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1

Defect of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator Inhibitor Type 1/Serine Protease Inhibitor, Kunitz Type 1 (Hai-1/Spint1) Leads to Ichthyosis-Like Condition and Abnormal Hair Development in Mice  

PubMed Central

Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1)/serine protease inhibitor, Kunitz type 1 (SPINT1) is a membrane-bound, serine proteinase inhibitor initially identified as an inhibitor of hepatocyte growth factor activator. It also inhibits matriptase and prostasin, both of which are membrane-bound serine proteinases that have critical roles in epidermal differentiation and function. In this study, skin and hair phenotypes of mice lacking the Hai-1/Spint1 gene were characterized. Previously, we reported that the homozygous deletion of Hai-1/Spint1 in mice resulted in embryonic lethality attributable to impaired placental development. To test the role of Hai-1/Spint1 in mice, the placental function of Hai-1/Spint1-mutant mice was rescued. Injection of Hai-1/Spint1+/+ blastocysts with Hai-1/Spint1?/? embryonic stem cells successfully generated high-chimeric Hai-1/Spint1?/? embryos (B6Hai-1?/?High) with normal placentas. These embryos were delivered without apparent developmental abnormalities, confirming that embryonic lethality of Hai-1/Spint1?/? mice was caused by placental dysfunction. However, newborn B6Hai-1?/?High mice showed growth retardation and died by 16 days. These mice developed scaly skin because of hyperkeratinization, reminiscent of ichthyosis, and abnormal hair shafts that showed loss of regular cuticular septation. The interfollicular epidermis showed acanthosis with enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Immunoblot analysis revealed altered proteolytic processing of profilaggrin in Hai-1/Spint1-deleted skin with impaired generation of filaggrin monomers. These findings indicate that Hai-1/Spint1 has critical roles in the regulated keratinization of the epidermis and hair development. PMID:18832587

Nagaike, Koki; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Takeda, Naoki; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Sawaguchi, Akira; Kohama, Kazuyo; Setoyama, Mitsuru; Kataoka, Hiroaki

2008-01-01

2

Hox in hair growth and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolutionarily conserved Hox gene family of transcriptional regulators has originally been known for specifying positional identities along the longitudinal body axis of bilateral metazoans, including mouse and man. It is believed that subsequent to this archaic role, subsets of Hox genes have been co-opted for patterning functions in phylogenetically more recent structures, such as limbs and epithelial appendages. Among these, the hair follicle is of particular interest, as it is the only organ undergoing cyclical phases of regression and regeneration during the entire life span of an organism. Furthermore, the hair follicle is increasingly capturing the attention of developmental geneticists, as this abundantly available miniature organ mimics key aspects of embryonic patterning and, in addition, presents a model for studying organ renewal. The first Hox gene shown to play a universal role in hair follicle development is Hoxc13, as both Hoxc13-deficient and overexpressing mice exhibit severe hair growth and patterning defects. Differential gene expression analyses in the skin of these mutants, as well as in vitro DNA binding studies performed with potential targets for HOXC13 transcriptional regulation in human hair, identified genes encoding hair-specific keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) as major groups of presumptive Hoxc13 downstream effectors in the control of hair growth. The Hoxc13 mutant might thus serve as a paradigm for studying hair-specific roles of Hoxc13 and other members of this gene family, whose distinct spatio-temporally restricted expression patterns during hair development and cycling suggest discrete functions in follicular patterning and hair cycle control. The main conclusion from a discussion of these potential roles vis-à-vis current expression data in mouse and man, and from the perspective of the results obtained with the Hoxc13 transgenic models, is that members of the Hox family are likely to fulfill essential roles of great functional diversity in hair that require complex transcriptional control mechanisms to ensure proper spatio-temporal patterns of Hox gene expression at homeostatic levels.

Awgulewitsch, Alexander

2003-05-01

3

Sebaceous Gland, Hair Shaft, and Epidermal Barrier Abnormalities in Keratosis Pilaris with and without Filaggrin Deficiency.  

PubMed

Although keratosis pilaris (KP) is common, its etiopathogenesis remains unknown. KP is associated clinically with ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis and molecular genetically with filaggrin-null mutations. In 20 KP patients and 20 matched controls, we assessed the filaggrin and claudin 1 genotypes, the phenotypes by dermatoscopy, and the morphology by light and transmission electron microscopy. Thirty-five percent of KP patients displayed filaggrin mutations, demonstrating that filaggrin mutations only partially account for the KP phenotype. Major histologic and dermatoscopic findings of KP were hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, mild T helper cell type 1-dominant lymphocytic inflammation, plugging of follicular orifices, striking absence of sebaceous glands, and hair shaft abnormalities in KP lesions but not in unaffected skin sites. Changes in barrier function and abnormal paracellular permeability were found in both interfollicular and follicular stratum corneum of lesional KP, which correlated ultrastructurally with impaired extracellular lamellar bilayer maturation and organization. All these features were independent of filaggrin genotype. Moreover, ultrastructure of corneodesmosomes and tight junctions appeared normal, immunohistochemistry for claudin 1 showed no reduction in protein amounts, and molecular analysis of claudin 1 was unremarkable. Our findings suggest that absence of sebaceous glands is an early step in KP pathogenesis, resulting in downstream hair shaft and epithelial barrier abnormalities. PMID:25660180

Gruber, Robert; Sugarman, Jeffrey L; Crumrine, Debra; Hupe, Melanie; Mauro, Theodora M; Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Thyssen, Jacob P; Brandner, Johanna M; Hennies, Hans-Christian; Schmuth, Matthias; Elias, Peter M

2015-04-01

4

Craniofacial anomalies, abnormal hair, camptodactyly, and caudal appendage (Teebi-Shaltout syndrome): clinical and autopsy findings.  

PubMed

Teebi and Shaltout [1989: Am J Med Genet 33: 58-60] described a new syndrome of craniofacial anomalies, abnormal hair, camptodactyly, and caudal appendage in children born to a consanguineous couple. We report on a second family with the same pattern of anomalies occurring in a liveborn female and 3 spontaneously aborted fetuses, and include autopsy findings. As additional findings 2 of our cases had unilateral microphthalmia and kidney anomalies. Our observation confirms that this pattern of anomalies is a distinct syndrome with autosomal recessive inheritance; we suggest the synonym Teebi-Shaltout syndrome. PMID:8267003

Froster, U G; Rehder, H; Höhn, W; Oberheuser, F

1993-10-01

5

Expression of Frizzled Genes in Developing and Postnatal Hair Follicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic hair follicle development and postnatal hair growth rely on intercellular communication within the epithelium and between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Several members of the WNT family of paracrine intercellular signaling molecules are expressed in specific subsets of cells in developing and mature mouse hair follicles, suggesting them as candidates for some of the intercellular signals that operate in these

Seshamma T. Reddy; Thomas Andl; Min-Min Lu; Edward E. Morrisey; Sarah E. Millar

2004-01-01

6

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Hair Follicle Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical conditions causing hair loss, such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, and scarring alopecia, can be psychologically devastating to individuals and are the target of a multimillion dollar pharmaceutical industry. The importance of the hair follicle in skin biology, however, does not rest solely with its ability to produce hair. Hair follicles are self-renewing and contain reservoirs of multipotent stem

Sarah E. Millar

2002-01-01

7

Kinocilia mediate mechanosensitivity in developing zebrafish hair cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mechanosensitive cilia are vital to signaling and development across many species. In sensory hair cells, sound and movement are transduced by apical hair bundles. Each bundle is comprised of a single primary cilium (kinocilium) flanked by multiple rows of actin-filled projections (stereocilia). Extracellular tip links that interconnect stereocilia are thought to gate mechanosensitive channels. In contrast to stereocilia, kinocilia are not critical for hair-cell mechanotransduction. However, by sequentially imaging the structure of hair bundles and mechanosensitivity of individual lateral-line hair cells in vivo, we uncovered a central role for kinocilia in mechanosensation during development. Our data demonstrate that nascent hair cells require kinocilia and kinocilial links for mechanosensitivity. Although nascent hair bundles have correct planar polarity, the polarity of their responses to mechanical stimuli is initially reversed. Later in development, a switch to correctly polarized mechanosensitivity coincides with the formation of tip links and the onset of tip link-dependent mechanotransduction. PMID:22898777

Kindt, Katie S.; Finch, Gabriel; Nicolson, Teresa

2012-01-01

8

Ethanol affects the development of sensory hair cells in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%-1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS. PMID:24324841

Uribe, Phillip M; Asuncion, James D; Matsui, Jonathan I

2013-01-01

9

Normalization of hair growth in sparse fur-abnormal skin and hair (SPF-ASH) mice by introduction of the rat ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) gene.  

PubMed

The sparse fur-abnormal skin and hair (SPF-ASH) mouse is a model for the human X-linked hereditary disease, ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. This condition is characterized by abnormal skin and delayed hair growth, hyperammonemia, orotic aciduria and low levels of serum citrulline and arginine. Murakami et al. [1] established a line of transgenic mice, by introducing the recombinant rat OTC (rOTC) gene into fertilized C57BL mouse eggs. We introduced the rOTC gene into SPF-ASH mice by mating SPF-ASH heterozygotes and transgenic mice, which carried this gene. The hemizygous SPF-ASH mice bearing the rOTC gene showed normal hair growth without sparse fur, normal urinary orotic acid excretion and normal serum citrulline and arginine levels. These mice showed OTC activities 2 and 6 times higher in the liver and small intestine, respectively, than the SPF-ASH mice but about 12% and 27% those of the controls [2]. PMID:7999674

Shimada, T; Tashiro, M; Kanzaki, T; Noda, T; Murakami, T; Takiguchi, M; Mori, M; Yamamura, K; Saheki, T

1994-07-01

10

The Genetics of Hair Cell Development and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair cells are exquisitely sensitive vertebrate mechanoreceptors that mediate the senses of hearing and balance. Understanding the factors that regulate the development of these cells is important, not only for our understanding of ear development and its functional physiology, but also to shed light on how these cells may be replaced therapeutically. In this review, we describe the signals and molecular mechanisms that initiate hair cell development in vertebrates, with particular emphasis on the transcription factor Atoh1 that is both necessary and sufficient for hair cell development. We then discuss recent findings on how microRNAs may modulate the formation and maturation of hair cells. Lastly, we will review recent work on how hair cells are regenerated in many vertebrate groups, and the factors that conspire to prevent this regeneration in mammals. PMID:23724999

Groves, Andrew K.; Zhang, Kaidi D.; Fekete, Donna M.

2013-01-01

11

Environmentally Induced Plasticity of Root Hair Development in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postembryonic development of plants is dependent on both intrinsic genetic programs and environmental factors. The plasticity of root hair patterning in response to environmental signals was investigated in the Columbia-0 wild type and 19 Arabidopsis mutants carrying lesions in various parts of the root hair developmental pathway by withholding phosphate or iron (Fe) from the nutrient medium. In the aging

Margarete Muller; Wolfgang Schmidt

2004-01-01

12

Arabinogalactan proteins are involved in root hair development in barley  

PubMed Central

The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in a range of plant processes, including cell differentiation and expansion. Here, barley root hair mutants and their wild-type parent cultivars were used, as a model system, to reveal the role of AGPs in root hair development. The treatment of roots with different concentrations of ?GlcY (a reagent which binds to all classes of AGPs) inhibited or totally suppressed the development of root hairs in all of the cultivars. Three groups of AGP (recognized by the monoclonal antibodies LM2, LM14, and MAC207) were diversely localized in trichoblasts and atrichoblasts of root hair-producing plants. The relevant epitopes were present in wild-type trichoblast cell walls and cytoplasm, whereas in wild-type atrichoblasts and in all epidermal cells of a root hairless mutant, they were only present in the cytoplasm. In all of cultivars the higher expression of LM2, LM14, and MAC207 was observed in trichoblasts at an early stage of development. Additionally, the LM2 epitope was detected on the surface of primordia and root hair tubes in plants able to generate root hairs. The major conclusion was that the AGPs recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 are involved in the differentiation of barley root epidermal cells, thereby implying a requirement for these AGPs for root hair development in barley. PMID:25465033

Marzec, Marek; Szarejko, Iwona; Melzer, Michael

2015-01-01

13

Neurodegenerative disorders with hair abnormalities: an emergency room consultation for dermatologists.  

PubMed

Menke's syndrome and Elejalde disease are the two neurodegenerative disorders of dermatological interest. These patients present with characteristic hair changes which may be of diagnostic value in resource-poor setup where facilities for specific genetic analysis are not available. Simple light microscopic examination of hair may be a helpful diagnostic tool to pick up such cases. PMID:20805973

Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

2009-01-01

14

Absence of plastin 1 causes abnormal maintenance of hair cell stereocilia and a moderate form of hearing loss in mice  

PubMed Central

Hearing relies on the mechanosensory inner and outer hair cells (OHCs) of the organ of Corti, which convert mechanical deflections of their actin-rich stereociliary bundles into electrochemical signals. Several actin-associated proteins are essential for stereocilia formation and maintenance, and their absence leads to deafness. One of the most abundant actin-bundling proteins of stereocilia is plastin 1, but its function has never been directly assessed. Here, we found that plastin 1 knock-out (Pls1 KO) mice have a moderate and progressive form of hearing loss across all frequencies. Auditory hair cells developed normally in Pls1 KO, but in young adult animals, the stereocilia of inner hair cells were reduced in width and length. The stereocilia of OHCs were comparatively less affected; however, they also showed signs of degeneration in ageing mice. The hair bundle stiffness and the acquisition of the electrophysiological properties of hair cells were unaffected by the absence of plastin 1, except for a significant change in the adaptation properties, but not the size of the mechanoelectrical transducer currents. These results show that in contrast to other actin-bundling proteins such as espin, harmonin or Eps8, plastin 1 is dispensable for the initial formation of stereocilia. However, the progressive hearing loss and morphological defects of hair cells in adult Pls1 KO mice point at a specific role for plastin 1 in the preservation of adult stereocilia and optimal hearing. Hence, mutations in the human PLS1 gene may be associated with relatively mild and progressive forms of hearing loss. PMID:25124451

Taylor, Ruth; Bullen, Anwen; Johnson, Stuart L.; Grimm-Günter, Eva-Maria; Rivero, Francisco; Marcotti, Walter; Forge, Andrew; Daudet, Nicolas

2015-01-01

15

Absence of plastin 1 causes abnormal maintenance of hair cell stereocilia and a moderate form of hearing loss in mice.  

