam, Shanthini; Tickle, Jacqueline A; Hackney, Carole M; Furness, David N; Fettiplace, Robert

2012-06-06

119

Human Hair: An Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)|

Wells, John

1983-01-01

120

Brain imaging in normal and abnormal brain development: new perspectives for child psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive brain imaging permits the study of normal and abnormal brain development in childhood and adolescence. This paper summarizes current knowledge of brain development for healthy adolescents and for patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), a rare form of the disorder. The implications of these findings are explored. Cross-sectional and longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are reviewed. The pattern

Nitin Gogate; Jay Giedd; Kristin Janson; Judith L. Rapoport

2001-01-01

121

Time course of cocaine in rabbit hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate interpretation of analytical results from hair testing for drugs of abuse continues to be a complex and difficult problem since many questions still remain unanswered. In this paper an animal model was developed to ascertain the time course for the appearance and disappearance of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in hair. Female Fauve Bourgogne red-haired rabbits (n

C. Jurado; C. Rodriguez-Vicente; M. Menéndez; M. Repetto

1997-01-01

122

A keratin 15 containing stem cell population from the hair follicle contributes to squamous papilloma development in the mouse.  

PubMed

The multistage model of nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis has contributed significantly to our understanding of epithelial cancer in general. We used the Krt1-15CrePR1;R26R transgenic mouse to determine the contribution of keratin 15+ cells from the hair follicle to skin tumor development by following the labeled progeny of the keratin 15 expressing cells into papillomas. We present three novel observations. First, we found that keratin 15 expressing cells contribute to most of the papillomas by 20 weeks of promotion. Second, in contrast to the transient behavior of labeled keratin 15-derived progeny in skin wound healing, keratin 15 progeny persist in papillomas, and some malignancies for many months following transient induction of the reporter gene. Third, papillomas have surprising heterogeneity not only in their cellular composition, but also in their expression of the codon 61 signature Ha-ras mutation with approximately 30% of keratin 15-derived regions expressing the mutation. Together, these results demonstrate that keratin 15 expressing cells of the hair follicle contribute to cutaneous papillomas with long term persistence and a subset of which express the Ha-ras signature mutation characteristic of initiated cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22431489

Li, Shulan; Park, Heuijoon; Trempus, Carol S; Gordon, Derek; Liu, Yaping; Cotsarelis, George; Morris, Rebecca J

2012-03-16

123

Severe Hair Loss of the Scalp due to a Hair Dye Containing Para phenylenediamine  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 41-year-old female showing severe hair loss approximately 90% after the use of a hair dye. These symptoms developed six days after the use of a hair dye containing PPD. A patch test showed a (++) reaction at 48?h to 1% PPD in petrolatum, whereas all metals and white petrolatum were negative. She was therefore diagnosed with contact dermatitis due to PPD, resulting in hair loss. The skin lesions gradually improved after starting treatment with the systemic corticosteroids. The possibility that allergic contact dermatitis from hair dyes may be responsible for telogen effluvium should always be considered in a patient with increased hair loss.

Ishida, Waka; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

2011-01-01

124

Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus, up to 1.1% p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 0.04% toluene-2,5-diamine, 0.02% 3-aminophenol and 0.02% resorcinol were found in the hair dye formulation after the required colour was developed. The consumers are thus exposed to precursors and couplers of oxidative hair dyes, both during and after hair dyeing, when the hair is washed. Furthermore, the consumers are also expected to be exposed to intermediates of oxidative hair dyes. The allergenic potential of oxidative hair dyes as well as the intermediates of these remains unknown. PMID:16930234

Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Bossi, Rossana

2006-08-01

125

Hair cell replacement in adult mouse utricles after targeted ablation of hair cells with diphtheria toxin.  

PubMed

We developed a transgenic mouse to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor. In adult wild-type mice, administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) caused no significant hair cell loss. In adult Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice, DT treatment reduced hair cell numbers to 6% of normal by 14 days post-DT. Remaining hair cells were located primarily in the lateral extrastriola. Over time, hair cell numbers increased in these regions, reaching 17% of untreated Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice by 60 days post-DT. Replacement hair cells were morphologically distinct, with multiple cytoplasmic processes, and displayed evidence for active mechanotransduction channels and synapses characteristic of type II hair cells. Three lines of evidence suggest replacement hair cells were derived via direct (nonmitotic) transdifferentiation of supporting cells: new hair cells did not incorporate BrdU, supporting cells upregulated the pro-hair cell gene Atoh1, and supporting cell numbers decreased over time. This study introduces a new method for efficient conditional hair cell ablation in adult mouse utricles and demonstrates that hair cells are spontaneously regenerated in vivo in regions where there may be ongoing hair cell turnover. PMID:23100430

Golub, Justin S; Tong, Ling; Ngyuen, Tot B; Hume, Cliff R; Palmiter, Richard D; Rubel, Edwin W; Stone, Jennifer S

2012-10-24

126

Expression of a dominant negative mutant of epidermal growth factor receptor in the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking alterations in hair follicle development and skin structure.  

PubMed Central

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key regulator of keratinocyte biology. However, the physiological role of EGFR in vivo has not been well established. To analyze the role of EGFR in skin, we have generated transgenic mice expressing an EGFR dominant negative mutant in the basal layer of epidermis and outer root sheath of hair follicles. Mice expressing the mutant receptor display short and waved pelage hair and curly whiskers during the first weeks of age, but subsequently pelage and vibrissa hairs become progressively sparser and atrophic. Eventually, most mice present severe alopecia. Histological examination of the skin of transgenic mice shows striking alterations in the development of hair follicles, which fail to enter into catagen stage. These alterations eventually lead to necrosis and disappearance of the follicles, accompanied by strong infiltration of the skin with inflammatory elements. The interfollicular epidermis of these mice shows marked hyperplasia, expression of hyperproliferation-associated keratin K6 and increased 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation. EGFR function was inhibited in transgenic skin keratinocytes, since in vivo and in vitro autophosphorylation of EGFR was almost completely abolished on EGF stimulation. These results implicate EGFR in the control of hair cycle progression, and provide new information about its role in epidermal growth and differentiation. Images

Murillas, R; Larcher, F; Conti, C J; Santos, M; Ullrich, A; Jorcano, J L

1995-01-01

127

Gsdma3 is required for hair follicle differentiation in mice.  

PubMed

Hair follicle differentiation is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. However, the known cellular and molecular mechanisms are limited. Gsdma3 is a novel murine gene and considered to be a mutation hotspot. Six mutants have been reported in Gsdma3 and all these mutants exhibit hair loss and hyperkeratosis phenotypes. In order to verify how the lack of Gsdma3 affects the hair defects, we use alopecia and excoriation mice, a new mouse mutation in this gene, as our research model. This mutation exhibits progressive hair loss, from head to the whole back, and followed by hair regrowth. We test that Gsdma3 is expressed in matrix, inner root sheath, and hair shaft. Ultrastructural and histological analyses show abnormal hair structures and reduced hair keratins in AE mice. The loss of interlocking structures and abnormal constitutive protein indicate defects in anchoring hair shaft in the hair follicle and resisting external forces. Molecular analysis of Gsdma3 deficiency and overexpression shows an Msx2/Foxn1/acidic hair keratin genetic pathway is involved. Thus, Gsdma3 is necessary for normal hair follicle differentiation. PMID:20977888

Li, Jin; Zhou, Yue; Yang, Tian; Wang, Ning; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

2010-10-25

128

Trichoscopy: a new method for diagnosing hair loss.  

PubMed

Videodermoscopy of hair and scalp (trichoscopy) is gaining popularity as a valuable tool in differential diagnosis of hair loss. This method allows viewing of the hair and scalp at X20 to X160 magnifications. Structures which may be visualized by trichoscopy include hair shafts of different types: vellus, terminal, micro-exclamation mark type, monilethrix, Netherton type, and pili annulati hairs. The number of hairs in one pilosebaceous unit may be assessed. It may be distinguished whether hair follicles are normal, empty, fibrotic ("white dots"), filled with hyperkeratotic plugs ("yellow dots") or containing cadaverized hair ("black dots"). Abnormalities of scalp skin color or structure which may be visualized by trichoscopy include honeycomb-type hyperpigmentation, perifollicular discoloration (hyperpigmentation), and scaling. PMID:18664157

Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rakowska, Adriana; Kowalska-Oledzka, Elzbieta; Slowinska, Monika

2008-07-01

129

A novel stereocilia defect in sensory hair cells of the deaf mouse mutant Tasmanian devil.  

PubMed

Stereocilia are specialized actin-filled, finger-like processes arrayed in rows of graded heights to form a crescent or W-shape on the apical surface of sensory hair cells. The stereocilia are deflected by the vibration of sound, which opens transduction channels and allows an influx of ions to depolarize the hair cell, in turn triggering synaptic activity. The specialized morphology and organization of the stereocilia bundle is crucial in the process of sensory transduction in the inner ear. However, we know little about the development of stereocilia in the mouse and few molecules that are involved in stereocilia maturation are known. We describe here a new mouse mutant with abnormal stereocilia development. The Tasmanian devil (tde) mouse mutation arose by insertional mutagenesis and has been mapped to the middle of chromosome 5. Homozygotes show head-tossing and circling and have raised thresholds for cochlear nerve responses to sound. The gross morphology of the inner ear was normal, but the stereocilia of cochlear and vestibular hair cells are abnormally thin, and they become progressively disorganized with increasing age. Ultimately, the hair cells die. This is the first report of a mutant showing thin stereocilia. The association of thin stereocilia with cochlear dysfunction emphasizes the critical role of stereocilia in auditory transduction, and the discovery of the Tasmanian devil mutant provides a resource for the identification of an essential molecule in hair cell function. PMID:12405956

Erven, Alexandra; Skynner, Michael J; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Brown, Steve D M; Steel, Karen P; Allen, Nicholas D

2002-10-01

130

Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice  

PubMed Central

Background Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood. Results Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high resolution MRI to conduct a brain-wide screen for structural changes and found that the largest reduction in volume occurred in the olfactory bulbs. Next, we tested adult mice in an associative olfactory task and found that fetal alcohol exposure impaired discrimination between similar odors but left odor memory intact. Finally, we investigated olfactory bulb neurogenesis as a potential mechanism by performing an in vitro neurosphere assay, in vivo labeling of new cells using BrdU, and in vivo labeling of new cells using a transgenic reporter system. We found that fetal alcohol exposure decreased the number of neural precursor cells in the subependymal zone and the number of new cells in the olfactory bulbs during the first few postnatal weeks. Conclusions Using a combination of techniques, including structural brain imaging, in vitro and in vivo cell detection methods, and behavioral testing, we found that fetal alcohol exposure results in smaller olfactory bulbs and impairments in odor discrimination that persist into adulthood. Furthermore, we found that these abnormalities in olfactory bulb structure and function may arise from deficits in the generation of new olfactory bulb neurons during early postnatal development.

2011-01-01

131

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

132

Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)  

MedlinePLUS

... The medical term for severe hair pulling is trichotillomania. People with trichotillomania pull hair on various parts of their bodies, ... clips, a hat, wig or scarf. People with trichotillomania are not able stop pulling their hair. As ...

133

Super vasomol hair dye poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management.

Kumar, Praveen A. S.; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T. K.

2012-01-01

134

Root hair sweet growth  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. Growing root hairs require intensive cell-wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip or polarized growth. We have recently shown that cell wall glycoproteins such as extensins (EXTs) are essential components of the cell wall during polarized growth. Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of cell wall EXTs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption of specific P4Hs resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs. Our results demonstrate that correct hydroxylation and also further O-glycosylation on EXTs are essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation. The changes that O-glycosylated cell-wall proteins like EXTs undergo during cell growth represent a starting point to unravel the entire biochemical pathway involved in plant development.

Velasquez, Silvia M; Iusem, Norberto D

2011-01-01

135

Hair restoration surgery: the state of the art.  

PubMed

Hair restoration is a highly sophisticated subspecialty that offers significant relief to patients with hair loss. An improved understanding of the aesthetics of hair loss and cosmetic hair restoration, hair anatomy and physiology, and the development of microvascular surgical instrumentation has revolutionized the approach to surgical hair restoration since the original description. Additional elements that contribute to the current state of the art in hair restoration include graft size, site creation, packing density, and medical control of hair loss. The results of hair restoration are natural in appearance and are provided with a very high level of patient satisfaction and safety. This aspect of cosmetic surgery is a very welcome addition to a traditional aesthetic practice and serves as a tremendous source for internal cross-referral. The future of hair restoration surgery is centered on minimal-incision surgery as well as cell-based therapies. PMID:23169821

Vogel, James E; Jimenez, Francisco; Cole, John; Keene, Sharon A; Harris, James A; Barrera, Alfonso; Rose, Paul T

2012-11-20

136

Prevention of hair surface aging.  

PubMed

The hydrophobic character of the surface of human hair is particularly attributed to the lipid components of the epicuticle and to a layer of covalently bound fatty acids. This outer f-layer mainly consists of 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA), which is covalently bound to the underlying protein matrix, forming the epicuticle as composite surface structure. Daily weathering and chemical treatments, specifically oxidative bleaching, decrease the hydrophobicity of the outer hair surface drastically.Multiple daily stress, simulated by an automatic test device including shampooing, blow drying and sun light exposure, changed the lipid composition of hair significantly. A marked loss of 18-MEA was observed. Decreasing contact angles are the direct consequence. A new method to determine the "pseudo-static" contact angle on hair was developed. The results correlate with the corresponding data obtained by dynamic contact angle measurements according to Wilhelmy. Besides that, the resorption time of water droplets by the hair surface provides additional information about the intactness of the outer f-layer.Specific proteolipids, which are lipid-modified keratins, are able to reconstruct the surface layer of damaged hair by creating renewed surface hydrophobicity and extending the water resorption time by the hair surface. PMID:21635851

Wiesche, Erik Schulze Zur; Körner, Andrea; Schäfer, Karola; Wortmann, Franz-Josef

137

Abnormal global left ventricular relaxation occurs early during the development of pharmacologically induced ischemia.  

PubMed

In animal and human models, left ventricular (LV) diastolic function has been observed to be highly sensitive to myocardial ischemia. The response of LV diastolic parameters to pharmacologically induced ischemia, however, has not been characterized and might be important in the interpretation of dobutamine stress echocardiography. Eight mongrel dogs, in which were inserted a high-fidelity micromanometer LV catheter, coronary sinus sampling catheter, and ultrasonic coronary artery flow probe, underwent intravenous dobutamine infusion at escalating doses both before (control protocol) and after (ischemia protocol) creation of left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis with a hydraulic cuff occluder adjusted to maintain resting coronary artery flow but attenuate reactive hyperemia. At each dobutamine dose, epicardial short-axis 2-dimensional echocardiographic images and hemodynamic measurements were obtained. LV diastolic function was examined by calculation of peak (-)dP/dt and the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau). The dobutamine infusion protocol was terminated on the earliest recognition of an anterior wall motion abnormality. Peak (+)dP/dt normalized for developed isovolumetric pressure was calculated as a relatively load-independent index of global LV contractile function. Dobutamine infusion with and without ischemia resulted in comparable changes in heart rate and (+)dP/dt/IP, with no change in LV end-diastolic or -systolic pressure. The magnitude of peak (-)dP/dt increased less during the ischemia (1231 +/- 109 to 1791 +/- 200 mm Hg/sec) versus the control (1390 +/- 154 to 2432 +/- 320 mm Hg/sec) protocol (P <.05). Similarly, the observed decrease in tau was less during the ischemia (53 +/- 3 to 38 +/- 4 msec) than the control (51 +/- 5 to 23 +/- 3 msec) protocol, corresponding to a slower rate of relaxation (P <.05). In addition, the smaller decrease in tau was observed at the dobutamine dose before the dose at which an echocardiographic wall motion abnormality was first recognized. Dobutamine-induced ischemia is associated with abnormal LV diastolic function. In addition, these abnormalities seem to occur early in the development of ischemia. These observations extend to pharmacologically induced ischemia prior findings from other models of ischemia, suggesting the high sensitivity of LV diastolic function to the development of myocardial ischemia. PMID:9950970

Miyamoto, M I; Rose, G A; Weissman, N J; Guerrero, J L; Semigran, M J; Picard, M H

1999-02-01

138

Skin and hair follicle integrity is crucially dependent on ?1 integrin expression on keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

?1 integrins are ubiquitously expressed receptors that mediate cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. To analyze the function of ?1 integrin in skin we generated mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the ?1 integrin gene using the cre–loxP system. Mutant mice developed severe hair loss due to a reduced proliferation of hair matrix cells and severe hair follicle abnormalities. Eventually, the malformed hair follicles were removed by infiltrating macrophages. The epidermis of the back skin became hyperthickened, the basal keratinocytes showed reduced expression of ?6?4 integrin, and the number of hemidesmosomes decreased. Basement membrane components were atypically deposited and, at least in the case of laminin-5, improperly processed, leading to disruption of the basement membrane and blister formation at the dermal–epidermal junction. In contrast, the integrity of the basement membrane surrounding the ?1-deficient hair follicle was not affected. Finally, the dermis became fibrotic. These results demonstrate an important role of ?1 integrins in hair follicle morphogenesis, in the processing of basement membrane components, in the maintenance of some, but not all basement membranes, in keratinocyte differentiaton and proliferation, and in the formation and/or maintenance of hemidesmosomes.

Brakebusch, Cord; Grose, Richard; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Ramirez, Angel; Jorcano, Jose L.; Pirro, Alison; Svensson, Marcus; Herken, Rainer; Sasaki, Takako; Timpl, Rupert; Werner, Sabine; Fassler, Reinhard

2000-01-01

139

Acquired Hair Fragility in Pili anulati: Causal Relationship with Androgenetic Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pili anulati are defined by characteristic alternating light and dark banding in the hair shaft, due to air-filled spaces between the macrofibrillar units of the hair cortex, and are regarded as a congenital hair shaft disorder without increased hair fragility. Two cases of pili anulati are presented, in which fragility of hair developed in a causal relationship with the onset

Günther F. L. Hofbauer; Dionysios Tsambaos; Max A. Spycher; Ralph M. Trüeb

2001-01-01

140

HPV presence precedes abnormal cytology in women developing cervical cancer and signals false negative smears  

PubMed Central

In a retrospective case–control study, we investigated high-risk HPV DNA presence by general primer GP5+/6+ PCR in the last normal cervical smear in the patient archives (i.e. baseline smear) of 57 women who later developed cervical cancer. Also, normal cervical smears of 114 age-matched control women were analysed. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in 37 of the 57 (65%) baseline smears of the case women, and 7 (6%) of 114 smears of the control women (OR 28, 95% Cl 11–72). The HPV positive subsequent smears and cervical cancer biopsies of the case women contained the same HPV type as was detected in the baseline smear. After cytological revision, the baseline smears of 48 case women (84%) were reclassified as abnormal, 33 (69%) of which scored high-risk HPV DNA positive. Ultimately, an undisputable normal baseline smear was found in only 10 case women. In 7 (70%) of them this smear was HPV positive, whereas only 7 (7%) of 104 revised, undisputable normal smears of control women were high-risk HPV positive (OR 32, 95% Cl 6.8–153). The results showed that (1) high-risk HPV presence precedes abnormal cytology in women who develop cervical cancer, and (2) high-risk HPV testing signals false-negative smears of women at risk of cervical cancer. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Zielinski, G D; Snijders, P J F; Rozendaal, L; Voorhorst, F J; Linden, H C van der; Runsink, A P; Schipper, F A de; Meijer, C J L M

2001-01-01

141

The character of abnormalities found in eye development of quail embruos exposed under space flight conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The avian embryonic eye is used as a model system for studies on the environmental effects on central nervous system development. Here we present results of qualitative investigation of the eye development in quail embryos incubated in micro-"g" environment. In this study we used eyes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) embryos "flown" onboard biosatellite Kosmos-1129 and on Mir station within the framework of Mir-NASA Program. Eyes obtained from embryos ranging in age from 3-12 days (E3-E12) were prepared histologically and compared with those of the synchronous and laboratory gound controls. Ther most careful consideration was given to finding and analysis of eye developmental abnormalities. Then they were compared with those already described by experimental teratology for birds and mammals. At the stage of the "eye cup" (E3) we found the case of invalid formation of the inner retina. The latter was represented by disorganized neuroblasts occupying whole posterior chamber of the eye. On the 7th day of quail eye development, at the period of cellular growth activation some cases of small eyes with many folds of overgrowing neural and pigmented retinal layers were detected. In retinal folds of these eyes the normal layering was disturbed as well as the formation of aqueous body and pecten oculi. At this time point the changes were also found in the anterior part of the eye. The peculiarities came out of the bigger width of the cornea and separation of its layers, but were found in synchronous control as well. Few embryos of E10 had also eyes with the abnormities described for E7 but this time they were more vivid because of the completion of eye tissue differentiation. At the stage E12 we found the case evaluated as microphthalmia attending by overgrowth of anterior pigmented tissues - iris and ciliary body attached with the cornea. Most, but not all, of abnormalities we found in eye morphogeneses belonged to the birds "flown" aboard Kosmos- 1129 and were likely induced by specific conditions of that flight. All sorts of disturbances we observed in eye development were similar with dom inated types found in birds and mammals on ground and could be induced by factors we intend to discuss in our report.

Grigoryan, E.; Dadheva, O.; Polinskaya, V.; Guryeva, T.

142

Abnormal cortical development; towards elucidation of the LIS1 gene product function (review).  

PubMed

Lissencephaly is a relatively common brain malformation. Lissencephaly type 1 is characterized by the smooth appearance of the cortex and the presence of four abnormally positioned layers instead of the normal six. Lissencephaly is considered to be an abnormality in neuronal migration. The gene mutated in type 1 lissencephaly was cloned by us and designated LIS1. Recently, several genes involved in cortical development have been cloned in the mouse. In human an additional X-linked lissencephaly gene has been identified. We summarize here our current knowledge on the LIS1 gene and its function. It has been identified as a non-catalytic subunit of PAF-acetylhydrolase, a heterotrimeric enzyme which inactivates the platelet-activating factor (PAF). In addition, we have demonstrated that LIS1 interacts with tubulin, and affects the dynamics properties of microtubles. LIS1 contains seven WD repeats and may structurally resemble the beta-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Interestingly, the catalytic subunit of PAF-acetylhydrolase was found to resemble the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. We raise the possibility that LIS1 is part of an intracellular signaling pathway involved in neuronal migration. PMID:9852306

Reiner, O; Sapir, T

1998-05-01

143

Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for quantification of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), THC, CBN and CBD in hair.  

PubMed

For analysis of hair samples derived from a pilot study ('in vivo' contamination of hair by sidestream marijuana smoke), an LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Hair samples were extracted in methanol for 4 h under occasional shaking at room temperature, after adding THC-D(3), CBN-D(3), CBD-D(3) and THCA-A-D(3) as an in-house synthesized internal standard. The analytes were separated by gradient elution on a Luna C18 column using 0.1% HCOOH and ACN?+?0.1% HCOOH. Data acquisition was performed on a QTrap 4000 in electrospray ionization-multi reaction monitoring mode. Validation was carried out according to the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh). Limit of detection and lower limit of quantification were 2.5 pg/mg for THCA-A and 20 pg/mg for THC, CBN and CBD. A linear calibration model was applicable for all analytes over a range of 2.5 pg/mg or 20 pg/mg to 1000 pg/mg, using a weighting factor 1/x. Selectivity was shown for 12 blank hair samples from different sources. Accuracy and precision data were within the required limits for all analytes (bias between -0.2% and 6.4%, RSD between 3.7% and 11.5%). The dried hair extracts were stable over a time period of one to five days in the dark at room temperature. Processed sample stability (maximum decrease of analyte peak area below 25%) was considerably enhanced by adding 0.25% lecithin (w/v) in ACN?+?0.1% HCOOH for reconstitution. Extraction efficiency for CBD was generally very low using methanol extraction. Hence, for effective extraction of CBD alkaline hydrolysis is recommended. PMID:23378095

Roth, Nadine; Moosmann, Bjoern; Auwärter, Volker

2013-02-01

144

[Frizzy hair pathology].  

PubMed

Frizzy hair syndrome is frequent. It is due to sideways growth and tight coiling of the hair fiber. It is often secondary to unsuitable grooming practices causing ingrown hair (pili incarnati) followed by infection and\\or damage. The fragility of frizzy hair promotes alopecia due to chronic traction, use of hair relaxers, and perming. Treatment of complications is difficult so awareness of precautionary measures is important. PMID:22235613

Morand, Jean-Jacques

2011-10-01

145

Conservation of Lotus and Arabidopsis Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins Reveals New Players in Root Hair Development1(W)(OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins constitute a large family of transcriptional regulators in plants. Although they have been shown to play important roles in a wide variety of developmental processes, relatively few have been functionally characterized. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the Lotus japonicus ROOTHAIRLESS1 (LjRHL1) locus. Deleterious mutations in this locus prevent root hair development, which also aborts

Bogumil Karas; Lisa Amyot; Christopher Johansen; Shusei Sato; Satoshi Tabata; Masayoshi Kawaguchi; Krzysztof Szczyglowski

146

Hair growth and rejuvenation: an overview.  

PubMed

Hair has psychological and sociological importance throughout the ages in framing the personality and general appearance of an individual. Significant progress is being made on discovering an effective and safe drug for hair growth. Angiogenesis, androgen antagonism, vasodilation, potassium channel opening and 5-alpha reductase inhibition are the major non-surgical therapeutic strategies of hair growth promotion. In spite of a flood of drugs claiming to be useful as hair growth promoters, more rational strategies, which can target the problem areas or stages of the hair growth cycle effectively, are still awaited. This article highlights the developments in hair rejuvenation strategies and reviews the potential of herbal drugs as safer and effective alternatives. PMID:20536276

Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, Mohan Singh Maniyari

2010-06-10

147

R6/2 Huntington's disease mice develop early and progressive abnormal brain metabolism and seizures.  

PubMed

A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several Huntington's disease (HD) mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional MRI (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI signals [relative cerebral blood volumes (rCBVs)] and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions, thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [(14)C] 2-deoxyglucose maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models. PMID:22573668

Cepeda-Prado, Efrain; Popp, Susanna; Khan, Usman; Stefanov, Dimitre; Rodríguez, Jorge; Menalled, Liliana B; Dow-Edwards, Diana; Small, Scott A; Moreno, Herman

2012-05-01

148

Human TIMP-3 Is Expressed During Fetal Development, Hair Growth Cycle, and Cancer Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We studied the expression and regulation of TIMP-3, a recently cloned mem- ber of the tissue inhibitor of the metalloproteinase family, during human fetal develop- ment and in various human tissues, with emphasis on epithelial structures. Expression of TIMP-3 mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in developing bone, kidney, and vari- ous mesenchymal structures. At 16 weeks of

Kristiina Airola; Matti Ahonen; Nina Johansson; Päivi Heikkilä; Juha Kere; Veli-Matti Kähäri; Ulpu K. Saarialho-Kere

1998-01-01

149

Pathobiology of chemotherapy-induced hair loss.  

PubMed

Hair loss can be a psychologically devastating adverse effect of chemotherapy, but satisfactory management strategies for chemotherapy-induced alopecia remain elusive. In this Review we focus on the complex pathobiology of this side-effect. We discuss the clinical features and current management approaches, then draw upon evidence from mouse models and human hair-follicle organ-culture studies to explore the main pathobiology principles and explain why chemotherapy-induced alopecia is so challenging to manage. P53-dependent apoptosis of hair-matrix keratinocytes and chemotherapy-induced hair-cycle abnormalities, driven by the dystrophic anagen or dystrophic catagen pathway, play important parts in the degree of hair-follicle damage, alopecia phenotype, and hair-regrowth pattern. Additionally, the degree of hair-follicle stem-cell damage determines whether chemotherapy-induced alopecia is reversible. We highlight the need for carefully designed preclinical research models to generate novel, clinically relevant pointers to how this condition may be overcome. PMID:23369683

Paus, Ralf; Haslam, Iain S; Sharov, Andrey A; Botchkarev, Vladimir A

2013-02-01

150

Plucked human hair as a tissue in which to assess pharmacodynamic end points during drug development studies  

PubMed Central

We have demonstrated the feasibility of detecting and quantifying six cell-cycle-related nuclear markers (Ki67, pRb, p27, phospho-p27 (phosphorylated p27), phospho-pRb (phosphorylated pRb), phospho-HH3 (phosphorylated histone H3)) in plucked human scalp and eyebrow hair. Estimates of the proportion of plucked hairs that are lost or damaged during processing plus the intra- and intersubject variability of each nuclear marker with these techniques are provided to inform sizing decisions for intervention studies with drugs potentially impacting on these markers in the future.

Camidge, D R; Randall, K R; Foster, J R; Sadler, C J; Wright, J A; Soames, A R; Laud, P J; Smith, P D; Hughes, A M

2005-01-01

151

Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography  

PubMed Central

A simple, specific, accurate, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of Lawsone in Trichup herbal hair powder (coded as a THHP), polyherbal formulation. The chromatographic development was carried out on aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 and good resolution was achieved with Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (8:1:1 v/v/v) as mobile phase. Lawsone detection was carried out densitometrically at 277 nm and obtained retardation factor value was 0.46 ± 0.02. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curve was achieved to be linear over a range of 5-60 ?g/ml and regression coefficient was obtained 0.998. Accuracy of chromatographic method was evaluated by standard addition method; recovery was obtained 99.25 ± 0.61%. The peak purity of Lawsone was achieved 0.999 r. Relative standard deviation for intraday and inter-day precision was 0.37-0.56% and 0.42-0.55%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the Lawsone were found to be 1.08 ?g/m land 3.28 ?g/ml, respectively. This result shows that the method was well validated. In the present study, the Lawsone content was found 0.322 ± 0.014% in THHP. This study reveals that the proposed high performance thin layer chromatography method is accurate, fast and cost- effective for routine estimation of Lawsone in polyherbal formulation.

Patel, Maunang M.; Solanki, Bhavna R.; Gurav, Nilesh C.; Patel, Prateek H.; Verma, Shweta S.

2013-01-01

152

Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple, specific, accurate, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of Lawsone in Trichup herbal hair powder (coded as a THHP), polyherbal formulation. The chromatographic development was carried out on aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 and good resolution was achieved with Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (8:1:1 v/v/v) as mobile phase. Lawsone detection was carried out densitometrically at 277 nm and obtained retardation factor value was 0.46 ± 0.02. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curve was achieved to be linear over a range of 5-60 ?g/ml and regression coefficient was obtained 0.998. Accuracy of chromatographic method was evaluated by standard addition method; recovery was obtained 99.25 ± 0.61%. The peak purity of Lawsone was achieved 0.999 r. Relative standard deviation for intraday and inter-day precision was 0.37-0.56% and 0.42-0.55%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the Lawsone were found to be 1.08 ?g/m land 3.28 ?g/ml, respectively. This result shows that the method was well validated. In the present study, the Lawsone content was found 0.322 ± 0.014% in THHP. This study reveals that the proposed high performance thin layer chromatography method is accurate, fast and cost- effective for routine estimation of Lawsone in polyherbal formulation. PMID:24083204

Patel, Maunang M; Solanki, Bhavna R; Gurav, Nilesh C; Patel, Prateek H; Verma, Shweta S

2013-07-01

153

Menkes' disease: report of a case and determination of eumelanin and pheomelanin in hypopigmented hair.  

PubMed

We report a male infant with Menkes' disease who showed, at the age of 3 months, slow growth, hair abnormalities such as pili torti and white hair, and low levels of serum copper and ceruloplasmin. The exceptionally bright portions of his hair contained eumelanin and pheomelanin at levels only half those of normal Japanese controls. After subcutaneous administration of copper-histidinate for 2 months, his scalp hair changed to dark brown. PMID:1638075

Tomita, Y; Kondo, Y; Ito, S; Hara, M; Yoshimura, T; Igarashi, H; Tagami, H

1992-01-01

154

MARCKS deficiency in mice leads to abnormal brain development and perinatal death.  

PubMed Central

The MARCKS protein is a widely distributed cellular substrate for protein kinase C. It is a myristoylprotein that binds calmodulin and actin in a manner reversible by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation. It is also highly expressed in nervous tissue, particularly during development. To evaluate a possible developmental role for MARCKS, we disrupted its gene in mice by using the techniques of homologous recombination. Pups homozygous for the disrupted allele lacked detectable MARCKS mRNA and protein. All MARCKS-deficient pups died before or within a few hours of birth. Twenty-five percent had exencephaly and 19% had omphalocele (normal frequencies, < 1%), indicating high frequencies of midline defects, particularly in cranial neurulation. Nonexencephalic MARCKS-deficient pups had agenesis of the corpus callosum and other forebrain commissures, as well as failure of fusion of the cerebral hemispheres. All MARCKS-deficient pups also displayed characteristic lamination abnormalities of the cortex and retina. These studies suggest that MARCKS plays a vital role in the normal developmental processes of neurulation, hemisphere fusion, forebrain commissure formation, and formation of cortical and retinal laminations. We conclude that MARCKS is necessary for normal mouse brain development and postnatal survival. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Stumpo, D J; Bock, C B; Tuttle, J S; Blackshear, P J

1995-01-01

155

White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a phosphate (Pi) deficiency tolerant legume which develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and...

156

Pili annulati associated with hair fragility: cause or coincidence?  

PubMed

Pili annulati is a disorder that produces a spangled appearance to the hair, caused by alternating light and dark banding of hair shafts. This phenomenon is created by abnormal cavities in the cortex of the hair shaft, which produces lighter bands seen on clinical examination. Complications of pili annulati are limited; the most noteworthy complication is increased breakage secondary to weathering of the abnormal hair shafts. We report a case of a 14-year-old adolescent girl with pili annulati and progressive hair loss of 2 months' duration. Most of her hairs were notably short, spangled, and lusterless with light and dark banding observed with handheld magnification. Light microscopy demonstrated alternating light and dark bands, and the dark bands had the typical appearance of air-filled spaces. Gentler hair grooming practices were recommended, and at a follow-up visit, the appearance of the hair had improved with darker and longer shafts. This case should alert clinicians to look for pili annulati when hair fragility is present. PMID:23461057

Werner, Kimberly; St-Surin-Lord, Sharleen; Sperling, Leonard C

2013-01-01

157

Return of function after hair cell regeneration.  

PubMed

The ultimate goal of hair cell regeneration is to restore functional hearing. Because birds begin perceiving and producing song early in life, they provide a propitious model for studying not only whether regeneration of lost hair cells can return auditory sensitivity but also whether this regenerated periphery can restore complex auditory perception and production. They are the only animal where hair cell regeneration occurs naturally after hair cell loss and where the ability to correctly perceive and produce complex acoustic signals is critical to procreation and survival. The purpose of this review article is to survey the most recent literature on behavioral measures of auditory functional return in adult birds after hair cell regeneration. The first portion of the review summarizes the effect of ototoxic drug induced hair cell loss and regeneration on hearing loss and recovery for pure tones. The second portion reviews studies of complex, species-specific vocalization discrimination and recognition after hair cell regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of temporary hearing loss and recovery through hair cell regeneration on complex call and song production. Hearing sensitivity is restored, except for the highest frequencies, after hair cell regeneration in birds, but there are enduring changes to complex auditory perception. These changes do not appear to provide any obstacle to future auditory or vocal learning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Inner Ear Development and Regeneration". PMID:23202051

Ryals, Brenda M; Dent, Micheal L; Dooling, Robert J

2012-11-29

158

[Severe abnormal development of the personality that can be regarded as pathological--initial results of a catamnestic study].  

PubMed

Proceding from the definition of "severely abnormal development of the personality that can be regarded as pathological" (SAPEK) as defined by Lange in collaboration with the 5th Penal Senate of the supreme court and with reference to the different forms of maldevelopment as categorized by Szewczyk, the author uses his own catamnestic studie to discuss the bounds and frequencies of such abnormal personality developments and criteria for the "severity of the illness" in the sense of Section 16, paragraph 1 (2nd option) of the Code of Criminal Law. In view of their importance, dissocial and psychosexual maldevelopment is dealt with in greater detail. PMID:6635032

Friemert, K

1983-07-01

159

Comparison of Phenotypes between Different vangl2 Mutants Demonstrates Dominant Effects of the Looptail Mutation during Hair Cell Development  

PubMed Central

Experiments utilizing the Looptail mutant mouse, which harbors a missense mutation in the vangl2 gene, have been essential for studies of planar polarity and linking the function of the core planar cell polarity proteins to other developmental signals. Originally described as having dominant phenotypic traits, the molecular interactions underlying the Looptail mutant phenotype are unclear because Vangl2 protein levels are significantly reduced or absent from mutant tissues. Here we introduce a vangl2 knockout mouse and directly compare the severity of the knockout and Looptail mutant phenotypes by intercrossing the two lines and assaying the planar polarity of inner ear hair cells. Overall the vangl2 knockout phenotype is milder than the phenotype of compound mutants carrying both the Looptail and vangl2 knockout alleles. In compound mutants a greater number of hair cells are affected and changes in the orientation of individual hair cells are greater when quantified. We further demonstrate in a heterologous cell system that the protein encoded by the Looptail mutation (Vangl2S464N) disrupts delivery of Vangl1 and Vangl2 proteins to the cell surface as a result of oligomer formation between Vangl1 and Vangl2S464N, or Vangl2 and Vangl2S464N, coupled to the intracellular retention of Vangl2S464N. As a result, Vangl1 protein is missing from the apical cell surface of vestibular hair cells in Looptail mutants, but is retained at the apical cell surface of hair cells in vangl2 knockouts. Similarly the distribution of Prickle-like2, a putative Vangl2 interacting protein, is differentially affected in the two mutant lines. In summary, we provide evidence for a direct physical interaction between Vangl1 and Vangl2 through a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches and propose that this interaction underlies the dominant phenotypic traits associated with the Looptail mutation.

Yin, Haifeng; Copley, Catherine O.; Goodrich, Lisa V.; Deans, Michael R.

2012-01-01

160

Whirler Mutant Hair Cells Have Less Severe Pathology than Shaker 2 or Double Mutants  

PubMed Central

MYOSIN XV is a motor protein that interacts with the PDZ domain-containing protein WHIRLIN and transports WHIRLIN to the tips of the stereocilia. Shaker 2 (sh2) mice have a mutation in the motor domain of MYOSIN XV and exhibit congenital deafness and circling behavior, probably because of abnormally short stereocilia. Whirler (wi) mice have a similar phenotype caused by a deletion in the third PDZ domain of WHIRLIN. We compared the morphology of Whrnwi/wi and Myo15sh2/sh2 sensory hair cells and found that Myo15sh2/sh2 have more frequent pathology at the base of inner hair cells than Whrnwi/wi, and shorter outer hair cell stereocilia. Considering the functional and morphologic similarities in the phenotypes caused by mutations in Myo15 and Whrn, and the physical interaction between their encoded proteins, we used a genetic approach to test for functional overlap. Double heterozygotes (Myo15sh2/+, Whrnwi/+) have normal hearing and no increase in hearing loss compared to normal littermates. Single and double mutants (Myo15sh2/sh2, Whrnwi/wi) exhibit abnormal persistence of kinocilia and microvilli, and develop abnormal cytoskeletal architecture. Double mutants are also similar to the single mutants in viability, circling behavior, and lack of a Preyer reflex. The morphology of cochlear hair cell stereocilia in double mutants reflects a dominance of the more severe Myo15sh2/sh2 phenotype over the Whrnwi/wi phenotype. This suggests that MYOSIN XV may interact with other proteins besides WHIRLIN that are important for hair cell maturation.

Mustapha, Mirna; Beyer, Lisa A.; Izumikawa, Masahiko; Swiderski, Donald L.; Dolan, David F.; Raphael, Yehoash

2007-01-01

161

A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology, a Training Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The material is presented particularly for practitioners, but academicians should find the material of help and value, also, for introductory courses to study of clinical psychology, abnormal psychology, and psychopathology. Areas covered include the foll...

W. R. Phelps

1974-01-01

162

The potential significance of binovular follicles and binucleate giant oocytes for the development of genetic abnormalities.  

PubMed

Normal development of a fertilizable female gamete emanates from a follicle containing only one oocyte that becomes haploid after first meiotic division. Binovular follicles including two oocytes and binucleate giant oocytes that are diploid after first meiosis constitute notable exceptions from this rule. Data provided by programmes of human-assisted reproduction on the occurrence of both phenomena have been reviewed to evaluate possible implications for the formation of genetic abnormalities. To exclude confusion with oocytes aspirated from two adjacent individual follicles, true binovularity has been defined as inclusion of two oocytes within a common zona pellucida or their fusion in the zonal region. A total of 18 conjoined oocytes have been reported and one of the oocyte was normally fertilized in seven cases. Simultaneous fertilization of both female gametes occurred only once. No pregnancy was achieved after transfer of an embryo from a binovular follicle. Binucleate giant oocytes have been observed sporadically but a few reports suggest an incidence of up to 0.3% of all gametes retrieved. Extensive studies performed by two independent centres demonstrated that giant oocytes are diploid at metaphase II, can undergo fertilization in vitro with formation of two or three pronuclei and develop into triploid zygotes and triploid or triploid/mosaic embryos. In summary, giant binucleate oocytes may be responsible for the development of digynic triploidy whereas the currently available data do not support a role of conjoined oocytes in producing dizygotic twins, mosaicism, chimaeras or tetraploidy. However, more information on the maturity and fertilizability of oocytes from binovular follicles is needed. Future studies should also evaluate a possible impact of pharmaceutical and environmental oestrogens on the formation of multiovular follicles. PMID:23271027

Rosenbusch, Bernd

2012-12-01

163

Abnormal interneuron development in disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 L100P mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Background Interneuron deficits are one of the most consistent findings in post-mortem studies of schizophrenia patients and are likely important in the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a strong susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, is involved in neurodevelopment, including that of interneurons. However, the mechanism by which DISC1 regulates interneuron development remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed interneuron histology in the Disc1-L100P single point mutation mouse, that was previously shown to have behavioral abnormalities and cortical developmental defects related to schizophrenia. Results We sought to determine whether a Disc1-L100P point mutation in the mouse would alter interneuron density and location. First, we examined interneuron position in the developing mouse cortex during embryonic days 14–16 as an indicator of interneuron tangential migration, and found striking migration deficits in Disc1-L100P mutants. Further analysis of adult brains revealed that the Disc1-L100P mutants have selective alterations of calbindin- and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the cortex and hippocampus, decreased GAD67/PV co-localization and mis-positioned interneurons across the neocortex when compared to wild-type littermates. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the anomalies seen in post-mortem schizophrenia studies and other Disc1 mutant mouse models. Future research is required to determine the specific mechanisms underlying these cellular deficits. Overall, these findings provide further evidence that DISC1 participates in interneuron development and add to our understanding of how DISC1 variants can affect susceptibility to psychiatric illness.

2013-01-01

164

Selenoprotein N deficiency in mice is associated with abnormal lung development.  

PubMed

Mutations in the human SEPN1 gene, encoding selenoprotein N (SepN), cause SEPN1-related myopathy (SEPN1-RM) characterized by muscle weakness, spinal rigidity, and respiratory insufficiency. As with other members of the selenoprotein family, selenoprotein N incorporates selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec). Most selenoproteins that have been functionally characterized are involved in oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, with the Sec residue located at their catalytic site. To model SEPN1-RM, we generated a Sepn1-knockout (Sepn1(-/-)) mouse line. Homozygous Sepn1(-/-) mice are fertile, and their weight and lifespan are comparable to wild-type (WT) animals. Under baseline conditions, the muscle histology of Sepn1(-/-) mice remains normal, but subtle core lesions could be detected in skeletal muscle after inducing oxidative stress. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels showed lower sensitivity to caffeine in SepN deficient myofibers, suggesting a possible role of SepN in RyR regulation. SepN deficiency also leads to abnormal lung development characterized by enlarged alveoli, which is associated with decreased tissue elastance and increased quasi-static compliance of Sepn1(-/-) lungs. This finding raises the possibility that the respiratory syndrome observed in patients with SEPN1 mutations may have a primary pulmonary component in addition to the weakness of respiratory muscles. PMID:23325319

Moghadaszadeh, Behzad; Rider, Branden E; Lawlor, Michael W; Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Gupta, Kushagra; Boukedes, Steve S; Owen, Caroline A; Beggs, Alan H

2013-01-16

165

Reduction of Mitoferrin Results in Abnormal Development and Extended Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for organisms. It is mainly utilized in mitochondria for biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, hemes and other cofactors. Mitoferrin 1 and mitoferrin 2, two homologues proteins belonging to the mitochondrial solute carrier family, are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. Mitoferrin 1 is highly expressed in developing erythrocytes which consume a large amount of iron during hemoglobinization. Mitoferrin 2 is ubiquitously expressed, whose functions are less known. Zebrafish with mitoferrin 1 mutation show profound hypochromic anaemia and erythroid maturation arrests, and yeast with defects in MRS3/4, the counterparts of mitoferrin 1/2, has low mitochondrial iron levels and grows poorly by iron depletion. Mitoferrin 1 expression is up-regulated in yeast and mouse models of Fiedreich's ataxia disease and in human cell culture models of Parkinson disease, suggesting its involvement in the pathogenesis of diseases with mitochondrial iron accumulation. In this study we found that reduced mitoferrin levels in C. elegans by RNAi treatment causes pleiotropic phenotypes such as small body size, reduced fecundity, slow movement and increased sensitivity to paraquat. Despite these abnormities, lifespan was increased by 50% to 80% in N2 wild type strain, and in further studies using the RNAi sensitive strain eri-1, more than doubled lifespan was observed. The pathways or mechanisms responsible for the lifespan extension and other phenotypes of mitoferrin RNAi worms are worth further study, which may contribute to our understanding of aging mechanisms and the pathogenesis of iron disorder related diseases.

Ren, Yaguang; Yang, Su; Tan, Guoqiang; Ye, Wei; Liu, Danhui; Qian, Xu; Ding, Zhongying; Zhong, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingrui; Jiang, Dandan; Zhao, Yuhong; Lu, Jianxin

2012-01-01

166

Development and validation of a gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC–NCI-MS\\/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30mg

Hicham Kharbouche; Frank Sporkert; Stéphanie Troxler; Marc Augsburger; Patrice Mangin; Christian Staub

2009-01-01

167

Keratin 17 modulates hair follicle cycling in a TNF?-dependent fashion  

PubMed Central

Mammalian hair follicles cycle between stages of rapid growth (anagen) and metabolic quiescence (telogen) throughout life. Transition from anagen to telogen involves an intermediate stage, catagen, consisting of a swift, apoptosis-driven involution of the lower half of the follicle. How catagen is coordinated, and spares the progenitor cells needed for anagen re-entry, is poorly understood. Keratin 17 (K17)-null mice develop alopecia in the first week post-birth, correlating with hair shaft fragility and untimely apoptosis in the hair bulb. Here we show that this abnormal apoptosis reflects premature entry into catagen. Of the proapoptotic challenges tested, K17-null skin keratinocytes in primary culture are selectively more sensitive to TNF?. K17 interacts with TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1)-associated death domain protein (TRADD), a death adaptor essential for TNFR1-dependent signal relay, suggesting a functional link between this keratin and TNF? signaling. The activity of NF-?B, a downstream target of TNF?, is increased in K17-null skin. We also find that TNF? is required for a timely anagen–catagen transition in mouse pelage follicles, and that its ablation partially rescues the hair cycling defect of K17-null mice. These findings identify K17 and TNF? as two novel and interdependent regulators of hair cycling.

Tong, Xuemei; Coulombe, Pierre A.

2006-01-01

168

Hair follicle (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... in a cavity in the skin called a follicle. Over time the follicle can shrink causing the hair to become shorter ... in men who are balding the very small follicle ceases to grow any hair. The cause of ...

169

Hair straightener poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows chemicals used to straighten hair. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an ...

170

Forensic Science: Hair Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

Keller, Elhannan L.

1980-01-01

171

Regulation of PCDH15 function in mechanosensory hair cells by alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain.  

PubMed

Protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) is expressed in hair cells of the inner ear and in photoreceptors of the retina. Mutations in PCDH15 cause Usher Syndrome (deaf-blindness) and recessive deafness. In developing hair cells, PCDH15 localizes to extracellular linkages that connect the stereocilia and kinocilium into a bundle and regulate its morphogenesis. In mature hair cells, PCDH15 is a component of tip links, which gate mechanotransduction channels. PCDH15 is expressed in several isoforms differing in their cytoplasmic domains, suggesting that alternative splicing regulates PCDH15 function in hair cells. To test this model, we generated three mouse lines, each of which lacks one out of three prominent PCDH15 isoforms (CD1, CD2 and CD3). Surprisingly, mice lacking PCDH15-CD1 and PCDH15-CD3 form normal hair bundles and tip links and maintain hearing function. Tip links are also present in mice lacking PCDH15-CD2. However, PCDH15-CD2-deficient mice are deaf, lack kinociliary links and have abnormally polarized hair bundles. Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins are distributed normally in the sensory epithelia of the mutants, suggesting that PCDH15-CD2 acts downstream of PCP components to control polarity. Despite the absence of kinociliary links, vestibular function is surprisingly intact in the PCDH15-CD2 mutants. Our findings reveal an essential role for PCDH15-CD2 in the formation of kinociliary links and hair bundle polarization, and show that several PCDH15 isoforms can function redundantly at tip links. PMID:21427143

Webb, Stuart W; Grillet, Nicolas; Andrade, Leonardo R; Xiong, Wei; Swarthout, Lani; Della Santina, Charley C; Kachar, Bechara; Müller, Ulrich

2011-04-01

172

A Virtual Hair Cell, I: Addition of Gating Spring Theory into a 3-D Bundle Mechanical Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a virtual hair cell that simulates hair cell mechanoelectrical transduction in the turtle utricle. This study combines a full three-dimensional hair bundle mechanical model with a gating spring theory. Previous mathematical models represent the hair bundle with a single degree of freedom system which, we have argued, cannot fully explain hair bundle mechanics. In our computer model,

Jong-Hoon Nam; John R. Cotton; Wally Grant

2007-01-01

173

Scanning electron microscopic visualization of rolled hair (Poils en spirale).  

PubMed

A patient suffering from recalcitrant pemphigoid developed rolled hairs after prolonged oral corticosteroid therapy. Consequently, we looked for rolled hairs in 100 out-patients, but none could be found. The rolled hairs were characterized by light and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:6191492

Kanerva, L; Niemi, K M; Lassus, A; Rantanen, T

1983-01-01

174

Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.  

PubMed

Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application. PMID:20157224

Dickinson, B T

2010-02-16

175

Continuous exposure to bisphenol A during in vitro follicular development induces meiotic abnormalities.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used environmental contaminant, may exert weak estrogenic, anti-androgenic and anti-thyroidic activities. BPA is suspected to possess aneugenic properties that may affect somatic cells and mammalian oocytes. Oocyte growth and maturation depend upon a complex bi-directional signaling between the oocyte and its companion somatic cells. Consequently, disturbances in oocyte maturation may originate either from direct effects of BPA at the level of the oocyte or from indirect influences at the follicular level, such as alterations in hormonal homeostasis. This study aimed to analyze the effects of chronic BPA exposure (3 nM to 30 microM) on follicle-enclosed growth and maturation of mouse oocytes in vitro. Oocytes were cultured and their spindle and chromosomes were stained by alpha-tubulin immunofluorescence and ethidium homodimer-2, respectively. Confocal microscopy was utilized for subsequent analysis. Only follicles that were exposed to 30 microM BPA during follicular development showed a slightly reduced granulosa cell proliferation and a lower total estrogen production, but they still developed and formed antral-like cavities. However, 18% of oocytes were unable to resume meiosis after stimulation of oocyte maturation, and 37% arrested after germinal vesicle breakdown, significantly different from controls (p<0.05). Only 45% of the oocytes extruded a first polar body (p < 0.05). 30 microM BPA led also to a significant increase in meiosis I-arrested oocytes with unaligned chromosomes and spindle aberrations. Oocytes that were able to progress beyond meiosis I, frequently arrested at an abnormal telophase I. Additionally, in many oocytes exposed to low chronic BPA that matured to meiosis II chromosomes failed to congress at the spindle equator. In conclusion, mouse follicle culture reveals non-linear dose-dependent effects of BPA on the meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes when exposure was chronic throughout oocyte growth and maturation. PMID:18093867

Lenie, Sandy; Cortvrindt, Rita; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Smitz, Johan

2007-11-12

176

What Causes Hair Loss?  

MedlinePLUS

... stop the inflammation that destroys the hair follicles. Disease Underlying medical condition . A warning sign for about 30 diseases, hair ... stopped or reversed with treatment for the underlying disease. Two common underlying medical conditions that can cause hair loss are thyroid disease ...

177

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

178

Hair dye distribution in human hair by ToF-SIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single hair sample preparation protocol modified from reported method was developed and used to prepare longitudinally sectioned hair for ToF-SIMS analysis. Preliminary results demonstrate that ToF-SIMS is capable of providing molecular distribution of fragment ions from intrinsic constituents as well as external chemicals like the hair dye ingredients used in this study. The observation of pPDA and H2PO4? penetrating

Bo-Jung Chen; Pei-Ling Lee; Wen-Yin Chen; Fu-Der Mai; Yong-Chien Ling

2006-01-01

179

Odontodysplasia, gingival manifestations, and accompanying abnormalities.  

PubMed

Regional odontodysplasia is an uncommon developmental dental disorder that may occasionally be accompanied by other abnormalities. A case is described in which the chief report was of a gingival enlargement arising in a female patient who also had dolichocephaly, thin calvarium, clinodactyly and transverse grooving of her fingernails, and a history of abnormal hair. Previously suggested etiologic factors and cases reported in association with other abnormalities are reviewed. PMID:8850490

Fanibunda, K B; Soames, J V

1996-01-01

180

Constitutively Activated NLRP3 Inflammasome Causes Inflammation and Abnormal Skeletal Development in Mice  

PubMed Central

The NLRP3 inflammasome complex is responsible for maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1?. Mutations in NLRP3 are responsible for the cryopyrinopathies, a spectrum of conditions including neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). While excessive production of IL-1? and systemic inflammation are common to all cryopyrinopathy disorders, skeletal abnormalities, prominently in the knees, and low bone mass are unique features of patients with NOMID. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying skeletal abnormalities in NOMID, we generated knock-in mice globally expressing the D301N NLRP3 mutation (ortholog of D303N in human NLRP3). NOMID mice exhibit neutrophilia in blood and many tissues, including knee joints, and high levels of serum inflammatory mediators. They also exhibit growth retardation and severe postnatal osteopenia stemming at least in part from abnormally accelerated bone resorption, attended by increased osteoclastogenesis. Histologic analysis of knee joints revealed abnormal growth plates, with loss of chondrocytes and growth arrest in the central region of the epiphyses. Most strikingly, a tissue “spike" was observed in the mid-region of the growth plate in the long bones of all NOMID mice that may be the precursor to more severe deformations analogous to those observed in NOMID patients. These findings provide direct evidence linking a NOMID-associated NLRP3-activating mutation to abnormalities of postnatal skeletal growth and bone remodeling.

McGeough, Matthew D.; Pena, Carla; Chen, Debbie; Grimston, Susan K.; Hickman-Brecks, Cynthia L.; Ravindran, Soumya; McAlinden, Audrey; Novack, Deborah V.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Civitelli, Roberto; Hoffman, Hal M.; Mbalaviele, Gabriel

2012-01-01

181

T wave abnormalities, high body mass index, current smoking and high lipoprotein (a) levels predict the development of major abnormal Q\\/QS patterns 20 years later. A population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most studies on risk factors for development of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been based on the clinical outcome of CHD. Our aim was to identify factors that could predict the development of ECG markers of CHD, such as abnormal Q\\/QS patterns, ST segment depression and T wave abnormalities, in 70-year-old men, irrespective of clinical outcome. METHODS: Predictors for

Christina Strom Moller; Liisa Byberg; Johan Sundstrom; Lars Lind

2006-01-01

182

Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral\\u000a disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities\\u000a and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high\\u000a resolution MRI to

Katherine G Akers; Steven A Kushner; Ana T Leslie; Laura Clarke; Derek van der Kooy; Jason P Lerch; Paul W Frankland

2011-01-01

183

Applying genomics to the avian inner ear: Development of subtractive cDNA resources for exploring sensory function and hair cell regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied a micro-cDNA-based subtraction method to identify genes expressed in the regenerating sensory epithelia (SE) of the chicken inner ear. Sensory hair cells in the avian utricle SE are in a constant state of turnover, where dying hair cells are replaced by new ones derived from supporting cells. In contrast, hair cells in the cochlea remain quiescent unless damaged.

R. David Hawkins; Cynthia A. Helms; Julia B. Winston; Mark E. Warchol; Michael Lovett

2006-01-01

184

Development and validation of a gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30 mg of hair by aqueous incubation and purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using mixed mode extraction cartridges followed by derivation with perfluoropentanoic anhydride (PFPA). The analysis was performed in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using the transitions m/z 347-->163 (for the quantification) and m/z 347-->119 (for the identification) for EtG, and m/z 352-->163 for EtG-d(5) used as internal standard. For validation, we prepared quality controls (QC) using hair samples taken post mortem from 2 subjects with a known history of alcoholism. These samples were confirmed by a proficiency test with 7 participating laboratories. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 8.4 to 259.4 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated with 3.0 pg/mg. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was fixed at 8.4 pg/mg. Repeatability and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation, RSD%), tested at 4 QC levels, were less than 13.2%. The analytical method was applied to several hair samples obtained from autopsy cases with a history of alcoholism and/or lesions caused by alcohol. EtG concentrations in hair ranged from 60 to 820 pg/mg hair. PMID:19109074

Kharbouche, Hicham; Sporkert, Frank; Troxler, Stéphanie; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice; Staub, Christian

2008-12-06

185

Hair dye distribution in human hair by ToF-SIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single hair sample preparation protocol modified from reported method was developed and used to prepare longitudinally sectioned hair for ToF-SIMS analysis. Preliminary results demonstrate that ToF-SIMS is capable of providing molecular distribution of fragment ions from intrinsic constituents as well as external chemicals like the hair dye ingredients used in this study. The observation of pPDA and H 2PO 4- penetrating into the internal region of hair might initiate a renewed interest in exposure study.

Chen, Bo-Jung; Lee, Pei-Ling; Chen, Wen-Yin; Mai, Fu-Der; Ling, Yong-Chien

2006-07-01

186

Abnormal Hippocampal Development in Children with Medulloblastoma Treated with Risk-Adapted Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Children with medulloblastoma demonstrate post-treat- ment neurocognitive deficits in a number of areas, including memory performance. However, there is no definitive understanding of the neuropathology underlying these functional deficits. Previous literature has reported that hippocampal integrity is crucial to the acquisition of new episodic memories. Therefore, we hypothesized that longitudinal hippocampal volume mea- surements are abnormal in

Bonnie J. Nagel; Shawna L. Palmer; Wilburn E. Reddick; John O. Glass; Kathleen J. Helton; Shengjie Wu; Xiaoping Xiong; Larry E. Kun; Amar Gajjar; Raymond K. Mulhern

2004-01-01

187

Development and experimental validation of computational methods to simulate abnormal thermal and structural environments  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: (1) a purely regulatory approach, or (2) by a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches.