PubMed

Hearing relies on the mechanosensory inner and outer hair cells (OHCs) of the organ of Corti, which convert mechanical deflections of their actin-rich stereociliary bundles into electrochemical signals. Several actin-associated proteins are essential for stereocilia formation and maintenance, and their absence leads to deafness. One of the most abundant actin-bundling proteins of stereocilia is plastin 1, but its function has never been directly assessed. Here, we found that plastin 1 knock-out (Pls1 KO) mice have a moderate and progressive form of hearing loss across all frequencies. Auditory hair cells developed normally in Pls1 KO, but in young adult animals, the stereocilia of inner hair cells were reduced in width and length. The stereocilia of OHCs were comparatively less affected; however, they also showed signs of degeneration in ageing mice. The hair bundle stiffness and the acquisition of the electrophysiological properties of hair cells were unaffected by the absence of plastin 1, except for a significant change in the adaptation properties, but not the size of the mechanoelectrical transducer currents. These results show that in contrast to other actin-bundling proteins such as espin, harmonin or Eps8, plastin 1 is dispensable for the initial formation of stereocilia. However, the progressive hearing loss and morphological defects of hair cells in adult Pls1 KO mice point at a specific role for plastin 1 in the preservation of adult stereocilia and optimal hearing. Hence, mutations in the human PLS1 gene may be associated with relatively mild and progressive forms of hearing loss. PMID:25124451

Taylor, Ruth; Bullen, Anwen; Johnson, Stuart L; Grimm-Günter, Eva-Maria; Rivero, Francisco; Marcotti, Walter; Forge, Andrew; Daudet, Nicolas

2015-01-01

16

Hairy tale of signaling in hair follicle development and cycling  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle is an appendage from the vertebrate skin epithelium, and is critical for environmental sensing, animal appearance, and body heat maintenance. Hair follicles arise from the embryonic ectoderm and regenerate cyclically during adult life. Distinct morphological and functional stages from development through homeostasis have been extensively studied for the past decades to dissect the critical molecular mechanisms. Accumulating work suggests that different signaling cascades, such as Wnt, Bmp, Shh, and Notch, together with specific combinations of transcription factors are at work at different stages. Here we provide a comprehensive review of mouse genetics studies, which include lineage tracing along with knockout and over-expression of core genes from key signaling pathways, to paint an updated view of the molecular regulatory network that govern each stage of hair follicle development and adult cycling. PMID:22939761

Lee, Jayhun; Tumbar, Tudorita

2012-01-01

17

Signaling Involved in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Development  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on Wnt, Shh, Notch, BMP and other signaling pathways interplay between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The Wnt pathway plays an essential role during hair follicle induction, Shh is involved in morphogenesis and late stage differentiation, Notch signaling determines stem cell fate while BMP is involved in cellular differentiation. The Wnt pathway is considered to be the master regulator during hair follicle morphogenesis. Wnt signaling proceeds through EDA/EDAR/NF-?B signaling. NF-?B regulates the Wnt pathway and acts as a signal mediator by upregulating the expression of Shh ligand. Signal crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal cells takes place mainly through primary cilia. Primary cilia formation is initiated with epithelial laminin-511 interaction with dermal ?-1 integrin, which also upregulates expression of downstream effectors of Shh pathway in dermal lineage. PDGF signal transduction essential for crosstalk is mediated through epithelial PDGF-A and PDGFR? expressed on the primary cilia. Dermal Shh and PDGF signaling up-regulates dermal noggin expression; noggin is a potent inhibitor of BMP signaling which helps in counteracting BMP mediated ?-catenin inhibition. This interplay of signaling between the epithelial and dermal lineage helps in epithelial Shh signal amplification. The dermal Wnt pathway helps in upregulation of epithelial Notch expression. Dysregulation of these pathways leads to certain abnormalities and in some cases even tumor outgrowth. PMID:24451143

Rishikaysh, Pisal; Dev, Kapil; Diaz, Daniel; Qureshi, Wasay Mohiuddin Shaikh; Filip, Stanislav; Mokry, Jaroslav

2014-01-01

18

Neurod1 Suppresses Hair Cell Differentiation in Ear Ganglia and Regulates Hair Cell Subtype Development in the Cochlea  

PubMed Central

Background At least five bHLH genes regulate cell fate determination and differentiation of sensory neurons, hair cells and supporting cells in the mammalian inner ear. Cross-regulation of Atoh1 and Neurog1 results in hair cell changes in Neurog1 null mice although the nature and mechanism of the cross-regulation has not yet been determined. Neurod1, regulated by both Neurog1 and Atoh1, could be the mediator of this cross-regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Tg(Pax2-Cre) to conditionally delete Neurod1 in the inner ear. Our data demonstrate for the first time that the absence of Neurod1 results in formation of hair cells within the inner ear sensory ganglia. Three cell types, neural crest derived Schwann cells and mesenchyme derived fibroblasts (neither expresses Neurod1) and inner ear derived neurons (which express Neurod1) constitute inner ear ganglia. The most parsimonious explanation is that Neurod1 suppresses the alternative fate of sensory neurons to develop as hair cells. In the absence of Neurod1, Atoh1 is expressed and differentiates cells within the ganglion into hair cells. We followed up on this effect in ganglia by demonstrating that Neurod1 also regulates differentiation of subtypes of hair cells in the organ of Corti. We show that in Neurod1 conditional null mice there is a premature expression of several genes in the apex of the developing cochlea and outer hair cells are transformed into inner hair cells. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that the long noted cross-regulation of Atoh1 expression by Neurog1 might actually be mediated in large part by Neurod1. We suggest that Neurod1 is regulated by both Neurog1 and Atoh1 and provides a negative feedback for either gene. Through this and other feedback, Neurod1 suppresses alternate fates of neurons to differentiate as hair cells and regulates hair cell subtypes. PMID:20661473

Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

2010-01-01

19

Correct Timing of Proliferation and Differentiation is Necessary for Normal Inner Ear Development and Auditory Hair Cell Viability  

PubMed Central

Background Hearing restoration through hair cell regeneration will require revealing the dynamic interactions between proliferation and differentiation during development to avoid the limited viability of regenerated hair cells. Pax2-Cre N-Myc conditional knockout (CKO) mice highlighted the need of N-Myc for proper neurosensory development and possible redundancy with L-Myc. The late-onset hair cell death in the absence of early N-Myc expression could be due to mis-regulation of genes necessary for neurosensory formation and maintenance, such as Neurod1, Atoh1, Pou4f3, and Barhl1. Results Pax2-Cre N-Myc L-Myc double CKO mice show that proliferation and differentiation are linked together through Myc and in the absence of both Mycs, altered proliferation and differentiation results in morphologically abnormal ears. In particular, the organ of Corti apex is re-patterned into a vestibular-like organization and the base is truncated and fused with the saccule. Conclusions These data indicate that therapeutic approaches to restore hair cells must take into account a dynamic interaction of proliferation and differentiation regulation of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors in attempts to stably replace lost cochlear hair cells. In addition, our data indicate that Myc is an integral component of the evolutionary transformation process that resulted in the organ of Corti development. PMID:23193000

Kopecky, Benjamin J.; Jahan, Israt; Fritzsch, Bernd

2013-01-01

20

Hair Cell Fate Decisions in Cochlear Development and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The discovery of avian cochlear hair cell regeneration in the late 1980’s and the concurrent development of new techniques in molecular and developmental biology generated a renewed interest in understanding the genetic mechanisms that regulate hair cell development in the embryonic avian and mammalian cochlea and regeneration in the mature avian cochlea. Research from many labs has demonstrated that the development of the inner ear utilizes a complex series of genetic signals and pathways to generate the endorgans, specify cell identities, and establish innervation patterns found in the inner ear. Recent studies have shown that the Notch signaling pathway, the Atoh1/Hes signaling cascade, the stem cell marker Sox2, and some of the unconventional myosin motor proteins are utilized to regulate distinct steps in inner ear development. While many of the individual genes involved in these pathways have been identified from studies of mutant and knockout mouse cochleae, the interplay of all these signals into a single systemic program that directs this process needs to be explored. We need to know not only what genes are involved, but understand how their gene products interact with one another in a structural and temporal framework to guide hair cell and supporting cell differentiation and maturation. PMID:20438823

Cotanche, Douglas A.; Kaiser, Christina L.

2010-01-01

21

Development/Plasticity/Repair Notch Signaling Regulates the Extent of Hair Cell  

E-print Network

Loss of inner ear mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) from exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs causesDevelopment/Plasticity/Repair Notch Signaling Regulates the Extent of Hair Cell Regeneration of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-7420 Mechanosensory hair cells within the zebrafish lateral line

Rubel, Edwin

22

Development/Plasticity/Repair Hair Cell Replacement in Adult Mouse Utricles after  

E-print Network

(DT) caused no significant hair cell loss. In adult Pou4f3 /DTR mice, DT treatment of regeneration. Injection of a second ototoxic agent in- creases cochlear but not vestibular hair cell lossDevelopment/Plasticity/Repair Hair Cell Replacement in Adult Mouse Utricles after Targeted Ablation

Rubel, Edwin

23

Development/Plasticity/Repair Identification of Modulators of Hair Cell Regeneration in the  

E-print Network

levels, environmental toxins, and some medications can readily induce damage or loss of hair cells, oftenDevelopment/Plasticity/Repair Identification of Modulators of Hair Cell Regeneration compounds that modulate hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Of the 1680 compounds evaluated, we identified

Rubel, Edwin

24

To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders  

PubMed Central

Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

2014-01-01

25

A Comprehensive Guide for the Recognition and Classification of Distinct Stages of Hair Follicle Morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous spontaneous and experimentally induced mouse mutations develop a hair phenotype, which is often associated with more or less discrete abnormalities in hair follicle development. In order to recognize these, it is critically important to be able to determine and to classify accurately the major stages of normal murine hair follicle morphogenesis. As an aid, we propose a pragmatic and

Ralf Paus; Sven Müller-Röver; Carina van der Veen; Marcus Maurer; Stefan Eichmüller; Gao Ling; Udo Hofmann; Kerstin Foitzik; Lars Mecklenburg; Bori Handjiski

1999-01-01

26

Observations on Fur Development in Echidna (Monotremata, Mammalia) Indicate that Spines Precede Hairs in Ontogeny.  

PubMed

In the primitive mammal echidna, the initial 2-3 generations of skin appendages produced from birth forms spines and only later true hairs appear. Microscopy on preserved museum specimens reveals that the morphogenesis of spines and hairs is similar but that a larger dermal papilla is formed in spines. The growing shaft comprises a medulla surrounded by a cortex and by an external cuticle. A thick inner root sheath made of cornified cells surrounds the growing shaft inside the spine canal that eventually exits with a pointed tip. Hairs develop later with the same modality of spines but have a smaller papilla and give rise to a fur coat among spines. Therefore the integument of developing echidnas initially produces spines from large dermal papillae but the reduction in size of the papillae later determines the formation of hairs. Although the morphogenesis of spines and hairs can represent a case of specialization in this species, the primitive mammalian characteristics of echidnas has also inspired new speculations on the evolution of the mammalian hair from mammalian-like reptiles with a spiny coat. The resemblance in the morphogenesis between spines and hairs has suggested some hypothesis on hair evolution, in particular that hairs might be derived from the reduction of protective large spines present in ancient mammalian-like reptiles possibly derived from the reduction of pre-existing pointed scales. The hypothesis suggests that spines became reduced and internalized in the skin forming hairs. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25367156

Alibardi, Lorenzo; Rogers, George

2014-11-01

27

Development of Blood Analog Fluids Using Human Hair Protein Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model experiments of blood flow are very important in the study of mechanical aspects in cardiovascular research and the development of artificial organs. Several blood analog fluids, such as non-Newtonian fluids have been developed and used in model experiments. However, little is known about blood substitutes with biocompatible properties. We have developed novel procedures for preparing human hair protein films, and have fabricated protein particle suspensions from the films, by mechanical stimulation, for use as blood analog fluid. The average diameter of the protein particles was controlled and microscopic observations were done using a confocal microscope. The Casson’s plot patterns of the suspension containing the protein particles were similar to those of human blood. The protein particles also worked well as ultrasound contrast agents in the ultrasound Doppler flow velocity measurements in the model experiments. Therefore, the protein particle system is a promising alternative for blood cells in artificial blood.

Kobayashi, Shunichi; Morikawa, Hirohisa; Ishii, Shinji; Fujii, Toshihiro

28

Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism  

PubMed Central

Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956

Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

2015-01-01

29

DEVELOPMENT AND DETERMINATION OF HAIRS AND BRISTLES IN THE MILKWEED BUG, ONCOPELTUS FASCIATUS (LYGAEIDAE, HEMIPTERA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The term' organule' is proposed as an English equivalent for the German word' Kleinorgan'. The different organules on the third sternite of Oncopeltus are described: larvae possess in- nervated bristles and special sensilla termed 'chemosensilla', whereas the adult develops, in addition, a dense population of non-innervated hairs. The hairs, bristles and 'chemosensilla' each develop from mother cells which undergo

P. A. LAWRENCE

30

NaRALF, a peptide signal essential for the regulation of root hair tip apoplastic pH in Nicotiana attenuata, is required for root hair development and plant growth in native soils.  

PubMed

Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is a 49-amino-acid peptide that rapidly alkalinizes cultivated tobacco cell cultures. In the native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, NaRALF occurs as a single-copy gene and is highly expressed in roots and petioles. Silencing the NaRALF transcript by transforming N. attenuata with an inverted-repeat construct generated plants (irRALF) with normal wild-type (WT) above-ground parts, but with roots that grew longer and produced trichoblasts that developed into abnormal root hairs. Most trichoblasts produced a localized 'bulge' without commencing root hair tip growth; fewer trichoblasts grew, but were only 10% as long as those of WT plants. The root hair phenotype was associated with slowed apoplastic pH oscillations, increased pH at the tips of trichoblasts and decreased accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the root hair initiation zone. The root hair growth phenotype was partially restored when irRALF lines were grown in a low-pH-buffered medium, and reproduced in WT plants grown in a high-pH-buffered medium. When irRALF plants were grown in pH 5.6, 6.7 and 8.1 soils together with WT plants in glasshouse experiments, they were out-competed by WT plants in basic, but not acidic, soils. When WT and irRALF lines were planted into the basic soils of the native habitat of N. attenuata in the Great Basin Desert, irRALF plants had smaller leaves, shorter stalks, and produced fewer flowers and seed capsules than did WT plants. We conclude that NaRALF is required for regulating root hair extracellular pH, the transition from root hair initiation to tip growth and plant growth in basic soils. PMID:17916115

Wu, Jinsong; Kurten, Erin L; Monshausen, Gabriele; Hummel, Grégoire M; Gilroy, Simon; Baldwin, Ian T

2007-12-01

31

Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.  

PubMed Central

Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

1997-01-01

32

Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women  

PubMed Central

Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E.

2013-01-01

33

Is alopecia areata an autoimmune-response against melanogenesis-related proteins, exposed by abnormal MHC class I expression in the anagen hair bulb?  

PubMed Central

The etiology of alopecia areata (AA), a putative autoimmune disease characterized by sudden hair loss, has remained obscure. It is not understood, how the characteristic inflammatory infiltrate that selectively attacks anagen hair follicles in AA is generated. We hypothesize that this reflects an unexplored form of autoimmunity, a cytotoxic T cell attack on rhythmically synthesized autoantigens normally sequestered by a lack or very low level of MHC class I (MHC I)-expression, and suggest the following mechanism of AA pathogenesis: Microtrauma, neurogenic inflammation, or microbial antigens cause a localized breakdown of MHC I-"negativity" in the proximal anagen hair bulb via proinflammatory cytokines. This exposes autoantigens derived from melanogenesis-related proteins (MRP-DP), which are only generated during anagen, and triggers two successive waves of autoimmune responses: CD8+ cytotoxic T cells initiate AA after recognizing MRP-DP abnormally presented by MHC I molecules on hair matrix melanocytes and/or keratinocytes; a secondary attack, carried by CD4+ T cells and antigen presenting cells, is then mounted against MHC class II--presented additional autoantigens exposed by damaged melanocytes and keratinocytes. The latter causes most of the follicular damage, and extrafollicular disease, and depends greatly on the immunogenetic background of affected individuals. This unifying hypothesis explains the clinical heterogeneity and all salient features of AA, and argues that only the unlikely coincidence of multiple predisposing events triggers AA. The suppression of MHC I--expression and synthesis of MRP in the hair bulb, and the "tolerization" of MRP-DP autoreactive CD8+ T cells may be promising strategies for treating AA. PMID:7716973

Paus, R.; Slominski, A.; Czarnetzki, B. M.

1993-01-01

34

Manipulation of root hair development and sorgoleone production in sorghum seedlings.  