Moya, J.L.; Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.

1993-10-01

188

Morphology, developmental ultrastructure and ultracytochemistry of staminal hairs in Bulbine inflata (Asphodelaceae) in relation to function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of light and electron microscopy and preliminary ultracytochemical studies of the staminal hairs of Bulbine inflata at different stages of development are reported here. The staminal filaments are covered with yellow, unicellular, linear, erecto-patent hairs. These staminal hairs arise directly as single cell outgrowths from epidermal cells of the filament. The surface of each hair is patterned with helical

Yougasphree Naidoo; Samia Heneidak; Nazeera Kasim; Himansu Baijnath

189

Accumulation of the xenobiotic anabolic steroids ethinyloestradiol and methyltestosterone in calf hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method to detect the illegal application of anabolic steroids in cattle by hair analysis was developed. The time course of incorporation of the orally active xenobiotic steroids ethinyl?oestradiol (EE2) and methyltestosterone (MT) into growing hair, the duration of their detection by hair analysis and the influence of hair pigmentation on steroid concentrations were investigated in detail. Female veal

Andreas Gleixner; Helga Sauerwein; Heinrich H. D. Meyer

1997-01-01

190

Proliferation of Functional Hair Cells in Vivo in the Absence of the Retinoblastoma Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, hair cell loss causes irreversible hearing and balance impairment because hair cells are terminally differentiated and do not regenerate spontaneously. By profiling gene expression in developing mouse vestibular organs, we identified the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) as a candidate regulator of cell cycle exit in hair cells. Differentiated and functional mouse hair cells with a targeted deletion of Rb1

Cyrille Sage; Mingqian Huang; Kambiz Karimi; Gabriel Gutierrez; Melissa A. Vollrath; Duan-Sun Zhang; Jaime García-Añoveros; Philip W. Hinds; Jeffrey T. Corwin; David P. Corey; Zheng-Yi Chen

2005-01-01

191

Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but

J.-Y. Tinevez; P. Martin; F. Jülicher

2009-01-01

192

Introduction—Human Hair, Skin, and Hair Care Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This book presents the biophysics of human hair and hair treatment. It deals with the structure of hair, the nanomechanical\\u000a characterization, nanotribological characterization, the conditioner thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair\\u000a surface, and surface potential studies. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

Bharat Bhushan

193

Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.

2010-01-01

194

Abnormal posturing  

MedlinePLUS

People with abnormal posturing almost always have reduced consciousness. Anyone who shows symptoms of abnormal posturing should ... Elsevier; 2008:chap 5. Bleck T. Levels of consciousness and attention. In: Goetz, CG, ed. Textbook of ...

195

Walking abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Many different types of walking problems occur without ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...

196

Light scattering and shine measurements of human hair: A sensitive probe of the hair surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an instrumental method for measuring hair shine is presented and shown to exhibit excellent correlation with a large series of subjective evaluations of shine. In addition to providing shine values, the light-scattering methods developed are shown, in many cases, to provide a sensitive means of following changes to the hair surface, including deposition (soiling), particle removal (cleaning),

CHARLES REICH; CLARENCE R. ROBBINS

1993-01-01

197

Abnormal thymus development and impaired function of the immune system in rats after prenatal exposure to aciclovir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aciclovir (synonym: acyclovir) causes abnormal thymus development in rats. After treatment on day 10 of gestation a weight reduction of the organ is obvious in 21-day-old fetuses which persists postnatally. Adult male rats exposed in utero to one or three injections of 100 mg aciclovir\\/kg body wt given to the dam on day 10 of pregnancy showed a reduction of

Ralf Stahlmannl; Maria Kortel; Henk Van Loveren; Joseph G. Vos; Renate Thiel; Diether Neubertl

1992-01-01

198

Role of OsPHR2 on phosphorus homeostasis and root hairs development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

AtPHR1 plays a central role in Pi-starvation signaling in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Two PHR genes were isolated from rice and designated as OsPHR1 and OsPHR2 based on amino acid sequence homology to AtPHR1. Transgenic plants with overexpression and repression of OsPHR1 and OsPHR2, respectively, were used for investigation of roles of the genes in Pi-signaling pathway and Pi homeostasis under Pi-sufficient and deficient conditions. The results showed that both of the genes are involved in the Pi-signaling pathway, while overexpression of OsPHR2 mimics Pi-starvation stress with enhanced root elongation and proliferated root hairs, and results in the excessive accumulation of Pi in shoots under Pi-sufficient conditions. OsPHR2 regulated proliferation of root hair growth and root elongation suggests that OsPHR2 is involved in both systematic and local Pi-signaling pathways. PMID:19704822

Wu, Ping; Wang, Xm

2008-09-01

199

Spindle checkpoint deficiency is tolerated by murine epidermal cells but not hair follicle stem cells  

PubMed Central

The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures correct chromosome segregation during mitosis by preventing aneuploidy, an event that is detrimental to the fitness and survival of normal cells but oncogenic in tumor cells. Deletion of SAC genes is incompatible with early mouse development, and RNAi-mediated depletion of SAC components in cultured cells results in rapid death. Here we describe the use of a conditional KO of mouse Mad2, an essential component of the SAC signaling cascade, as a means to selectively induce chromosome instability and aneuploidy in the epidermis of the skin. We observe that SAC inactivation is tolerated by interfollicular epidermal cells but results in depletion of hair follicle bulge stem cells. Eventually, a histologically normal epidermis develops within ?1 mo after birth, albeit without any hair. Mad2-deficient cells in this epidermis exhibited abnormal transcription of metabolic genes, consistent with aneuploid cell state. Hair follicle bulge stem cells were completely absent, despite the continued presence of rudimentary hair follicles. These data demonstrate that different cell lineages within a single tissue respond differently to chromosome instability: some proliferating cell lineages can survive, but stem cells are highly sensitive.

Foijer, Floris; DiTommaso, Tia; Donati, Giacomo; Hautaviita, Katta; Xie, Stephanie Z.; Heath, Emma; Smyth, Ian; Watt, Fiona M.; Sorger, Peter K.; Bradley, Allan

2013-01-01

200

MRI of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair\\u000a care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical\\u000a techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added\\u000a by

Eveline Mattle; Markus Weiger; Daniel Schmidig; Peter Boesiger; Michael Fey

2009-01-01

201

Female hair restoration.  

PubMed

Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

Unger, Robin H

2013-08-01

202

Photoaggravation of Hair Aging  

PubMed Central

Photoaggravation of hair aging includes various chemical and physical changes in fiber properties which lead to an increase in fiber porosity, loss of mechanical strength and an increase in surface roughness. These changes come from lipid oxidation, disulfide bond cleavage, tryptophan degradation and cysteic acid formation. Hair exposed to sunlight is claimed to be more brittle, stiffer and drier than before irradiation and exhibits a reduced water-absorption capacity. Hair pigments function to provide photochemical protection to hair proteins. Hair pigments accomplish this protection by absorbing and filtering the impinging radiation and subsequently dissipating this energy as heat. However, in the process of protecting the hair proteins from light, the pigments are degraded or bleached. Dark hair is more resistant to photodegradation than light hair, because of the higher photostability of eumelanin compared to pheomelanin. Integral lipids of hair fibers are degraded by ultraviolet light, as well as by visible light, helping to explain the weakening of the cell membrane complex exposed to light radiation.

Lee, Won-Soo

2009-01-01

203

‘Plica neuropathica’: Matting of Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor degrees of irreversible tangling of scalp hair are commonly observed by hairdressers or individuals with long hair. However, severe irreversible matting of scalp hair is extremely rare [1]. A patient recently seen by us is presented.

Rashmi Sarkar; Sukhjot Kaur; G. P. Thami; A. J. Kanwar

2000-01-01

204

ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3 Family of Dynamin-Like GTPases Mediates Homotypic Endoplasmic Reticulum Fusion and Is Essential for Arabidopsis Development1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

In all eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms a tubular network whose generation requires the fusion of ER membranes. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the membrane-bound GTPase ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3 (RHD3) is a potential candidate to mediate ER fusion. In addition, Arabidopsis has two tissue-specific isoforms of RHD3, namely RHD3-like (RL) proteins, and their function is not clear. Here, we show that a null allele of RHD3, rhd3-8, causes growth defects and shortened root hairs. A point mutant, rhd3-1, exhibits a more severe growth phenotype than the null mutant, likely because it exerts a dominant-negative effect on the RL proteins. Genetic analysis reveals that the double deletion of RHD3 and RL1 is lethal and that the rhd3 rl2 plants produce no viable pollen, suggesting that the RL proteins are redundant to RHD3. RHD3 family proteins can replace Sey1p, the homolog of RHD3 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), in the maintenance of ER morphology, and they are able to fuse membranes both in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that RHD3 proteins mediate ER fusion and are essential for plant development and that the formation of the tubular ER network is of general physiological significance.

Zhang, Miao; Wu, Fuyun; Shi, Juanming; Zhu, Yimeng; Zhu, Zhengmao; Gong, Qingqiu; Hu, Junjie

2013-01-01

205

ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3 Family of Dynamin-Like GTPases Mediates Homotypic Endoplasmic Reticulum Fusion and Is Essential for Arabidopsis Development.  

PubMed

In all eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms a tubular network whose generation requires the fusion of ER membranes. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the membrane-bound GTPase ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3 (RHD3) is a potential candidate to mediate ER fusion. In addition, Arabidopsis has two tissue-specific isoforms of RHD3, namely RHD3-like (RL) proteins, and their function is not clear. Here, we show that a null allele of RHD3, rhd3-8, causes growth defects and shortened root hairs. A point mutant, rhd3-1, exhibits a more severe growth phenotype than the null mutant, likely because it exerts a dominant-negative effect on the RL proteins. Genetic analysis reveals that the double deletion of RHD3 and RL1 is lethal and that the rhd3 rl2 plants produce no viable pollen, suggesting that the RL proteins are redundant to RHD3. RHD3 family proteins can replace Sey1p, the homolog of RHD3 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), in the maintenance of ER morphology, and they are able to fuse membranes both in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that RHD3 proteins mediate ER fusion and are essential for plant development and that the formation of the tubular ER network is of general physiological significance. PMID:23922269

Zhang, Miao; Wu, Fuyun; Shi, Juanming; Zhu, Yimeng; Zhu, Zhengmao; Gong, Qingqiu; Hu, Junjie

2013-08-06

206

How to Stop Damaging Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy hair Stop hair damage Styling without damage Hair loss vs. hair shedding Hair loss in new moms Removing gum without cutting hair ... if you are concerned about thinning hair or hair loss. Most causes can be stopped or treated. The ...

207

Prevalence of scalp disorders and hair loss in children.  

PubMed

Hair loss in children can have psychologic effects that interfere with a child's growth and development. In our case series, we evaluated 1003 children aged 0 months to 17 years who presented to the pediatric and dermatology outpatient clinics at Fatih University, Ankara, Turkey, from December 2009 through October 2010. The patients were routinely examined for scalp disorders and hair loss. We documented 69 patients with scalp disorders and hair loss, most commonly seborrheic dermatitis (SD), transient neonatal hair loss (TNHL), alopecia areata (AA), temporal triangular alopecia (TTA), and pityriasis amiantacea (PA); The clinical presentation of scalp disorders and hair loss in children varies widely and may be attributed to congenital or acquired causes. Hair loss in children can be associated with serious illness. Therefore, hair examination by a pediatrician or dermatologist is an important part of the physical examination. PMID:23270190

Sarifakioglu, Evren; Yilmaz, Ayse Esra; Gorpelioglu, Canan; Orun, Emel

2012-11-01

208

Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System  

PubMed Central

Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations.

Tobin, Desmond J

2009-01-01

209

Epidermal nevus syndrome: association with central precocious puberty and woolly hair nevus.  

PubMed

The epidermal nevus syndrome is characterized by the association of epidermal nevi with abnormalities of the skin, skeletal system, central nervous system, eyes, and cardiovascular system, as well as with malignant conditions. We describe a 2-year-old girl with an extensive epidermal nevus involving the left side of the body (nevus unius lateris) and associated with a woolly hair nevus on the left parietal area of the scalp and multiple acquired melanocytic nevi. Idiopathic central precocious puberty characterized by premature breast and public hair development and advanced bone age developed at the age of 20 months. A sharp increase in serum gonadotropins after a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) stimulation test confirmed the presence of central precocious puberty. This is the third reported case of precocious puberty associated with the epidermal nevus syndrome. PMID:8912600

Tay, Y K; Weston, W L; Ganong, C A; Klingensmith, G J

1996-11-01

210

The cell cycle regulator protein 14-3-3? is essential for hair follicle integrity and epidermal homeostasis.  

PubMed

The 14-3-3? (Stratifin; Sfn) is a cell cycle regulator intimately involved in the program of epithelial keratinization. 14-3-3? is unique in that it is expressed primarily in epithelial cells and is frequently silenced in epithelial cancers. Despite its well-documented role as a cell cycle regulator and as a tumor suppressor, the function of 14-3-3? in the intricate balance of proliferation and differentiation in epithelial development is poorly understood. A mutation in 14-3-3? was found to be responsible for the repeated epilation (Er) phenotype. It has previously been shown that Sfn(+/Er) mice are characterized by repeated hair loss and regrowth, whereas Sfn(Er/Er) mice die at birth displaying severe oral fusions and limb abnormalities as a result of defects in keratinizing epithelia. Here we show that mice heterozygous for the 14-3-3? mutation have severe defects in hair shaft differentiation, resulting in destruction of the hair shaft during morphogenesis. Furthermore, we report that the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands are hyperproliferative, coincident with expanded nuclear Yap1 (Yes-associated protein 1)--a critical modulator of epidermal stem cell proliferation. We also report that hair follicle stem cells in the bulge cycle abnormally, raising important questions as to the role of 14-3-3? in the bulge. PMID:22377760

Hammond, Nigel L; Headon, Denis J; Dixon, Michael J

2012-03-01

211

The cell-cycle regulator protein 14-3-3? is essential for hair follicle integrity and epidermal homeostasis  

PubMed Central

14-3-3? (Stratifin; Sfn) is a cell cycle regulator intimately involved in the programme of epithelial keratinisation. 14-3-3? is unique in that it is expressed primarily in epithelial cells and is frequently silenced in epithelial cancers. Despite its well-documented role as a cell cycle regulator and as a tumour suppressor, 14-3-3?’s function in the intricate balance of proliferation and differentiation in epithelial development is poorly understood. A mutation in 14-3-3? was found to be responsible for the repeated epilation (Er) phenotype. It has previously been shown Sfn+/Er mice are characterised by repeated hair loss and re-growth while SfnEr/Er mice die at birth displaying severe oral fusions and limb abnormalities as a result of defects in keratinising epithelia. Here we show mice heterozygous for the 14-3-3? mutation have severe defects in hair shaft differentiation, resulting in destruction of the hair shaft during morphogenesis. Further, we report the inter-follicular epidermis and sebaceous glands are hyperproliferative, coincident with expanded nuclear Yap1; a critical modulator of epidermal stem cell proliferation. We also report hair follicle stem cells in the bulge cycle abnormally raising important questions as to the role of 14-3-3? in the bulge.

Hammond, Nigel L.; Headon, Denis J.; Dixon, Michael J.

2012-01-01

212

Developing Software to "Track and Catch" Missed Follow-up of Abnormal Test Results in a Complex Sociotechnical Environment  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed test results, we developed a software prototype to account for technical, usability, organizational, and workflow needs. Our evaluation has shown the feasibility of the prototype as a means of facilitating better follow-up for cancer-related abnormal test results.

Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.

2013-01-01

213

Development and validation of a procedure for the determination of minoxidil in hair-regrowth formulations using two variants of capillary zone electrophoresis.  

PubMed

A high performance capillary electrophoresis method was developed and validated for purity assessment of minoxidil bulk drug and for determination of minoxidil in Rogaine. The principal use of the method was in analyzing illicit minoxidil-containing hair-regrowth samples. Although validated for Rogaine, the procedure proved equally viable on illicit minoxidil-containing preparations. The developed method fulfilled the goal of providing an orthogonal technique to HPLC for confirmation of the presence of minoxidil in these imitations. The method was validated on two instruments, one utilizing EK injection, the other gravity injection. It is selective for minoxidil, which is separated from known process impurities and the single degradation impurity. Validation figures of merit for linearity/recovery (accuracy) and precision were in accordance with current expectations for method validation. PMID:15922339

Patterson, S C; Ramstad, T; Mills, K A

214

Hair analysis for drugs of abuse XIX. Determination of ephedrine and its homologs in rat hair and human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive GC-MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of ephedrine (EP), phenylpropanolamine (PPA) and methylephedrine (ME) in animal and human hair. After washing with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, hair samples (10 mg) were added with deuterated internal standards, extracted by 1-h sonication and over night soaking in 2 ml of 5 M HCl-methanol (1:20) at room temperature. Following

Yuji Nakahara; Ruri Kikura

1997-01-01

215

Molecular remodeling of tip links underlies mechanosensory regeneration in auditory hair cells.  

PubMed

Sound detection by inner ear hair cells requires tip links that interconnect mechanosensory stereocilia and convey force to yet unidentified transduction channels. Current models postulate a static composition of the tip link, with protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) at the lower and cadherin 23 (CDH23) at the upper end of the link. In terminally differentiated mammalian auditory hair cells, tip links are subjected to sound-induced forces throughout an organism's life. Although hair cells can regenerate disrupted tip links and restore hearing, the molecular details of this process are unknown. We developed a novel implementation of backscatter electron scanning microscopy to visualize simultaneously immuno-gold particles and stereocilia links, both of only a few nanometers in diameter. We show that functional, mechanotransduction-mediating tip links have at least two molecular compositions, containing either PCDH15/CDH23 or PCDH15/PCDH15. During regeneration, shorter tip links containing nearly equal amounts of PCDH15 at both ends appear first. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that these transient PCDH15/PCDH15 links mediate mechanotransduction currents of normal amplitude but abnormal Ca(2+)-dependent decay (adaptation). The mature PCDH15/CDH23 tip link composition is re-established later, concomitant with complete recovery of adaptation. Thus, our findings provide a molecular mechanism for regeneration and maintenance of mechanosensory function in postmitotic auditory hair cells and could help identify elusive components of the mechanotransduction machinery. PMID:23776407

Indzhykulian, Artur A; Stepanyan, Ruben; Nelina, Anastasiia; Spinelli, Kateri J; Ahmed, Zubair M; Belyantseva, Inna A; Friedman, Thomas B; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G; Frolenkov, Gregory I

2013-06-11

216

Targeted deletion of the murine corneodesmosin gene delineates its essential role in skin and hair physiology  

PubMed Central

Controlled proteolytic degradation of specialized junctional structures, corneodesmosomes, by epidermal proteases is an essential process for physiological desquamation of the skin. Corneodesmosin (CDSN) is an extracellular component of corneodesmosomes and, although considerable debate still exists, genetic studies have suggested that the CDSN gene in the major psoriasis-susceptibility locus (PSORS1) may be responsible for susceptibility to psoriasis, a human skin disorder characterized by excessive growth and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes. CDSN is also expressed in the inner root sheath of hair follicles, and a heterozygous nonsense mutation of the CDSN gene in humans is associated with scalp-specific hair loss of poorly defined etiology. Here, we have investigated the pathogenetic roles of CDSN loss of function in the development of skin diseases by generating a mouse strain with targeted deletion of the Cdsn gene. Cdsn-deficient mouse skin showed detachment of the stratum corneum from the underlying granular layer and/or detachment within the upper granular layers due to the disrupted integrity of the corneodesmosomes. When grafted onto immunodeficient mice, Cdsn-deficient skin showed rapid hair loss together with epidermal abnormalities resembling psoriasis. These results underscore the essential roles of CDSN in hair physiology and suggest functional relevance of CDSN gene polymorphisms to psoriasis susceptibility.

Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Zhou, Yiqing; Matsuo, Shinji; Nakanishi, Hideki; Hirose, Kenji; Oura, Hajimu; Arase, Seiji; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Bando, Yoshimi; Izumi, Keisuke; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Oshima, Naoko; Nakayama, Rika; Matsushima, Akemi; Hirota, Fumiko; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Kuroda, Noriyuki; Sano, Shigetoshi; Chaplin, David D.

2008-01-01

217

Long Hair Shampoo Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a long hair shampoo basin for use at barber shops and beauty salons. More specifically, the present invention is directed to shampoo basins which are adapted for shampooing longer hair than is accommodated by present basin...

K. Schulken

2005-01-01

218

Formation of nanostructure on hair surface: its characteristic optical properties and application to hair care products.  

PubMed

Uneven structures on hair fiber surface, such as lift up of cuticle or build up of hair spray ingredients, generally cause a diffuse reflection which results in a dull and unhealthy appearance. However, in the case of finer structure than wavelength of visible light, the optical properties change significantly. An application of the phenomenon to hair care products is reported in this paper. Formation of the fine structure on hair surface was achieved by only a shampoo and rinse-off conditioner system including amino-silicone. Chroma enhancement of hair and light introduction into hair fibers were observed simultaneously with formation of the fine structure on the hair surface. The light introduction phenomenon is understood in terms of "Effective Medium Approximation" (EMA). The simulation study based on EMA indicates that a very low refractive index surface is expected to be realized, which well explains the optical experimental results. When the shampoo and conditioner system developed to form the structure on fiber surface was applied to dyed hair, enhancement and long-lasting of vivid appearance was confirmed in spite of dye elution. PMID:17728928

Watanabe, Shunsuke; Sato, Hirayuki; Shibuichi, Satoshi; Okamoto, Masayuki; Inoue, Shigeto; Satoh, Naoki

219

A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a very complex visual pattern whose rep- resentation is rarely studied in the vision literature despite its important role in human recognition. In this paper, we propose a generative model for hair representation and hair sketching, which is far more compact than the physically based models in graphics. We decompose a color hair im- age into three

Hong Chen; Song Chun Zhu

2005-01-01

220

Mice lacking FABP9/PERF15 develop sperm head abnormalities but are fertile.  

PubMed

The male germ cell-specific fatty acid-binding protein 9 (FABP9/PERF15) is the major component of the murine sperm perforatorium and perinuclear theca. Based on its cytoskeletal association and sequence homology to myelin P2 (FABP8), it has been suggested that FABP9 tethers sperm membranes to the underlying cytoskeleton. Furthermore, its upregulation in apoptotic testicular germ cells and its increased phosphorylation status during capacitation suggested multiple important functions for FABP9. Therefore, we investigated specific functions for FABP9 by means of targeted gene disruption in mice. FABP9(-/-) mice were viable and fertile. Phenotypic analysis showed that FABP9(-/-) mice had significant increases in sperm head abnormalities (~8% greater than their WT cohorts); in particular, we observed the reduction or absence of the characteristic structural element known as the "ventral spur" in ~10% of FABP9(-/-) sperm. However, deficiency of FABP9 affected neither membrane tethering to the perinuclear theca nor the fatty acid composition of sperm. Moreover, epididymal sperm numbers were not affected in FABP9(-/-) mice. Therefore, we conclude that FABP9 plays only a minor role in providing the murine sperm head its characteristic shape and is not absolutely required for spermatogenesis or sperm function. PMID:20920498

Selvaraj, Vimal; Asano, Atsushi; Page, Jennifer L; Nelson, Jacquelyn L; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Foster, James A; Brenna, J Thomas; Weiss, Robert S; Travis, Alexander J

2010-10-20

221

Ponatinib suppresses the development of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities.  

PubMed

Myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) abnormalities are characterized by constitutively activated FGFR1 kinase and rapid transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Molecular targeted therapies have not been widely used for stem cell leukemia/lymphoma (SCLL). Ponatinib (AP24534), which potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL, also targets the FGFR family. Using murine BaF3 cells, stably transformed with six different FGFR1 fusion genes, as well as human KG1 cells expressing activated chimeric FGFR1 and five newly established murine SCLL cell lines, we show that ponatinib (<50 nM) can effectively inhibit phosphoactivation of the fusion kinases and their downstream effectors, such as PLC?, Stat5 and Src. Ponatinib also significantly extended survival of mice transplanted with different SCLL cell lines. Ponatinib administered at 30 mg/kg daily also significantly delayed, or even prevented, tumorigenesis of KG1 cells in xenotransplanted mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ponatinib specifically inhibits cell growth and clonogenicity of normal human CD34+ progenitor cells transformed by chimeric FGFR1 fusion kinases. Overall, our data provide convincing evidence to suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR1 fusion kinases with ponatinib is likely to be beneficial for patients with SCLL and perhaps for other human disorders associated with dysregulated FGFR1 activity. PMID:22781593

Ren, M; Qin, H; Ren, R; Cowell, J K

2012-07-11

222

Ponatinib suppresses the development of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities are characterized by constitutive activated FGFR1 kinase and rapid transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Molecular targeted therapies have not been widely used for SCLL. Ponatinib (AP24534), that potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL, also targets the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. Using murine BaF3 cells stably transformed with six different FGFR1 fusion genes, as well as human KG1 cells expressing activated chimeric FGFR1 and five newly established murine SCLL cell lines, we show that Ponatinib (< 50 nM) can effectively inhibit phosphoactivation of the fusion kinases and their downstream effectors, such as PLC?, Stat5 and Src. Ponatinib also significantly extended survival of mice transplanted with different SCLL cell lines. Ponatinib administered at 30 mg/kg daily also significantly delayed, or even prevented, tumorigenesis of KG1 cells in xenotransplanted mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ponatinib specifically inhibits cell growth and clonogenicity of normal human CD34+ progenitor cells transformed by chimeric FGFR1 fusion kinases. Overall, our data provide convincing evidence to suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR1 fusion kinases with Ponatinib is likely to be beneficial for patients with SCLL and perhaps for other human disorders associated with dysregulated FGFR1 activity.

Ren, Mingqiang; Qin, Haiyan; Ren, Ruizhe; Cowell, John K.

2012-01-01

223

Fate of Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells and Stereocilia after Loss of the Stereocilia  

PubMed Central

Cochlear hair cells transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical activity. The site of hair cell transduction is the hair bundle, an array of stereocilia with different height arranged in a staircase. Tip links connect the apex of each stereocilium to the side of its taller neighbor. The hair bundle and tip links of hair cells are susceptible to acoustic trauma and ototoxic drugs. It has been shown that hair cells in lower vertebrates and in the mammalian vestibular system may survive bundle loss and undergo self-repair of the stereocilia. Our goals were to determine whether cochlear hair cells could survive the trauma and whether the tip link and/or the hair bundle could be regenerated. We simulated the acoustic trauma-induced tip link damage or stereociliary loss by disrupting tip links or ablating the hair bundles in the cultured organ of Corti from neonatal gerbils. Hair-cell fate and stereociliary morphology and function were examined using confocal and scanning electron microscopies and electrophysiology. Most bundleless hair cells survived and developed for about 2 weeks. However, no spontaneous hair-bundle regeneration was observed. When tip links were ruptured, repair of tip links and restoration of mechanotransduction were observed in less than 24 hours. Our study suggests that the dynamic nature of the hair cell's transduction apparatus is retained despite the fact that regeneration of the hair bundle is lost in mammalian cochlear hair cells.

Jia, Shuping; Yang, Shiming; Guo, Weiwei; He, David Z.Z.

2009-01-01

224

Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.  

PubMed

Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer. PMID:22960813

Handa, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Rahul; De, Dipankar

225

Analytical pitfalls in hair testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on possible pitfalls in hair testing procedures. Knowledge of such pitfalls is useful when developing\\u000a and validating methods, since it can be used to avoid wrong results as well as wrong interpretations of correct results. In\\u000a recent years, remarkable advances in sensitive and specific analytical techniques have enabled the analysis of drugs in alternative\\u000a biological specimens such

Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea

2007-01-01

226

Genetics of structural hair disorders.  

PubMed

The identification of causative genes carries the promise of new and innovative therapeutic strategies for both inherited and acquired hair disorders. Moreover, the delineation of the relationships between similar phenotypes, resulting from mutations affecting seemingly distinct regulatory pathways, paves the way to improved diagnosis and treatment. Finally, understanding the biological processes governing HF development and maintenance may have implications for more general disease processes in the skin, such as inflammation and cancer. PMID:23154628

Harel, Sivan; Christiano, Angela M

2012-11-15

227

Combined deficiency of Tet1 and Tet2 causes epigenetic abnormalities but is compatible with postnatal development.  