PubMed

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) roots exude a potent bioherbicide sorgoleone. Previous work indicates that sorgoleone is produced in living root hairs. We have developed a mist system that resulted in abundant production of root hairs exuding sorgoleone and a mat system that significantly inhibited root hair development and consequently sorgoleone production. Applying Ag+ (an ethylene action inhibitor) at 1.2 mM to the seedlings grown in the mist system also inhibited root hair formation and elongation. Hypoxic conditions in the mist system did not result in the inhibition of root hair growth as compared to the standard air atmosphere (20.8% O2). Applying ethephon (an ethylene-releasing agent) at 0.031 mM to the roots of seedlings grown in the mat system with water running at 1 ml/min reversed the inhibition of root hair development by water movement. These results indicate that either water movement or ethylene can be utilized to manipulate root hair development and sorgoleone production in sorghum seedlings. It is hypothesized that water movement reduced the local ethylene concentration on the root surface and consequently inhibited root hair development of sorghum seedlings grown in the mat system. PMID:15074666

Yang, Xiaohan; Owens, Thomas G; Scheffler, Brian E; Weston, Leslie A

2004-01-01

35

MicroRNAs are essential for development and function of inner ear hair cells in vertebrates  

E-print Network

MicroRNAs are essential for development and function of inner ear hair cells in vertebrates Lilach, the 2 inner ear compart- ments. A conditional knock-out mouse for Dicer1 demonstrated that miRNAs are crucial for postnatal survival of functional hair cells of the inner ear. We identified miRNAs that have

Hornstein, Eran

36

Activated Notch Causes Deafness by Promoting a Supporting Cell Phenotype in Developing Auditory Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether activated Notch can promote a supporting cell fate during sensory cell differentiation in the inner ear. Methods An activated form of the Notch1 receptor (NICD) was expressed in early differentiating hair cells using a Gfi1-Cre mouse allele. To determine the effects of activated Notch on developing hair cells, Gfi1-NICD animals and their littermate controls were assessed at 5 weeks for hearing by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The differentiation of NICD-expressing hair cells was assessed at postnatal day (P) 6, 11 and 20, using histological and molecular markers for hair cells, as well as supporting cells/progenitor cells. We also examined whether the effects of Notch were mediated by SOX2, a gene expressed in supporting cells and a likely downstream target of Notch, by crossing an inducible form of SOX2 to the Gfi1-Cre. Results Activation of Notch1 in developing auditory hair cells causes profound deafness. The NICD-expressing hair cells switch off a number of hair cell markers and lose their characteristic morphology. Instead, NICD-expressing hair cells adopt a morphology resembling supporting cells and upregulate a number of supporting cell markers. These effects do not appear to be mediated by SOX2, because although expression of SOX2 caused some hearing impairment, the SOX2-expressing hair cells did not downregulate hair cell markers nor exhibit a supporting cell-like phenotype. Conclusions Our data show that Notch signaling inhibits hair cell differentiation and promotes a supporting cell-like phenotype, and that these effects are unlikely to be mediated by SOX2. PMID:25264928

Savoy-Burke, Grace; Gilels, Felicia A.; Pan, Wei; Pratt, Diana; Que, Jianwen; Gan, Lin; White, Patricia M.; Kiernan, Amy E.

2014-01-01

37

Through form to function: root hair development and nutrient uptake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Root hairs project from the surface of the root to aid nutrient and water uptake and to anchor the plant in the soil. Their formation involves the precise control of cell fate and localized cell growth. We are now beginning to unravel the complexities of the molecular interactions that underlie this developmental regulation. In addition, after years of speculation, nutrient transport by root hairs has been demonstrated clearly at the physiological and molecular level, with evidence for root hairs being intense sites of H(+)-ATPase activity and involved in the uptake of Ca(2+), K(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cl(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-).

Gilroy, S.; Jones, D. L.

2000-01-01

38

Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

2008-01-01

39

Evolution and development of hair cell polarity and efferent function in the inner ear.  

PubMed

The function of the inner ear critically depends on mechanoelectrically transducing hair cells and their afferent and efferent innervation. The first part of this review presents data on the evolution and development of polarized vertebrate hair cells that generate a sensitive axis for mechanical stimulation, an essential part of the function of hair cells. Beyond the cellular level, a coordinated alignment of polarized hair cells across a sensory epithelium, a phenomenon called planar cell polarity (PCP), is essential for the organ's function. The coordinated alignment of hair cells leads to hair cell orientation patterns that are characteristic of the different sensory epithelia of the vertebrate inner ear. Here, we review the developmental mechanisms that potentially generate molecular and morphological asymmetries necessary for the control of PCP. In the second part, this review concentrates on the evolution, development and function of the enigmatic efferent neurons terminating on hair cells. We present evidence suggestive of efferents being derived from motoneurons and synapsing predominantly onto a unique but ancient cholinergic receptor. A review of functional data shows that the plesiomorphic role of the efferent system likely was to globally shut down and protect the peripheral sensors, be they vestibular, lateral line or auditory hair cells, from desensitization and damage during situations of self-induced sensory overload. The addition of a dedicated auditory papilla in land vertebrates appears to have favored the separation of vestibular and auditory efferents and specializations for more sophisticated and more diverse functions. PMID:24776995

Sienknecht, Ulrike J; Köppl, Christine; Fritzsch, Bernd

2014-01-01

40

Development of K+ and Na+ conductances in rodent postnatal semicircular canal type I hair cells  

PubMed Central

The rodent vestibular system is immature at birth. During the first postnatal week, vestibular type I and type II hair cells start to acquire their characteristic morphology and afferent innervation. We have studied postnatal changes in the membrane properties of type I hair cells acutely isolated from the semicircular canals (SCC) of gerbils and rats using whole cell patch clamp and report for the first time developmental changes in ionic conductances in these cells. At postnatal day (P) 5 immature hair cells expressed a delayed rectifier K+ conductance (GDR) which activated at potentials above approximately ?50 mV in both species. Hair cells also expressed a transient Na+ conductance (GNa) with a mean half-inactivation of approximately ?90 mV. At P6 in rat and P7 in gerbil, a low-voltage activated K+ conductance (GK,L) was first observed and conferred a low-input resistance, typical of adult type I hair cells, on SCC type I hair cells. GK,L expression in hair cells increased markedly during the second postnatal week and was present in all rat type I hair cells by P14. In gerbil hair cells, GK,L appeared later and was present in all type I hair cells by P19. During the third postnatal week, GNa expression declined and was absent by the fourth postnatal week in rat and the sixth postnatal week in gerbils. Understanding the ionic changes associated with hair cell maturation could help elucidate development and regeneration mechanisms in the inner ear. PMID:19939976

Li, Gang Q.; Meredith, Frances L.

2010-01-01

41

The Function and Genetic Interactions of Zebrafish atoh1 and sox2: Genes Involved in Hair Cell Development and Regeneration  

E-print Network

.......................... 53 12 Expresion of Macular Genes................................. 55 13 Summary of atoh1 Regulation and Function...................... 57 14 Sox2 is Not Required for Hair Cel Development.................. 73 15 Loss of Sox2 Results... in Macular Death.......................... 75 16 Relationship Betwen Sox2 and Upstream Regulators of Hair Cel Development........................... 78 17 Hair Cel Regeneration Requires sox2 but Does Not Involve Cel Division...

Millimaki, Bonny Butler

2010-10-12

42

The effects of henna (hair dye) on the embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

The powder of henna is extensively used as decorative skin paint for nail coloring and as a popular hair dye in Asian countries. Its human health risk is extensive, and it is frequently released as waste into the aquatic environment raising the concerns. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were employed to study the developmental effects of henna. Normal fertilized zebrafish embryos under standard water were selected for the control and test chambers. Three predetermined sublethal concentrations (100, 200, and 275 ?M) of henna in 24-well cell culture plates were tested on 1-h postfertilized embryo (pfe) for 96 h. Observation for rates of survival and mortality was recorded; digital camera was used to image morphological anomalies of embryos with a stereomicroscope; and functional abnormalities at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were performed. The hatching rates of embryos were reduced significantly when treated with 200 and 275 ?M or higher concentrations of henna. Slow blood circulation in the whole body was observed with a median effect on hatching exposed to 200 and 275 ?M of henna at 48-h pfe. At 72- and 96-h pfe, blood circulation was ceased in the whole body but still had a heartbeat. At 96-h pfe, pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, head deformation, spine crooked malformation, and tail malformation (bent tails or hook-like tails) were observed in the surviving larvae at 100 ?M. In summary, exposure to henna at 100, 200, and 275 ?M causes some altered morphological and physiological abnormalities including increased mortality, hatching delay, slow blood circulation, pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, abnormal body axes, twisted notochord, tail deformation, weak heartbeat, and growth retardation and was also detected in some treated embryos and groups having adverse effects on embryonic development of zebrafish provoking potential human developmental risk studies. PMID:24859694

Manjunatha, Bangeppagari; Wei-bing, Peng; Ke-chun, Liu; Marigoudar, Shambanagouda R; Xi-qiang, Chen; Xi-min, Wang; Xue, Wang

2014-09-01

43

Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders  

PubMed Central

Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

2011-01-01

44

Control of hair cell development by molecular pathways involving Atoh1, Hes1 and Hes5.  

PubMed

Atoh1, Hes1 and Hes5 are crucial for normal inner ear hair cell development. They regulate the expression of each other in a complex network, while they also interact with many other genes and pathways, such as Notch, FGF, SHH, WNT, BMP and RA. This paper summarized molecular pathways that involve Atoh1, Hes1, and Hes5. Some of the pathways and gene regulation mechanisms discussed here were studied in other tissues, yet they might inspire studies in inner ear hair cell development. Thereby, we presented a complex regulatory network involving these three genes, which might be crucial for proliferation and differentiation of inner ear hair cells. PMID:25550047

Su, Yi-Xun; Hou, Cong-Cong; Yang, Wan-Xi

2015-03-01

45

Fgf20 governs formation of primary and secondary dermal condensations in developing hair follicles.  

PubMed

In hair follicle development, a placode-derived signal is believed to induce formation of the dermal condensation, an essential component of ectodermal organs. However, the identity of this signal is unknown. Furthermore, although induction and patterning of hair follicles are intimately linked, it is not known whether the mesenchymal condensation is necessary for inducing the initial epithelial pattern. Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor 20 (Fgf20) is expressed in hair placodes and is induced by and functions downstream from epithelial ectodysplasin (Eda)/Edar and Wnt/?-Catenin signaling to initiate formation of the underlying dermal condensation. Fgf20 governs formation of primary and secondary dermal condensations in developing hair follicles and subsequent formation of guard, awl, and auchene hairs. Although primary dermal condensations are absent in Fgf20 mutant mice, a regular array of hair placodes is formed, demonstrating that the epithelial patterning process is independent of known histological and molecular markers of underlying mesenchymal patterns during the initial stages of hair follicle development. PMID:23431057

Huh, Sung-Ho; Närhi, Katja; Lindfors, Päivi H; Häärä, Otso; Yang, Lu; Ornitz, David M; Mikkola, Marja L

2013-02-15

46

Fgf20 governs formation of primary and secondary dermal condensations in developing hair follicles  

PubMed Central

In hair follicle development, a placode-derived signal is believed to induce formation of the dermal condensation, an essential component of ectodermal organs. However, the identity of this signal is unknown. Furthermore, although induction and patterning of hair follicles are intimately linked, it is not known whether the mesenchymal condensation is necessary for inducing the initial epithelial pattern. Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor 20 (Fgf20) is expressed in hair placodes and is induced by and functions downstream from epithelial ectodysplasin (Eda)/Edar and Wnt/?-Catenin signaling to initiate formation of the underlying dermal condensation. Fgf20 governs formation of primary and secondary dermal condensations in developing hair follicles and subsequent formation of guard, awl, and auchene hairs. Although primary dermal condensations are absent in Fgf20 mutant mice, a regular array of hair placodes is formed, demonstrating that the epithelial patterning process is independent of known histological and molecular markers of underlying mesenchymal patterns during the initial stages of hair follicle development. PMID:23431057

Huh, Sung-Ho; Närhi, Katja; Lindfors, Päivi H.; Häärä, Otso; Yang, Lu; Ornitz, David M.; Mikkola, Marja L.

2013-01-01

47

Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice.

Yukiteru. Ouji; Masahide Yoshikawa; Akira Shiroi; Shigeaki Ishizaka

2006-01-01

48

Root Hairs  

PubMed Central

Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

2014-01-01

49

Early motor development is abnormal in complexin 1 knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexin I expression is dysregulated in a number of neurological diseases including schizophrenia and depression. Adult complexin 1 knockout (Cplx1?\\/?) mice are severely ataxic and show deficits in exploration and emotional reactivity. Here, we evaluated early behavioural development of Cplx1?\\/? mice. Cplx1?\\/? mice showed marked abnormalities. They develop ataxia by post-natal day 7 (P7), and by P21 show marked deficits

Dervila Glynn; Rachel J. Sizemore; A. Jennifer Morton

2007-01-01

50

Abnormal retinal development associated with FRMD7 mutations  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, often associated with FRMD7 mutations. As the appearance of the retina is reported to be normal based on conventional fundus photography, IIN is postulated to arise from abnormal cortical development. To determine whether the afferent visual system is involved in FRMD7 mutations, we performed in situ hybridization studies in human embryonic and fetal stages (35 days post-ovulation to 9 weeks post-conception). We show a dynamic retinal expression pattern of FRMD7 during development. We observe expression within the outer neuroblastic layer, then in the inner neuroblastic layer and at 9 weeks post-conception a bilaminar expression pattern. Expression was also noted within the developing optic stalk and optic disk. We identified a large cohort of IIN patients (n = 100), and performed sequence analysis which revealed 45 patients with FRMD7 mutations. Patients with FRMD7 mutations underwent detailed retinal imaging studies using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. The tomograms were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). The foveal pit was significantly shallower in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). The optic nerve head morphology was abnormal with significantly decreased optic disk area, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, cup area and cup depth in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). This study shows for the first time that abnormal afferent system development is associated with FRMD7 mutations and could be an important etiological factor in the development of nystagmus. PMID:24688117

Thomas, Mervyn G.; Crosier, Moira; Lindsay, Susan; Kumar, Anil; Araki, Masasuke; Leroy, Bart P.; McLean, Rebecca J.; Sheth, Viral; Maconachie, Gail; Thomas, Shery; Moore, Anthony T.; Gottlob, Irene

2014-01-01

51

Abnormal retinal development associated with FRMD7 mutations.  

PubMed

Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, often associated with FRMD7 mutations. As the appearance of the retina is reported to be normal based on conventional fundus photography, IIN is postulated to arise from abnormal cortical development. To determine whether the afferent visual system is involved in FRMD7 mutations, we performed in situ hybridization studies in human embryonic and fetal stages (35 days post-ovulation to 9 weeks post-conception). We show a dynamic retinal expression pattern of FRMD7 during development. We observe expression within the outer neuroblastic layer, then in the inner neuroblastic layer and at 9 weeks post-conception a bilaminar expression pattern. Expression was also noted within the developing optic stalk and optic disk. We identified a large cohort of IIN patients (n = 100), and performed sequence analysis which revealed 45 patients with FRMD7 mutations. Patients with FRMD7 mutations underwent detailed retinal imaging studies using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. The tomograms were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). The foveal pit was significantly shallower in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). The optic nerve head morphology was abnormal with significantly decreased optic disk area, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, cup area and cup depth in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). This study shows for the first time that abnormal afferent system development is associated with FRMD7 mutations and could be an important etiological factor in the development of nystagmus. PMID:24688117

Thomas, Mervyn G; Crosier, Moira; Lindsay, Susan; Kumar, Anil; Araki, Masasuke; Leroy, Bart P; McLean, Rebecca J; Sheth, Viral; Maconachie, Gail; Thomas, Shery; Moore, Anthony T; Gottlob, Irene

2014-08-01

52

Sonic hedgehog signaling is essential for hair development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The skin is responsible for forming a variety of epidermal structures that differ amongst vertebrates. In each case the specific structure (for example scale, feather or hair) arises from an epidermal placode as a result of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions with the underlying dermal mesenchyme. Expression of members of the Wnt, Hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein families (Wnt10b, Sonic hedgehog (Shh)

B. St-Jacques; H. R. Dassule; I. Karavanova; V. A. Botchkarev; J. Li; P. S. Danielian; J. A. McMahon; P. M. Lewis; R. Paus; A. P. McMahon

1998-01-01

53

?-Actin and ?-Actin Are Each Dispensable for Auditory Hair Cell Development But Required for Stereocilia Maintenance  

PubMed Central

Hair cell stereocilia structure depends on actin filaments composed of cytoplasmic ?-actin and ?-actin isoforms. Mutations in either gene can lead to progressive hearing loss in humans. Since ?-actin and ?-actin isoforms are 99% identical at the protein level, it is unclear whether each isoform has distinct cellular roles. Here, we compared the functions of ?-actin and ?-actin in stereocilia formation and maintenance by generating mice conditionally knocked out for Actb or Actg1 in hair cells. We found that, although cytoplasmic actin is necessary, neither ?-actin nor ?-actin is required for normal stereocilia development or auditory function in young animals. However, aging mice with ?-actin– or ?-actin–deficient hair cells develop different patterns of progressive hearing loss and distinct pathogenic changes in stereocilia morphology, despite colocalization of the actin isoforms. These results demonstrate overlapping developmental roles but unique post-developmental functions for ?-actin and ?-actin in maintaining hair cell stereocilia. PMID:20976199

Perrin, Benjamin J.; Sonnemann, Kevin J.; Ervasti, James M.