PubMed

Tet enzymes (Tet1/2/3) convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in various embryonic and adult tissues. Mice mutant for either Tet1 or Tet2 are viable, raising the question of whether these enzymes have overlapping roles in development. Here we have generated Tet1 and Tet2 double-knockout (DKO) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mice. DKO ESCs remained pluripotent but were depleted of 5hmC and caused developmental defects in chimeric embryos. While a fraction of double-mutant embryos exhibited midgestation abnormalities with perinatal lethality, viable and overtly normal Tet1/Tet2-deficient mice were also obtained. DKO mice had reduced 5hmC and increased 5mC levels and abnormal methylation at various imprinted loci. Nevertheless, animals of both sexes were fertile, with females having smaller ovaries and reduced fertility. Our data show that loss of both enzymes is compatible with development but promotes hypermethylation and compromises imprinting. The data also suggest a significant contribution of Tet3 to hydroxylation of 5mC during development. PMID:23352810

Dawlaty, Meelad M; Breiling, Achim; Le, Thuc; Raddatz, Günter; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Cheng, Albert W; Gao, Qing; Powell, Benjamin E; Li, Zhe; Xu, Mingjiang; Faull, Kym F; Lyko, Frank; Jaenisch, Rudolf

2013-01-24

228

SKIN BLISTERS AND HAIR LOSS IN A RAT MUTANT CALLED VIBRISSAELESS (vb)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation-induced autosomal recessive mutant in the rat called vibrissaeless (vb), has been described and studied. Mutants have abnormal hair growth, the hairs being reduced in number and length. Mutant animals form blisters which then erode, crust, and heal without scars. The blisters can be artificially produced by friction and result from intraepidermal separation which is suprabasilar in position. To

Marvin A. Lutzner; Carl T. Hansen

1975-01-01

229

Fullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 “bald” mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle

Zhiguo Zhou; Robert Lenk; Anthony Dellinger; Darren MacFarland; Krishan Kumar; Stephen R. Wilson; Christopher L. Kepley

2009-01-01

230

Exogenous Factors in Hair Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and beauty of human hair have immeasurable psychological importance. Hair structure and its cycle are influenced by intentionally or nonintentionally delivered factors such as grooming, heat styling, chemical agents and climatic exposure. All of these factors are capable of causing loss of hair color and luster, harshness, stiffness, weakness, brittleness and flyaway, transient loss of hair or scarring

Liran Horev

2004-01-01

231

DISPARITY TUNING OF BINOCULAR FACILITATION AND SUPPRESSION AFTER NORMAL VERSUS ABNORMAL VISUAL DEVELOPMENT  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To study the pattern of facilitatory and suppressive binocular interactions in stereo-deficient patients with strabismus and in normal controls. METHODS Visual Evoked Potentials were recorded in response to a vernier onset/offset pattern presented to one eye, either monocularly or paired dichoptically with a straight vertical square-wave grating, which when fused with the target in the other eye gave rise to a percept of a series of bands appearing in depth from an otherwise uniform plane or with a grating that contained offsets that produced a standing disparity and the appearance of a constantly segmented image, portions of which moved in depth. RESULTS Participants with normal stereopsis showed facilitative and suppressive binocular interactions that depended on which dichoptic target was presented. Patients with long-standing, constant strabismus lacked normal facilitative binocular interactions. The response to a normally facilitative stimulus was reduced below the monocular level when it was presented to the dominant eye of patients without anisometropia, consistent with classical strabismic suppression of the non dominant eye. The dominant eye of strabismic patients without anisometropia retained a suppressive input from crossed but not uncrossed disparity stimuli presented to the non-dominant eye. CONCLUSIONS Abnormal disparity processing can be detected with the dichoptic VEP method we describe. Our results suggest that suppression in stereoblind, non-amblyopic observers is determined by a binocular mechanism responsive to disparity. In some cases, the sign of the disparity is important and this suggests a mechanism that can explain diplopia in patients made exotropic after surgery for esotropia.

Norcia, Anthony M.; Hale, Julia; Pettet, Mark W.; McKee, Suzanne P.; Harrad, Richard A.

2013-01-01

232

The extended abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism in familial hypercholesterolemia: Developing a new framework for future therapies.  

PubMed

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by marked elevation of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations and premature coronary artery disease (CHD). In addition to impaired LDL receptor-mediated clearance of LDL particles, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that hepatic oversecretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B may contribute to the hypercholesterolemia in FH. This may be due to an effect of the expanded hepatic pool of cholesterol (a consequence of increased receptor-independent uptake of LDL) and/or a direct effect of the LDL receptor on apoB secretion. Hepatic oversecretion of apoB may depend on the type and severity of the genetic mutation causing FH. FH can also increase plasma Lp(a) concentration by an undefined mechanism that may not directly involve the LDL receptor pathway. Decreased catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins could also be due to deficient LDL receptor function, accounting for postprandial dyslipidemia in FH. The metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in FH is poorly understood, but preliminary data suggest abnormal HDL composition and functionality, as well as altered transport of apoA-I. Beyond effects related to specific genetic defects in the LDL pathway, co-existing secondary causes, particularly obesity and insulin resistance, and other genetic variants may also perturb lipoprotein metabolism in individuals with FH. Furthermore, residual risk remains high in statin-treated FH. Knowledge of an extended metabolic framework will, therefore, provide the basis for judiciously selecting new pharmacotherapies to treat FH, including apoB antisense oligonucleotides, microsomal transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. PMID:23907036

Ooi, Esther M M; Barrett, P Hugh R; Watts, Gerald F

2013-07-29

233

Hair and scalp dermatoscopy.  

PubMed

Dermatoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye. Trichoscopy (scalp dermatoscopy and videodermatoscopy) is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. However, it is not widely used in the management of hair disorders. This review provides updated information from the literature and our experience on the dermoscopic features of the most common hair and scalp disorders. This will enable dermatologists to make fast diagnoses of tinea capitis and alopecia areata, distinguish early androgenetic alopecia from telogen effluvium, and differentiate scarring from nonscarring alopecia. PMID:22405573

Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

2012-03-08

234

Minor Abnormalities of Testis Development in Mice Lacking the Gene Encoding the MAPK Signalling Component, MAP3K1  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway. In individuals harbouring heterozygous mutations in MAP3K1, dysregulation of MAPK signalling was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, suggesting a causal role for these mutations in disrupting XY sexual development. Mice lacking the cognate gene, Map3k1, are viable and exhibit the eyes open at birth (EOB) phenotype on a mixed genetic background, but on the C57BL/6J genetic background most mice die at around 14.5 dpc due to a failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. However, no systematic examination of sexual development in Map3k1-deficient mice has been described, an omission that is especially relevant in the case of C57BL/6J, a genetic background that is sensitized to disruptions to testis determination. Here, we report that on a mixed genetic background mice lacking Map3k1 are fertile and exhibit no overt abnormalities of testis development. On C57BL/6J, significant non-viability is observed with very few animals surviving to adulthood. However, an examination of development in Map3k1-deficient XY embryos on this genetic background revealed no significant defects in testis determination, although minor abnormalities were observed, including an increase in gonadal length. Based on these observations, we conclude that MAP3K1 is not required for mouse testis determination. We discuss the significance of these data for the functional interpretation of sex-reversing MAP3K1 mutations in humans.

Warr, Nick; Brixey, Rachel; Tateossian, Hilda; Dopplapudi, Asha; Wells, Sara; Cheeseman, Michael; Xia, Ying; Ostrer, Harry; Greenfield, Andy

2011-01-01

235

Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.  

PubMed

Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells. PMID:21526224

Zampini, Valeria; Rüttiger, Lukas; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Furness, David N; Waldhaus, Jörg; Xiong, Hao; Hackney, Carole M; Holley, Matthew C; Offenhauser, Nina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Knipper, Marlies; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

2011-04-19

236

Eps8 Regulates Hair Bundle Length and Functional Maturation of Mammalian Auditory Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

Waldhaus, Jorg; Xiong, Hao; Hackney, Carole M.; Holley, Matthew C.; Offenhauser, Nina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Knipper, Marlies; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

2011-01-01

237

Quality control of analyses of mercury in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quality control programme for mercury determinations in hair was developed within a study of “Mental effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure in New Zealand children”. Hair was obtained from seven females with a mercury concentration of about 0.5–4 µg Hg\\/g. The hair was cut into 1–5 cm pieces and pulverized by liquid nitrogen grinding using a ring mill. In order

B. Lind; L. Bigras; E. Cernichiari; T. W. Clarkson; L. Friberg; M. Hellman; P. Kennedy; J. Kirkbride; T. Kjellström; B. Ohlin

1988-01-01

238

Craniofacial Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

239

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... only. Girls may carry the abnormal gene that causes these disorders but not show the actual disease. (Examples of this problem include hemophilia, color blindness, and the common forms of muscular ...

240

Skin blisters and hair loss in a rat mutant called vibrissaeless.  

PubMed

A radiation-induced autosomal recessive mutant in the rat called vibrissaeless (vb), has been described and studied. Mutants have abnormal hair growth, the hairs being reduced in number and length. Mutant animals form blisters which then erode, crust, and heal without scars. The blisters can be artificially produced by friction and result from intraepidermal separation which is suprabasilar in position. To date, we cannot correlate this abnormality in rats with any known inherited human blistering disease. PMID:1151112

Lutzner, M A; Hansen, C T

1975-08-01

241

Culture of hair matrix and follicular keratinocytes.  

PubMed

In recent years, a variety of in vitro models for the cultivation of hair follicles and their constituents have been developed. Outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes (KC) have been mainly studied in explant cultures, planted on bovine eye lens capsules, collagen substrata, 3T3 cell feeder layers, or dermal equivalents, yielding outgrowth of a multilayered stratified epithelium with some biochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of keratinocytic differentiation. More recently, ORS KC cultures have also been initiated from single cell suspensions, and organotypic cultures have been obtained by recombination with dermal cells, inducing a higher degree of epidermal differentiation. Presumptive human hair matrix cells have been isolated from plucked anagen hair follicles and have been successfully propagated on 3T3 cell or normal human fibroblast feeder layers, giving rise to multilayered stratified KC cultures. In contrast, only preliminary data exist concerning the cultivation of bulge cells that have been suggested to represent follicular stem cells. In conclusion we dispose of several in vitro models today to cultivate ORS KC and hair matrix cells that have increased our knowledge on the regulation of the human hair cycle by soluble factors and dermal-epidermal interactions. Further comparative studies on ORS KC, bulge cells and matrix cells have to be carried out to confirm the distinct character of these hair KC subsets. PMID:8326146

Detmar, M; Schaart, F M; Blume, U; Orfanos, C E

1993-07-01

242

Common Hair Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... bacterial infection of hair follicles (folliculitis), infestation of head lice (pediculosis capitis), and fungal infection of scalp ringworm ( ... below to see additional images and learn more. Head Lice (Pediculosis Capitis) Head lice (pediculosis capitis) is a ...

243

Common hair loss disorders.  

PubMed

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause. PMID:12887115

Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

2003-07-01

244

Biomedical versus cultural constructions of abnormality: the case of idiopathic hirsutism in the United States.  

PubMed

From an examination of (1) psychological and social stresses documented by the medical profession of women with amounts of hair departing from what is considered to be the "feminine" distribution of hair (idiopathic hirsutism), (2) biomedical information about male and female hair growth and distribution, (3) definitional influences of society, and (4) instrumental maneuverings of depilatory industries, this paper offers insights about the alteration of natural female facial and body hair to conform to a social construct of gender status. Although the hair problem is interesting in itself, its implications are much broader, for what lies behind conceptions of abnormality is a biological reality mediated by social constructs and classificatory schema. PMID:3044697

Ferrante, J

1988-06-01

245

Auditory hair cell precursors immortalized from the mammalian inner ear.  

PubMed Central

Mammalian auditory hair cells are few in number, experimentally inaccessible, and do not proliferate postnatally or in vitro. Immortal cell lines with the potential to differentiate into auditory hair cells would substantially facilitate auditory research, drug development, and the isolation of critical molecules involved in hair cell biology. We have established two conditionally immortal cell lines that express at least five characteristic hair cell markers. These markers are the transcription factor Brn3.1, the alpha 9 subunit of the acetylcholine receptor, the stereociliary protein fimbrin and the myosins VI and VIIA. These hair cell precursors permit functional studies of cochlear genes and in the longer term they will provide the means to explore therapeutic methods of stimulating auditory hair cell regeneration.

Rivolta, M N; Grix, N; Lawlor, P; Ashmore, J F; Jagger, D J; Holley, M C

1998-01-01

246

Keratin 71 mutations: from water dogs to woolly hair.  

PubMed

The study of rare genetic disorders of the hair follicle has resulted in the identification of many causative genes, leading to the potential for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for both inherited and acquired hair disorders. In this issue, Fujimoto et al. identify a missense mutation within the keratin 71 (KRT71) gene as the cause for autosomal dominant woolly hair/hypotrichosis in a Japanese family. This represents the first human mutation in KRT71 to be linked to a hair disorder, establishing this gene as an important determinant of mammalian hair texture. Moreover, this finding provides new insight into the relationship between similar phenotypes resulting from mutations in distinct regulatory pathways and underscores the role of the inner root sheath in human hair growth. PMID:22971920

Harel, Sivan; Christiano, Angela M

2012-10-01

247

Labial hair tourniquet: unusual complication of an unrepaired genital laceration.  

PubMed

Hair tourniquet syndrome has been recognized as a medical entity since the 1600 s. Appendages develop acute ischemia from tightening of hair strands circumferentially wrapped around them. Most commonly affected sites are fingers, toes, and penis, but limited reports have described involvement of the female genitalia. Although hair strangulation involving the labia minora or clitoris has been described, it typically occurs in young children. We present a case of an adolescent girl with a labial appendage hair tourniquet resulting from a previous unrepaired genital laceration. This is one of the oldest patients in whom a genital hair tourniquet has been reported, as well as description of a posttraumatic genital appendage. Genital hair tourniquets are medical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid tissue necrosis and possible amputation. Genital trauma in general requires surgical evaluation. PMID:23823263

Dua, Anahita; Jamshidi, Ramin; Lal, Dave R

2013-07-01

248

Short Anagen Hair Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Short anagen syndrome (SAS) is a condition in which hair does not grow long. It usually perceived by parents in children around 2-4 years of age. It is a benign disease of the hair cycle. The condition is relevant from the standpoint of differential diagnosis with loose anagen syndrome. We report a case of SAS in a Hispanic 3-year-old girl.

Herskovitz, Ingrid; de Sousa, Isabel Cristina Valente Duarte; Simon, Jessica; Tosti, Antonella

2013-01-01

249

Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alterations in CNS Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We hypothesize that low systemic redox potential (GSH/GSSG; cysteine/cystine) reflects a vulnerability phenotype that is associated with regressive autism and is predictive of the risk of developing autism. The redox vulnerability phenotype is associated ...

S. J. James

2010-01-01

250

Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alterations in CNS Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We hypothesize that low systemic redox potential (GSH/GSSG; cysteine/cystine) reflects a vulnerability phenotype that is associated with regressive autism and is predictive of the risk of developing autism. The redox vulnerability phenotype is associated ...

S. J. James

2009-01-01

251

Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alterations in CNS Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We hypothesize that low systemic redox potential (GSH/GSSG; cysteine/cystine) reflects a vulnerability phenotype that is associated with regressive autism and is predictive of the risk of developing autism. The redox vulnerability phenotype is associated ...

S. J. James

2012-01-01

252

Redox Abnormalities as a Vulnerability Phenotype for Autism and Related Alterations in CNS Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of our work are to develop means of identifying cells, and individuals, that present with a more basal oxidized redox state and to identify molecular mechanisms that functionally integrate such an oxidized state with observations that the multip...

M. D. Noble

2011-01-01

253

Vulnerability of the developing brain to thyroid abnormalities: environmental insults to the thyroid system.  

PubMed Central

Neurologic development follows orderly patterns that can be severely disturbed when thyroid hormones are deficient or excessive. Should this occur at appropriate development periods, irreversible neurologic damage can result. The nature of the deficits depends upon the specific development period and the severity of the thyroid disturbance. PCBs and dioxins are structurally similar to the thyroid hormones. Their binding characteristics are similar to those of thyroid hormones and all three groups bind to the cytosolic Ah receptor, the thyroid hormone receptor and the serum thyroid hormone binding protein transthyretin. Depending upon the dose of toxin and the congener used, the toxins either decrease or mimic the biological action of the thyroid hormones. Either effect, if occurring during brain development, can have disastrous consequences. Children and animals exposed to PCBs or dioxins in utero and/or as infants can exhibit varying degrees of behavioral disorders. These disorders resemble those seen in children exposed to thyroid hormone deficiencies in utero and/or in infancy. The mechanism of developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs and dioxins is not known but data suggest it could be partially or entirely mediated by alterations in availability and action of thyroid hormones during neurological development. It is possible that transient exposure of the mother to doses of toxins presently considered nontoxic to the mother could have an impact upon fetal or perinatal neurological development. If the toxins act via their effect on thyroid hormone action, it is possible that doses of toxins that would normally not alter fetal development, could become deleterious if superimposed on a pre-existing maternal/or fetal thyroid disorder.

Porterfield, S P

1994-01-01

254

Eruptive vellus hair cyst presenting as asymptomatic follicular papules on extremities  

PubMed Central

Eruptive vellus hair cysts were first described in 1977. They usually appear as yellow to reddish-brown papules on the chest. Usual onset is between ages 17 and 24 years, but they may be congenital. Some believe that they may be inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder. Histologically the cyst has a stratified squamous epithelium and it contains laminated keratin and vellus hairs. They are felt to be caused by an abnormality at the infundibular level of the vellus hair. We present this because of this patient's unusual distribution of eruptive vellus hair cysts.

Khatu, Swapna; Vasani, Resham; Amin, Shital

2013-01-01

255

Mitochondrial profiling of dog hairs.  

PubMed

In order to make greater use of dog hairs as forensic evidence, we have developed a robust method for duplex amplification of adjacent 306 and 332bp amplicons within the 5' hypervariable region (5' HVR) of the canine mitochondrial control region. In support of this, a 595bp region covering 35 polymorphic sites has been sequenced from the blood of 105 UK dogs. In total, 30 different haplotypes were observed, 13 only once whilst the commonest was seen 14 times; the overall exclusion capacity is 0.929. One animal was heteroplasmic in blood for a single base deletion and showed phenotypes ranging from near complete deletion to a predominance of the base among a sample of 12 hairs. In contrast, no evidence of heteroplasmy was seen in single hairs from 20 dogs which were not visibly heteroplasmic in blood. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons with other published databases highlighted instances of possible recurrent mutation which may be relevant when interpreting single base differences between samples. PMID:12787657

Wetton, Jon H; Higgs, Jenny E; Spriggs, Adrian C; Roney, Chris A; Tsang, Carol S F; Foster, Aiden P

2003-05-01

256

Abnormal Levels of Gadd45alpha in Developing Neocortex Impair Neurite Outgrowth  

PubMed Central

To better understand the short and long-term effects of stress on the developing cerebral cortex, it is necessary to understand how early stress response genes protect or permanently alter cells. One family of highly conserved, stress response genes is the growth arrest and DNA damage-45 (Gadd45) genes. The expression of these genes is induced by a host of genotoxic, drug, and environmental stressors. Here we examined the impact of altering the expression of Gadd45alpha (Gadd45a), a member of the Gadd45 protein family that is expressed throughout the developing cortices of mice and humans. To manipulate levels of Gadd45a protein in developing mouse cortex, we electroporated cDNA plasmids encoding either Gadd45a or Gadd45a shRNA to either overexpress or knockdown Gadd45a levels in the developing cortices of mice, respectively. The effects of these manipulations were assessed by examining the fates and morphologies of the labeled neurons. Gadd45a overexpression both in vitro and in vivo significantly impaired the morphology of neurons, decreasing neurite complexity, inducing soma hypertrophy and increasing cell death. Knockdown of Gadd45a partially inhibited neuronal migration and reduced neurite complexity, an effect that was reversed in the presence of an shRNA-resistant Gadd45a. Finally, we found that shRNA against MEKK4, a direct target of Gadd45a, also stunted neurite outgrowth. Our findings suggest that the expression of Gadd45a in normal, developing brain is tightly regulated and that treatments or environmental stimuli that alter its expression could produce significant changes in neuronal circuitry development.

Sarkisian, Matthew R.; Siebzehnrubl, Dorit

2012-01-01

257

Familial liability, obstetric complications and childhood development abnormalities in early onset schizophrenia: a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions are linked to higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia\\u000a in accordance with the neurodevelopmental model of disease; little is known about risk factors and early development in early-onset\\u000a schizophrenia (EOS) and very early-onset schizophrenia (VEOS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We present a case-control study of a sample of 21 patients with EOS\\/VEOS and a control group of

Francesco Margari; Maria G Petruzzelli; Paola A Lecce; Orlando Todarello; Andrea De Giacomo; Elisabetta Lucarelli; Domenico Martinelli; Lucia Margari

2011-01-01

258

Auditory Processing in Infancy: Do Early Abnormalities Predict Disorders of Language and Cognitive Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing attention has been devoted to the maturation of sensory processing in the first year of life. While the development of cortical visual function has been thoroughly studied, much less information is available on auditory processing and its early disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the assessment techniques for…

Guzzetta, Francesco; Conti, Guido; Mercuri, Eugenio

2011-01-01

259

Modeling propagation delays in the development of SOMs - a parallel with abnormal brain growth in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain overgrowth in early developmental stages of children with autism is well documented. This paper explores the possibility that increases in propagation delays of stimuli and the signals triggered by them, resulting from this overgrowth, may be conducive to the development of poorly structured cortical maps, which may in turn be associated with autistic characteristics. We use a framework based

Gerardo Noriega

2008-01-01

260

Abnormal development of glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells in mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene.  

PubMed

Mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 chain of laminin-5 (alpha3beta3gamma2, 332), develop a blistering skin disease similar to junctional epidermolysis bullosa in humans. These animals also develop abnormalities in glomerulogenesis. In both wild-type and mutant animals (lama3(-/-)), podocytes secrete glomerular basement membrane and develop foot processes. Endothelial cells migrate into this scaffolding and secrete a layer of basement membrane that fuses with the one formed by the podocyte. In lama3(-/-) animals, glomerular maturation arrests at this stage. Endothelial cells do not attenuate, develop fenestrae, or form typical lumens, and mesangial cells (MCs) were not identified. LN alpha3 subunit (LAMA3) protein was identified in the basement membrane adjacent to glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) in normal rats and mice. In developing rat glomeruli, the LAMA3 subunit was first detectable in the early capillary loop stage, which corresponds to the stage at which maturation arrest was observed in the mutant mice. Lama3 mRNA and protein were identified in isolated rat and mouse glomeruli and cultured rat GEnCs, but not MC. These data document expression of LAMA3 in glomeruli and support a critical role for it in GEnC differentiation. Furthermore, LAMA3 chain expression and/or another product of endothelial cells are required for MC migration into the developing glomerulus. PMID:16850021

Abrass, C K; Berfield, A K; Ryan, M C; Carter, W G; Hansen, K M

2006-07-19

261

Acquired, nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities associated with the development of acute promyelocytic leukemia in transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

We previously generated a transgenic mouse model for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) by expressing the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)–retinoic acid receptor (RAR?) cDNA in early myeloid cells. This fusion protein causes a myeloproliferative disease in 100% of animals, but only 15–20% of the animals develop acute leukemia after a long latency period (6–13 months). PML-RAR? is therefore necessary, but not sufficient, for APL development. The coexpression of a reciprocal form of the fusion, RAR?-PML, increased the likelihood of APL development (55–60%), but did not shorten latency. Together, these results suggested that additional genetic events are required for the development of APL. We therefore evaluated the splenic tumor cells from 18 transgenic mice with APL for evidence of secondary genetic events, by using spectral karyotyping analysis. Interstitial or terminal deletions of the distal region of one copy of chromosome 2 [del(2)] were found in 1/5 tumors expressing PML-RAR?, but in 11/13 tumors expressing both PML-RAR? and RAR?-PML (P < 0.05). Leukemic cells that contained a deletion on chromosome 2 often contained additional chromosomal gains (especially of 15), chromosomal losses (especially of 11 or X/Y), or were tetraploid (P ? 0.001). These changes did not commonly occur in nontransgenic littermates, nor in aged transgenic mice that did not develop APL. These results suggest that expression of RAR?-PML increases the likelihood of chromosome 2 deletions in APL cells. Deletion 2 appears to predispose APL cells to further chromosomal instability, which may lead to the acquisition of additional changes that provide an advantage to the transformed cells.

Zimonjic, Drazen B.; Pollock, Jessica L.; Westervelt, Peter; Popescu, Nicholas C.; Ley, Timothy J.

2000-01-01

262

Serum levels of minerals and vitamins in two categories of female alopecia subjects using hair relaxer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn an earlier study, we identified an association between hair relaxer-induced alopecia and decreased zinc levels. This study hopes to identify if age at first exposure to hair relaxer plays a role in the development of alopecia in the small percentage of women of African descent who use hair-relaxing products for hair-straightening purposes and develop lingering, nonresolving alopecia.

A. A. Iyanda; J. I. Anetor; D. P. Oparinde

263

Baseline sacroiliac joint magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and male sex predict the development of radiographic sacroiliitis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the relationship between the baseline sacroiliac joint (SIJ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the development of radiographic sacroiliitis and tested their prognostic significance in cases of ankylosing spondylitis. Patients who had undergone an SIJ MRI at the rheumatology department were identified. Individuals for whom pelvic X-rays were available after at least 1 year of MRI were included in the analysis. All radiographs and MRI examinations were scored by two independent readers. Medical records of the patients were reviewed to obtain potentially relevant demographic and clinical data. We identified 1,069 SIJ MRIs, and 328 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Reliability analysis revealed moderate to good inter- and intra-observer agreement. On presentation data, 14 cases were excluded because they had unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis at baseline. After a mean of 34.8 months of follow-up, 24 patients developed radiographic sacroiliitis. The presence of active sacroiliitis (odds ratio (OR) 15.1) and structural lesions on MRI (OR 8.3), male sex (OR 4.7), fulfillment of Calin's inflammatory back pain criteria (P?=?0.001), and total MRI activity score (P?development of radiographic sacroiliitis. By regression modeling, the presence of both active inflammatory and structural damage lesions on MRI and male sex were found to be predictive factors for the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. Our present results suggest that the occurrence of both active inflammatory and structural lesions in SIJs revealed by MRI is a significant risk factor for radiographic sacroiliitis, especially in male patients with early inflammatory back pain. PMID:23765093

Akar, Servet; Isik, Sibel; Birlik, Bilge; Solmaz, Dilek; Sari, Ismail; Onen, Fatos; Akkoc, Nurullah

2013-06-14

264

Development of monoclonal antibodies against the abnormal prion protein isoform (PrP(res)) associated with chronic wasting disease (CWD).  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the abnormal prion protein isoform (PrP(res)) are indispensable for diagnosing chronic wasting disease (CWD). In this study, eight mAbs were developed by immunizing PrP knockout mice with recombinant elk PrP and an immunogenic PrP peptide. The reactivity of the mAbs to recombinant PrP and the PrP peptide was measured, and their isotypes were subsequently determined. Among them, four mAbs (B85-05, B85-08, B85-12, and B77-75) were shown by Western blotting to recognize proteinase K-treated brain homogenate derived from an elk suffering from CWD. PMID:23271186

Jeong, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Dong-Woon; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, In-Soo

2012-12-01

265

Cytokeratin expression in alopecia areata hair follicles.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata is a human hair disease of unknown etiology. Immunological mechanisms, alterations in the extracellular matrix and follicular growth abnormalities have been suggested as a possible cause. Here we compare the expression of cytokeratins in normal hair follicles to that of alopecia areata using immunohistology with monoclonal antibodies. A number of cytokeratins were specifically expressed in defined anatomical parts of the follicle; however, no gross qualitative or quantitative differences were found between normal and diseased scalp. Interestingly, the expression of cytokeratin 16, which is modulated by conditions that affect the rate of keratinocyte proliferation, was found to be unchanged in the outer root sheet of alopecia areata follicles. This is in contrast with earlier observations of a decrease in the expression of the proliferation-associated, Ki-67 nuclear antigen. PMID:7511864

Van Baar, H M; Van Vlijmen, I M; Ramaekers, F C; Van Muijen, G N; Troyanovsky, S M; Perret, C M; Van de Kerkhof, P C; Schalkwijk, J

1994-01-01

266

An evaluation of the role of cytokinins in the development of abnormal inflorescences in oil palms ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) regenerated from tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue cultures and regenerant plants from cell lines producing palms with normal and abnormal flowers were analyzed for cytokinin\\u000a content and compared with zygotic embryos and seedlings. Immature inflorescences at the critical stage of flower development\\u000a dissected from normal and abnormal palms were also analyzed. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)\\/radioimmunoassay\\u000a and HPLC\\/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used over a period

L. H. Jones; D. E. Hanke; C. J. Eeuwens

1995-01-01

267

Abnormal Plasminogen  

PubMed Central

A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen. Images

Aoki, Nobuo; Moroi, Masaaki; Sakata, Yoichi; Yoshida, Nobuhiko; Matsuda, Michio

1978-01-01

268

Embryonic and Early Postnatal Abnormalities Contributing to the Development of Hippocampal Malformations in a Rodent Model of Dysplasia  

PubMed Central

While there are many recent examples of single gene deletions that lead to defects in cortical development, most human cases of cortical disorganization can be attributed to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Elucidating the cellular or developmental basis of teratogenic exposures in experimental animals is an important approach to understanding how environmental insults at particular developmental junctures can lead to complex brain malformations. Rats with prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol (MAM) reproduces many anatomical features seen in epilepsy patients. Previous studies have shown that heterotopic clusters of neocortically-derived neurons exhibit hyperexcitable firing activity and may be a source of heightened seizure susceptibility, however the events that lead to the formation of these abnormal cell clusters is unclear. Here, we used a panel of molecular markers and birthdating studies to show that in MAM-exposed rats, the abnormal cell clusters (heterotopia) first appear postnatally in the hippocampus (P1–P2) and that their appearance is preceded by a distinct sequence of perturbations in neocortical development: (i) disruption of the radial glial scaffolding with premature astroglial differentiation and (ii) thickening of the marginal zone with redistribution of Cajal-Retzius neurons to deeper layers. These initial events are followed by disruption of the cortical plate and appearance of subventricular zone nodules. Finally, we observed the erosion of neocortical subventricular zone nodules into the hippocampus around parturition followed by migration of nodules to hippocampus. We conclude that prenatal MAM exposure disrupts critical developmental processes and prenatal neocortical structures ultimately resulting in neocortical disorganization and hippocampal malformations.

Paredes, Mercedes; Pleasure, Samuel J.; Baraban, Scott C.

2010-01-01

269

A mouse model for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-leucodystrophy reveals abnormal development of brain white matter.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B is a major housekeeping complex that governs the rate of global protein synthesis under normal and stress conditions. Mutations in any of its five subunits lead to leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter, an inherited chronic-progressive fatal brain disease with unknown aetiology, which is among the most prevalent childhood white matter disorders. We generated the first animal model for the disease by introducing a point mutation into the mouse Eif2b5 gene locus, leading to R132H replacement corresponding to the clinically significant human R136H mutation in the catalytic subunit. In contrast to human patients, mice homozygous for the mutant Eif2b5 allele (Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice) enable multiple analyses under a defined genetic background during the pre-symptomatic stages and during recovery from a defined brain insult. Time-course magnetic resonance imaging revealed for the first time the delayed development of the brain white matter due to the mutation. Electron microscopy demonstrated a higher proportion of small-calibre nerve fibres. Immunohistochemistry detected an abnormal abundance of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the brain of younger animals, as well as an abnormal level of major myelin proteins. Most importantly, mutant mice failed to recover from cuprizone-induced demyelination, reflecting an increased sensitivity to brain insults. The anomalous development of white matter in Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice underscores the importance of tight translational control to normal myelin formation and maintenance. PMID:20826436

Geva, Michal; Cabilly, Yuval; Assaf, Yaniv; Mindroul, Nina; Marom, Liraz; Raini, Gali; Pinchasi, Dalia; Elroy-Stein, Orna

2010-08-01

270

Hair-cycle dependent differential expression of ADAM 10 and ADAM 12  

PubMed Central

Background ADAM proteases play important roles in processes of development and differentiation. However, no report has been found in the literature addressing the expression and function of ADAM proteases during hair cycling. Results Cytoplasmic expression pattern of ADAM 10, 12 was similar between normal epidermis and hair infundibulum. In addition, cytoplasmic expression of ADAM 10 was observed in the hair bulb keratinocytes and fibroblasts of dermal papilla in anagen I–III hair follicles. In contrast, decreased ADAM 10 expression was observed in the hair matrix keratinocytes as compared to the hair bulb keratinocytes in anagen I–III hair follicles. Interestingly, ADAM 10 immunoreactivity was expressed weakly in the lower portion of outer root sheath (ORS) of anagen VI hair follicles, and strong ADAM 10 expression was detected in the ORS of catagen and telogen hair follicles. By contrast, ADAM 12 expression was not detected in the hair bulb keratinocytes of anagen I–III hair follicles. ADAM 12 immunoreactivity firstly appeared in the inner root sheath ( IRS ) of anagen IV—V hair follicles and was down-regulated in the IRS and hair cortex and medulla of catagen hair follicles, Strong ADAM 12 immunoreactivity was observed in the ORS of catagen and telogen hair follicles. Material and methods Samples of normal human skin (n = 30) were used. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using ADAM 10, 12 specific polyclonal antibodies and a sensitive streptavidin-peroxidase technique. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a comparable staining pattern of decreased ADAM 10 immunoreactivity in hair matrix keratinocytes and the basal cell layer of normal epidermis and hair infundibulum. Expression of ADAM 10 in dermal papilla cells may imply a role in the induction and development of anagen hair follicles. In addition, expression of ADAM 10 in the ORS and hair bulb assume the involvment of ADAM 10 in the downward migration of anagen hair follicles. Furthermore ADAM 12 expression in the IRS may indicate a role in the differentiation of anagen hair follicles. Downregulation of ADAM 12 upon the onset of catagen hair stage suggests that ADAM 12 may play an important role of ADAM 12 in the apoptosis of hair follicle keratinocytes. In summary our findings suggest that ADAM 10 and 12 may be of importance for the regulation of hair cycling.

Cho, Baik-Kee; Schramme, Anja; Gutwein, Paul; Tilgen, Wolfgang; Reichrath, Jorg

2009-01-01

271

Normal and abnormal cerebrovascular development: gene-environment interactions during early life with later life consequences.  

PubMed

A greater understanding of cerebrovascular health and disease requires the consideration of recent neuroscience advances concerning neuroplasticity in the context of classical developmental neurology principles. Consideration of the ontogenetic interplay of nature and nurture influencing brain development during prenatal and early postnatal time periods should consider the concept of the developmental origins of neurological health and disease. Adaptive and maladaptive effects of neuroplasticity require a systems biology approach integrating molecular, receptor, cellular, neural network, and behavioral perspectives, culminating in the structural and functional cerebrovascular phenotypes that express health or disease across the lifespan. Cognizance of the interrelationships among maternal, placental, fetal, and neonatal factors requires an interdisciplinary appreciation of genetic/epigenetic forces of neuroplasticity during early life that incrementally influence cerebrovascular health or disease throughout childhood and adulthood. Knowledge of the systemic effects of multiorgan function on cerebrovascular development further broadens the systems biology approach to general plasticity of the individual as a whole organism. Short- and long-term consequences of the positive and negative effects of neuroplasticity must consider ongoing gene-environment interactions with maturation and aging, superimposed on earlier fetal/neonatal experiences that sustain neurological health or contribute to disease during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23622309

Scher, Mark S

2013-01-01

272

Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10) decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50) decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes.

Liu, Leah Y.; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Trista E.; Goessling, Wolfram

2013-01-01

273

A mitochondrial DNA sequence is associated with abnormal pollen development in cytoplasmic male sterile bean plants.  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in common bean is associated with the presence of a 3-kb unique mitochondrial sequence designated pvs. The pvs sequence encodes at least two open reading frames (297 and 720 bp in length) with portions derived from the chloroplast genome. Fertility restoration by the nuclear restorer gene Fr results in the loss of this transcriptionally active unique region. We examined the effect of CMS (pvs present) and fertility restoration by Fr (pvs absent) on the pattern of pollen development in bean. In the CMS line, pollen aborted in the tetrad stage late in microgametogenesis. Microspores maintained cytoplasmic connections throughout pollen development, indicating aberrant or incomplete cytokinesis. Pollen-specific events associated with pollen abortion and fertility restoration imply that a gametophytic factor or event may be involved in CMS. In situ hybridization experiments suggested that significant reduction or complete loss of the mitochondrial sterility-associated sequence occurred in fertile pollen of F2 populations segregating for fertility. These observations support a model of fertility restoration by the loss of a mitochondrial DNA sequence prior to or during microsporogenesis/gametogenesis.

Johns, C; Lu, M; Lyznik, A; Mackenzie, S

1992-01-01

274

Auditory processing in infancy: do early abnormalities predict disorders of language and cognitive development?  

PubMed

Increasing attention has been devoted to the maturation of sensory processing in the first year of life. While the development of cortical visual function has been thoroughly studied, much less information is available on auditory processing and its early disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the assessment techniques for early auditory processing. While otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses are well-established tools for neonatal screening of hearing loss, there have been less consistent results for neurophysiological assessments of central auditory processing in clinical practice. Early auditory event-related potentials could provide valuable diagnostic information, but their use as a possible clinical screening method is still limited and should be further assessed. Behavioural tests are few and are greatly needed in young infants as they could provide a more easily used tool for detecting the preconditions of early cerebral auditory impairment. PMID:21838818

Guzzetta, Francesco; Conti, Guido; Mercuri, Eugenio

2011-08-12

275

Low dose oxidative stress induces mitochondrial damage in hair cells.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been implicated as a cause of hair cell damage after ischemia reperfusion injury, noise trauma, and ototoxic injury. Oxidative stress can induce both apoptosis or necrosis depending on the degree of exposure. To study how reactive oxygen species (ROS) interacts with hair cells, we have developed an in vitro model of oxidative stress using organ of Corti cultures exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ). Treatment of organ of Corti cultures with low concentrations of H(2) O(2) results in loss of outer hair cells in the basal turn of the explant. Higher concentrations of peroxide result in more extensive outer hair cell injury as well as loss of inner hair cells. Early outer hair cell death appears to occur though apoptosis as demonstrated by staining of activated caspase. The effect of oxidative stress on mitochondrial function is a key determinant of degree of damage. Oxidative stress results in reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential and reduction of mitochondrial produced antioxidants. Low doses of oxidative stress induce changes in mitochondrial gene expression and induce mitochondrial DNA deletions. Recurrent oxidative stress or inhibition of mitochondrial function significantly enhanced hair cell death. This tissue culture model of oxidative hair cell injury maintains a pattern of injury similar to what is observed in vivo after oxidative injury and can be used to study the effects of ROS on hair cells over the time period of the culture. PMID:23044977

Baker, Kim; Staecker, Hinrich

2012-10-08

276

The biology of hair diversity.  

PubMed

Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

2013-03-06

277

A mass spring model for hair simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to simulate the full hair geometry, consisting of approximately one hundred thousand hairs on a typical human head. This will require scalable methods that can simulate every hair as opposed to only a few guide hairs. Novel to this approach is that the individual hair\\/hair interactions can be modeled with physical parameters (friction, static attraction, etc.) at

Andrew Selle; Michael Lentine; Ronald Fedkiw

2008-01-01

278

A mass spring model for hair simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to simulate the full hair geometry, consisting of ap- proximately one hundred thousand hairs on a typical human head. This will require scalable methods that can simulate every hair as opposed to only a few guide hairs. Novel to this approach is that the individual hair\\/hair interactions can be modeled with physical parameters (friction, static attraction, etc.)

Andrew Selle; Michael Lentine; Ronald Fedkiw

2008-01-01

279

Use of scented hair snares to detect ocelots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologists need a variety of tools to determine the population and genetic status of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), an elusive Neotropical cat that favors dense habitats. We developed and tested a technique that entices ocelots to rub on scented hair snares and uses DNA analysis of the hair to determine species, gender, and individual identity. Twenty-seven (84%) of 32 captive

John L. Weaver; Peggy Wood; David Paetkau; Linda L. Laack

2005-01-01

280

Nanoscale characterization of human hair and hair conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners, along with damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments, affect the maintenance and grooming process and are important to study because they alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, mechanical properties, and morphological, frictional, and adhesive properties (tribological properties)

Bharat Bhushan

2008-01-01

281

Copy number variants and infantile spasms: evidence for abnormalities in ventral forebrain development and pathways of synaptic function  

PubMed Central

Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content of these CNVs for enrichment in pathways of pathogenesis. Several important findings emerged. First, the gene content was enriched for the gene regulatory network involved in ventral forebrain development. Second, genes in pathways of synaptic function were overrepresented, significantly those involved in synaptic vesicle transport. Evidence also suggested roles for GABAergic synapses and the postsynaptic density. Third, we confirm the association of ISS with duplication of 14q12 and maternally inherited duplication of 15q11q13, and report the association with duplication of 21q21. We also present a patient with ISS and deletion 7q11.3 not involving MAGI2. Finally, we provide evidence that ISS in deletion 1p36 may be associated with deletion of KLHL17 and expand the epilepsy phenotype in that syndrome to include early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Several of the identified pathways share functional links, and abnormalities of forebrain synaptic growth and function may form a common biologic mechanism underlying both ISS and autism. This study demonstrates a novel approach to the study of gene content in subjects with ISS and copy number variation, and contributes further evidence to support specific pathways of pathogenesis.

Paciorkowski, Alex R; Thio, Liu Lin; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Gajecka, Marzena; Gurnett, Christina A; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Chung, Wendy K; Marsh, Eric D; Gentile, Mattia; Reggin, James D; Wheless, James W; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Kumar, Ravinesh; Christian, Susan L; Marini, Carla; Guerrini, Renzo; Maltsev, Natalia; Shaffer, Lisa G; Dobyns, William B

2011-01-01

282

Mice with Tak1 deficiency in neural crest lineage exhibit cleft palate associated with abnormal tongue development.  

PubMed

Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects in humans. TGF? signaling, which is mediated by Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways, plays a crucial role in regulating craniofacial development and patterning, particularly in palate development. However, it remains largely unknown whether the Smad-independent pathway contributes to TGF? signaling function during palatogenesis. In this study, we investigated the function of TGF? activated kinase 1 (Tak1), a key regulator of Smad-independent TGF? signaling in palate development. We show that Tak1 protein is expressed in both the epithelium and mesenchyme of the developing palatal shelves. Whereas deletion of Tak1 in the palatal epithelium or mesenchyme did not give rise to a cleft palate defect, inactivation of Tak1 in the neural crest lineage using the Wnt1-Cre transgenic allele resulted in failed palate elevation and subsequently the cleft palate formation. The failure in palate elevation in Wnt1-Cre;Tak1(F/F) mice results from a malformed tongue and micrognathia, resembling human Pierre Robin sequence cleft of the secondary palate. We found that the abnormal tongue development is associated with Fgf10 overexpression in the neural crest-derived tongue tissue. The failed palate elevation and cleft palate were recapitulated in an Fgf10-overexpressing mouse model. The repressive effect of the Tak1-mediated noncanonical TGF? signaling on Fgf10 expression was further confirmed by inhibition of p38, a downstream kinase of Tak1, in the primary cell culture of developing tongue. Tak1 thus functions to regulate tongue development by controlling Fgf10 expression and could represent a candidate gene for mutation in human PRS clefting. PMID:23460641

Song, Zhongchen; Liu, Chao; Iwata, Junichi; Gu, Shuping; Suzuki, Akiko; Sun, Cheng; He, Wei; Shu, Rong; Li, Lu; Chai, Yang; Chen, YiPing

2013-03-04

283

Hair Loss in New Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ... the rest does not exist. 2. Try a new hairstyle. Some haircuts make hair look fuller. An ...

284

Silencing abnormal wing disc gene of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri disrupts adult wing development and increases nymph mortality.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5(th)) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5(th) instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP. PMID:23734251

El-Shesheny, Ibrahim; Hajeri, Subhas; El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

2013-05-29

285

Silencing Abnormal Wing Disc Gene of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Disrupts Adult Wing Development and Increases Nymph Mortality  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5th) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP.

El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

2013-01-01

286

Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities

Sylvia H Ley; Deborah L O'Connor; Ravi Retnakaran; Jill K Hamilton; Mathew Sermer; Bernard Zinman; Anthony J Hanley

2010-01-01

287

Fast adaptation of mechanoelectrical transducer channels in mammalian cochlear hair cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outer hair cells are centrally involved in the amplification and frequency tuning of the mammalian cochlea, but evidence about their transducing properties in animals with fully developed hearing is lacking. Here we describe measurements of mechanoelectrical transducer currents in outer hair cells of rats between postnatal days 5 and 18, before and after the onset of hearing. Deflection of hair

Helen J Kennedy; Michael G Evans; Andrew C Crawford; Robert Fettiplace

2003-01-01

288

Hair Follicle Stem Cells Are Specified and Function in Early Skin Morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In adult skin, epithelial hair follicle stem cells (SCs) reside in a quiescent niche and are essential for cyclic bouts of hair growth. Niche architecture becomes pronounced postnatally at the start of the first hair cycle. Whether SCs exist or function earlier isunknown.Here we show that slow-cyclingcells ap- pear early in skin development, express SC markers, and later give

Jonathan A. Nowak; Lisa Polak; H. Amalia Pasolli; Elaine Fuchs

289

Comparison of Sample Preparation Methods for Elemental Analysis of Human Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of human hair is useful in monitoring the levels of certain trace elements in the body. Hair samples can be collected easily and painlessly, and they require no special care when stored. Unlike blood, hair gives information about the intracellular accumulations of trace elements and provides information about a longer period. We have considered the references, developed an

János Dombovári; Lajos Papp

1998-01-01

290

New trends in hair analysis and scientific demands on validation and technical notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on basic aspects of method development and validation of hair testing procedures. Quality assurance is a major issue in drug testing in hair resulting in new recommendations, validation procedures and inter-laboratory comparisons. Furthermore recent trends in research concerning hair analysis are discussed, namely mechanisms of drug incorporation and retention, novel analytical procedures (especially ones using liquid chromatography–mass

Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea

2007-01-01

291

Fabrication of gecko foot-hair like nano structures and adhesion to random rough surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the effect of substrate roughness on the adhesion of gecko foot-hair like nano structures as opposed to solid elastic materials is described and models of both synthetic nano-hairs and hair-substrate interaction are developed. First, by combining linear beam theory and geometric constraints, a nonlinear elastic model for the hair is derived. Then it is shown how for

Domenico Campolo; Steven Jones; Ronald S. Fearing

2003-01-01

292

European hair and eye color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

Peter Frost

2006-01-01

293

Hair colour in clinical diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

N recent years a vast amount of research has been devoted to the physiology and pathology of hair growth, partly because of the great economic importance of the hair of the sheep and partly because the hair follicle is a compact, complex and accessible organ for the study of many fundamental biological processes. The melanocyte, too, has attracted a great

Arthur Rook

1969-01-01

294

Temperature effects on early development and occurrence of metamorphosis-related morphological abnormalities in hatchery-reared brown sole Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present study are to elucidate the effects of rearing temperatures on early larval development and the occurrence of metamorphosis-related morphological abnormalities in hatchery-reared brown sole Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini. Newly hatched larvae were reared through metamorphosis at different temperatures (6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 °C). Growth and development of larvae were accelerated concomitant with higher

Masato Aritaki; Tadahisa Seikai

2004-01-01

295

Lis1 mediates planar polarity of auditory hair cells through regulation of microtubule organization.  

PubMed

The V-shaped hair bundles atop auditory hair cells and their uniform orientation are manifestations of epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP) required for proper perception of sound. PCP is regulated at the tissue level by a conserved core Wnt/PCP pathway. However, the hair cell-intrinsic polarity machinery is poorly understood. Recent findings implicate hair cell microtubules in planar polarization of hair cells. To elucidate the microtubule-mediated polarity pathway, we analyzed Lis1 function in the auditory sensory epithelium in the mouse. We show that conditional deletion of Lis1 in developing hair cells causes defects in cytoplasmic dynein and microtubule organization, resulting in planar polarity defects without overt effects on the core PCP pathway. Lis1 ablation during embryonic development results in defects in hair bundle morphology and orientation, cellular organization and junctional nectin localization. We present evidence that Lis1 regulates localized Rac-PAK signaling in embryonic hair cells, probably through microtubule-associated Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac. Lis1 ablation in postnatal hair cells significantly disrupts centrosome anchoring and the normal V-shape of hair bundles, accompanied by defects in the pericentriolar matrix and microtubule organization. Lis1 is also required for proper positioning of the Golgi complex and mitochondria as well as for hair cell survival. Together, our results demonstrate that Lis1 mediates the planar polarity of hair cells through regulation of microtubule organization downstream of the tissue polarity pathway. PMID:23533177

Sipe, Conor W; Liu, Lixia; Lee, Jianyi; Grimsley-Myers, Cynthia; Lu, Xiaowei

2013-04-01

296

Matriptase\\/MT-SP1 is required for postnatal survival, epidermal barrier function, hair follicle development, and thymic homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matriptase\\/MT-SP1 is a novel tumor-associated type II transmembrane serine protease that is highly expressed in the epidermis, thymic stroma, and other epithelia. A null mutation was introduced into the Matriptase\\/MT-SP1 gene of mice to determine the role of Matriptase\\/MT-SP1 in epidermal development and neoplasia. Matriptase\\/MT-SP1-deficient mice developed to term but uniformly died within 48 h of birth. All epidermal surfaces

Karin List; Christian C Haudenschild; Roman Szabo; WanJun Chen; Sharon M Wahl; William Swaim; Lars H Engelholm; Niels Behrendt; Thomas H Bugge

2002-01-01

297

Qualification of an automated device to objectively assess the effect of hair care products on hair shine.  

PubMed

The authors developed and qualified an automated routine screening tool to quantify hair shine. This tool is able to separately record individual properties of hair shine such as specular reflection and multiple reflection, as well as additional features such as sparkle, parallelism of hair fibers, and hair color, which strongly affect the subjective ranking by individual readers. A side-by-side comparison of different hair care and styling products with regard to hair shine using the automated screening tool in parallel with standard panel assessment showed that the automated system provides an almost identical ranking and the same statistical significances as the panel assessment. Provided stringent stratification of hair fibers for color and parallelism, the automated tool competes favorably with panel assessments of hair shine. In this case, data generated with the opsira Shine-Box are clearly superior over data generated by panel assessment in terms of reliability and repeatability, workload and time consumption, and sensitivity and specificity to detect differences after shampoo, conditioner, and leave-in treatment. The automated tool is therefore well suited to replace standard panel assessments in claim support, at least as a screening tool. A further advantage of the automated system over panel assessments is the fact that absolute numeric values are generated for a given hair care product, whereas panel assessments can only give rankings of a series of hair care products included in the same study. Thus, the absolute numeric data generated with the automated system allow comparison of hair care products between studies or at different time points after treatment. PMID:22152491

Hagens, Ralf; Wiersbinski, Tim; Becker, Michael E; Weisshaar, Jürgen; Schreiner, Volker; Wenck, Horst

298

Abnormal behavioral and neurotrophic development in the younger sibling receiving less maternal care in a communal nursing paradigm in rats.  

PubMed

Maternal behavior in rodents has been proposed to vary as a function of the external environment and, in turn, adjust offspring's stress and fear responses. Early handling (brief periods of maternal separation during the first two weeks of life) studies and analyses of spontaneously high-caring rat mothers converge to indicate that increased levels of maternal care may reduce offspring emotionality in adulthood. However, the hypothesis that environment-dependent reduction in maternal care correlates with increased offspring vulnerability to pathology has been scarcely investigated. To test this hypothesis we studied maternal care and offspring development in young, adolescent and young-adult Sprague-Dawley rats reared in a communal nursing situation, characterized by two dams delivering their offspring four days apart and communally caring for them until weaning. We show that dams of the first-born litter show increased aggression towards the pregnant female and that offspring belonging to the second-born litter receive less maternal care compared to older cage-mates. Additionally, second-born rats show increased anxiety-related behavior in a plus-maze test in adolescence and adulthood and abnormal developmental trajectories in terms of social interaction and BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus compared to both the first-born litter and to animal facility reared controls. This is the first indication that adverse environments, not requiring experimenter handling, may reduce maternal care and in turn increase offspring's emotionality and modify social behavior and BDNF developmental trajectories. PMID:19762157

Macrì, Simone; Laviola, Giovanni; Leussis, Melanie P; Andersen, Susan L

2009-09-16

299

Absence of PTHrP Nuclear Localization and Carboxyl Terminus Sequences Leads to Abnormal Brain Development and Function  

PubMed Central

We assessed whether the nuclear localization sequences (NLS) and C terminus of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) play critical roles in brain development and function. We used histology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry, Western blots and electrophysiological recordings to compare the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, neuronal hippocampal synaptic transmission, and brain phenotypes including shape and structures, in Pthrp knock-in mice, which express PTHrP (1–84), a truncated form of the protein that is missing the NLS and the C-terminal region of the protein, and their wild-type littermates. Results showed that Pthrp knock-in mice display abnormal brain shape and structures; decreased neural cell proliferative capacity and increased apoptosis associated with up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16, p21, p27 and p53 and down-regulation of the Bmi-1 oncogene; delayed neural cell differentiation; and impaired hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. These findings provide in vivo experimental evidence that the NLS and C-terminus of PTHrP are essential not only for the regulation of neural cell proliferation and differentiation, but also for the maintenance of normal neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity.

Gu, Zhen; Liu, Yahong; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Shulei; Chen, Qi; Goltzman, David; Karaplis, Andrew; Miao, Dengshun

2012-01-01

300

Colorimetric determination of cystine (disulfide bond) in hair using dithiothreitol.  

PubMed

We developed a simple method for the quantification of cystine (disulfide bond) content in hair by measuring the amount of oxidized dithiothreitol (lambda max 283 nm) derived from dithiothreitol (DTT) with cystine. Because the cystine content in hair is almost fixed for each animal species, it can be used as a reliable indicator of hair weight. The absorbance (A280, y) of the supernatant of the reaction mixture correlated well with hair weight (mg, x) (y = 0.10x + 0.06, r = 1.00, n = 10). Within-run and between-day reproducibilities (C.Vs., %) for the assay were 3.1 and 2.8 (n = 5 each), respectively. Hair cystine content (nmol/mg hair, mean +/- S.D.) in normal volunteers was 903 +/- 50.6 (n = 10) by the present method and 755 +/- 24.9 (n = 10) when an amino acid analyzer was used. After assay by our method, the hair sample can be washed, then used repeatedly to assay other analytes. The present method should be useful for assays of analytes present only in small amounts (2-20 mg), without the need for precise weighing of the hair samples. PMID:9300124

Morioka, Y; Kobayashi, K

1997-08-01

301

Endovascular Treatment of AVF after Hair Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the scalp is a very rare complication of hair transplantation. Only 9 cases have been reported in nearly half a century. The diagnosis is clinical but angiography is necessary for defining the angioarchitecture of the lesion. Due to technical developments, endovascular embolization has become the primary treatment for AVF of the scalp.

Dogan, Sozen; Cinar, Celal; Demirpolat, Gulen; Memis, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmemis@yahoo.co [Ege University, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-07-15

302

Hair Defects in Hoxc13 Mutant Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hox genes encode transcription factors that are important during normal embryonic development of diverse organisms including vertebrates. In mammals, Hox genes are responsible for conferring regional identity in embryonic tissues, including the limb bud, the neural tube, the presomitic mesoderm and the intestinal tract. Recent studies have demonstrated expression of Hox genes in skin and hair follicles, suggesting potential functions

Alan R Godwin; Mario R Capecchi

1999-01-01

303

Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss, osteoarthritis and HME. PMID:23958822

Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

2013-08-17

304

Neurogenin 1 Null Mutant Ears Develop Fewer, Morphologically Normal Hair Cells in Smaller Sensory Epithelia Devoid of Innervation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proneuronal gene neurogenin 1 (ngn1) is essential for development of the inner-ear sensory neurons that are completely absent in ngn1 null mutants. Neither afferent, efferent, nor autonomic nerve fibers were detected in the ears of ngn1 null mutants. We suggest that efferent and autonomic fibers are lost secondarily to the absence of afferents. In this article\\u000a we show that

Qiufu Ma; David J. Anderson; Bernd Fritzsch

2000-01-01

305

A tale of two tissues: AtGH9C1 is an endo-?-1,4-glucanase involved in root hair and endosperm development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis AtGH9C1 is an endo-?-1,4-glucanase possessing a carbohydrate-binding domain (CBM49). Analysis of AtGH9C1 expression by promoter-reporter GUS, RT-PCR, public transcriptome databases and GFP protein tagging demonstrated a high and selective expression of AtGH9C1 in root hairs and in the endosperm. Expression in root hair cells started prior to bulge formation and continued during hair elongation. AtGH9C1 expression increased with treatments that increase density (ACC) or length (sucrose) of root hairs. Expression in the endosperm extended sequentially to the micropylar, peripheral and chalazal compartments. A mutant with reduced AtGH9C1 expression had a delay in germination and a marked reduction in root hair presence. Complementation of the mutant partially improved both germination and root hair density. Experiments with ectopically expressed AtGH9C1-GFP with and without the CBM49, demonstrated that both forms of the protein are secreted and that CBM49 targets the protein to specific regions of the cell wall, but what makes these regions special is still unknown. The amino acid alignment of angiosperm GH9 genes with C-terminal extensions illustrate that AtGH9C1 belongs to a different clade than its tomato homolog, S1GH9C1. The latter has a CBM49 that was shown to bind crystalline cellulose. We suggest that AtGH9C1 is associated with the weakening of the cell wall during formation and growth of the root hair as well as with the sequential anterior-posterior breakdown of the endosperm cell wall that provides space for the growing embryo. Thus, is likely that the CBM49 of AtGH9C1 recognizes a form of cellulose or glucan polymer that is prevalent in the wall of these specialized tissues and that is different than the one recognized by S1GH9C1. PMID:23173056

del Campillo, Elena; Gaddam, Sivacharan; Mettle-Amuah, Dorinne; Heneks, Jean

2012-11-16

306

A Tale of Two Tissues: AtGH9C1 Is an Endo-?-1,4-Glucanase Involved in Root Hair and Endosperm Development in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis AtGH9C1 is an endo-?-1,4-glucanase possessing a carbohydrate-binding domain (CBM49). Analysis of AtGH9C1 expression by promoter-reporter GUS, RT-PCR, public transcriptome databases and GFP protein tagging demonstrated a high and selective expression of AtGH9C1 in root hairs and in the endosperm. Expression in root hair cells started prior to bulge formation and continued during hair elongation. AtGH9C1 expression increased with treatments that increase density (ACC) or length (sucrose) of root hairs. Expression in the endosperm extended sequentially to the micropylar, peripheral and chalazal compartments. A mutant with reduced AtGH9C1 expression had a delay in germination and a marked reduction in root hair presence. Complementation of the mutant partially improved both germination and root hair density. Experiments with ectopically expressed AtGH9C1-GFP with and without the CBM49, demonstrated that both forms of the protein are secreted and that CBM49 targets the protein to specific regions of the cell wall, but what makes these regions special is still unknown. The amino acid alignment of angiosperm GH9 genes with C-terminal extensions illustrate that AtGH9C1 belongs to a different clade than its tomato homolog, S1GH9C1. The latter has a CBM49 that was shown to bind crystalline cellulose. We suggest that AtGH9C1 is associated with the weakening of the cell wall during formation and growth of the root hair as well as with the sequential anterior-posterior breakdown of the endosperm cell wall that provides space for the growing embryo. Thus, is likely that the CBM49 of AtGH9C1 recognizes a form of cellulose or glucan polymer that is prevalent in the wall of these specialized tissues and that is different than the one recognized by S1GH9C1.

del Campillo, Elena; Gaddam, Sivacharan; Mettle-Amuah, Dorinne; Heneks, Jean

2012-01-01

307

EGFR-Ras-Raf Signaling in Epidermal Stem Cells: Roles in Hair Follicle Development, Regeneration, Tissue Remodeling and Epidermal Cancers.  