2010-01-01

54

A Guide to Assessing Damage Response Pathways of the Hair Follicle: Lessons From Cyclophosphamide-Induced Alopecia in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

After chemical, biological, or physical damage, growing (i.e. anagen) hair follicles develop abnormalities that are collectively called hair follicle dystrophy. Comparatively lower follicular damage induces the “dystrophic anagen” response pathway (=prolonged, dystrophic anagen, followed by severely retarded follicular recovery). More severe follicular damage induces the dystrophic catagen pathway (=immediate anagen termination, followed by a dystrophic, abnormally shortened telogen and maximally

Sven Hendrix; Bori Handjiski; Eva M. J. Peters; Ralf Paus

2005-01-01

55

Compound Heterozygous Desmoplakin Mutations Result in a Phenotype with a Combination of Myocardial, Skin, Hair, and Enamel Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses. PMID:19924139

Mahoney, M? G.; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

2014-01-01

56

Genetic Control of Root Hair Development in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual examination of roots from 12,000 mutagenized Arabidopsis seedlings has led to the identification of more'. than 40 mutants impaired in root hair morphogenesis. Mutants from four phenotypic classes have been characterized in detail, and genetic tests show that these result from single nuclear recessive mutations in four different genes designated RHD1, RHDP, RHD3, and RHD4. The phenotypic analysis of

John W. Schiefelbein; Chris Somenrille

1990-01-01

57

Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for hair analysis of methylphenidate.  

PubMed

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a phenethylamine derivative used in the treatment of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. MPH is biotransformed in the body by the hydrolysis of the methyl ester linkage to its metabolite, ritalinic acid. Whereas both compounds are usually measured in plasma and urine, preliminary observations show that only the parent compound is present in hair from treated individuals. Since in children hair samples can be easily collected without the need for special skills and exposing a patient to discomfort, hair testing of MPH should be an alternative to check compliance in a wider time-window than if using blood. A procedure based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has been developed for the determination of MPH in hair of treated children. After addition of 3,4-methylenedioxypropylamphetamine as internal standard, hair samples were overnight digested with 0.1M HCl at 37 degrees C. Then, after pH adjustment to 6 using 1N NaOH, and 0.1M phosphate buffer, the analyte was extracted with Bond-Elut Certify columns. Chromatographic separation was achieved at ambient temperature using a reverse phase column and a mobile phase of 80% 10mM ammonium acetate-20% acetonitrile with a 20 min gradient program. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive electrospray ionization and selected ion monitoring acquisition mode. The method was validated in the range 0.15-50 ng MPH/mg hair, using 20mg hair per assay. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic range of the assay, mean recoveries ranged between 73.2 and 77.1%. First results show MPH hair concentration varying from 0.15 to 4.17 ng/mg hair, with decreasing drug concentration in distal hair segments, even in children treated with the same MPH dose during the period corresponding to different segments. This fact could be either attributed to sebum or sweat shunt with the most proximal hair segment or drug degradation by cosmetic treatments in more distal segments. PMID:17980530

Marchei, E; Muñoz, J A; García-Algar, O; Pellegrini, M; Vall, O; Zuccaro, P; Pichini, S

2008-03-21

58

A Comprehensive Guide for the Accurate Classification of Murine Hair Follicles in Distinct Hair Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous strains of mice with defined mutations display pronounced abnormalities of hair follicle cycling, even in the absence of overt alterations of the skin and hair phenotype; however, in order to recognize even subtle, hair cycle-related abnormalities, it is critically important to be able to determine accurately and classify the major stages of the normal murine hair cycle. In this

Sven Müller-Röver; Bori Handjiski; Carina van der Veen; Stefan Eichmüller; Kerstin Foitzik; Ian A. McKay; Kurt S. Stenn; Ralf Paus

2001-01-01

59

Making sense of Wnt signaling—linking hair cell regeneration to development  

PubMed Central

Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway crucial for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Secreted Wnt ligands bind Frizzled receptors to regulate diverse processes such as axis patterning, cell division, and cell fate specification. They also serve to govern self-renewal of somatic stem cells in several adult tissues. The complexity of the pathway can be attributed to the myriad of Wnt and Frizzled combinations as well as its diverse context-dependent functions. In the developing mouse inner ear, Wnt signaling plays diverse roles, including specification of the otic placode and patterning of the otic vesicle. At later stages, its activity governs sensory hair cell specification, cell cycle regulation, and hair cell orientation. In regenerating sensory organs from non-mammalian species, Wnt signaling can also regulate the extent of proliferative hair cell regeneration. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of Wnt signaling and Wnt-responsive cells in hair cell development and regeneration. We also discuss possible future directions and the potential application and limitation of Wnt signaling in augmenting hair cell regeneration. PMID:25814927

Jansson, Lina; Kim, Grace S.; Cheng, Alan G.

2015-01-01

60

Delta/notch-like EGF-related receptor (DNER) is expressed in hair cells and neurons in the developing and adult mouse inner ear.  

PubMed

The Notch signaling pathway is known to play important roles in inner ear development. Previous studies have shown that the Notch1 receptor and ligands in the Delta and Jagged families are important for cellular differentiation and patterning of the organ of Corti. Delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related receptor (DNER) is a novel Notch ligand expressed in developing and adult CNS neurons known to promote maturation of glia through activation of Notch. Here we use in situ hybridization and an antibody against DNER to carry out expression studies of the mouse cochlea and vestibule. We find that DNER is expressed in spiral ganglion neuron cell bodies and peripheral processes during embryonic development of the cochlea and expression in these cells is maintained in adults. DNER becomes strongly expressed in auditory hair cells during postnatal maturation in the mouse cochlea and immunoreactivity for this protein is strong in hair cells and afferent and efferent peripheral nerve endings in the adult organ of Corti. In the vestibular system, we find that DNER is expressed in hair cells and vestibular ganglion neurons during development and in adults. To investigate whether DNER plays a functional role in the inner ear, perhaps similar to its described role in glial maturation, we examined cochleae of DNER-/- mice using immunohistochemical markers of mature glia and supporting cells as well as neurons and hair cells. We found no defects in expression of markers of supporting cells and glia or myelin, and no abnormalities in hair cells or neurons, suggesting that DNER plays a redundant role with other Notch ligands in cochlear development. PMID:20058045

Hartman, Byron H; Nelson, Branden R; Reh, Thomas A; Bermingham-McDonogh, Olivia

2010-06-01

61

The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates hair cell planar polarity and cellular patterning in the developing cochlea  

PubMed Central

Hair cells of the organ of Corti (OC) of the cochlea exhibit distinct planar polarity, both at the tissue and cellular level. Planar polarity at tissue level is manifested as uniform orientation of the hair cell stereociliary bundles. Hair cell intrinsic polarity is defined as structural hair bundle asymmetry; positioning of the kinocilium/basal body complex at the vertex of the V-shaped bundle. Consistent with strong apical polarity, the hair cell apex displays prominent actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and polarization of various cell types, and, thus, serves as a candidate regulator of hair cell polarity. We have here induced Cdc42 inactivation in the late-embryonic OC. We show the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of planar polarity of hair cells and in cellular patterning. Abnormal planar polarity was displayed as disturbances in hair bundle orientation and morphology and in kinocilium/basal body positioning. These defects were accompanied by a disorganized cell-surface microtubule network. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a putative Cdc42 effector, colocalized with Cdc42 at the hair cell apex, and aPKC expression was altered upon Cdc42 depletion. Our data suggest that Cdc42 together with aPKC is part of the machinery establishing hair cell planar polarity and that Cdc42 acts on polarity through the cell-surface microtubule network. The data also suggest that defects in apical polarization are influenced by disturbed cellular patterning in the OC. In addition, our data demonstrates that Cdc42 is required for stereociliogenesis in the immature cochlea. PMID:25770185

Kirjavainen, Anna; Laos, Maarja; Anttonen, Tommi; Pirvola, Ulla

2015-01-01

62

WNT Signals Are Required for the Initiation of Hair Follicle Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair follicle morphogenesis is initiated by a dermal signal that induces the development of placodes in the overlying epithelium. To determine whether WNT signals are required for initiation of follicular development, we ectopically expressed Dickkopf 1, a potent diffusible inhibitor of WNT action, in the skin of transgenic mice. This produced a complete failure of placode formation prior to morphological

Thomas Andl; Seshamma T. Reddy; Trivikram Gaddapara; Sarah E. Millar

2002-01-01

63

Retinoic acid signalling regulates the development of tonotopically patterned hair cells in the chicken cochlea  

PubMed Central

Precise frequency discrimination is a hallmark of auditory function in birds and mammals and is required for distinguishing similar sounding words, like ‘bat,’ ‘cat’ and ‘hat.’ In the cochlea, tuning and spectral separation result from longitudinal differences in basilar membrane stiffness and numerous individual gradations in sensory hair cell phenotypes, but it is unknown what patterns the phenotypes. Here we used RNA-seq to compare transcriptomes from proximal, middle and distal regions of the embryonic chicken cochlea, and found opposing longitudinal gradients of expression for retinoic acid (RA)-synthesizing and degrading enzymes. In vitro experiments showed that RA is necessary and sufficient to induce the development of distal-like hair cell phenotypes and promotes expression of the actin-crosslinking proteins, Espin and Fscn2. These and other findings highlight a role for RA signalling in patterning the development of a longitudinal gradient of frequency-tuned hair cell phenotypes in the cochlea. PMID:24845860

Thiede, Benjamin R.; Mann, Zoë F.; Chang, Weise; Ku, Yuan-Chieh; Son, Yena K.; Lovett, Michael; Kelley, Matthew W.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.

2014-01-01

64

Characterization of the Correlation Between Ages at Entry Into Breast and Pubic Hair Development  

PubMed Central

Purpose The timing of breast and pubic hair development in girls are related, but the degree of correlation has not been well characterized. Periodic observations also are complicated by interval censoring. Methods Data used were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mean age at entry into breast and pubic hair development was determined by the use of parametric survival analysis. The bivariate normal cumulative distribution function was evaluated over the region containing the paired event times; the likelihood was maximized with respect to the correlation coefficient ?. Results Among 3938 participants, estimated mean ages at entry into Tanner stage 2 for breast and pubic hair development were 10.19 and 10.95, respectively. The likelihood was maximized at ? = 0.503 to 0.506. This value remained relatively constant among subgroups, although some heterogeneity was observed by maternal and child body mass index and birth order. Conclusions The timing of breast and of pubic hair development is moderately correlated and remain so when it is stratified by characteristics associated with puberty. PMID:20382343

Christensen, Krista Yorita; Maisonet, Mildred; Rubin, Carol; Flanders, W. Dana; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; Dominguez, Celia; McGeehin, Michael A.; Marcus, Michele

2010-01-01

65

Aging of hair.  

PubMed

The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation. PMID:17166201

Trüeb, Ralph M

2005-06-01

66

Abnormal Cingulum Bundle Development in Autism: A Probabilistic Tractography Study  

PubMed Central

There is now considerable evidence that white matter abnormalities play a role in the neurobiology of autism. Little research has been directed, however, at understanding (a)typical white matter development in autism and how this relates to neurocognitive impairments observed in the disorder. In this study we used probabilistic tractography to identify the cingulum bundle in 21 adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. We investigated group differences in the relationships between age and fractional anisotropy, a putative measure of white matter integrity, within the cingulum bundle. Moreover, in a preliminary investigation, we examined the relationship between cingulum fractional anisotropy and executive functioning using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The ASD participants demonstrated significantly lower fractional anisotropy within the cingulum bundle compared to the typically developing volunteers. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that the ASD group did not show the typical age-associated increases in fractional anisotropy observed among healthy individuals. Moreover, lower fractional anisotropy within the cingulum bundle was associated with worse BRIEF behavioral regulation index scores in the ASD group. The current findings implicate a dysregulation in cingulum bundle white matter development occurring in late adolescence and early adulthood in autism spectrum disorder, and suggest that greater disturbances in this trajectory are associated with executive dysfunction in ASD. PMID:24231056

Ikuta, Toshikazu; Shafritz, Keith M.; Bregman, Joel; Peters, Bart; Gruner, Patricia; Malhotra, Anil K.; Szeszko, Philip R.

2014-01-01

67

Abnormal cingulum bundle development in autism: a probabilistic tractography study.  

PubMed

There is now considerable evidence that white matter abnormalities play a role in the neurobiology of autism. Little research has been directed, however, at understanding (a) typical white matter development in autism and how this relates to neurocognitive impairments observed in the disorder. In this study we used probabilistic tractography to identify the cingulum bundle in 21 adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. We investigated group differences in the relationships between age and fractional anisotropy, a putative measure of white matter integrity, within the cingulum bundle. Moreover, in a preliminary investigation, we examined the relationship between cingulum fractional anisotropy and executive functioning using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The ASD participants demonstrated significantly lower fractional anisotropy within the cingulum bundle compared to the typically developing volunteers. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that the ASD group did not show the typical age-associated increases in fractional anisotropy observed among healthy individuals. Moreover, lower fractional anisotropy within the cingulum bundle was associated with worse BRIEF behavioral regulation index scores in the ASD group. The current findings implicate a dysregulation in cingulum bundle white matter development occurring in late adolescence and early adulthood in ASD, and suggest that greater disturbances in this trajectory are associated with executive dysfunction in ASD. PMID:24231056

Ikuta, Toshikazu; Shafritz, Keith M; Bregman, Joel; Peters, Bart D; Gruner, Patricia; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R

2014-01-30

68

KGF and EGF signalling block hair follicle induction and promote interfollicular epidermal fate in developing mouse skin  

PubMed Central

Summary A key initial event in hair follicle morphogenesis is the localised thickening of the skin epithelium to form a placode, partitioning future hair follicle epithelium from interfollicular epidermis. Although many developmental signalling pathways are implicated in follicle morphogenesis, the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, also known as FGF7) receptors are not defined. EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands have previously been shown to inhibit developing hair follicles; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been characterised. Here we show that receptors for EGF and KGF undergo marked downregulation in hair follicle placodes from multiple body sites, whereas the expression of endogenous ligands persist throughout hair follicle initiation. Using embryonic skin organ culture, we show that when skin from the sites of primary pelage and whisker follicle development is exposed to increased levels of two ectopic EGFR ligands (HBEGF and amphiregulin) and the FGFR2(IIIb) receptor ligand KGF, follicle formation is inhibited in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We then used downstream molecular markers and microarray profiling to provide evidence that, in response to KGF and EGF signalling, epidermal differentiation is promoted at the expense of hair follicle fate. We propose that hair follicle initiation in placodes requires downregulation of the two pathways in question, both of which are crucial for the ongoing development of the interfollicular epidermis. We have also uncovered a previously unrecognised role for KGF signalling in the formation of hair follicles in the mouse. PMID:19474150

Richardson, Gavin D.; Bazzi, Hisham; Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Waters, James M.; Crawford, Heather; Hynd, Phil; Christiano, Angela M.; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

2009-01-01

69

Oily hair  

MedlinePLUS

Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

70

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

71

[Skin protection at work in Croatian hairdressers (results of the EvaHair questionnaire developed within the EU project "SafeHair")].  

PubMed

Hairdressers are under a high occupational risk of developing various health disorders, particularly regarding the skin. The "SafeHair" project was implemented from 2010 to 2012, with the aim to develop health and safety standards for the prevention of occupational skin diseases in hairdressing. Croatian hairdressers participated in the project. The aim of this work was to establish the actual status of skin protection in Croatian hairdressers. Data were collected by the EvaHair questionnaire developed within the "SafeHair" project. A total of 213 questionnaires were analysed. The sample comprised 133 (64%) salon owners, 46 (22%) employees, and 31 (14%) trainees. Thirty-six (17%) subjects confirmed the presence of skin disorders in their salons in the last 3 years, and almost all of the subjects (98%) considered the prevention of occupational skin diseases important. We found a high proportion (from 40% to 50%) of non-answered questions about risk assessment. Protective gloves were mostly used when exposed to chemicals (88%), but rarely for hair washing (13%). They were available to the majority of subjects (95%), but 32% of subjects had trouble wearing them. Hairdressers with over 30 years of working experience used gloves for washing and cutting hair more frequently than those with less than 30 years of experience (p<0.05). Education on skin protection was more often provided (39%) than education on the protection of the respiratory (15%) and musculosceletal (18%) systems. A high proportion of subjects needed assistance with interpreting laws, regulations, and information about products (57%), as well as in the implementation of risk assessment methods (49%). The results indicate a need for further education on the health risks and the implementation of protective measures. This should be carried out during vocational education and later in the form of permanent education. PMID:23819939

Kujundži? Brkulj, Marija; Macan, Jelena

2013-06-01

72

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Español Hair dye is used to ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

73

Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin  

SciTech Connect

We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Shiroi, Akira [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)

2006-06-30

74

Improved fetal hair follicle development by maternal supplement of selenium at nano size (Nano-Se)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of maternal and dietary selenium on antioxidant status and hair follicle development in 110-day fetal skin from cashmere goats, eighty selected cashmere goats (n=80) were randomly divided in two groups, C group (fed with the basal diet) and S group (fed with the basal diet with 0.5mg\\/kg Nano-Se). Nano-Se was supplemented from 30days prior to gestation

Xiaoying Wu; Jiguang Yao; Zisheng Yang; Wenbin Yue; Youshe Ren; Chunxiang Zhang; Xiaoni Liu; Huisheng Wang; Xingcai Zhao; Suying Yuan; Qian Wang; Liguang Shi; Lei Shi

2011-01-01

75

Tanning and Increased Nevus Development in Very-Light-Skinned Children Without Red Hair  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between tanning and nevus development in very-light-skinned children. Design Prospective cohort nested within a randomized controlled trial. Skin examinations in 3 consecutive years (2004, 2005, and 2006) included full-body counts of nevi, skin color and tanning measurement using colorimetry, and hair and eye color evaluation by comparison with charts. Telephone interviews of parents provided sun exposure, sun protection, and sunburn history. Setting Large managed-care organization and private pediatric offices in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. Participants A total of 131 very-light-skinned white children without red hair and 444 darker-skinned white children without red hair born in Colorado in 1998. Main Outcome Measures Full-body nevus counts at ages 6 to 8 years. Results Among very-light-skinned white children, geometric mean numbers of nevi for minimally tanned children were 14.8 at age 6 years; 18.8 at age 7 years; and 22.3 at age 8 years. Mean numbers of nevi for tanned children were 21.2 at age 6 years; 27.9 at age 7 years; and 31.9 at age 8 years. Differences in nevus counts between untanned and tanned children were statistically significant at all ages (P < .05 for all comparisons). The relationship between tanning and number of nevi was independent of the child’s hair and eye color, parent-reported sun exposure, and skin phototype. Among darker-skinned white children, there was no relationship between tanning and nevi. Conclusions Very-light-skinned children who tan (based on objective measurement) develop more nevi than children who do not tan. These results suggest that light-skinned children who develop tans may be increasing their risk for developing melanoma later in life. PMID:19770437

Aalborg, Jenny; Morelli, Joseph G.; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Asdigian, Nancy L.; Byers, Tim E.; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Box, Neil F.; Crane, Lori A.

2010-01-01

76

Sox2 signaling in prosensory domain specification and subsequent hair cell differentiation in the developing cochlea.  

PubMed

Sox2 is a high-mobility transcription factor that is one of the earliest markers of developing inner ear prosensory domains. In humans, mutations in SOX2 cause sensorineural hearing loss and a loss of function study in mice showed that Sox2 is required for prosensory formation in the cochlea. However, the specific roles of Sox2 have not been determined. Here we illustrate a dynamic role of Sox2 as an early permissive factor in prosensory domain formation followed by a mutually antagonistic relationship with Atoh1, a bHLH protein necessary for hair cell development. We demonstrate that decreased levels of Sox2 result in precocious hair cell differentiation and an over production of inner hair cells and that these effects are likely mediated through an antagonistic interaction between Sox2 and the bHLH molecule Atoh1. Using gain- and loss-of-function experiments we provide evidence for the molecular pathway responsible for the formation of the cochlear prosensory domain. Sox2 expression is promoted by Notch signaling and Prox1, a homeobox transcription factor, is a downstream target of Sox2. These results demonstrate crucial and diverse roles for Sox2 in the development, specification, and maintenance of sensory cells within the cochlea. PMID:19011097

Dabdoub, Alain; Puligilla, Chandrakala; Jones, Jennifer M; Fritzsch, Bernd; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Pevny, Larysa H; Kelley, Matthew W

2008-11-25

77

Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide modulates infection thread development in white clover root hairs.  

PubMed Central

The interaction between Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and white clover roots was examined. The Limulus lysate assay indicated that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (hereafter called R. trifolii) released LPS into the external root environment of slide cultures. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that purified LPS from R. trifolii 0403 bound rapidly to root hair tips and infiltrated across the root hair wall. Infection thread formation in root hairs was promoted by preinoculation treatment of roots with R. trifolii LPS at a low dose (up to 5 micrograms per plant) but inhibited at a higher dose. This biological activity of LPS was restricted to the region of the root present at the time of exposure to LPS, higher with LPS from cells in the early stationary phase than in the mid-exponential phase, incubation time dependent, incapable of reversing inhibition of infection by NO3- or NH4+, and conserved among serologically distinct LPSs from several wild-type R. trifolii strains (0403, 2S-2, and ANU843). In contrast, infections were not increased by preinoculation treatment of roots with LPSs from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 300, R. meliloti 102F28, or members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Most infection threads developed successfully in root hairs pretreated with R. trifolii LPS, whereas many infections aborted near their origins and accumulated brown deposits if pretreated with LPS from R. meliloti 102F28. LPS from R. leguminosarum 300 also caused most infection threads to abort. Other specific responses of root hairs to infection-stimulating LPS from R. trifolii included acceleration of cytoplasmic streaming and production of novel proteins. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicated that biologically active LPS from R. trifolii 0403 in the early stationary phase had less fucose but more 2-O-methylfucose, quinovosamine, 3,6-dideoxy-3-(methylamino)galactose, and noncarbohydrate substituents (O-methyl, N-methyl, and acetyl groups) on glycosyl components than did inactive LPS in the mid-exponential phase. We conclude that LPS-root hair interactions trigger metabolic events that have a significant impact on successful development of infection threads in this Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Images PMID:1885517

Dazzo, F B; Truchet, G L; Hollingsworth, R I; Hrabak, E M; Pankratz, H S; Philip-Hollingsworth, S; Salzwedel, J L; Chapman, K; Appenzeller, L; Squartini, A

1991-01-01

78

Bioengineering the Hair Follicle  

PubMed Central

The hair follicle develops from the primitive embryonic epidermis as a result of complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. The full follicle, consisting of epithelial cylinders under control of a proximal lying mesenchymal papilla, grows in cycles giving rise to a new hair shaft during each cycle. The ability to cycle endows the follicle with regenerative properties. The evolution of hair follicle engineering began with the recognition in the early 1960's that hair follicles could be transplanted clinically into a foreign site and still grow a shaft typical of the donor site. Since that time, it has been found that the follicular papilla has hair follicle inducing properties and that the hair follicle houses within it epithelial stem cells that can respond to hair inductive signals. These findings have laid the foundation for isolating hair-forming cells, for expanding the cells in culture, and for forming new follicles in vivo. PMID:19279694

Parimoo, S; Zheng, Y; Barrows, T; Boucher, M; Washenik, K

2007-01-01

79

Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.

1979-01-01

80

Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development  

PubMed Central

It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. ‘Karat’ with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U; Wick, S

2014-01-01

81

Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development.  

PubMed

It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. 'Karat' with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U

2014-03-01

82

Prenatal craniofacial development: new insights on normal and abnormal mechanisms.  

PubMed

Technical advances are radically altering our concepts of normal prenatal craniofacial development. These include concepts of germ layer formation, the establishment of the initial head plan in the neural plate, and the manner in which head segmentation is controlled by regulatory (homeobox) gene activity in neuromeres and their derived neural crest cells. There is also a much better appreciation of ways in which new cell associations are established. For example, the associations are achieved by neural crest cells primarily through cell migration and subsequent cell interactions that regulate induction, growth, programmed cell death, etc. These interactions are mediated primarily by two groups of regulatory molecules: "growth factors" (e.g., FGF and TGFalpha) and the so-called steroid/thyroid/retinoic acid superfamily. Considerable advances have been made with respect to our understanding of mechanisms involved in primary and secondary palate formation, such as growth, morphogenetic movements, and the fusion/merging phenomenon. Much progress has been made on the mechanisms involved in the final differentiation of skeletal tissues. Molecular genetics and animal models for human malformations are providing many insights into abnormal development. A mouse model for the fetal alcohol syndrome(FAS), a mild form of holoprosencephaly, demonstrates a mid-line anterior neural plate deficiency which leads to olfactory placodes being positioned too close to the mid-line, and other secondary changes. Work on animal models for the retinoic acid syndrome (RAS) shows that there is major involvement of neural crest cells. There is also major crest cell involvement in similar syndromes, apparently including hemifacial microsomia. Later administration of retinoic acid prematurely and excessively kills ganglionic placodal cells and leads to a malformation complex virtually identical to the Treacher Collins syndrome. Most clefts of the lip and/or palate appear to have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic variations in TGF alpha s, RAR alpha s, NADH dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in oxidative metabolism, and cytochrome P-450, a detoxifying enzyme, have been implicated as contributing genetic factors. Cigarette smoking, with the attendant hypoxia, is a probable contributing environmental factor. It seems likely that few clefts involve single major genes. In most cases, the pathogenesis appears to involve inadequate contact and/or fusion of the facial prominences or palatal shelves. Specific mutations in genes for different FGF receptor molecules have been identified for achondroplasia and Crouzon's syndrome, and in a regulatory gene (Msx2) for one type of craniosynostosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7632866

Johnston, M C; Bronsky, P T

1995-01-01

83

Chlorogenic acid participates in the regulation of shoot, root and root hair development in Hypericum perforatum.  

PubMed

Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a product of the phenylpropanoid pathway, is one of the most widespread soluble phenolic compounds in the plant kingdom. Although CGA is known to have important roles in plant function, its relevance in plant de novo organogenesis is not yet understood. With a series of experiments, here we show that CGA has a potential role in shoot, root and root hair development. In the first phase of our investigation, we developed an efficient and novel thin cell layer (TCL) regeneration protocol for Hypericum perforatum which could bridge all the in vitro morphogenetic stages between single cell and complete plant. Tissues at different morphogenetic states were analysed for their phenolic profile which revealed that shoot differentiation from callus tissues of H. perforatum is accompanied by the onset of CGA production. Further, the relevance of CGA in de novo organogenesis was deciphered by culturing highly organogenic root explants on media augmented with various concentrations of CGA. Results of this experiment showed that CGA concentrations lower than 10.0 mg l?¹ did not affect shoot organogenesis, whereas, higher concentrations significantly reduced this process in a concentration-dependent manner. In spite of the differential concentration-dependent effects of CGA on shoot regeneration, supplementation of CGA did not have any effect on the production of lateral roots and root hairs. Interestingly, CGA showed a concentration-dependent positive correlation with lateral roots and root hairs production in the presence of ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). When the culture medium was augmented with 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), induction of shoots, lateral roots and root hairs from the explants was significantly affected. Addition of an optimum concentration of CGA in these cultures partially restored all these organogenic processes. PMID:21700469

Franklin, G; Dias, A C P

2011-08-01

84

Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ... may look greasy. Time for a shampoo! Continue Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow! You have more than 100, ...

85

Hair cosmetics: dyes.  

PubMed

Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. PMID:24656996

Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

2014-11-01

86

Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle.  

PubMed

Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine, ceramide in decreasing order. Minor constituents of IHL are cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol oleate. Cuticle or cortical cell surface in hair are abundant in fatty acids unlike the keratinized area of epidermis or sebaceous gland, and about 30-40% of such fatty acids are composed of 18-methyl-eicosanoic acid which is known to be bound to proteins by ester or thioester bond. Various factors including moisture, solvent, oxidative damage during bleaching or permanent waving affect IHL. Photochemical changes also can occur in IHL as well as in hair protein and hair pigment. Lipid metabolism is thought to play an essential role in lipid envelope of hair, but also involvement in hair development and function. PMID:21906914

Lee, Won-Soo

2011-12-01

87

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS FOR HAIR GROWTH-PROMOTING ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk ( Asteraceae), Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn (Malvaceae), Nardostachys Jatamansi ( Valerianaceae) is a well known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. Hair formulation of Eclipta alba Hassk ( Asteraceae ) 10% w\\/v, Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn ( Malvaceae ) 10 %

R. M. Thorat; V. M. Jadhav; V. J. Kadam

88

Effects of low-dose heavy ions on embryonic development in mice and on melanocyte differentiation in the epidermis and hair bulb  

PubMed Central

The effects of prenatal low-dose irradiation with heavy ions on embryonic development in mice and on melanocyte differentiation are not well understood. We performed whole-body irradiation of pregnant C57BL/10J mice at embryonic Day 9 (E9) with a single dose of ?-rays, silicon, argon or iron ions. The number of living embryos and embryonic body weight at E18 decreased after exposure to heavy ions at high doses. Malformations such as small eyes and limb anomalies were observed in heavy-ion-treated embryos, but not in ?-ray-treated embryos. The frequency of abnormally curved tails was increased by exposure to ?-rays and argon and iron ions even at a dose of 0.1 Gy (P < 0.05). In contrast, a dose-dependent decrease in the number of epidermal melanoblasts/melanocytes and hair bulb melanocytes was observed after 0.1 Gy irradiation with ?-rays or heavy ions (P < 0.01). The decrease in the number of dorsal hair bulb melanocytes, dorsal and ventral epidermal melanoblasts/melanocytes and ventral hair bulb melanocytes was not necessarily correlated with the linear energy transfer of the radiation tested. Moreover, the effects of heavy ions were larger on the ventral skin than on the dorsal skin, indicating that the sensitivity of melanocytes to heavy ions differs between the dorsal and ventral skin. Taken together, these results suggest that the effects of the low-dose heavy ions differ between cell types and tissues, and the effects on the prenatal development of mice and melanocyte development are not necessarily greater than those of ?-rays. PMID:23230241

Hirobe, Tomohisa; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Sugaya, Kimihiko; Murakami, Masahiro

2013-01-01

89

Expression and localization of the vascular endothelial growth factor and changes of microvessel density during hair follicle development of Liaoning cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play important roles in neovascularization, tissue development, and angiogenesis. In this study, changes in VEGF expression patterns and microvessel density (MVD), and their correlations, were investigated during hair follicle development in epidermal appendages of Liaoning cashmere goats. Polyclonal antibodies to VEGF and microvessels were used for monthly immunohistochemical examinations of normal skin specimens from adult female goats for one year. VEGF was expressed in the hair bulb of primary and secondary hair follicles, the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous glands (ductal and secretory portions), eccrine sweat glands (ductal and secretory portions), and the epidermis. Abundant expression of VEGF was observed in the follicular basement membrane zone surrounding the bulb matrix and in ductal and secretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. The change in VEGFs in primary hair follicles showed a bimodal pattern, with the first peak observed from March to May, and the second in August. Maximal expression in secondary hair follicles occurred in May and August. Therefore, VEGF expression in primary and secondary hair follicles is synchronized throughout the year, and is correlated to hair development. In the later telogen and anagen phases, VEGF expression was higher in the secondary, compared to the primary, hair follicle. Changes in MVD also showed a bimodal pattern with peaks in May and August. VEGF expression and MVD showed moderate and strongly positive correlation in the primary and secondary hair follicles, respectively. Therefore, MVD and VEGF are closely related to the processes involved in hair cycle regulation. PMID:24390991

Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Li, Y M; Chang, Q; Chen, Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

2013-01-01

90

Predicting the spatiotemporal dynamics of hair follicle patterns in the developing mouse  

PubMed Central

Reaction–diffusion models have been used as a paradigm for describing the de novo emergence of biological patterns such as stripes and spots. In many organisms, these initial patterns are typically refined and elaborated over the subsequent course of development. Here we study the formation of secondary hair follicle patterns in the skin of developing mouse embryos. We used the expression of sex-determining region Y box 2 to identify and distinguish the primary and secondary hair follicles and to infer the spatiotemporal dynamics of the follicle formation process. Quantitative analysis of the specific follicle patterns observed reveals a simple geometrical rule governing the formation of secondary follicles, and motivates an expansion–induction (EI) model in which new follicle formation is driven by the physical growth of the embryo. The EI model requires only one diffusible morphogen and provides quantitative, accurate predictions on the relative positions and timing of secondary follicle formation, using only the observed configuration of primary follicles as input. The same model accurately describes the positions of additional follicles that emerge from skin explants treated with an activator. Thus, the EI model provides a simple and robust mechanism for predicting secondary space-filling patterns in growing embryos. PMID:24550288

Cheng, Chi Wa; Niu, Ben; Warren, Mya; Pevny, Larysa Halyna; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Hwa, Terence; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.