PubMed

The mammalian skin is the largest organ of the body and its outermost layer, the epidermis, undergoes dynamic lifetime renewal through the activity of somatic stem cell populations. The EGFR-Ras-Raf pathway has a well-described role in skin development and tumor formation. While research mainly focuses on its role in cutaneous tumor initiation and maintenance, much less is known about Ras signaling in the epidermal stem cells, which are the main targets of skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we briefly discuss the properties of the epidermal stem cells and review the role of EGFR-Ras-Raf signaling in keratinocyte stem cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions. PMID:24071938

Doma, Eszter; Rupp, Christian; Baccarini, Manuela

2013-09-25

308

Hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on basic aspects and recent studies of hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs and is discussed with 164 references. Firstly, biology of hair and sampling of hair specimens have been commented for the sake of correct interpretation of the results from hair analysis. Then the usual washing methods of hair samples and the extraction methods for

Yuji Nakahara

1999-01-01

309

The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Morphogenesis of sensory hair cells, in particular their mechanotransduction organelle, the stereociliary bundle, requires highly organized remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The roles of Rho family small GTPases during this process remain unknown. Here we show that deletion of Rac1 in the otic epithelium resulted in severe defects in cochlear epithelial morphogenesis. The mutant cochlea was severely shortened with a reduced number of auditory hair cells and cellular organization of the auditory sensory epithelium was abnormal. Rac1 mutant hair cells also displayed defects in planar cell polarity and morphogenesis of the stereociliary bundle, including bundle fragmentation or deformation, and mispositioning or absence of the kinocilium. We further demonstrate that a Rac-PAK (p21-activated kinase) signaling pathway mediates kinocilium-stereocilia interactions and is required for cohesion of the stereociliary bundle. Together, these results reveal a critical function of Rac1 in morphogenesis of the auditory sensory epithelium and stereociliary bundle. PMID:20016102

Grimsley-Myers, Cynthia M; Sipe, Conor W; Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S G; Lu, Xiaowei

2009-12-16

310

The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Morphogenesis of sensory hair cells, in particular their mechanotransduction organelle, the stereociliary bundle, requires highly organized remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The roles of Rho family small GTPases during this process remain unknown. Here we show that deletion of Rac1 in the otic epithelium resulted in severe defects in cochlear epithelial morphogenesis. The mutant cochlea was severely shortened with a reduced number of auditory hair cells and cellular organization of the auditory sensory epithelium was abnormal. Rac1 mutant hair cells also displayed defects in planar cell polarity and morphogenesis of the stereociliary bundle, including bundle fragmentation or deformation, and mispositioning or absence of the kinocilium. We further demonstrate that a Rac-PAK signaling pathway mediates kinocilium-stereocilia interactions and is required for cohesion of the stereociliary bundle. Together, these results reveal a critical function of Rac1 in morphogenesis of the auditory sensory epithelium and stereociliary bundle.

Grimsley-Myers, Cynthia M.; Sipe, Conor W.; Geleoc, Gwenaellle S.G.; Lu, Xiaowei

2010-01-01

311

Effects of artificial hair-waving on hair mercury values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An artificial hair-waving which is popular among Japanese women and the use of thiol-containing solutions for reforming hair-wavings was tested for its effects on hair mercury values. The first step of the procedures, shampooing and drying, entailed slightly organic mercury concentrations; the second step, applying the cosmetic containing thiols, reduced organic mercury concentrations to less than half of the

Reiko Yamamoto; Tsuguyoshi Suzuki

1978-01-01

312

Hair cell overexpression of islet1 reduces age-related and noise-induced hearing loss.  

PubMed

Isl1 is a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor that is critical in the development and differentiation of multiple tissues. In the mouse inner ear, Isl1 is expressed in the prosensory region of otocyst, in young hair cells and supporting cells, and is no longer expressed in postnatal auditory hair cells. To evaluate how continuous Isl1 expression in postnatal hair cells affects hair cell development and cochlear function, we created a transgenic mouse model in which the Pou4f3 promoter drives Isl1 overexpression specifically in hair cells. Isl1 overexpressing hair cells develop normally, as seen by morphology and cochlear functions (auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emissions). As the mice aged to 17 months, wild-type (WT) controls showed the progressive threshold elevation and outer hair cell loss characteristic of the age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in the background strain (C57BL/6J). In contrast, the Isl1 transgenic mice showed significantly less threshold elevation with survival of hair cells. Further, the Isl1 overexpression protected the ear from noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL): both ABR threshold shifts and hair cell death were significantly reduced when compared with WT littermates. Our model suggests a common mechanism underlying ARHL and NIHL, and provides evidence that hair cell-specific Isl1 expression can promote hair cell survival and therefore minimize the hearing impairment that normally occurs with aging and/or acoustic overexposure. PMID:24048839

Huang, Mingqian; Kantardzhieva, Albena; Scheffer, Deborah; Liberman, M Charles; Chen, Zheng-Yi

2013-09-18

313

Rotating black hole hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is conical with respect to a local co-rotating frame, not with respect to the static frame at infinity.

Gregory, Ruth; Kubiz?ák, David; Wills, Danielle

2013-06-01

314

Quantitative determination of cationic modified polysaccharides on hair using LC–MS and LC–MS–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cationic polysaccharides containing N-hydroxypropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium substituents are widely used as conditioning agents for hair-care products. A sensitive method has been developed for the quantitation of these polymers. After acidic extraction from hair the polysaccharides are hydrolyzed using trifluoroacetic acid. The cationic monoglycosides are determined using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS). The developed method is independent of hair treatment. Even hair cut

Jan Ungewiß; Jens-Peter Vietzke; Claudius Rapp; Hartmut Schmidt-Lewerkühne; Klaus-Peter Wittern; Reiner Salzer

2005-01-01

315

Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n=24, 24–51 yrs) and female abusers (n=7, 17–46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair

SeungKyung Baeck; EunYoung Han; HeeSun Chung; MyoungYun Pyo

2011-01-01

316

Cultural preferences for hair colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare colour preference between Japanese and British people who have a different culture, we examined hair colour preference by questionnaire1-4), visual assessment5,6) and SD method7). We found several key differences between two countries. They were 'beauty' and 'fashion'. British students want hair colour beautiful, in contrast Japanese students want hair colour fashionable. From the factor analysis, we

Y. Kato; T. L. V. Cheung; S. Kitaguchi; S. Westland; H. Yasunaga; T. Sato

317

Photodamage determination of human hair.  

PubMed

Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been optimised to determine protein, lipid and melanin degradation in hair subjected to different UV intensities. PMID:22119660

Fernández, Estibalitz; Barba, Clara; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Parra, José Luis; Coderch, Luisa

2011-11-07

318

Determination of Triazolam Involving Its Hydroxy Metabolites in Hair Shaft and Hair Root by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Application to Human Hair Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive method using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for simultaneous determination of triazolam and its hydroxy metabolites in hair. After the addition of deuterium-labeled 1-hydroxymethyltriazolam as an internal standard, the analytes in hair shaft and hair root samples were extracted with a basic medium, CH2Cl2:MeOH:28% NH4OH (20:80:2) at room temperature overnight. The

Toshimasa Toyo'oka; Masayoshi Kanbori; Yusuke Kumaki; Yuji Nakahara

2001-01-01

319

Hair Loss: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome  

MedlinePLUS

... reduction: Bald scalp is surgically removed and hair-bearing scalp is brought closer together to reduce balding. ... also can be performed solely to stretch hair-bearing areas, which reduces balding. Scalp flaps: A hair- ...

320

Researchers Report Progress with Growing Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... 2014) Monday, October 21, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cloning Hair Loss MONDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- There's ... they're getting closer to the goal of cloning hair cells and coaxing them to grow hair ...

321

Tips for Removing Gum without Cutting Hair  

MedlinePLUS

For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care Tips for healthy ... series Home Dermatology A to Z Health and beauty Hair care Removing gum without cutting hair Tips ...

322

Hair Cell Regeneration and Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... loss occurs when either hair cells or auditory nerve cells are destroyed. Scientists believed that hair cells in ... scientists found that newly formed hair cells and nerve cells successfully reestablish connections in an organized way, although ...

323

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

324

Origin of inner ear hair cells: morphological and functional differentiation from ciliary cells into hair cells in zebrafish inner ear.  

PubMed

Auditory and vestibular functions in vertebrates depend on the transduction of sound vibration or head acceleration into electrical responses in inner ear hair cells. Mechanoelectrical transduction occurs at the tip of stereocilia, which are polarized to form an orientational arrangement that determines directional sensitivity. It remains to be clarified when and how premature hair cells acquire their specialized structure and function in living animals. The developmental origin of inner ear hair cells has been studied in vivo in zebrafish embryos. Tether cells, a small number of ciliated cells associated with an "ear stone" (or otolith) in the embryonic zebrafish inner ear, are believed to be precocious hair cells. However, whether or not tether cells acquire hair bundles and mechanosensitivity remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the morphological and functional development of tether cells. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that stereocilia appeared on the tether cell apex in a polarized arrangement at 22 h postfertilization (hpf). Labeling with FM1-43, a marker of functional mechanotransduction channels, and the in vivo electrophysiological recording of mechanotransducer responses in the developing inner ear demonstrated that tether cells acquired direction-selective mechanosensitivity at 23 hpf. These results revealed that tether cells begin to function as hair cells within an hour after the appearance of a polarized array of stereociliary bundles. Thus, the ciliary cells morphologically and functionally differentiate into the first sensory hair cells in the inner ear of the zebrafish. PMID:21389233

Tanimoto, Masashi; Ota, Yukiko; Inoue, Maya; Oda, Yoichi

2011-03-01

325

Water-Soluble Polymers in Hair Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline hair relaxers used to straighten excessively curly hair, usually African-American hair, often cause considerable\\u000a hair damage. One of the effects of straightening the hair with relaxers is a loss in tensile strength due mainly to breakage\\u000a of disulfide and hydrogen bonds. This loss in tensile strength leaves the hair more susceptible to breakage and cuticle erosion\\u000a from subsequent grooming.

Ali N. Syed; Wagdi W. Habib; Anna M. Kuhajda

326

Protein loss quantification of abraded virgin and abraded bleached hair according to Bradford assay.  

PubMed

This study intends to present Bradford assay as an alternative to Lowry test to quantify hair damage during combing or brushing. The protocol involves collecting hair fragments that are chipped away from hair during these abrasive treatments and quantitatively measuring the amount of protein using an analytical procedure to detect low amounts of proteins. This protein determination method involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to hair protein (keratin). It is quite rapid and sensitive and less prone to interferences as the standard Lowry procedure. The latter is subject to interference from compounds such as lipids, cationic surfactants and EDTA, which are ingredients commonly used in hair care formulations and may lead to a false positive result. These drawbacks should be eliminated when using the so called Bradford method for hair protein quantitation. Our studies showed reproducible results for human hair protein and the developed color was stable for up to one hour. The data also show that virgin hair releases less protein than bleached hair. The amount detected for the former after combing ranges from 0.875 to 1.03 mg/g of hair and 4.85 to 5.35 mg/g of hair for the latter. PMID:15645094

Silva, A L S; Nunes, A S; Gesztesi, J L

2004-01-01

327

Relationship between DNA damage in sperm after ex vivo exposure and abnormal embryo development in the progeny of the three-spined stickleback.  

PubMed

Many xenobiotics released in the aquatic environment exhibit a genotoxic potential toward organisms. Long term exposure to such compounds is expected to lead to multigenerational reproductive defects, further influencing the recruitment rate and hence, the population dynamics. Paternal exposure to genotoxicants was previously shown to increase abnormal development in the progeny of mammalian or aquatic species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between DNA damage in sperm of the fish three-spined stickleback and progeny developmental defects. Spermatozoa were exposed ex vivo to an alkylating agent (methyl methanesulfonate) before in vitro fertilization and DNA damage was assessed by the alkaline comet assay. A significant relationship between abnormal development and sperm DNA damage was underlined. This study illustrates the interest to use germ cell DNA damage after ex vivo exposure to evaluate the impact of genotoxic compounds on progeny fitness in aquatic organisms. PMID:23178896

Santos, R; Palos-Ladeiro, M; Besnard, A; Porcher, J M; Bony, S; Sanchez, W; Devaux, A

2012-11-23

328

Percutaneous penetration of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp penetration of 7 hair dyes (oxidative and direct) that occurs under conditions of hair dye usage was evaluated for both rhesus monkey and man using 14C labeled materials by quantifying their absorbtion via urine assays. Both species showed a remarkably similar pattern of dye penetration. The extent of scalp penetratoon is slightly higher for direct dyes but in neither

L. J. Wolfram; H. I. Maibach

1985-01-01

329

Directing hair motion on Tangled  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art simulation techniques can produce compelling and natural hair motion. In creating Disney's feature film Tangled, physically plausible motion was important but just one foundational component. The story contains an unprecedented amount of interaction of the hair with the characters, as well as a high level of art-direction. Through 2D \\

Maryann Simmons; Kelly Ward; Hidetaka Yosumi; Hubert Leo; Xinmin Zhao

2011-01-01

330

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

331

Physical and Functional Interaction between Protocadherin 15 and Myosin VIIa in Mechanosensory Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Hair cells of the mammalian inner ear are the mechanoreceptors that convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the development and function of the mechanically sensitive organelle of hair cells, the hair bundle, are poorly defined. We link here two gene products that have been associated with deafness and hair bundle defects, protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) and myosin VIIa (MYO7A), into a common pathway. We show that PCDH15 binds to MYO7A and that both proteins are expressed in an overlapping pattern in hair bundles. PCDH15 localization is perturbed in MYO7A-deficient mice, whereas MYO7A localization is perturbed in PCDH15-deficient mice. Like MYO7A, PCDH15 is critical for the development of hair bundles in cochlear and vestibular hair cells, controlling hair bundle morphogenesis and polarity. Cochlear and vestibular hair cells from PCDH15-deficient mice also show defects in mechanotransduction. Together, our findings suggest that PCDH15 and MYO7A cooperate to regulate the development and function of the mechanically sensitive hair bundle.

Senften, Mathias; Schwander, Martin; Kazmierczak, Piotr; Lillo, Concepcion; Shin, Jung-Bum; Hasson, Tama; Geleoc, Gwenaelle S. G.; Gillespie, Peter G.; Williams, David; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Muller, Ulrich

2009-01-01

332

Detection of testosterone propionate administration in horse hair samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and specific method has been developed to detect semi-quantitatively testosterone in horse hair samples. The method involved a washing step with sodium dodecylsulfate aqueous solution. The mane and tail hair samples (100mg) were dissolved in 1mL of sodium hydroxide for 15min at 95°C in the presence of d3-boldenone used as internal standard. The next three steps involved diethyl

S. Boyer; P. Garcia; M. A. Popot; V. Steiner; M. Lesieur

2007-01-01

333

MicroRNA-122 influences the development of sperm abnormalities from human induced pluripotent stem cells by regulating TNP2 expression.  

PubMed

Sperm abnormalities are one of the main factors responsible for male infertility; however, their pathogenesis remains unclear. The role of microRNAs in the development of sperm abnormalities in infertile men has not yet been investigated. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate the influence of miR-122 expression on the differentiation of these cells into spermatozoa-like cells in vitro. After induction, mutant miR-122-transfected cells formed spermatozoa-like cells. Flow cytometry of DNA content revealed a significant increase in the haploid cell population in spermatozoa-like cells derived from mutant miR-122-transfected cells as compared to those derived from miR-122-transfected cells. During induction, TNP2 and protamine mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in mutant miR-122-transfected cells than in miR-122-transfected cells. High-throughput isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification were used to identify and quantify the different protein expression levels in miR-122- and mutant miR-122-transfected cells. Among all the proteins analyzed, the expression of lipoproteins, for example, APOB and APOA1, showed the most significant difference between the two groups. This study illustrates that miR-122 expression is associated with abnormal sperm development. MiR-122 may influence spermatozoa-like cells by suppressing TNP2 expression and inhibiting the expression of proteins associated with sperm development. PMID:23327642

Liu, Te; Huang, Yongyi; Liu, Jianjun; Zhao, Yanhui; Jiang, Lizhen; Huang, Qin; Cheng, Weiwei; Guo, Lihe

2013-03-06

334

Determination of ketamine and amphetamines in hair by LC\\/MS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of ketamine (with its metabolite\\u000a norketamine) and some amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).\\u000a This method was developed to determine these compounds in hair and is able to simultaneously quantify all of them in human\\u000a hair. Hair samples (20 mg) were washed and pulverized, and an extraction with formic acid

María Jesús Tabernero; Maria Linda Felli; Ana María Bermejo; Marcello Chiarotti

2009-01-01

335

Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: Frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations.

Weitzel, Erik K.; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E.

2003-09-01

336

How and where to build a root hair.  

PubMed

The root hair of Arabidopsis has become a model system for investigations of the patterning and morphogenesis of cells in plants. A cascade of transcriptional regulators controls the pattern of cellular differentiation. Recently, one of the genes that plays a specific role in cellular differentiation in roots, WEREWOLF, has been shown to be functionally equivalent to GLABRA1, which functions only in the shoot. The cloning of genes defined by mutants with defective root-hair growth has provided insights into the roles of the cell wall, ion transport and the cytoskeleton during hair growth. Genetic analyses continue to identify mutants that will be instructive in furthering our understanding of the growth and development of root-hair cells. PMID:11641072

Dolan, L

2001-12-01

337

The Ethnic Differences of the Damage of Hair and Integral Hair Lipid after Ultra Violet Radiation  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. Objective To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. Methods We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. Results African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. Conclusion We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light.

Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai

2013-01-01

338

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or where long hair could result in increased likelihood of work...The Warden shall make available to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable...

2009-07-01

339

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or where long hair could result in increased likelihood of work...The Warden shall make available to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable...

2010-07-01

340

Simulating Rapunzel's hair in Disney's Tangled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair simulation is known to be a complex problem in animation. In Tangled we have the extreme task of simulating 70 feet of hair for the film's main character, Rapunzel. The excessive hair length in addition to the loose style and intricate structure of the hair present many unique challenges in simulation. Moreover, the specific art direction of the film

Kelly Ward; Maryann Simmons; Andy Milne; Hidetaka Yosumi; Xinmin Zhao

2010-01-01

341

STR genotyping of exogenous hair shaft DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hairs found at crime scenes yield low quality and\\/or low quantities of nuclear DNA. This DNA is further depleted when stringent hair cleaning procedures are applied in the laboratory, suggesting that detectable DNA exists exogenously. The phenomenon of exogenous hair DNA is the subject of this study. DNA was extracted from washed and unwashed hairs and the resulting Profiler™

Kate S. Robertson; Dennis McNevin; James Robertson

2007-01-01

342

CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES OF CRANIAL NERVE DEVELOPMENT: OVERVIEW, MOLECULAR MECHANISMS, AND FURTHER EVIDENCE OF HETEROGENEITY AND COMPLEXITY OF SYNDROMES WITH CONGENITAL LIMITATION OF EYE MOVEMENTS  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose The clinical and molecular genetic classification of syndromes with congenital limitation of eye movements and evidence of cranial nerve dysgenesis continues to evolve. This monograph details clinical and molecular genetic data on a number of families and isolated patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and related disorders, and presents an overview of the mechanisms of abnormal patterns of motor and sensory cranial nerve development in these rare syndromes. Methods Clinical examination of one patient with CFEOM1, one family with clinical features of CFEOM2, one family with recessive CFEOM3, one family with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), and four patients with various combinations of congenital cranial nerve abnormalities. Genotyping of families with CFEOM and HGPPS for polymorphic markers in the regions of the three known CFEOM loci and in the HGPPS region, and mutation analysis of the ARIX and KIF21A genes in patients with CFEOM were performed according to standard published protocols. Results The patient with CFEOM1 had the second most common mutation in KIF21A, a 2861 G>A mutation that resulted in an R954Q substitution. The family with CFEOM2 phenotype did not map to the CFEOM2 locus. The family with recessive CFEOM3 did not map to any of the known loci. The HGPPS family mapped to 11q23–q25. One patient had optic nerve hypoplasia and fifth nerve dysfunction. Two patients had the rare combination of Möbius syndrome and CFEOM. One patient had Möbius syndrome and fifth nerve dysfunction. Conclusions There is genetic heterogeneity in CFEOM2 and CFEOM3. Abnormalities in sensory nerves can also accompany abnormalities of motor nerves, further substantiating the effect of individual mutations on developing motor as well as sensory cranial nerve nuclei.

Traboulsi, Elias I

2004-01-01

343

Prolactin and Its Receptor Are Expressed in Murine Hair Follicle Epithelium, Show Hair Cycle-Dependent Expression, and Induce Catagen  

PubMed Central

Here, we provide the first study of prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) expression during the nonseasonal murine hair cycle, which is, in contrast to sheep, comparable with the human scalp and report that both PRL and PRLR are stringently restricted to the hair follicle epithelium and are strongly hair cycle-dependent. In addition we show that PRL exerts functional effects on anagen hair follicles in murine skin organ culture by down-regulation of proliferation in follicular keratinocytes. In telogen follicles, PRL-like immunoreactivity was detected in outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes. During early anagen (III to IV), the developing inner root sheath (IRS) and the surrounding ORS were positive for PRL. In later anagen stages, PRL could be detected in the proximal IRS and the inner layer of the ORS. The regressing (catagen) follicle showed a strong expression of PRL in the proximal ORS. In early anagen, PRLR immunoreactivity occurred in the distal part of the ORS around the developing IRS, and subsequently to a restricted area of the more distal ORS during later anagen stages and during early catagen. The dermal papilla (DP) stayed negative for both PRL and PRLR throughout the cycle. Telogen follicles showed only a very weak PRLR staining of ORS keratinocytes. The long-form PRLR transcript was shown by real-time polymerase chain reaction to be transiently down-regulated during early anagen, whereas PRL transcripts were up-regulated during mid anagen. Addition of PRL (400 ng/ml) to anagen hair follicles in murine skin organ culture for 72 hours induced premature catagen development in vitro along with a decline in the number of proliferating hair bulb keratinocytes. These data support the intriguing concept that PRL is generated locally in the hair follicle epithelium and acts directly in an autocrine or paracrine manner to modulate the hair cycle.

Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Nixon, Allan J.; Ford, Christine A.; Ohnemus, Ulrich; Pearson, Allan J.; Paus, Ralf

2003-01-01

344

In vivo procedures for assessment of hair greasiness.  

PubMed

Synopsis Greasy hair is a common problem in Europe. The first step in developing anti-grease hair products must be to establish a sensitive protocol for measuring any changes in perceived hair greasiness. Sensitive clinical trials and in vivo evaluation methods of determining hair greasiness have been developed that show significant differences in the perceived hair greasiness following the use of different shampoos. Products tested in two clinical trials for efficacy as anti-grease shampoos were an anti-grease shampoo containing 2% 3,4-thiolanediol as the active ingredient, and a baby shampoo based on mild surfactants. The same placebo shampoo based on ether sulphates used in typical European shampoo formulations was used in both tests. A shampoo containing 2% zinc pyrithione was included in the trials as a control, since there were indications that this would increase the amount of hair greasiness. Neither of the test products were shown to be effective anti-grease shampoos. The shampoo containing 2% zinc pyrithione was shown to produce significantly more greasiness than both the placebo and the test shampoos. Since significant differences could be shown between the different shampoos, the protocol and in vivo evaluation techniques used in these clinical trials are considered to be validated. PMID:19469980

Knott, C A; Daykin, K; Ryan, J

1983-06-01

345

A hair material simulation approach in virtual reality and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairs are important components to human. So, to create virtual human we must create hair material models and simulate hair's motion so that it is similar to real hairs. Alternatively, hairs are complicated objects, because each human has about from 200.000 to 400.000 stands of hairs, so simulating is very complex. Furthermore, it is difficult to simulate hairs according to

N. V. Huan; P. V. Binh; D. N. Toan

2009-01-01

346

The very large G protein coupled receptor (Vlgr1) in hair cells.  

PubMed

The very large G protein coupled receptor (Vlgr1) is a member of adhesion receptors or large N-terminal family B-7 transmembrane helixes (LNB7TM) receptors within the seven trans-membrane receptor superfamily. Vlgr1 is the largest GPCR identified to date; its mRNA spans 19 kb and encodes 6,300 amino acids. Vlgr1 is a core component of ankle-link complex in inner ear hair cells. Knock-out and mutation mouse models show that loss of Vlgr1 function leads to abnormal stereociliary development and hearing loss, indicating crucial roles of Vlgr1 in hearing transduction or auditory system development. Over the past 10 or so years, human genetics data suggested that Vlgr1 mutations cause Usher syndromes and seizures. Although significant progresses have been made, the details of Vlgr1's function in hair cells, its signaling cascade, and the mechanisms underlying causative effects of Vlgr1 mutations in human diseases remain elusive and ask for further investigation. PMID:23180093

Sun, Jin-Peng; Li, Rong; Ren, Hong-Ze; Xu, An-Ting; Yu, Xiao; Xu, Zhi-Gang

2012-11-20

347

The multiple-wing-hairs Gene Encodes a Novel GBD-FH3 Domain-Containing Protein That Functions Both Prior to and After Wing Hair Initiation  

PubMed Central

The frizzled signaling/signal transduction pathway controls planar cell polarity (PCP) in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Epistasis experiments argue that in the Drosophila epidermis multiple wing hairs (mwh) acts as a downstream component of the pathway. The PCP proteins accumulate asymmetrically in pupal wing cells where they are thought to form distinct protein complexes. One is located on the distal side of wing cells and a second on the proximal side. This asymmetric protein accumulation is thought to lead to the activation of the cytoskeleton on the distal side, which in turn leads to each cell forming a single distally pointing hair. We identified mwh as CG13913, which encodes a novel G protein binding domain–formin homology 3 (GBD–FH3) domain protein. The Mwh protein accumulated on the proximal side of wing cells prior to hair formation. Unlike planar polarity proteins such as Frizzled or Inturned, Mwh also accumulated in growing hairs. This suggested that mwh had two temporally separate functions in wing development. Evidence for these two functions also came from temperature-shift experiments with a temperature-sensitive allele. Overexpression of Mwh inhibited hair initiation, thus Mwh acts as a negative regulator of the cytoskeleton. Our data argued early proximal Mwh accumulation restricts hair initiation to the distal side of wing cells and the later hair accumulation of Mwh prevents the formation of ectopic secondary hairs. This later function appears to be a feedback mechanism that limits cytoskeleton activation to ensure a single hair is formed.

Yan, Jie; Huen, David; Morely, Terri; Johnson, Glynnis; Gubb, David; Roote, John; Adler, Paul N.

2008-01-01

348

Body Hair Transplantation in Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Hair transplantation has been used to repigment a stable vitiligo patch. Body hair transplant was done for a 28-year-old male with stable vitiligo with scarring. Peri-folllicular repigmentation was noted at 4 weeks and complete repigmentation of vitiligo patch was achieved at 12 weeks. No recurrence was noted at the end of 3-month follow-up with a good colour match with surrounding skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report highlighting the effectiveness of body hair transplantation by FUE in focal vitiligo patch with leukotrichia.

Chouhan, Kavish; Kumar, Amrendra; Kanwar, Amrinder J

2013-01-01

349

Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.  

PubMed

Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

2013-04-01

350

Visuo-Haptic Interface for Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on adaptive visuo-haptic simulation of hair using force feedback haptic devices, and propose an easy-to-use interactive hair modelling interface. The underlying idea is to explore ways of integrating visual hair simulation and haptic into one multirate-multilayer-multithread application allowing for intuitive interactive hair modeling. The user is allowed to interact with the simulated hair on a

Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann; Melanie Montagnol; Ugo Bonanni; Rajeev Gupta

2007-01-01

351

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing  

PubMed Central

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish?

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

352

A sensitive fluorescence technique using dansyl chloride to assess hair damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and sensitive procedure amenable to visual or spectrofluorometric quantitation has been developed to detect certain types of hair damage. We have found that hair treated with the fluorescent dye 1-dimeth- ylamino-naphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl chloride) acquires fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The fluorescence intensity is a function of the amount of dansyl chloride binding to the hair and can be

SUKHVINDER S. SANDHU; CLARENCE R. ROBBINS

1989-01-01

353

Membrane transport and cytokinin action in root hairs of Medicago sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In an effort to develop a cellular model for studying cytokinin action in higher plants, we investigated the effect of cytokinins\\u000a on growth and membrane transport in root hairs of alfalfa (Medicago sativa?L.) seedlings. Alfalfa seedlings grown for 24?h in the presence of cytokinins showed increased root hair length and formation\\u000a of root hairs close to the root cap.

F. Paul Silverman; Andrew A. Assiamah; Douglas S. Bush

1998-01-01

354

Functional auditory hair cells produced in the mammalian cochlea by in utero gene transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory hair cells in the mammalian cochlea convert mechanical stimuli into electrical impulses that subserve audition. Loss of hair cells and their innervating neurons is the most frequent cause of hearing impairment. Atonal homologue 1 (encoded by Atoh1, also known as Math1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor required for hair-cell development, and its misexpression in vitro and in vivo

Samuel P. Gubbels; David W. Woessner; John C. Mitchell; Anthony J. Ricci; John V. Brigande

2008-01-01

355

tmie Is Required for Gentamicin Uptake by the Hair Cells of Mice  

PubMed Central

The circling (cir/cir) mouse is a spontaneous model of deafness due to deletion of a 40-kb genomic region that includes the transmembrane inner ear (tmie) gene. In addition to being deaf, cir/cir mice exhibit abnormal behaviors including circling and hyperactivity. Here we investigated differences between 3-d-old (that is, before hair-cell degeneration) cir/cir and phenotypically normal (+/cir) mice and the reason underlying the degeneration of the inner ear structure of cir/cir mice. To this end, we used gentamicin, gentamicin–Texas red conjugate, and FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransducer channel activity in the hair cells of cir/cir mice; these compounds are presumed to enter hair cells through the mechanotransducer channel. Although the structure of the inner ear of +/cir mice was equivalent to that of cir/cir mice, the hair cells of cir/cir mice (unlike +/cir) did not take up gentamicin, gentamicin–Texas red conjugate, or FM1-43. These findings suggest that hair cells in cir/cir mice demonstrate abnormal maturation and mechanotransduction. In addition, our current results indicate that tmie is required for maturation and maintenance of hair cells.

Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong-Han; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyu-yup; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yun, Byung-Wook; Ryoo, ZaeYoung

2013-01-01

356

Formation, encapsulation, and validation of membrane-based artificial hair cell sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair cell structures are one of the most common forms of sensing elements found in nature. In nearly all vertebrates hair cells are used for auditory and vestibular sensing. In humans, approximately 16,000 auditory hair cells can be found in the cochlea of the ear. Each hair cell contains a stereocilia, which is the primary structure for sound transduction. This study looks to develop and characterize an artificial hair cell that resembles the stereocilia of the human ear. Recently our research group has shown that a single artificial hair cell can be formed in an open substrate using a single aqueous droplet and a hydrogel. In this study, air was blown across the hair and analyzed using spectral analysis. The results of this study provided the foundation for our current work toward an artificial hair cell that uses two aqueous droplets. In the current study a test fixture was created in order to consistently measure various properties of the encapsulated hair cell. The response of the hair cell was measured with an impulse input at various locations on the test fixture. A frequency response function was then created using the impulse input and the output of the sensor. It was found that the vibration of the hair was only detectable if the test fixture was struck at the correct location. By changing the physical parameters of the hair sensor, such as hair length, we were able to alter the response of the sensor. It was also found that the sensitivity of the sensor was reliant on the size of the lipid bilayer.

Garrison, Kevin L.; Sarles, Stephen A.; Leo, Donald J.

2012-03-01

357

The novel mouse mutant, chuzhoi, has disruption of Ptk7 protein and exhibits defects in neural tube, heart and lung development and abnormal planar cell polarity in the ear  

PubMed Central

Background The planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling pathway is fundamental to a number of key developmental events, including initiation of neural tube closure. Disruption of the PCP pathway causes the severe neural tube defect of craniorachischisis, in which almost the entire brain and spinal cord fails to close. Identification of mouse mutants with craniorachischisis has proven a powerful way of identifying molecules that are components or regulators of the PCP pathway. In addition, identification of an allelic series of mutants, including hypomorphs and neomorphs in addition to complete nulls, can provide novel genetic tools to help elucidate the function of the PCP proteins. Results We report the identification of a new N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutant with craniorachischisis, which we have named chuzhoi (chz). We demonstrate that chuzhoi mutant embryos fail to undergo initiation of neural tube closure, and have characteristics consistent with defective convergent extension. These characteristics include a broadened midline and reduced rate of increase of their length-to-width ratio. In addition, we demonstrate disruption in the orientation of outer hair cells in the inner ear, and defects in heart and lung development in chuzhoi mutants. We demonstrate a genetic interaction between chuzhoi mutants and both Vangl2Lp and Celsr1Crsh mutants, strengthening the hypothesis that chuzhoi is involved in regulating the PCP pathway. We demonstrate that chuzhoi maps to Chromosome 17 and carries a splice site mutation in Ptk7. This mutation results in the insertion of three amino acids into the Ptk7 protein and causes disruption of Ptk7 protein expression in chuzhoi mutants. Conclusions The chuzhoi mutant provides an additional genetic resource to help investigate the developmental basis of several congenital abnormalities including neural tube, heart and lung defects and their relationship to disruption of PCP. The chuzhoi mutation differentially affects the expression levels of the two Ptk7 protein isoforms and, while some Ptk7 protein can still be detected at the membrane, chuzhoi mutants demonstrate a significant reduction in membrane localization of Ptk7 protein. This mutant provides a useful tool to allow future studies aimed at understanding the molecular function of Ptk7.

2010-01-01

358

Development of a decision support tool to facilitate primary care management of patients with abnormal liver function tests without clinically apparent liver disease [HTA03/38/02]. Abnormal Liver Function Investigations Evaluation (ALFIE)  

PubMed Central

Background Liver function tests (LFTs) are routinely performed in primary care, and are often the gateway to further invasive and/or expensive investigations. Little is known of the consequences in people with an initial abnormal liver function (ALF) test in primary care and with no obvious liver disease. Further investigations may be dangerous for the patient and expensive for Health Services. The aims of this study are to determine the natural history of abnormalities in LFTs before overt liver disease presents in the population and identify those who require minimal further investigations with the potential for reduction in NHS costs. Methods/Design A population-based retrospective cohort study will follow up all those who have had an incident liver function test (LFT) in primary care to subsequent liver disease or mortality over a period of 15 years (approx. 2.3 million tests in 99,000 people). The study is set in Primary Care in the region of Tayside, Scotland (pop approx. 429,000) between 1989 and 2003. The target population consists of patients with no recorded clinical signs or symptoms of liver disease and registered with a GP. The health technologies being assessed are LFTs, viral and auto-antibody tests, ultrasound, CT, MRI and liver biopsy. The study will utilise the Epidemiology of Liver Disease In Tayside (ELDIT) database to determine the outcomes of liver disease. These are based on hospital admission data (Scottish Morbidity Record 1), dispensed medication records, death certificates, and examination of medical records from Tayside hospitals. A sample of patients (n = 150) with recent initial ALF tests or invitation to biopsy will complete questionnaires to obtain quality of life data and anxiety measures. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility Markov model analyses will be performed from health service and patient perspectives using standard NHS costs. The findings will also be used to develop a computerised clinical decision support tool. Discussion The results of this study will be widely disseminated to primary care, as well as G.I. hospital specialists through publications and presentations at local and national meetings and the project website. This will facilitate optimal decision-making both for the benefit of the patient and the National Health Service.

Donnan, Peter T; McLernon, David; Steinke, Douglas; Ryder, Stephen; Roderick, Paul; Sullivan, Frank M; Rosenberg, William; Dillon, John F

2007-01-01

359

Detection of Abnormalities in MANETs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abnormalities in MANETs can be malicious attacks or selfish nodes which can affect network architecture and network operation significantly. Clearly, there are two distinct objectives: 1) To design/examine attacks and develop countermeasures and 2) design...

W. Wang

2007-01-01

360

Identification of aminobiphenyl derivatives in commercial hair dyes.  

PubMed

A recent epidemiological study suggested that aromatic amines present in hair dyes may contribute to an increased risk of bladder cancer (Gago-Dominguez, et al. (2003) Carcinogenesis 24, 483-489). Moreover, a preliminary study linked frequent hair dye usage with elevated levels of DNA adducts of 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) in human epithelial breast cells (Gorlewska, et al. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 43, 1018-1019). Therefore, we sought to determine if 4-ABP, a recognized human urinary bladder carcinogen, is present in commercial hair dyes. 4-ABP was isolated from dyes by solvent extraction with hexane, followed by silica gel chromatography, either with or without chemical treatment of the extract with Zinc/HCl, and a final purification with a mixed cation exchange reversed-phase resin. The identity of 4-ABP was confirmed by both HPLC with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and gas chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) following chemical derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA). The levels of 4-ABP ranged from not detectable (<0.29 parts per billion (ppb)) up to 12.8 ppb. The noncarcinogenic isomer 2-aminobiphenyl (2-ABP) was also found at quantities up to 310 ppb. 4-ABP was detected in eight of the 11 hair dyes and found in black, red, and blonde hair dyes but not in brown hair dyes. 1,4-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a key constituent for color development of many permanent hair dyes. Some batches of chemical research grade PPD were contaminated with 4-ABP (up to 500 ppb) and 2-ABP (up to 70 parts per million) and may be a source of ABP contamination in hair dyes. These analytical data demonstrate that 4-ABP is present in some hair dyes. Studies on dermal absorption and bioavailability of 4-ABP from hair dyes are required to determine if this aromatic amine contributes to the increased risk of bladder cancer reported in frequent users of hair dyes. PMID:12971805

Turesky, Robert J; Freeman, James P; Holland, Ricky D; Nestorick, Daniel M; Miller, Dwight W; Ratnasinghe, D Luke; Kadlubar, Fred F

2003-09-01

361

Regenerating cochlear hair cells: quo vadis stem cell  

PubMed Central

Many elderly people worldwide lose the neurosensory part of their ear and turn deaf. Cochlear implants to restore some hearing after neurosensory hearing loss are, at present, the only therapy for these people. In contrast to this therapy, replacement of hair cells via stem cell therapies holds the promise for a cure. We review here current insights into embryonic, adult, and inducible stem cells that might provide cells for seeding the cochlea with the hope of new hair cell formation. We propose a two-step approach using a first set of transcription factors to enhance the generation of inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and a second set of factors to initiate the differentiation of hair cells. Recent evidence regarding ear development and stem cell research strongly suggest that microRNAs will be an important new regulatory factor in both iPS cell formation and differentiation to reprogram cells into hair cells. In addition, we highlight currently insurmountable obstacles to the successful transformation of stem cells into hair cell precursors and their injection into the cochlear canal to replace lost hair cells.

Beisel, Kirk; Hansen, Laura; Soukup, Garrett

2008-01-01

362

White matter integrity in hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania).  

PubMed

Hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania, HPD) is a disabling condition that is characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Although there is evidence of structural grey matter abnormalities in HPD, there is a paucity of data on white matter integrity. The aim of this study was to explore white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in subjects with HPD and healthy controls. Sixteen adult female subjects with HPD and 13 healthy female controls underwent DTI. Hair-pulling symptom severity, anxiety and depressive symptoms were also assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze data on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). There were no differences in DTI measures between HPD subjects and healthy controls. However, there were significant associations of increased MD in white matter tracts of the fronto-striatal-thalamic pathway with longer HPD duration and increased HPD severity. Our findings suggest that white matter integrity in fronto-striatal-thalamic pathways in HPD is related to symptom duration and severity. The molecular basis of measures of white matter integrity in HPD deserves further exploration. PMID:23149033

Roos, Annerine; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine

2012-11-11

363

Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)  

MedlinePLUS

... windy weather. People with trichotillomania may wear wigs, style their hair to disguise bald patches or wear ... not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

364

Intelligent image analysis for image-guided hair removal and skin therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development of advanced automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for the hair follicles identification in digital skin images to accurately direct the laser beam to remove the hair. The ATR system first performs a wavelet filtering to enhance the contrast of the hair features in the image. The system then extracts the unique features of the targets and sends the features to an Adaboost based classifier for training and recognition operations. The ATR system automatically classifies the hair, moles, or other skin lesion and provides the accurate coordinates of the intended hair follicle locations. The coordinates can be used to guide a scanning laser to focus energy only on the hair follicles. The intended benefit would be to protect the skin from unwanted laser exposure and to provide more effective skin therapy.

Walker, Brian; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

2012-02-01

365

Human hair growth deficiency is linked to a genetic defect in the phospholipase gene LIPH.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms controlling human hair growth and scalp hair loss are poorly understood. By screening about 350,000 individuals in two populations from the Volga-Ural region of Russia, we identified a gene mutation in families who show an inherited form of hair loss and a hair growth defect. Affected individuals were homozygous for a deletion in the LIPH gene on chromosome 3q27, caused by short interspersed nuclear element-retrotransposon-mediated recombination. The LIPH gene is expressed in hair follicles and encodes a phospholipase called lipase H (alternatively known as membrane-associated phosphatidic acid-selective phospholipase A1alpha), an enzyme that regulates the production of bioactive lipids. These results suggest that lipase H participates in hair growth and development. PMID:17095700

Kazantseva, Anastasiya; Goltsov, Andrey; Zinchenko, Rena; Grigorenko, Anastasia P; Abrukova, Anna V; Moliaka, Yuri K; Kirillov, Alexander G; Guo, Zhiru; Lyle, Stephen; Ginter, Evgeny K; Rogaev, Evgeny I

2006-11-10

366

Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1883, paraphenylene diamine (PPD) has traditionally been used for dyeing (dark color) hair in Europe [1-2] as a fresh\\u000a preparation mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) [3]. In Sudan PPD is used by women to color their hair and as a body dye when added to henna ( Lawasonia alba). Henna on it’s own need to be applied two or

Mohamed I. Hamdouk; Mohamed B. Abdelraheem; Ahbab A. Taha; Mohamed Benghanem; Marc E. Broe

367

Testing human hair for cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To validate information on cannabis use, we investigated human hair and pubic hair for cannabinoids (THC and THC-COOH) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Samples (100 mg approximately) were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 °C in the presence of 200 ng of deuterated standards. After cooling, samples were

V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

368

A Method for Assessing Occupational Dermal Exposure to Permanent Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairdressers have an increased risk of developing occupational skin diseases due to exposure to skin irritants and sensitizers. In the present work a method of assessing dermal exposure to permanent hair dyes was developed. The sampling performance characteristics of hand wash sampling with bag rinsing were studied for five hair dye compounds. The effect of residence time, sample load and

MARIE-LOUISE LIND; ANDERS BOMAN; JOUNI SURAKKA; JAN SOLLENBERG; BIRGITTA MEDING

2004-01-01

369

Chronic Restraint Stress Inhibits Hair Growth via Substance P Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species in Mice  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Solid evidence has demonstrated that psychoemotional stress induced alteration of hair cycle through neuropeptide substance P (SP) mediated immune response, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in brain-skin-axis regulation system remains unknown. Objectives The present study aims to investigate possible mechanisms of ROS in regulation of SP-mast cell signal pathway in chronic restraint stress (CRS, a model of chronic psychoemotional stress) which induced abnormal of hair cycle. Methods and Results Our results have demonstrated that CRS actually altered hair cycle by inhibiting hair follicle growth in vivo, prolonging the telogen stage and delaying subsequent anagen and catagen stage. Up-regulation of SP protein expression in cutaneous peripheral nerve fibers and activation of mast cell were observed accompanied with increase of lipid peroxidation levels and reduction of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in CRS mice skin. In addition, SP receptor antagonist (RP67580) reduced mast cell activations and lipid peroxidation levels as well as increased GSH-Px activity and normalized hair cycle. Furthermore, antioxidant Tempol (a free radical scavenger) also restored hair cycle, reduced SP protein expression and mast cell activation. Conclusions Our study provides the first solid evidence for how ROS play a role in regulation of psychoemotional stress induced SP-Mast cell pathway which may provide a convincing rationale for antioxidant application in clinical treatment with psychological stress induced hair loss.

Wang, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Xi-Ping; Jiang, Yan; Shang, Jing; Murao, Koji; Chen, Jing-Wei; Fu, Wen-Qing; Zhang, Guo-Xing

2013-01-01

370

A mutation in Tubb2b, a human polymicrogyria gene, leads to lethality and abnormal cortical development in the mouse.  

PubMed

Human cortical malformations, including lissencephaly, polymicrogyria and other diseases of neurodevelopment, have been associated with mutations in microtubule subunits and microtubule-associated proteins. Here we report our cloning of the brain dimple (brdp) mouse mutation, which we recovered from an ENU screen for recessive perinatal phenotypes affecting neurodevelopment. We identify the causal mutation in the tubulin, beta-2b (Tubb2b) gene as a missense mutation at a highly conserved residue (N247S). Brdp/brdp homozygous mutants have significant thinning of the cortical epithelium, which is markedly more severe in the caudo-lateral portion of the telencephalon, and do not survive past birth. The cortical defects are largely due to a major increase in apoptosis and we note abnormal proliferation of the basal progenitors. Adult brdp/+ mice are viable and fertile but exhibit behavioral phenotypes. This allele of Tubb2b represents the most severely affected mouse tubulin phenotype reported to date and this is the first report of a tubulin mutation affecting neuronal proliferation and survival. PMID:23727838

Stottmann, R W; Donlin, M; Hafner, A; Bernard, A; Sinclair, D A; Beier, D R

2013-05-31

371

[A syndrome: uncombable hair. Observation of 6 members of a family with pili canaliculi, associated with pili torti, progressive alopecia, atopic eczema and hamartomas].  

PubMed

Six members of one family showed the typical clinical picture of uncombable hair (cheveux incoiffables), a syndrome first described by Dupré, Rochiccioli and Bonafé in 1973. In all six cases scanning electron microscopical investigations revealed characteristic morphological hair changes including longitudinal grooves as well as angular or kidney-shaped patterns in cross sections. Genetically the abnormality seems to be of autosomal dominant heredity with incomplete penetrance. In addition to uncombable hair some of our patients showed pili torti, progressive alopecia areata and atopic eczema. Possible relations of this syndrome with other diseases as pili torti, kinky hair disease or hypotrichia congenita are discussed. PMID:7107281

Braun-Falco, O; Ryckmanns, F; Heilgemeir, G P; Ring, J

1982-07-01

372

Nitric oxide is essential for vesicle formation and trafficking in Arabidopsis root hair growth.  

PubMed

The functions of nitric oxide (NO) in processes associated with root hair growth in Arabidopsis were analysed. NO is located at high concentrations in the root hair cell files at any stage of development. NO is detected inside of the vacuole in immature actively growing root hairs and, later, NO is localized in the cytoplasm when they become mature. Experiments performed by depleting NO in Arabidopsis root hairs indicate that NO is required for endocytosis, vesicle formation, and trafficking and it is not involved in nucleus migration, vacuolar development, and transvacuolar strands. The Arabidopsis G'4,3 mutant (double mutant nia1/nia2) is severely impaired in NO production and generates smaller root hairs than the wild type (WT). Root hairs from the Arabidopsis G'4,3 mutant show altered vesicular trafficking and are reminiscent of NO-depleted root hairs from the Arabidopsis WT. Interestingly, normal vesicle formation and trafficking as well as root hair growth is restored by exogenous NO application in the Arabidopsis G'4,3 mutant. All together, these results firmly support the essential role played by NO in the Arabidopsis root-hair-growing process. PMID:22791827

Lombardo, M C; Lamattina, L

2012-07-12

373

Approach to the Girl with Early Onset of Pubic Hair  

PubMed Central

Premature pubarche, or the development of pubic hair before the age of 8 in girls or 9 in boys, is most commonly caused by premature adrenarche. Adrenarche is the maturation of the adrenal zona reticularis in both boys and girls, resulting in the development of pubic hair, axillary hair, and adult apocrine body odor. Although originally thought to be a benign variant of normal development, premature adrenarche has been associated with insulin resistance and the later development of metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome. Although further studies are needed to confirm these relationships, the case presented herein argues for periodic assessment of children at risk. Indeed, recognition of these associations may allow for early preventive measures.

Sopher, Aviva B.; Gerken, Adrienne T.

2011-01-01

374

Targeted disruption of glutathione peroxidase 4 in mouse skin epithelial cells impairs postnatal hair follicle morphogenesis that is partially rescued through inhibition of COX-2.  

PubMed

Selenoproteins are essential molecules for the mammalian antioxidant network. We previously demonstrated that targeted loss of all selenoproteins in mouse epidermis disrupted skin and hair development, and caused premature death. In the current study, we targeted specific selenoproteins for epidermal deletion to determine whether similar phenotypes developed. Keratinocyte-specific knockout mice lacking either the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) or thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) gene were generated by cre-lox technology using K14-cre. TR1 knockout mice had a normal phenotype in resting skin, whereas GPx4 loss in the epidermis caused epidermal hyperplasia, dermal inflammatory infiltrate, dysmorphic hair follicles, and alopecia in perinatal mice. Unlike epidermal ablation of all selenoproteins, mice ablated for GPx4 recovered after 5 weeks and had a normal life span. GPx1 and TR1 were upregulated in the skin and keratinocytes of GPx4-knockout mice. GPx4 deletion reduces keratinocyte adhesion in culture and increases lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels in cultured keratinocytes and whole skin. Feeding a COX-2 inhibitor to nursing mothers partially prevents development of the abnormal skin phenotype in knockout pups. These data link the activity of cutaneous GPx4 to the regulation of COX-2 and hair follicle morphogenesis, and provide insight into the function of individual selenoprotein activity in maintaining cutaneous homeostasis. PMID:23364477

Sengupta, Aniruddha; Lichti, Ulrike F; Carlson, Bradley A; Cataisson, Christophe; Ryscavage, Andrew O; Mikulec, Carol; Conrad, Marcus; Fischer, Susan M; Hatfield, Dolph L; Yuspa, Stuart H

2013-01-30

375

Diffusion MRI of the developing cerebral cortical gray matter can be used to detect abnormalities in tissue microstructure associated with fetal ethanol exposure.  

PubMed

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) comprise a wide range of neurological deficits that result from fetal exposure to ethanol (EtOH), and are the leading cause of environmentally related birth defects and mental retardation in the western world. One aspect of diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategies that could substantially improve our ability to combat this significant problem would be to facilitate earlier detection of the disorders within individuals. Light microscopy-based investigations performed by several laboratories have previously shown that morphological development of neurons within the early-developing cerebral cortex is abnormal within the brains of animals exposed to EtOH during fetal development. We and others have recently demonstrated that diffusion MRI can be of utility for detecting abnormal cellular morphological development in the developing cerebral cortex. We therefore assessed whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be used to distinguish the developing cerebral cortices of ex vivo rat pup brains born from dams treated with EtOH (EtOH; 4.5g/kg, 25%) or calorie-matched quantities of maltose/dextrin (M/D) throughout gestation. Water diffusion and tissue microstructure were investigated using DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA) and histology (anisotropy index, AI), respectively. Both FA and AI decreased with age, and were higher in the EtOH than the M/D group at postnatal ages (P)0, P3, and P6. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between FA and AI measurements. These findings provide evidence that disruptions in cerebral cortical development induced by EtOH exposure can be revealed by water diffusion anisotropy patterns, and that these disruptions are directly related to cerebral cortical differentiation. PMID:23921100

Leigland, Lindsey A; Budde, Matthew D; Cornea, Anda; Kroenke, Christopher D

2013-08-03

376

Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs.  

PubMed

The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n = 24, 24-51 yrs) and female abusers (n = 7, 17-46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples, no additional treatment hair sample group (NAT), were treated in vitro with liquid soap or three kinds of hair dyes which were black, brown and yellow color hair dye, respectively. Quantitation of AM and MA in hair samples was utilized GC-MS using selected ion monitoring. MA and AM concentrations in NAT were 10.41 ± 8.91 ng/mg (range 1.50-30.0 ng/mg) and 2.24 ± 2.75 ng/mg (range 0.41-12.90 ng/mg). And, their concentrations were decreased about 23.3 ± 4.5% (range 16.7-32.8%) in hair repeated washing group (WAS) and 32.6 ± 4.82 (22.2-41.9) in three kinds of a single hair dyeing groups in comparison to original concentrations of MA and AM in NAT. A statistically significant difference was found between NAT and WAS or three hair dyeing groups (p < 0.01), but not between WAS and three hair dyeing groups, and not between each hair dyeing groups with each three kinds of hair dyes (p > 0.05). PMID:20650577

Baeck, SeungKyung; Han, EunYoung; Chung, HeeSun; Pyo, MyoungYun

2010-07-21

377

6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-02-21

378

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia caused by novel compound heterozygous RMRP mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a rare, autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, caused by mutations in the RMRP gene. The skeletal abnormalities include irregular metaphyses and cone shaped epiphyses of the hands. Molecular diagnosis\\u000a confirmed two novel RMRP mutations in a compound heterozygous state in two siblings with this condition.

Kerstin Reicherter; Amithkumar Iynapillai Veeramani; Sujatha Jagadeesh

2011-01-01

379

Transgenic mouse in vivo library of human Down syndrome critical region 1: association between DYRK1A overexpression, brain development abnormalities, and cell cycle protein alteration.  

PubMed

Down syndrome is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation, having an incidence of 1 in 700 live births. In the present study we used a transgenic mouse in vivo library consisting of 4 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic mouse lines, each bearing a different fragment of the Down syndrome critical region 1 (DCR-1), implicated in brain abnormalities characterizing this pathology. The 152F7 fragment, in addition to genes also located on the other DCR-1 fragments, bears the DYRK1A gene, encoding for a serine-threonine kinase. The neurobehavioral analysis of these mouse lines showed that DYRK1A overexpressing 152F7 mice but not the other lines display learning impairment and hyperactivity during development. Additionally, 152F7 mice display increased brain weight and neuronal size. At a biochemical level we found DYRK1A overexpression associated with a development-dependent increase in phosphorylation of the transcription factor FKHR and with high levels of cyclin B1, suggesting for the first time in vivo a correlation between DYRK1A overexpression and cell cycle protein alteration. In addition, we found an altered phosphorylation of transcription factors of CREB family. Our findings support a role of DYRK1A overexpression in the neuronal abnormalities seen in Down syndrome and suggest that this pathology is linked to altered levels of proteins involved in the regulation of cell cycle. PMID:15198122

Branchi, Igor; Bichler, Zoë; Minghetti, Luisa; Delabar, Jean Maurice; Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Gonzalez, Marie-Claude; Chettouh, Zoubidda; Nicolini, Alessia; Chabert, Caroline; Smith, Desmond J; Rubin, Edward M; Migliore-Samour, Danièle; Alleva, Enrico

2004-05-01

380

Levels of cocaine and its metabolites in washed hair of demonstrated cocaine users and workplace subjects.  

PubMed

In a study of subjects in drug rehabilitation programs, cocaine and cocaine metabolite levels were determined in the hair of 75 subjects who had produced cocaine-positive urine results. The hair was analyzed after being washed with the 3.75 h wash procedure developed by this laboratory. In addition, results of testing 73 non-users are presented, as well as levels of cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene, and norcocaine from workplace population samples. The data support a recommendation of reporting as positive a sample with cocaine of 500 pg/mg hair and either a 5% ratio of benzoylecgonine (BE) to cocaine in samples, or the presence of cocaethylene at 50 pg/mg hair, or norcocaine at 50 pg/mg hair for samples < or =2000 pg cocaine/mg hair. For samples with cocaine present at >2000 pg/mg hair, the data indicate that a ratio of 5% BE may be an overly conservative approach. In appropriately washed hair samples, cocaine users can produce hair levels of <5% BE and thus a minimum BE cutoff in lieu of a ratio could be considered. PMID:15451090

Cairns, Thomas; Hill, Virginia; Schaffer, Michael; Thistle, William

2004-10-29

381

Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

2009-12-01

382

Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.  

PubMed

Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. PMID:23301816

Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

2013-01-24

383

Abnormal Mammary Gland Development and Growth Retardation in Female Mice and MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells Lacking Androgen Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotype analysis of female mice lacking androgen receptor (AR) deficient ( AR ? \\/ ? ) indicates that the development of mammary glands is retarded with reduced ductal branching in the pre- pubertal stages, and fewer Cap cells in the terminal end buds, as well as decreased lobuloalveolar development in adult females, and fewer milk-producing alveoli in the lactating glands.

Shuyuan Yeh; Yueh-Chiang Hu; Peng-Hui Wang; Chao Xie; Qingquan Xu; Meng-Yin Tsai; Zhihong Dong; Ruey-Sheng Wang; Ting-Hein Lee; Chawnshang Chang

2003-01-01

384

Myosin XVa and whirlin, two deafness gene products required for hair bundle growth, are located at the stereocilia tips and interact directly.  

PubMed

Defects in myosin XVa and the PDZ domain-containing protein, whirlin, underlie deafness in humans and mice. Hair bundles of mutant mice defective for either protein have abnormally short stereocilia. Here, we show that whirlin, like myosin XVa, is present at the very tip of each stereocilium in the developing and mature hair bundles of the cochlear and vestibular system. We found that myosin XVa SH3-MyTH4 region binds to the short isoform of whirlin (PR-PDZ3) that can rescue the stereocilia growth defect in whirlin defective mice. Moreover, the C-terminal MyTH4-FERM region of myosin XVa binds to the PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of the long whirlin isoform. We conclude that a direct myosin XVa-whirlin interaction at the stereocilia tip is likely to control the elongation of stereocilia. Whirlin, unlike myosin XVa, is also transiently localized in the basal region of developing stereocilia in rat vestibular and cochlear hair cells until P4 and P12, respectively. Notably, whirlin also interacts with myosin VIIa that is present along the entire length of the stereocilia. Finally, we show that the transmembrane netrin-G1 ligand (NGL-1) binds to the PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of whirlin and has an extracellular region that homophilically self-interacts in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The interaction between whirlin and NGL-1 might be involved in the stabilization of interstereociliar links. PMID:15590698

Delprat, Benjamin; Michel, Vincent; Goodyear, Richard; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Michalski, Nicolas; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Perfettini, Isabelle; Legrain, Pierre; Richardson, Guy; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Petit, Christine

2004-12-08

385

Accumulation of peroxidase-related reactive oxygen species in trichoblasts correlates with root hair initiation in barley.  