2014-01-01

91

Intravital imaging of hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Direct videomicroscopic visualization of organ formation and regeneration in toto is a powerful strategy to study cellular processes that often cannot be replicated in vitro. Intravital imaging aims at quantifying changes in tissue architecture or subcellular organization over time during organ development, regeneration or degeneration. A general feature of this approach is its reliance on the optical isolation of defined cell types in the whole animals by transgenic expression of fluorescent markers. Here we describe a simple and robust method to analyze sensory hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line by high-resolution intravital imaging using laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). The main advantage of studying hair-cell regeneration in the lateral line is that it occurs throughout the life of the animal, which allows its study in the most natural context. We detail protocols to achieve continuous videomicroscopy for up to 68 hours, enabling direct observation of cellular behavior, which can provide a sensitive assay for the quantitative classification of cellular phenotypes and cell-lineage reconstruction. Modifications to this protocol should facilitate pharmacogenetic assays to identify or validate otoprotective or reparative drugs for future clinical strategies aimed at preserving aural function in humans. PMID:24130521

Pinto-Teixeira, Filipe; Muzzopappa, Mariana; Swoger, Jim; Mineo, Alessandro; Sharpe, James; López-Schier, Hernán

2013-01-01

92

Ectodysplasin regulates the lymphotoxin-? pathway for hair differentiation  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the EDA gene cause anhidrotic/hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a disorder characterized by defective formation of hair, sweat glands, and teeth in humans and in a mouse model, “Tabby” (Ta). The gene encodes ectodysplasin, a TNF ligand family member that activates the NF-?B-signaling pathway, but downstream targets and the mechanism of skin appendage formation have been only partially analyzed. Comparative transcription profiling of embryonic skin during hair follicle development in WT and Ta mice identified critical anhidrotic/hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) effectors in four pathways, three already implicated in follicle formation. They included Shh and its effectors, as well as antagonists for the Wnt (Dkk4) and BMP (Sostdc1) pathways. The fourth pathway was unexpected, a variant NF-?B-signaling cascade based on lymphotoxin-? (LT?)/RelB. Previously known to participate only in lymphoid organogenesis, LT? was enriched in developing hair follicles of WT but not in Ta mice. Furthermore, in mice lacking LT?, all three types of mouse hair were still formed, but all were structurally abnormal. Guard hairs became wavy and irregular, zigzag/auchen hairs lost their kinks, and in a phenocopy of features of Ta animals, the awl hairs doubled in number and were characteristically distorted and pinched. LT?-null mice that received WT bone marrow transplants maintained mutant hair phenotypes, consistent with autonomous LT? action in skin independent of its expression in lymphoid cells. Thus, as an EDA target, LT? regulates the form of hair in developing hair follicles; and when EDA is defective, failure of LT? activation can account for part of the Ta phenotype. PMID:16738056

Cui, Chang-Yi; Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi; Grivennikov, Sergei I.; Piao, Yulan; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Schlessinger, David

2006-01-01

93

In vivo and in vitro biophysical properties of hair cells from the lateral line and inner ear of developing and adult zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Hair cells detect and process sound and movement information, and transmit this with remarkable precision and efficiency to afferent neurons via specialized ribbon synapses. The zebrafish is emerging as a powerful model for genetic analysis of hair cell development and function both in vitro and in vivo. However, the full exploitation of the zebrafish is currently limited by the difficulty in obtaining systematic electrophysiological recordings from hair cells under physiological recording conditions. Thus, the biophysical properties of developing and adult zebrafish hair cells are largely unknown. We investigated potassium and calcium currents, voltage responses and synaptic activity in hair cells from the lateral line and inner ear in vivo and using near-physiological in vitro recordings. We found that the basolateral current profile of hair cells from the lateral line becomes more segregated with age, and that cells positioned in the centre of the neuromast show more mature characteristics and those towards the edge retain a more immature phenotype. The proportion of mature-like hair cells within a given neuromast increased with zebrafish development. Hair cells from the inner ear showed a developmental change in current profile between the juvenile and adult stages. In lateral line hair cells from juvenile zebrafish, exocytosis also became more efficient and required less calcium for vesicle fusion. In hair cells from mature zebrafish, the biophysical characteristics of ion channels and exocytosis resembled those of hair cells from other lower vertebrates and, to some extent, those in the immature mammalian vestibular and auditory systems. We show that although the zebrafish provides a suitable animal model for studies on hair cell physiology, it is advisable to consider that the age at which the majority of hair cells acquire a mature-type configuration is reached only in the juvenile lateral line and in the inner ear from >2 months after hatching. PMID:24566541

Olt, Jennifer; Johnson, Stuart L; Marcotti, Walter

2014-01-01

94

In vivo and in vitro biophysical properties of hair cells from the lateral line and inner ear of developing and adult zebrafish.  

PubMed

Hair cells detect and process sound and movement information, and transmit this with remarkable precision and efficiency to afferent neurons via specialized ribbon synapses. The zebrafish is emerging as a powerful model for genetic analysis of hair cell development and function both in vitro and in vivo. However, the full exploitation of the zebrafish is currently limited by the difficulty in obtaining systematic electrophysiological recordings from hair cells under physiological recording conditions. Thus, the biophysical properties of developing and adult zebrafish hair cells are largely unknown. We investigated potassium and calcium currents, voltage responses and synaptic activity in hair cells from the lateral line and inner ear in vivo and using near-physiological in vitro recordings. We found that the basolateral current profile of hair cells from the lateral line becomes more segregated with age, and that cells positioned in the centre of the neuromast show more mature characteristics and those towards the edge retain a more immature phenotype. The proportion of mature-like hair cells within a given neuromast increased with zebrafish development. Hair cells from the inner ear showed a developmental change in current profile between the juvenile and adult stages. In lateral line hair cells from juvenile zebrafish, exocytosis also became more efficient and required less calcium for vesicle fusion. In hair cells from mature zebrafish, the biophysical characteristics of ion channels and exocytosis resembled those of hair cells from other lower vertebrates and, to some extent, those in the immature mammalian vestibular and auditory systems. We show that although the zebrafish provides a suitable animal model for studies on hair cell physiology, it is advisable to consider that the age at which the majority of hair cells acquire a mature-type configuration is reached only in the juvenile lateral line and in the inner ear from >2 months after hatching. PMID:24566541

Olt, Jennifer; Johnson, Stuart L; Marcotti, Walter

2014-05-15

95

A rare case of woolly hair with unusual associations.  

PubMed

Woolly hair is a congenital abnormality of scalp hair manifesting as short, kinked hair, which may also involve the hair over the other parts of the body. Keratosis pilaris has been a well known association of woolly hair, and can also be a part of the Naxos or Carvajal syndromes. We herein present a case of woolly hair with associated keratosis pilaris, canaliform dystrophy of nails, increased interdental spaces and recurrent bullous impetigo. Although keratosis pilaris and teeth abnormalities have been reported as isolated associations with woolly hair, such a combination of findings as seen in our patient has not been reported before. PMID:23984241

Vasudevan, Biju; Verma, Rajesh; Pragasam, Vijendran; Badad, Ambresh

2013-07-01

96

Myosin XVa and whirlin, two deafness gene products required for hair bundle growth, are located at the stereocilia tips and interact directly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in myosin XVa and the PDZ domain-containing protein, whirlin, underlie deafness in humans and mice. Hair bundles of mutant mice defective for either protein have abnormally short stereocilia. Here, we show that whirlin, like myosin XVa, is present at the very tip of each stereocilium in the developing and mature hair bundles of the cochlear and vestibular system. We

Benjamin Delprat; Vincent Michel; Richard Goodyear; Yasuhiro Yamasaki; Nicolas Michalski; Aziz El-Amraoui; Isabelle Perfettini; Pierre Legrain; Guy Richardson; Jean-Pierre Hardelin; Christine Petit

2005-01-01

97

Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice  

PubMed Central

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

2014-01-01

98

Comparative hair restorer efficacy of medicinal herb on nude (Foxn1nu) mice.  

PubMed

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

2014-01-01

99

The Molecular Basis for Abnormal Human Lung Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of lung development in the past two decades has moved from an anatomical to a histological basis and, most recently, to a molecular basis. Tissue interactions specify tracheal and lung primordia formation, program branching morphogenesis of the airway epithelium and regulate epithelial differentiation. In addition, lung development is influenced by mechanical and humoral factors. The regulatory molecules involved

Frederick Groenman; Sharon Unger; Martin Post

2005-01-01

100

[Methods of hair loss evaluation in patients with endocrine disorders].  

PubMed

Hair loss may accompany several endocrine disorders, including hypopituitarism, hypothyreosis, hyperthyreosis, hypoparathyroidism, diabetes mellitus, growth hormone deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, polycystic ovary syndrome, SAHA syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing syndrome, or virilising tumours. Most patients with endocrine disorders present with diffuse non-scarring alopecia, such as anagen effluvium, telogen effluvium or androgenetic alopecia. Focal non-scarring alopecia, such as alopecia areata coexisting with autoimmune thyroiditis, is less frequent and scarring alopecia is a rare finding in patients with endocrine abnormalities. In some cases an endocrine disorder may be suspected based on dermatological findings during hair loss evaluation. Classic methods of hair evaluation include hair weighing, pull test, wash test, the trichogram, and histopathological examination. Newly developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques include the phototrichogram, trichoscan, trichoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy. PMID:22125108

Olszewska, Ma?gorzata; Warszawik, Olga; Rakowska, Adriana; S?owi?ska, Monika; Rudnicka, Lidia

2011-01-01

101

Methods of hair loss evaluation in patients with endocrine disorders.  

PubMed

Hair loss may accompany several endocrine disorders, including hypopituitarism, hypothyreosis, hyperthyreosis, hypoparathyroidism, diabetes mellitus, growth hormone deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, polycystic ovary syndrome, SAHA syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing syndrome, or virilising tumours. Most patients with endocrine disorders present with diffuse non-scarring alopecia, such as anagen effluvium, telogen effluvium or androgenetic alopecia. Focal non-scarring alopecia, such as alopecia areata coexisting with autoimmune thyroiditis, is less frequent and scarring alopecia is a rare finding in patients with endocrine abnormalities. In some cases an endocrine disorder may be suspected based on dermatological findings during hair loss evaluation. Classic methods of hair evaluation include hair weighing, pull test, wash test, the trichogram, and histopathological examination. Newly developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques include the phototrichogram, trichoscan, trichoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy. PMID:20806187

Olszewska, Ma?gorzata; Warszawik, Olga; Rakowska, Adriana; S?owi?ska, Monika; Rudnicka, Lidia

2010-01-01

102

A search for factors specifying tonotopy implicates DNER in hair-cell development in the chick's cochlea.  

PubMed

The accurate perception of sound frequency by vertebrates relies upon the tuning of hair cells, which are arranged along auditory organs according to frequency. This arrangement, which is termed a tonotopic gradient, results from the coordination of many cellular and extracellular features. Seeking the mechanisms that orchestrate those features and govern the tonotopic gradient, we used expression microarrays to identify genes differentially expressed between the high- and low-frequency cochlear regions of the chick (Gallus gallus). Of the three signaling systems that were represented extensively in the results, we focused on the notch pathway and particularly on DNER, a putative notch ligand, and PTP?, a receptor phosphatase that controls DNER trafficking. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that both proteins are expressed more strongly in hair cells at the cochlear apex than in those at the base. At the apical surface of each hair cell, the proteins display polarized, mutually exclusive localization patterns. Using morpholinos to decrease the expression of DNER or PTP? as well as a retroviral vector to overexpress DNER, we observed disturbances of hair-bundle morphology and orientation. Our results suggest a role for DNER and PTP? in hair-cell development and possibly in the specification of tonotopy. PMID:21497156

Kowalik, Lukasz; Hudspeth, A J

2011-06-15

103

Calcium-Induced Calcium Release during Action Potential Firing in Developing Inner Hair Cells.  

PubMed

In the mature auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals that are relayed to the central nervous system via auditory afferents. Before the cochlea can respond to normal sound levels, developing IHCs fire calcium-based action potentials that disappear close to the onset of hearing. Action potential firing triggers transmitter release from the immature IHC that in turn generates experience-independent firing in auditory neurons. These early signaling events are thought to be essential for the organization and development of the auditory system and hair cells. A critical component of the action potential is the rise in intracellular calcium that activates both small conductance potassium channels essential during membrane repolarization, and triggers transmitter release from the cell. Whether this calcium signal is generated by calcium influx or requires calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is not yet known. IHCs can generate CICR, but to date its physiological role has remained unclear. Here, we used high and low concentrations of ryanodine to block or enhance CICR to determine whether calcium release from intracellular stores affected action potential waveform, interspike interval, or changes in membrane capacitance during development of mouse IHCs. Blocking CICR resulted in mixed action potential waveforms with both brief and prolonged oscillations in membrane potential and intracellular calcium. This mixed behavior is captured well by our mathematical model of IHC electrical activity. We perform two-parameter bifurcation analysis of the model that predicts the dependence of IHCs firing patterns on the level of activation of two parameters, the SK2 channels activation and CICR rate. Our data show that CICR forms an important component of the calcium signal that shapes action potentials and regulates firing patterns, but is not involved directly in triggering exocytosis. These data provide important insights into the calcium signaling mechanisms involved in early developmental processes. PMID:25762313

Iosub, Radu; Avitabile, Daniele; Grant, Lisa; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Kennedy, Helen J

2015-03-10

104

Dynamic expression and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin during the development of hair follicle-derived structures.  

PubMed

Beta-catenin has a dual role in the cell. At the membrane, it connects E-cadherin to the actin cytoskeleton, while in the nucleus, it controls gene expression in concert with Tcf-like transcription factors. Nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is induced by the Wnt signal transduction pathway. Control of this process is essential since elevated beta-catenin levels interfere with differentiation and development, and can initiate cancer in many tissues. An important role for beta-catenin during hair follicle related development and tumorigenesis has recently been established, though little is known of its endogenous expression during the development of these structures. Here, we have investigated the expression of beta-catenin in relation to markers for proliferation, differentiation and Wnt signaling during the development of three hair follicle related structures, i.e. whiskers, normal body hair and the preputial gland, and a hair follicle-derived tumor, the epidermal cyst. We observed nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, the hallmark of Wnt signaling, in the upper matrix, the dermal papilla, the developing ringwulst of the whisker and in the tumor, though it was never in association with proliferation or terminal differentiation. Co-localization of nuclear beta-catenin with Tcf-3/4 was found only in the dermal papilla and the developing ringwulst of the whisker, but not in the upper matrix or in the tumor. These results further elucidate the role of the Wnt signal transduction pathway during hair follicle related development and tumorigenesis and illustrate the dynamic role of beta-catenin in signal transduction and cell-adhesion. PMID:11731231

Ridanpää, M; Fodde, R; Kielman, M

2001-12-01

105

Abnormal Sympathoadrenal Development and Systemic Hypotension in PHD3?/? Mice?  

PubMed Central

Cell culture studies have implicated the oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis. To better understand this function in vivo, we have created PHD3?/? mice and analyzed the neuronal phenotype. Reduced apoptosis in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons cultured from PHD3?/? mice is associated with an increase in the number of cells in the SCG, as well as in the adrenal medulla and carotid body. Genetic analysis by intercrossing PHD3?/? mice with HIF-1a+/? and HIF-2a+/? mice demonstrated an interaction with HIF-2? but not HIF-1?, supporting the nonredundant involvement of a PHD3-HIF-2? pathway in the regulation of sympathoadrenal development. Despite the increased number of cells, the sympathoadrenal system appeared hypofunctional in PHD3?/? mice, with reduced target tissue innervation, adrenal medullary secretory capacity, sympathoadrenal responses, and systemic blood pressure. These observations suggest that the role of PHD3 in sympathoadrenal development extends beyond simple control of cell survival and organ mass, with functional PHD3 being required for proper anatomical and physiological integrity of the system. Perturbation of this interface between developmental and adaptive signaling by hypoxic, metabolic, or other stresses could have important effects on key sympathoadrenal functions, such as blood pressure regulation. PMID:18332118

Bishop, Tammie; Gallagher, Denis; Pascual, Alberto; Lygate, Craig A.; de Bono, Joseph P.; Nicholls, Lynn G.; Ortega-Saenz, Patricia; Oster, Henrik; Wijeyekoon, Bhathiya; Sutherland, Andrew I.; Grosfeld, Alexandra; Aragones, Julian; Schneider, Martin; van Geyte, Katie; Teixeira, Dania; Diez-Juan, Antonio; Lopez-Barneo, Jose; Channon, Keith M.; Maxwell, Patrick H.; Pugh, Christopher W.; Davies, Alun M.; Carmeliet, Peter; Ratcliffe, Peter J.