PubMed

Root hairs are an important model in studies of cell differentiation and development in higher plants. The function of NADPH oxidase-related reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root hair development has been reported extensively in studies on Arabidopsis. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the initiation of root hair formation, mediated by the peroxidase-dependent production of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The distribution of ROS, including the hydroxyl radical (OH) and superoxide (O(2)(-)) was assessed using hydroxyphenyl fluorescein and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride, respectively, in the roots of wild-type plants and two root-hair mutants: root-hairless (rhl1.a) and with root hair growth blocked at the primordium stage (rhp1.b). Peroxidase-dependent OH accumulation was linked to root hair initiation and growth in plants where root hair formation was at least initiated, whereas OH was not detectable in the epidermis of the root-hairless mutant rhl1.a. O(2)(-) distribution in the roots of rhl1.a and rhp1.b mutants was not impaired and did not influence the root hair phenotype. Peroxidase inhibitor treatments of wild-type roots dramatically reduced the ability of growing roots to form root hairs and thus phenocopied the root-hairless phenotype. Expression of two candidate peroxidase genes, HvPRX45 and HvPRX2, was analyzed and their possible role in root hair-specific production of hydroxyl radicals was discussed. We propose a model of a two-step, coordinated ROS formation process in root hair cells that involves root hair-specific peroxidase(s) and root hair-specific NADPH oxidase necessary for a proper root hair formation in barley. PMID:23218546

Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Kusak, Julia; Siwinski, Kamil; Szarejko, Iwona

2012-12-04

386

Solitary Hair Cells Are Distributed Throughout the Extramacular Epithelium in the Bullfrog's Saccule  

Microsoft Academic Search

lium that has not been considered capable of giving rise to hair cells. The frog inner ear contains eight sensory organs that provide sensitivities to auditory, vestibular, and ian, sacculus, vital dye ground-borne vibrational stimuli. The saccule in bull- frogs is responsible for detecting ground- and air- borne vibrations and is used for studies of hair cell INTRODUCTION physiology, development,

JONATHAN E. GALE; J ASON R. MEYERS; JEFFREY T. C ORWIN

387

Scanning LDV for Vibration Measurement of Filiform Hairs in Crickets in Response to Induced Airflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cercal hairs represent in cricket a wind sensitive escape system, able to detect the airflow generated from predating species. These sensors have been studied as a biomimetic concept to allow the development of MEMS for biomedical use. In particular, the behaviour of the hairs, including airflow response, resonant frequency and damping, has been investigated up to a frequency of 20

C. Santulli; T. J. Finn; R. Seidel; G. Jeronimidis

388

Active Hair Bundle Motion Linked to Fast Transducer Adaptation in Auditory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

During transduction in auditory hair cells, hair bundle deflection opens mechanotransducer channels that subsequently reclose or adapt to maintained stimuli, a major component of the adap- tation occurring on a submillisecond time scale. Using a photo- diode imaging technique, we measured hair bundle motion in voltage-clamped turtle hair cells to search for a mechanical correlate of fast adaptation. Excitatory force

A. J. Ricci; A. C. Crawford; R. Fettiplace

2000-01-01

389

Analysis of pubic hair as an alternative specimen to scalp hair: A contamination issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pubic hair is often analyzed as an alternative to scalp hair to prove previous drug use. However, urine is a potential source of external contamination. In the present study, the concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP) in both scalp and pubic hair from illegal MA users were compared. Furthermore, in order to investigate the external contamination of pubic hair

Sooyeun Lee; Eunyoung Han; Hwakyung Choi; Heesun Chung; Kyu Hyuck Chung

2011-01-01

390

Complex hair cycle domain patterns and regenerative hair waves in living rodents  

PubMed Central

Single hair follicles go through regeneration and involution cycles. In a population, hair follicles may affect each other during anagen re-entry, thus forming propagating regenerative hair waves. We review these regenerative hair waves and complex hair cycle domains which were recently reported in transgenic mice. Two non-invasive methods to track the propagating hair wave in large populations of hair follicles in vivo are described. We also reviewed early accounts of "hair growth patterns" from classical literature. We decipher the "behavior rules" that dictate how dynamic hair waves lead to complex hair cycle domains. In general, a single domain expands when a regenerative hair wave reaches a responsive region and boundaries form when the wave reaches a non-responsive region. As mice age, multiple hair cycle domains form, each with own regeneration rhythm. Domain patterns can be reset by physiological events such as pregnancy and lactation. Longitudinal sections across domains show arrays of follicles in a continuum of hair cycle stages. Hair cycle domains are different from regional specificity domains. Regenerative hair waves are different from the developmental wave of newly forming hair follicles. The study provides novel insights into the dynamic states of adult skin and physiological regulation of organ regeneration.

Plikus, Maksim V.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

2009-01-01

391

Hypoxia induces abnormal larval development and affects biofilm-larval interaction in the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans.  

PubMed

Hydroides elegans, a worldwide fouling polychaete, can spawn throughout the year, but its recruitment drops during summer when hypoxia prevails. Here, the influence of hypoxia on larval development and settlement of H. elegans was investigated. Results showed that larval development was compromised at 1mg O2 l(-1) with a lower proportion of competent larvae and a higher proportion of malformed larvae, probably due to reduction in clearance rate. Regarding larval settlement, although most of the larvae were reluctant to settle at 1mg O2 l(-1), regardless of the biofilm nature, they settled quickly within 24h in response to the resumption of dissolved oxygen. Furthermore, only about 5% of the larvae settled on the biofilms developed under hypoxia, regardless of dissolved oxygen levels of the seawater. The delayed larval development and potential alteration of biofilm nature owing to hypoxia explained why the recruitment of H. elegans declines during summer. PMID:24050126

Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G

2013-09-16

392

Cultivation of Functionally Intact Hair Follicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to the cultivation of hair follicles, and more particularly to a process for cultivating functionally intact hair follicles. One of the major challenges of cell biology is the elucidation of factors which regulate cellular d...

S. H. Yuspa P. Steinert D. R. Roop

1987-01-01

393

Minor Abnormalities of Testis Development in Mice Lacking the Gene Encoding the MAPK Signalling Component, MAP3K1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway. In

Nick Warr; Debora Bogani; Pam Siggers; Rachel Brixey; Hilda Tateossian; Asha Dopplapudi; Sara Wells; Michael Cheeseman; Ying Xia; Harry Ostrer; Andy Greenfield; Christoph Winkler

2011-01-01

394

Fast adaptation and Ca2+-sensitivity of the mechanotransducer require myosin-XVa in inner but not outer cochlear hair cells  

PubMed Central

In inner ear hair cells, activation of mechotransduction channels is followed by extremely rapid deactivation that depends on the influx of Ca2+ through these channels. Although the molecular mechanisms of this “fast” adaptation are largely unknown, the predominant models assume Ca2+ sensitivity as an intrinsic property of yet unidentified mechanotransduction channels. Here we examined mechanotransduction in the hair cells of young postnatal shaker 2 mice (Myo15sh2/sh2). These mice have no functional myosin-XVa, which is critical for normal growth of mechanosensory stereocilia of hair cells. Although stereocilia of both inner and outer hair cells of Myo15sh2/sh2 mice lack myosin-XVa and are abnormally short, these cells have dramatically different hair bundle morphology. Myo15sh2/sh2 outer hair cells retain a “staircase” arrangement of the abnormally short stereocilia and prominent tip links. Myo15sh2/sh2 inner hair cells do not have obliquely oriented tip links and their mechanosensitivity is mediated exclusively by “top-to-top” links between equally short stereocilia. In both inner and outer hair cells of Myo15sh2/sh2 mice, we found mechanotransduction responses with a normal “wild type” amplitude and speed of activation. Surprisingly, only outer hair cells exhibit fast adaptation and sensitivity to extracellular Ca2+. In Myo15sh2/sh2 inner hair cells, fast adaptation is disrupted and the transduction current is insensitive to extracellular Ca2+. We conclude that the Ca2+-sensitivity of the mechanotransduction channels and the fast adaptation require a structural environment that is dependent on myosin-XVa and is disrupted in Myo15sh2/sh2 inner hair cells, but not in Myo15sh2/sh2 outer hair cells.

Stepanyan, Ruben; Frolenkov, Gregory I.

2009-01-01

395

[Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].  

PubMed

Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities. Gene profiling analysis shows that the expression of several genes is deregulated including PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) gene, encoding a receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. In angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphomas molecular abnormalities are found in follicular helper T-cell (TFH) that express some distinctive markers such as CD10, PD-1, CXCR5 and the CXCL13 chemokine. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a paradigme of T-cell lymphoma since it is associated with an X-ALK oncogenic fusion protein due to a translocation involving ALK gene at 2p23. ALK tyrosine kinase activates downstream pathways (Stat3/5b, Src kinases, PLC?, PI3 kinase) implicated in lymphomagenesis, proliferation and protection against apoptosis. Specific ALK inhibitors are currently in clinical evaluation. Lastly several lymphomas are associated with infectious agents that play a direct (EB virus, HTLV1) or indirect role (e.g. Helicobacter pylori in MALT lymphoma) in lymphomagenesis. PMID:21084243

Delsol, G

2010-11-01

396

Radioimmunological determination of cocaine in human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure for the determination of cocaine in human hair was described. After washing hair samples were crushed in 0.1m HCl and incubated overnight at 45°C. The acid extracts were neutralized with 1m NaOH. Phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) was added to the extracts. The cocaine concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Detection in hair was achieved in all hair samples

S. Balabanova; H. Brunner; R. Nowak

1987-01-01

397

The establishment of a highly sensitive method in detecting ketamine and norketamine simultaneously in human hairs by HPLC-Chip–MS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective way to reveal the history of drug abuse is to determine the parental drug and its metabolites in hair. Here, a quantitative HPLC-Chip–MS\\/MS method was developed for simultaneous measurement of ketamine and its metabolite norketamine in human hair. Ketamine and norketamine were extracted from hair by acid hydrolysis, and then enriched by organic solvent extraction. The chromatographic separation

Kevin Y. Zhu; K. Wing Leung; Annie K. L. Ting; Zack C. F. Wong; Qiang Fu; Winki Y. Y. Ng; Roy C. Y. Choi; Tina T. X. Dong; Tiejie Wang; David T. W. Lau; Karl W. K. Tsim

2011-01-01

398

A study on the concentrations of 11-nor-? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in hair root and whole hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the patterns of cannabis users (n=412) according to their sex, age, and the results of urinalysis and hair analysis, and classified the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair into three categories to examine the levels of cannabis use. We also compared the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair root, hair without the hair root and whole hair

Eunyoung Han; Hwakyung Choi; Sangki Lee; Heesun Chung; Joon Myong Song

2011-01-01

399

Brain T 1 in young children with sickle cell disease: evidence of early abnormalities in brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of tissue spin lattice relaxation time (T1) has been used to characterize brain development in healthy children. Here we report the first study of brain T1 in young children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The T1 in 10 tissue samples was measured by established techniques; 46 SCD patients under the age of 4 years were compared to 267 controls,

R. Grant Steen; Michael Hunte; Elfreides Traipe; Peter Hurh; Shengjie Wu; Larissa Bilaniuk; John Haselgrove

2004-01-01

400

Abnormal Mammary Gland Development and Growth Retardation in Female Mice and MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells Lacking Androgen Receptor  

PubMed Central

Phenotype analysis of female mice lacking androgen receptor (AR) deficient (AR?/?) indicates that the development of mammary glands is retarded with reduced ductal branching in the prepubertal stages, and fewer Cap cells in the terminal end buds, as well as decreased lobuloalveolar development in adult females, and fewer milk-producing alveoli in the lactating glands. The defective development of AR?/? mammary glands involves the defects of insulin-like growth factor I–insulin-like growth factor I receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signals as well as estrogen receptor (ER) activity. Similar growth retardation and defects in growth factor–mediated Ras/Raf/MAPK cascade and ER signaling are also found in AR?/? MCF7 breast cancer cells. The restoration assays show that AR NH2-terminal/DNA-binding domain, but not the ligand-binding domain, is essential for normal MAPK function in MCF7 cells, and an AR mutant (R608K), found in male breast cancer, is associated with the excessive activation of MAPK. Together, our data provide the first in vivo evidence showing that AR-mediated MAPK and ER activation may play important roles for mammary gland development and MCF7 breast cancer cell proliferation.

Yeh, Shuyuan; Hu, Yueh-Chiang; Wang, Peng-Hui; Xie, Chao; Xu, Qingquan; Tsai, Meng-Yin; Dong, Zhihong; Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Lee, Ting-Hein; Chang, Chawnshang

2003-01-01

401

The Role of Chronic Hypoxia in the Development of Neurocognitive Abnormalities in Preterm Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common pulmonary morbidity in preterm infants and is associated with chronic hypoxia. Animal studies have demonstrated structural, neurochemical and functional alterations due to chronic hypoxia in the developing brain. Long-term impairments in visual-motor, gross and fine motor, articulation, reading,…

Raman, Lakshmi; Georgieff, Michael K.; Rao, Raghavendra

2006-01-01

402

The Role of Chronic Hypoxia in the Development of Neurocognitive Abnormalities in Preterm Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common pulmonary morbidity in preterm infants and is associated with chronic hypoxia. Animal studies have demonstrated structural, neurochemical and functional alterations due to chronic hypoxia in the developing brain. Long-term impairments in visual-motor, gross and fine motor, articulation, reading,…

Raman, Lakshmi; Georgieff, Michael K.; Rao, Raghavendra

2006-01-01

403

Minoxidil: mechanisms of action on hair growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have known for over 30 years that minoxidil stimulates hair growth, yet our understanding of its mechanism of action on the hair follicle is very limited. In animal studies, topical minoxidil shortens telogen, causing premature entry of resting hair follicles into anagen, and it probably has a similar action in humans. Minoxidil may also cause prolongation of anagen

A. G. Messenger; J. Rundegren

2004-01-01

404

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2013-07-01

405

Pathogenesis in Trichorrhexis Invaginata (Bamboo Hair)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of formation of trichorrhexis invaginata, which is one of the characteristic hair anomalies seen in Nether ton's syndrome, was studied using plucked hairs obtained from 3 patients with the typical clinical features. The biopsy specimens used to examine the hair root were obtained from the scalp of one of the patients and the eyebrow area of the other.

Masaaki Ito; Kaoru Ito; Ken Hashimoto

1984-01-01

406

Variations of scalp, pubic and axillary hair.  

PubMed

Hair examinations and comparisons conducted by forensic scientists often provide investigative and associative information. Apart from its length and its natural color, hair displays a morphologic diversity both macroscopically and microscopically. Pseudogenization of hair keratin gene inactivation highlights dramatic differences and is thought to be one of the strongest reasons for localization of hair in human. Therefore, humans have several different types of hair that can be classified depending on their body position and form. Size, angle of penetrance through the skin, embryological time of first appearance, and structural variations in the hair follicles are all taken into account when classifying hair types. However, the classification of differential types of hair quantitative traits in human is yet to be undertaken. An attempt has been made in the present study to understand the variation by using the histomorphological and quantitative variables of 540 hair strands (180 each scalp, axillary and pubic hair) of 18 adult Bengalee Hindu caste females. Apart from variation in histomorphological variables, quantitative variables regarding shaft and medulla diameter demonstrated variation in terms of being significantly higher (p < 0.05) in pubic hair compared to that of axillary and scalp hair. Therefore, the present study envisaged that variability in histomorphological and quantitative traits in different areas of human could be one of the important criteria for personal identification in forensic research. PMID:22338799

Mistry, Sanchita; Chatterjee, Madhumati; Ghosh, Jyoti Ratan; Chakrabarti, Nirmal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Arup Ratan

2012-01-01

407

Live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs.  

PubMed

Root hairs are tubular extensions from the root surface that expand by tip growth. This highly focused type of cell expansion, combined with position of root hairs on the surface of the root, makes them ideal cells for microscopic observation. This chapter describes the method that is routinely used in our laboratory for live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs. PMID:24132430

Ketelaar, Tijs

2014-01-01

408

Simulation-Based Cartoon Hair Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new hybrid technique for cartoon hair animation, one that allows the animators to create attractive and controllable hair animations without having to draw everything by hand except a sparse set of key frames. We demonstrate how to give a cel animation character accentuated hair motion. The novelty of this approach is that we neither simply interpolate

Eiji Sugisaki; Yizhou Yu; Ken Anjyo; Shigeo Morishima

2005-01-01

409

Tooth - abnormal shape  

MedlinePLUS

Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. Abnormally shaped teeth can result from many different conditions. Specific diseases can have a profound effect ...

410

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... ocular problem. What are some of the ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Eye misalignment: Sometimes when ... asymmetry. What are some of the non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the ...

411

``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can ``dissect'' a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-12-01

412

Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and the stabilization of p53 protein of American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after

Hyun-Na Koo; Seung-Hwan Yun; Changmann Yoon; Gil-Hah Kim

2012-01-01

413

Targeted disruption of the murine int-1 proto-oncogene resulting in severe abnormalities in midbrain and cerebellar development  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE int-1 proto-oncogene was first identified as a gene activated in virally induced mouse mammary tumours1,2. Expression studies, however, suggest that the normal function of this gene may be in spermatogenesis and in the development of the central nervous system3-5. Genes sharing sequence similarity with int-1 have been found throughout the animal kingdom. For example, int-1 has 54% amino-acid identity

Kirk R. Thomas; Mario R. Capecchi

1990-01-01

414

Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD  

PubMed Central

Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD.

Vaidya, Chandan J.

2012-01-01

415

A Case of Incontinentia Pigmenti Associated with Multiorgan Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Incontinentia pigmenti is a systemic disorder affecting the skin, teeth, eyes, nervous tissue, hair, nails, musculoskeletal system, and heart. We describe an 11-month-old girl with incontinentia pigmenti associated with a ventricular septal defect, left hemiatrophy, hemangiomas, an abnormal labial frenum, and spastic cerebral palsy manifested as left hemiplegia and developmental delay. We believe this patient illustrates that incontinentia pigmenti is a systemic disorder necessitating a multidisciplinary approach to management.

Chung, Woon-Kyong; Lee, Deok-Woo; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho

2009-01-01

416

Choline or CDP-choline attenuates coagulation abnormalities and prevents the development of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in dogs during endotoxemia.  

PubMed

Sepsis/endotoxemia causes platelet dysfunctions, abnormalities in coagulation and hemostatic mechanisms leading to organ dysfunctions and mortality. Choline prevents organ injury and improves survival during endotoxemia. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of choline or cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on endotoxin-induced activation of coagulation and development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Dogs were treated intravenously (i.v.) with saline, choline (20 mg/kg), or CDP-choline (70 mg/kg) three times with 4-h intervals starting 5 min before i.v. injection of endotoxin (1 mg/kg). Platelet counts and functions, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, coagulation factors, D-dimer and antithrombin (AT) were measured before and at 0.5-96 h after endotoxin. Circulating platelet, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and AT were decreased, whereas PT and aPTT were prolonged and serum D-dimer levels were elevated after endotoxin. Endotoxin-induced reductions in platelet counts and functions, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and AT were attenuated or blocked by choline or CDP-choline. Choline or CDP-choline blocked endotoxin-induced prolongation in PT and aPTT and enhancement in D-dimer. Elevated DIC scores were attenuated by choline and blocked by CDP-choline. Choline administration increased serum choline concentrations and caused bradycardia. Choline also increased choline and acetylcholine contents of circulating mononuclear cells and inhibited radioligand binding to their cholinergic receptors. These data show that choline administration, as choline chloride or CDP-choline, restores the abnormalities in the primary, secondary, and tertiary hemostasis and prevents the development of DIC during experimental endotoxemia in dogs probably by increasing both neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic activity. PMID:20410813

Yilmaz, Zeki; Ozarda, Yesim; Cansev, Mehmet; Eralp, Oya; Kocaturk, Meric; Ulus, Ismail H

2010-06-01

417

Ectopic expression of nolz-1 in neural progenitors promotes cell cycle exit/premature neuronal differentiation accompanying with abnormal apoptosis in the developing mouse telencephalon.  

PubMed

Nolz-1, as a murine member of the NET zinc-finger protein family, is expressed in post-mitotic differentiating neurons of striatum during development. To explore the function of Nolz-1 in regulating the neurogenesis of forebrain, we studied the effects of ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors. We generated the Cre-loxP dependent conditional transgenic mice in which Nolz-1 was ectopically expressed in proliferative neural progenitors. Ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors by intercrossing the Nolz-1 conditional transgenic mice with the nestin-Cre mice resulted in hypoplasia of telencephalon in double transgenic mice. Decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells were found in the telencephalon, as evidenced by the reduction of BrdU-, Ki67- and phospho-histone 3-positive cells in E11.5-12.5 germinal zone of telencephalon. Transgenic Nolz-1 also promoted cell cycle exit and as a consequence might facilitate premature differentiation of progenitors, because TuJ1-positive neurons were ectopically found in the ventricular zone and there was a general increase of TuJ1 immunoreactivity in the telencephalon. Moreover, clusters of strong TuJ1-expressing neurons were present in E12.5 germinal zone. Some of these strong TuJ1-positive clusters, however, contained apoptotic condensed DNA, suggesting that inappropriate premature differentiation may lead to abnormal apoptosis in some progenitor cells. Consistent with the transgenic mouse analysis in vivo, similar effects of Nozl-1 over-expression in induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of neuronal differentiation were also observed in three different N18, ST14A and N2A neural cell lines in vitro. Taken together, our study indicates that ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors promotes cell cycle exit/premature neuronal differentiation and induces abnormal apoptosis in the developing telencephalon. PMID:24073229

Chang, Sunny Li-Yun; Chen, Shih-Yun; Huang, Huai-Huei; Ko, Hsin-An; Liu, Pei-Tsen; Liu, Ya-Chi; Chen, Ping-Hau; Liu, Fu-Chin

2013-09-20

418

Ectopic Expression of Nolz-1 in Neural Progenitors Promotes Cell Cycle Exit/Premature Neuronal Differentiation Accompanying with Abnormal Apoptosis in the Developing Mouse Telencephalon  

PubMed Central

Nolz-1, as a murine member of the NET zinc-finger protein family, is expressed in post-mitotic differentiating neurons of striatum during development. To explore the function of Nolz-1 in regulating the neurogenesis of forebrain, we studied the effects of ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors. We generated the Cre-loxP dependent conditional transgenic mice in which Nolz-1 was ectopically expressed in proliferative neural progenitors. Ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors by intercrossing the Nolz-1 conditional transgenic mice with the nestin-Cre mice resulted in hypoplasia of telencephalon in double transgenic mice. Decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells were found in the telencephalon, as evidenced by the reduction of BrdU?, Ki67? and phospho-histone 3-positive cells in E11.5–12.5 germinal zone of telencephalon. Transgenic Nolz-1 also promoted cell cycle exit and as a consequence might facilitate premature differentiation of progenitors, because TuJ1-positive neurons were ectopically found in the ventricular zone and there was a general increase of TuJ1 immunoreactivity in the telencephalon. Moreover, clusters of strong TuJ1-expressing neurons were present in E12.5 germinal zone. Some of these strong TuJ1-positive clusters, however, contained apoptotic condensed DNA, suggesting that inappropriate premature differentiation may lead to abnormal apoptosis in some progenitor cells. Consistent with the transgenic mouse analysis in vivo, similar effects of Nozl-1 over-expression in induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of neuronal differentiation were also observed in three different N18, ST14A and N2A neural cell lines in vitro. Taken together, our study indicates that ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors promotes cell cycle exit/premature neuronal differentiation and induces abnormal apoptosis in the developing telencephalon.

Chang, Sunny Li-Yun; Chen, Shih-Yun; Huang, Huai-Huei; Ko, Hsin-An; Liu, Pei-Tsen; Liu, Ya-Chi; Chen, Ping-Hau; Liu, Fu-Chin

2013-01-01

419

In vivo proliferative regeneration of balance hair cells in newborn mice  

PubMed Central

The regeneration of mechanoreceptive hair cells occurs throughout life in non-mammalian vertebrates and allows them to recover from hearing and balance deficits that affect humans and other mammals permanently. The irreversibility of comparable deficits in mammals remains unexplained, but often has been attributed to steep embryonic declines in cellular production. However, recent results suggest that gravity-sensing hair cells in murine utricles may increase in number during neonatal development, raising the possibility that young mice might retain sufficient cellular plasticity for mitotic hair cell regeneration. To test for this we used neomycin to kill hair cells in utricles cultured from mice of different ages and found that proliferation increased ten-fold in damaged utricles from the youngest neonates. To kill hair cells in vivo, we generated a novel mouse model that uses an inducible, hair-cell-specific CreER allele to drive expression of diptheria toxin fragment A (DTA). In newborns, induction of DTA expression killed hair cells and resulted in significant, mitotic hair cell replacement in vivo, which occurred days after the normal cessation of developmental mitoses that produce hair cells. DTA expression induced in five-day-old mice also caused hair cell loss, but no longer evoked mitotic hair cell replacement. These findings show that regeneration limits arise in vivo during the postnatal period when the mammalian balance epithelium’s supporting cells differentiate unique cytological characteristics and lose plasticity, and they support the notion that the differentiation of those cells may directly inhibit regeneration or eliminate an essential, but as yet unidentified pool of stem cells.

Burns, Joseph C.; Cox, Brandon C.; Thiede, Benjamin R.; Zuo, Jian; Corwin, Jeffrey T.

2012-01-01

420

Lack of Cul4b, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Component, Leads to Embryonic Lethality and Abnormal Placental Development  

PubMed Central

Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) complexes participate in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, transcription, signal transduction and development. Serving as the scaffold protein, cullins are crucial for the assembly of ligase complexes, which recognize and target various substrates for proteosomal degradation. Mutations in human CUL4B, one of the eight members in cullin family, are one of the major causes of X-linked mental retardation. We here report the generation and characterization of Cul4b knockout mice, in which exons 3 to 5 were deleted. In contrast to the survival to adulthood of human hemizygous males with CUL4B null mutation, Cul4b null mouse embryos show severe developmental arrest and usually die before embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5). Accumulation of cyclin E, a CRL (CUL4B) substrate, was observed in Cul4b null embryos. Cul4b heterozygotes were recovered at a reduced ratio and exhibited a severe developmental delay. The placentas in Cul4b heterozygotes were disorganized and were impaired in vascularization, which may contribute to the developmental delay. As in human CUL4B heterozygotes, Cul4b null cells were selected against in Cul4b heterozygotes, leading to various degrees of skewed X-inactivation in different tissues. Together, our results showed that CUL4B is indispensable for embryonic development in the mouse.

Yuan, Jupeng; Qian, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjie; Zou, Yongxin; Guo, Chenhong; Chen, Bingxi; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin

2012-01-01

421

Abnormal development of NG2+PDGFR?+ neural progenitor cells leads to neonatal hydrocephalus in a ciliopathy mouse model  

PubMed Central

Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder leading to expansion of the cerebral ventricles and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most neonatal cases are of unknown etiology and are likely to display complex inheritance involving multiple genes and environmental factors. Identifying molecular mechanisms for neonatal hydrocephalus and developing non-invasive treatment modalities are high priorities. Here we employ a hydrocephalic mouse model of the human ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) and identify a role for neural progenitors in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus. We found that hydrocephalus in this mouse model is caused by aberrant PDGFR? signaling, resulting in increased apoptosis and impaired proliferation of NG2+PDGFR?+ neural progenitors. Targeting this pathway with lithium treatment rescued NG2+PDGFR?+ progenitor cell proliferation in BBS mutant mice, reducing ventricular volume. Our findings demonstrate that neural progenitors are critical in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus and we identify novel therapeutic targets for this common neurological disorder.

Carter, Calvin S.; Vogel, Timothy W.; Zhang, Qihong; Seo, Seongjin; Swiderski, Ruth E.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Cassell, Martin D.; Thedens, Daniel R.; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Nishimura, Darryl Y.; Searby, Charles C.; Bugge, Kevin; Sheffield, Val C.

2012-01-01

422

Mental retardation and abnormal skeletal development (Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen dysplasia) due to mutations in a novel, evolutionarily conserved gene.  

PubMed

Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen dysplasia (DMC) and Smith-McCort dysplasia (SMC) are similar, rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasias. The radiographic features and cartilage histology in DMC and SMC are identical. However, patients with DMC exhibit significant developmental delay and mental retardation, the major features that distinguish the two conditions. Linkage studies localized the SMC and DMC disease genes to chromosome 18q12-21.1, providing evidence suggesting that they are allelic disorders. Sequence analysis of the coding exons of the FLJ90130 gene, a highly evolutionarily conserved gene within the recombination interval defined in the linkage study, identified mutations in SMC and DMC patients. The affected individuals in two consanguinous DMC families were homozygous for a stop codon mutation and a frameshift mutation, respectively, demonstrating that DMC represents the FLJ90130-null phenotype. The data confirm the hypothesis that SMC and DMC are allelic disorders and identify a gene necessary for normal skeletal development and brain function. PMID:12491225

Cohn, Daniel H; Ehtesham, Nadia; Krakow, Deborah; Unger, Sheila; Shanske, Alan; Reinker, Kent; Powell, Berkley R; Rimoin, David L

2002-12-16

423

Detection of hunter heterozygotes by enzymatic analysis of hair roots.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a procedure for testing iduronate sulfatase, the enzyme deficient in Hunter syndrome, in single hair roots. Beta-Hexosaminidase was used as the reference enzyme. The ratio of iduronate sulfatase to beta--hexosaminidase, expressed in arbitrary units of activity, is near zero for Hunter patients and greater than 0.