2008-01-01

106

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... The infection is easily treated with antifungal medicines. Finally, hair loss may occur as part of an ... to look for other causes of hair loss. Finally, blood tests or a biopsy (taking a small ...

107

Hair Removal  

MedlinePLUS

... eyebrows. Back Continue Getting Rid of Hair (continued) Electrolysis How It Works: Over a series of several ... Pros: Some people have permanent hair removal. Cons: Electrolysis takes big bucks and lots of time, so ...

108

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

109

Body Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... electrolysis, a professional uses an electric current to kill the hair root. Electrolysis can take many sessions ... removing pubic hair top In recent years, more girls and women have also begun removing all or ...

110

Fgf signaling regulates development and transdifferentiation of hair cells and supporting cells in the basilar papilla  

PubMed Central

The avian basilar papilla (BP) is a likely homolog of the auditory sensory epithelium of the mammalian cochlea, the organ of Corti. During mammalian development Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (Fgfr3) is known to regulate the differentiation of auditory mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs), both of which are required for sound detection. Fgfr3 is expressed in developing progenitor cells (PCs) and SCs of both the BP and the organ of Corti; however its role in BP development is unknown. Here we utilized an in vitro whole organ embryonic culture system to examine the role of Fgf signaling in the developing avian cochlea. SU5402 (an antagonist of Fgf signaling) was applied to developing BP cultures at different stages to assay the role of Fgf signaling during HC formation. Similar to the observed effects of inhibition of Fgfr3 in the mammalian cochlea, Fgfr inhibition in the developing BP increased the number of HCs that formed. This increase was not associated with increased proliferation, suggesting that inhibition of the Fgf pathway leads to the direct conversion of PCs or supporting cells into HCs, a process known as transdifferentiation. This also implies that Fgf signaling is required to prevent the conversion of PCs and SCs into HCs. The ability of Fgf signaling to inhibit transdifferentiation suggests that its down-regulation may be essential for the initial steps of HC formation, as well as for the maintenance of SC phenotypes. PMID:22575790

Jacques, Bonnie E.; Dabdoub, Alain; Kelley, Matthew W.

2012-01-01

111

Control of Plant Trichome and Root-Hair Development by a Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) R3 MYB Transcription Factor  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis thaliana the CPC-like MYB transcription factors [CAPRICE (CPC), TRIPTYCHON (TRY), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC 1, 2, 3/CPC-LIKE MYB 3 (ETC1, ETC2, ETC3/CPL3), TRICHOMELESS 1, 2/CPC-LIKE MYB 4 (TCL1, TCL2/CPL4)] and the bHLH transcription factors [GLABRA3 (GL3) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3)] are central regulators of trichome and root-hair development. We identified TRY and GL3 homologous genes from the tomato genome and named them SlTRY and SlGL3, respectively. Phylogenic analyses revealed a close relationship between the tomato and Arabidopsis genes. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that SlTRY and SlGL3 were predominantly expressed in aerial parts of developing tomato. After transformation into Arabidopsis, CPC::SlTRY inhibited trichome formation and enhanced root-hair differentiation by strongly repressing GL2 expression. On the other hand, GL3::SlGL3 transformation did not show any obvious effect on trichome or non-hair cell differentiation. These results suggest that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for epidermal cell differentiation, and that a CPC-like R3 MYB may be a key common regulator of plant trichome and root-hair development. PMID:23326563

Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Sato, Shusei; Wada, Takuji

2013-01-01

112

HAIR NEOGENESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of new hairs is regularly seen as a spontaneous phenomenon in the velvet of deer antlers and in the Australian bandicoot. Nevertheless, skepticism persists as to its occurrence otherwise, despite a continuing accumulation of reports of hair neogenesis in many laboratory animals, sheep, and man. The objectors have cited the tremendous ability of the hair follicle to reorganize

Sigfrid A. Muller

1971-01-01

113

Hair Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Hair changes During pregnancy, you may notice that the hair on your head is thicker than usual. After ... find that you'll lose a lot of hair a few weeks or months after delivery. These ...

114

Hair Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Dryers and other products that use heat can dry out or break your hair. It’s a good idea to take a few days off from time to time. If you swim in a pool a lot: Protect your hair from chlorine by wearing a swim cap or rinsing out your hair right after swimming. ...

115

Comparative aspects of the inner root sheath in adult and developing hairs of mammals in relation to the evolution of hairs  

PubMed Central

The inner root sheath (IRS) allows the exit of hairs through the epidermal surface. The fine structure of monotreme and marsupial IRS and trichohyalin is not known. Using electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, the localization of trichohyalin and transglutaminase have been studied in monotreme and marsupial hairs, and compared with trichohyalin localization in placental hairs. Trichohyalin in all mammalian species studied here is recognized by a polyclonal antibody against sheep trichohyalin. This generalized immunoreactivity suggests that common epitopes are present in trichohyalin across mammals. In differentiating IRS cells, trichohyalin granules of variable dimensions are composed of an immunolabelled amorphous matrix associated with a network of 10–12-nm-thick keratin filaments. Transglutaminase labelling is present among keratin bundles and trichohyalin granules, and in condensed nuclei of terminally differentiating cells of the inner root sheath. The IRS in monotreme hairs is multistratified but lacks a distinguishable Henle layer. Cornification of IRS determines the sculpturing of the fibre cuticle and later shedding from the follicle for the exit of the hair fibre on the epidermal surface. It is hypothesized that the stratification of IRS in Henle, Huxley and IRS cuticle layers is derived from a simpler organization, like that present in the IRS of monotremes. The IRS is regarded as a localized shedding/sloughing layer needed for the exit of hairs without injury to the epidermis. The formation of the IRS during the evolution of mammalian epidermis allowed the physiological exit of hairs produced inside the skin. The peculiar morphogenesis of hairs in possible primitive skins, such as those of the monotremes (mammals with some reptilian characteristics) or the tails of some rodents (a scaled skin), may elucidate the evolution of hairs. In monotreme and rodent tail skin, the dermal papilla remains localized on the proximal side of the hair peg and forms a hair placode with bilateral symmetry. The papilla is progressively surrounded by the down-growing hair peg until a dermal papilla with radial symmetry is formed. It is speculated that the progressive reduction of the extended dermal papilla of reptilian scales into small and deep papillae of therapsid reptiles produced hairs in mammals. PMID:15379924

Alibardi, Lorenzo

2004-01-01

116

ABNORMAL FUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEART, LUNGS, AND KIDNEYS: APPROACHES TO FUNCTIONAL TERATOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentations given at the Conference on Abnormal Functional Development of the Heart, Lungs, and Kidneys are documented in this publication. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and was held in Asheville, NC, May 11-13, 1983. In an attempt to car...

117

Abnormality as a Positive Characteristic: The Development and Validation of a Scale Measuring Need for Uniqueness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research espouses the term "uniqueness" to circumvent the connotative qualities of abnormality and deviance, i.e., to convey a positive striving for being different relative to other people. The theoretical underpinning of the uniqueness motivation construct and the development and validation of a scale measuring desire for uniqueness are…

Snyder, C. R.; Fromkin, Howard L.

1977-01-01

118

Human placental development is impaired by abnormal hCG signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies  

E-print Network

1 Human placental development is impaired by abnormal hCG signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies in trisomy 21 pregnancies. Key words: LH/CG-receptor, trophoblast, Down syndrome, cell-cell fusion, maternal a fetus with trisomy 21, with defective syncytiotrophoblast (ST) formation and function. The ST arises

Boyer, Edmond

119

Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation  

PubMed Central

Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

2012-01-01

120

A guide for building biological pathways along with two case studies: hair and breast development.  

PubMed

Genomic information is being underlined in the format of biological pathways. Building these biological pathways is an ongoing demand and benefits from methods for extracting information from biomedical literature with the aid of text-mining tools. Here we hopefully guide you in the attempt of building a customized pathway or chart representation of a system. Our manual is based on a group of software designed to look at biointeractions in a set of abstracts retrieved from PubMed. However, they aim to support the work of someone with biological background, who does not need to be an expert on the subject and will play the role of manual curator while designing the representation of the system, the pathway. We therefore illustrate with two challenging case studies: hair and breast development. They were chosen for focusing on recent acquisitions of human evolution. We produced sub-pathways for each study, representing different phases of development. Differently from most charts present in current databases, we present detailed descriptions, which will additionally guide PESCADOR users along the process. The implementation as a web interface makes PESCADOR a unique tool for guiding the user along the biointeractions, which will constitute a novel pathway. PMID:25449898

Trindade, Daniel; Orsine, Lissur A; Barbosa-Silva, Adriano; Donnard, Elisa R; Ortega, J Miguel

2015-03-01

121

Divergence and Redundancy in CSLD2 and CSLD3 Function During Arabidopsis Thaliana Root Hair and Female Gametophyte Development  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis cellulose synthase-like D (CSLD) 2 and 3 genes are known to function in root hair development. Here, we show that these genes also play a role in female gametophyte development because csld2 csld3 double mutants were observed to have low seed set that could be traced to defects in female transmission efficiency. Cell biological studies of csld2 csld3 ovules showed synergid cell degeneration during megagametogenesis and reduced pollen tube penetration during fertilization. Although CSLD2 and CSLD3 function redundantly in female gametophyte development, detailed analyses of root hair phenotypes of progeny from genetic crosses between csld2 and csld3, suggest that CSLD3 might play a more prominent role than CSLD2 in root hair development. Phylogenetic and gene duplication studies of CSLD2 and CSLD3 homologs in Arabidopsis lyrata, Populus, Medicago, maize, and Physcomitrella were further performed to investigate the course of evolution for these genes. Our analyses indicate that the ancestor of land plants possibly contained two copies of CSLD genes, one of which developed into the CSLD5 lineage in flowering plants, and the other formed the CSLD1/2/3/4 clade. In addition, CSLD2 and CSLD3 likely originated from a recent genome-wide duplication event explaining their redundancy. Moreover, sliding-window dN/dS analysis showed that most of the coding regions of CSLD2 and CSLD3 have been under strong purifying selection pressure. However, the region that encodes the N-terminus of CSLD3 has been under relatively relaxed selection pressure as indicated by its high dN/dS value, suggesting that CSLD3 might have gained additional functions through more frequent non-synonymous sequence changes at the N-terminus, which could partly explain the more prominent role of CSLD3 during root hair development compared to CSLD2. PMID:22661983

Yoo, Cheol-Min; Quan, Li; Blancaflor, Elison B.

2012-01-01

122

Divergence and Redundancy in CSLD2 and CSLD3 Function During Arabidopsis Thaliana Root Hair and Female Gametophyte Development.  

PubMed

The Arabidopsis cellulose synthase-like D (CSLD) 2 and 3 genes are known to function in root hair development. Here, we show that these genes also play a role in female gametophyte development because csld2 csld3 double mutants were observed to have low seed set that could be traced to defects in female transmission efficiency. Cell biological studies of csld2 csld3 ovules showed synergid cell degeneration during megagametogenesis and reduced pollen tube penetration during fertilization. Although CSLD2 and CSLD3 function redundantly in female gametophyte development, detailed analyses of root hair phenotypes of progeny from genetic crosses between csld2 and csld3, suggest that CSLD3 might play a more prominent role than CSLD2 in root hair development. Phylogenetic and gene duplication studies of CSLD2 and CSLD3 homologs in Arabidopsis lyrata, Populus, Medicago, maize, and Physcomitrella were further performed to investigate the course of evolution for these genes. Our analyses indicate that the ancestor of land plants possibly contained two copies of CSLD genes, one of which developed into the CSLD5 lineage in flowering plants, and the other formed the CSLD1/2/3/4 clade. In addition, CSLD2 and CSLD3 likely originated from a recent genome-wide duplication event explaining their redundancy. Moreover, sliding-window dN/dS analysis showed that most of the coding regions of CSLD2 and CSLD3 have been under strong purifying selection pressure. However, the region that encodes the N-terminus of CSLD3 has been under relatively relaxed selection pressure as indicated by its high dN/dS value, suggesting that CSLD3 might have gained additional functions through more frequent non-synonymous sequence changes at the N-terminus, which could partly explain the more prominent role of CSLD3 during root hair development compared to CSLD2. PMID:22661983

Yoo, Cheol-Min; Quan, Li; Blancaflor, Elison B

2012-01-01

123

‘Cyclic alopecia’ in Msx2 mutants: defects in hair cycling and hair shaft differentiation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Msx2-deficient mice exhibit progressive hair loss, starting at P14 and followed by successive cycles of wavelike regrowth and loss. During the hair cycle, Msx2 deficiency shortens anagen phase, but prolongs catagen and telogen. Msx2-deficient hair shafts are structurally abnormal. Molecular analyses suggest a Bmp4/Bmp2/Msx2/Foxn1 acidic hair keratin pathway is involved. These structurally abnormal hairs are easily dislodged in catagen implying a precocious exogen. Deficiency in Msx2 helps to reveal the distinctive skin domains on the same mouse. Each domain cycles asynchronously – although hairs within each skin domain cycle in synchronized waves. Thus, the combinatorial defects in hair cycling and differentiation, together with concealed skin domains, account for the cyclic alopecia phenotype. PMID:12466204

Ma, Liang; Liu, Jian; Wu, Tobey; Plikus, Maksim; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Bi, Qun; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Müller-Röver, Sven; Peters, Heiko; Sundberg, John P.; Maxson, Rob; Maas, Richard L.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

2015-01-01

124

Human handedness and scalp hair-whorl direction develop from a common genetic mechanism.  

PubMed Central

Theories concerning the cause of right- or left-hand preference in humans vary from purely learned behavior, to solely genetics, to a combination of the two mechanisms. The cause of handedness and its relation to the biologically specified scalp hair-whorl rotation is determined here. The general public, consisting of mostly right-handers (RH), shows counterclockwise whorl rotation infrequently in 8.4% of individuals. Interestingly, non-right-handers (NRH, i.e., left-handers and ambidextrous) display a random mixture of clockwise and counterclockwise swirling patterns. Confirming this finding, in another independent sample of individuals chosen because of their counterclockwise rotation, one-half of them are NRH. These findings of coupling in RH and uncoupling in NRH unequivocally establish that these traits develop from a common genetic mechanism. Another result concerning handedness of the progeny of discordant monozygotic twins suggests that lefties are one gene apart from righties. Together, these results suggest (1) that a single gene controls handedness, whorl orientation, and twin concordance and discordance and (2) that neuronal and visceral (internal organs) forms of bilateral asymmetry are coded by separate sets of genetic pathways. The sociological impact of the study is discussed. PMID:14504234

Klar, Amar J S

2003-01-01

125

Mutation of ARX causes abnormal development of forebrain and testes in mice and X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male embryonic mice with mutations in the X-linked aristaless-related homeobox gene (Arx) developed with small brains due to suppressed proliferation and regional deficiencies in the forebrain. These mice also showed aberrant migration and differentiation of interneurons containing ?-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic interneurons) in the ganglionic eminence and neocortex as well as abnormal testicular differentiation. These characteristics recapitulate some of the clinical

Masako Yanazawa; Noriyuki Sugiyama; Hirohito Miura; Akiko Iizuka-Kogo; Masatomo Kusaka; Kayo Omichi; Rika Suzuki; Yuko Kato-Fukui; Kyoko Kamiirisa; Mina Matsuo; Shin-ichi Kamijo; Megumi Kasahara; Hidefumi Yoshioka; Tsutomu Ogata; Takayuki Fukuda; Ikuko Kondo; Mitsuhiro Kato; William B. Dobyns; Minesuke Yokoyama; Ken-ichirou Morohashi; Kunio Kitamura

2002-01-01

126

Postnatal development, maturation and aging in the mouse cochlea and their effects on hair cell regeneration.  

PubMed

The organ of Corti in the mammalian inner ear is comprised of mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) and nonsensory supporting cells (SCs), both of which are believed to be terminally post-mitotic beyond late embryonic ages. Consequently, regeneration of HCs and SCs does not occur naturally in the adult mammalian cochlea, though recent evidence suggests that these cells may not be completely or irreversibly quiescent at earlier postnatal ages. Furthermore, regenerative processes can be induced by genetic and pharmacological manipulations, but, more and more reports suggest that regenerative potential declines as the organ of Corti continues to age. In numerous mammalian systems, such effects of aging on regenerative potential are well established. However, in the cochlea, the problem of regeneration has not been traditionally viewed as one of aging. This is an important consideration as current models are unable to elicit widespread regeneration or full recovery of function at adult ages yet regenerative therapies will need to be developed specifically for adult populations. Still, the advent of gene targeting and other genetic manipulations has established mice as critically important models for the study of cochlear development and HC regeneration and suggests that auditory HC regeneration in adult mammals may indeed be possible. Thus, this review will focus on the pursuit of regeneration in the postnatal and adult mouse cochlea and highlight processes that occur during postnatal development, maturation, and aging that could contribute to an age-related decline in regenerative potential. Second, we will draw upon the wealth of knowledge pertaining to age related senescence in tissues outside of the ear to synthesize new insights and potentially guide future research aimed at promoting HC regeneration in the adult cochlea. PMID:23164734

Walters, Bradley J; Zuo, Jian

2013-03-01

127

Postnatal development, maturation and aging in the mouse cochlea and their effects on hair cell regeneration  

PubMed Central

The organ of Corti in the mammalian inner ear is comprised of mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) and nonsensory supporting cells (SCs), both of which are believed to be terminally postmitotic beyond late embryonic ages. Consequently, regeneration of HCs and SCs does not occur naturally in the adult mammalian cochlea, though recent evidence suggests that these cells may not be completely or irreversibly quiescent in at earlier postnatal ages. Furthermore, regenerative processes can be induced by genetic and pharmacological manipulations, but, more and more reports suggest that regenerative potential declines as the organ of Corti continues to age. In numerous mammalian systems, such effects of aging on regenerative potential are well established. However, in the cochlea, the problem of regeneration has not been traditionally viewed as one of aging. This is an important consideration as current models are unable to elicit widespread regeneration or full recovery of function at adult ages yet regenerative therapies will need to be developed specifically for adult populations. Still, the advent of gene targeting and other genetic manipulations has established mice as critically important models for the study of cochlear development and HC regeneration and suggests that auditory HC regeneration in adult mammals may indeed be possible. Thus, this review will focus on the pursuit of regeneration in the postnatal and adult mouse cochlea and highlight processes that occur during postnatal development, maturation, and aging that could contribute to an age-related decline in regenerative potential. Second, we will draw upon the wealth of knowledge pertaining to age related senescence in tissues outside of the ear to synthesize new insights and potentially guide future research aimed at promoting HC regeneration in the adult cochlea. PMID:23164734

Walters, Brad; Zuo, Jian

2012-01-01

128

Cranial index of children with normal and abnormal brain development in Sokoto, Nigeria: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Abnormal brain development due to neurodevelopmental disorders in children has always been an important concern, but yet has to be considered as a significant public health problem, especially in the low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether abnormal brain development in the form of neurodevelopmental disorders causes any deviation in the cranial index of affected children. Materials and Methods: This is a comparative study on the head length, head width, and cranial index of 112 children (72 males and 40 females) diagnosed with at least one abnormal problem in brain development, in the form of a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), in comparison with that of 218 normal growing children without any form of NDD (121 males and 97 females), aged 0-18 years old seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, over a period of six months, June to December, 2012. The head length and head width of the children was measured using standard anatomical landmarks and cranial index calculated. The data obtained was entered into the Microsoft excel worksheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The mean Cephalic Index for normal growing children with normal brain development was 79.82 ± 3.35 and that of the children with abnormal brain development was 77.78 ± 2.95 and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It can be deduced from this present study that the cranial index does not change in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24966551

Musa, Muhammad Awwal; Zagga, Abdullahi Daudu; Danfulani, Mohammed; Tadros, Aziz Abdo; Ahmed, Hamid

2014-01-01

129

mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development  

PubMed Central

Target of rapamycin (TOR) was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mammalian TOR (mTOR). mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid) synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development. PMID:24795562

Takei, Nobuyuki; Nawa, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

130

Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair.  

PubMed

The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

Trüeb, Ralph M

2006-01-01

131

Abnormality as a positive characteristic: The development and validation of a scale measuring need for uniqueness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defines need for uniqueness as a positive striving for abnormality relative to other people. Recent research regarding situational determinants of uniqueness motivation is described, and a dispositional individual-differences measure of need for uniqueness is presented. The development of the Uniqueness Scale aims at insuring construct validity as a guide for the item selection. The internal reliabilities, item-remainder coefficients, test–retest reliabilities,

C. R. Snyder; Howard L. Fromkin

1977-01-01

132

Hair removal.  

PubMed

Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices. PMID:21865803

Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

2011-01-01

133

High efficiency genetic modification of hair follicles and growing hair shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for genetic modification of hair follicles was developed which results in efficient alteration of the hair shaft phenotype. High-level in vivo transgene expression was maintained in hair follicles such that growing hair shafts were phenotypically altered. Mouse anagen skin fragments, maintained in histoculture, were genetically modified at high efficiency with adenoviral-GFP. The histocultured skin fragments were treated with

Norimitsu Saito; Ming Zhao; Lingna Li; Eugene Baranov; Meng Yang; Yukinori Ohta; Kensei Katsuoka; Sheldon Penman; Robert M. Hoffman

2002-01-01

134

Development and validation of a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry assay for hair analysis of methylphenidate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a phenethylamine derivative used in the treatment of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. MPH is biotransformed in the body by the hydrolysis of the methyl ester linkage to its metabolite, ritalinic acid. Whereas both compounds are usually measured in plasma and urine, preliminary observations show that only the parent compound is present in hair from treated individuals.Since in

E. Marchei; J. A. Muñoz; Ó. García-Algar; M. Pellegrini; O. Vall; P. Zuccaro; S. Pichini

2008-01-01

135

Chemistry of hair colorant processesScience as an aid to formulation and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry of color formation in permanent hair colorants is discussed with particular reference to the in-fiber production of blue, red, and yellow dyes and to the effect of pH on the relative rates of formation of these dyes. The formulation of semipermanent (direct) colorants requires consideration of molecular size, wash fastness, light fastness, and color of the dyes used.

JOHN F. CORBETT

136

The anthocyanin reduced tomato mutant demonstrates the role of flavonols in tomato lateral root and root hair development.  

PubMed

This study utilized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants with altered flavonoid biosynthesis to understand the impact of these metabolites on root development. The mutant anthocyanin reduced (are) has a mutation in the gene encoding FLAVONOID 3-HYDROXYLASE (F3H), the first step in flavonol synthesis, and accumulates higher concentrations of the F3H substrate, naringenin, and lower levels of the downstream products kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and anthocyanins, than the wild type. Complementation of are with the p35S:F3H transgene reduced naringenin and increased flavonols to wild-type levels. The initiation of lateral roots is reduced in are, and p35S:F3H complementation restores wild-type root formation. The flavonoid mutant anthocyanin without has a defect in the gene encoding DIHYDROFLAVONOL REDUCTASE, resulting in elevated flavonols and the absence of anthocyanins and displays increased lateral root formation. These results are consistent with a positive role of flavonols in lateral root formation. The are mutant has increased indole-3-acetic acid transport and greater sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid on lateral root formation. Expression of the auxin-induced reporter (DR5-?-glucuronidase) is reduced in initiating lateral roots and increased in primary root tips of are. Levels of reactive oxygen species are elevated in are root epidermal tissues and root hairs, and are forms more root hairs, consistent with a role of flavonols as antioxidants that modulate root hair formation. Together, these experiments identify positive roles of flavonols in the formation of lateral roots and negative roles in the formation of root hairs through the modulation of auxin transport and reactive oxygen species, respectively. PMID:25006027

Maloney, Gregory S; DiNapoli, Kathleen T; Muday, Gloria K

2014-10-01

137

Abnormalities in embryological development in total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. A case report.  

PubMed

Pulmonary venous system development starts early in embryonic life. Abnormalities in the development of pulmonary venous system occur either by the absence of common pulmonary vein communication to the splanchnic plexus or by the absence of its incorporation into the dorsal wall of the left atrium. We present the case of a 10-day-old male newborn, diagnosed with TAPVC, operated, with long recovery and, who died by pneumonia, heart failure, and obstructive pulmonary disease (one pulmonary vein obstructed and another one with severe stenosis). Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) reflects one of the most severe forms of congenital heart disease, with important clinical consequences. PMID:24068416

B?lgr?dean, Mihaela; Cintez?, Eliza; Cîrstoveanu, C; Enculescu, Augustina; Ple?ca, Doina

2013-01-01

138

Atoh1 directs hair cell differentiation and survival in the late embryonic mouse inner ear?  

PubMed Central

Atoh1 function is required for the earliest stages of inner ear hair cell development, which begins during the second week of gestation. Atoh1 expression in developing hair cells continues until early postnatal ages, but the function of this late expression is unknown. To test the role of continued Atoh1 expression in hair cell maturation we conditionally deleted the gene in the inner ear at various embryonic and postnatal ages. In the organ of Corti, deletion of Atoh1 at E15.5 led to the death of all hair cells. In contrast, deletion at E16.5 caused death only in apical regions, but abnormalities of stereocilia formation were present throughout the cochlea. In the utricle, deletion at E14.5 or E16.5 did not cause cell death but led to decreased expression of myosin VIIa and failure of stereocilia formation. Furthermore, we show that maintained expression of Barhl1 and Gfi1, two transcription factors implicated in cochlear hair cell survival, depends upon continued Atoh1 expression. However, maintained expression of Pou4f3 and several hair cell-specific markers is independent of Atoh1 expression. These data reveal novel late roles for Atoh1 that are separable from its initial role in hair cell development. PMID:23796904

Chonko, Kurt T.; Jahan, Israt; Stone, Jennifer; Wright, Margaret C.; Fujiyama, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Mikio; Fritzsch, Bernd; Maricich, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

139

Sodium current expression during postnatal development of rat outer hair cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outer hair cells of the cultured organ of Corti from newborn rats (0–11 days after birth) were studied in the whole-cell\\u000a patch-clamp configuration. A voltage-activated sodium current was detected in 97% (n = 109) of the cells at 0–9 days after birth. The properties of this current were: (1) its activation and inactivation kinetics\\u000a were fast and voltage-dependent, (2) the

D. Oliver; P. Plinkert; H. P. Zenner; J. P. Ruppersberg

1997-01-01

140

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... enough protein from non-meat sources. And some athletes are at higher risk for hair loss because ... tik) alopecia. This is sometimes called male- or female-pattern baldness. This condition is caused by a ...

141

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... similar hair loss? Yes You may have classic MALE-PATTERN BALDNESS. Over-the-counter and prescription medicines are available to treat male-pattern baldness. See your doctor. He or she will determine ...

142

GbTCP, a cotton TCP transcription factor, confers fibre elongation and root hair development by a complex regulating system  

PubMed Central

As the most important natural raw material for textile industry, cotton fibres are an excellent model for studying single-cell development. Although expression profiling and functional genomics have provided some data, the mechanism of fibre development is still not well known. A class I TCP transcription factor (designated GbTCP), encoding 344 amino acids, was isolated from the normalized cDNA library of sea-island cotton fibre (from –2 to 25 days post anthesis). GbTCP was preferentially expressed in the elongating cotton fibre from 5 to 15 days post anthesis. Some expression was also observed in stems, apical buds, and petals. RNAi silencing of GbTCP produced shorter fibre, a reduced lint percentage, and a lower fibre quality than the wild-type plants. Overexpression of GbTCP enhanced root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis and regulated branching. Solexa sequencing and Affymetrix GeneChip analysis indicated that GbTCP positively regulates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and, as a result, activates downstream genes (reactive oxygen species, calcium signalling, ethylene biosynthesis and response, and several NAC and WRKY transcription factors) necessary for elongation of fibres and root hairs. JA content analysis in cotton also confirmed that GbTCP has a profound effect on JA biosynthesis. In vitro ovule culture showed that an appropriate concentration of JA promoted fibre elongation. The results suggest that GbTCP is an important transcription factor for fibre and root hair development by regulating JA biosynthesis and response and other pathways, including reactive oxygen species, calcium channel and ethylene signalling. PMID:23105133

Zhang, Xianlong

2012-01-01

143

Autoantibodies to Hair Follicles in C3H\\/HeJ Mice With Alopecia Areata-Like Hair Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously described spontaneous but reversible hair loss that clinically and histologically resembles human alopecia areata in a colony of C3H\\/ HeJ mice. Alopecia areata in humans is associated with antibodies to hair follicles. This study was conducted to determine whether C3H\\/HeJ mice with hair loss have a similar abnormal antibody response to hair follicles. Eighteen C3H\\/HeJ mice with

Desmond J. Tobin; John P. Sundberg; Lloyd E. King Jr.; Dawnalyn Boggess; Jean-Claude Bystryn

1997-01-01

144

A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain  

PubMed Central

The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism. PMID:25008163

Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

2014-01-01

145

A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

2014-07-01

146

Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)  

MedlinePLUS

... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead to serious problems. The medical term for severe hair pulling is trichotillomania. People with trichotillomania pull hair ...

147

Hair Treatments and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... neutralization solution. Hair bleaching involves the use of hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners or hair relaxers involve a ... wearing protective gloves, taking frequent breaks, practicing safe storage of hair care products, and avoiding eating or ...

148

The character of abnormalities found in eye development of quail embruos exposed under space flight conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The avian embryonic eye is used as a model system for studies on the environmental effects on central nervous system development. Here we present results of qualitative investigation of the eye development in quail embryos incubated in micro-"g" environment. In this study we used eyes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) embryos "flown" onboard biosatellite Kosmos-1129 and on Mir station within the framework of Mir-NASA Program. Eyes obtained from embryos ranging in age from 3-12 days (E3-E12) were prepared histologically and compared with those of the synchronous and laboratory gound controls. Ther most careful consideration was given to finding and analysis of eye developmental abnormalities. Then they were compared with those already described by experimental teratology for birds and mammals. At the stage of the "eye cup" (E3) we found the case of invalid formation of the inner retina. The latter was represented by disorganized neuroblasts occupying whole posterior chamber of the eye. On the 7th day of quail eye development, at the period of cellular growth activation some cases of small eyes with many folds of overgrowing neural and pigmented retinal layers were detected. In retinal folds of these eyes the normal layering was disturbed as well as the formation of aqueous body and pecten oculi. At this time point the changes were also found in the anterior part of the eye. The peculiarities came out of the bigger width of the cornea and separation of its layers, but were found in synchronous control as well. Few embryos of E10 had also eyes with the abnormities described for E7 but this time they were more vivid because of the completion of eye tissue differentiation. At the stage E12 we found the case evaluated as microphthalmia attending by overgrowth of anterior pigmented tissues - iris and ciliary body attached with the cornea. Most, but not all, of abnormalities we found in eye morphogeneses belonged to the birds "flown" aboard Kosmos- 1129 and were likely induced by specific conditions of that flight. All sorts of disturbances we observed in eye development were similar with dom inated types found in birds and mammals on ground and could be induced by factors we intend to discuss in our report.

Grigoryan, E.; Dadheva, O.; Polinskaya, V.; Guryeva, T.

149

Ectopic expression of FGF-3 results in abnormal prostate and Wolffian duct development.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effects of FGF-3 expression in the prostate and male reproductive tract, we employed a bitransgenic system to target FGF-3 to these organs. We present a first study that ectopic FGF-3 expression resulted in exuberant hyperplasia of all bigenic prostatic lobes typified by epithelial stratification, cribiform structures and papillary tufts. These cells displayed increased nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratios and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferative index but retained relatively uniform nuclear androgen receptor (AR) and the tumor suppressor C-CAM1 staining. Furthermore, the dysmorphogenic prostatic cells also resembled PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia)-like lesions but did not appear to have invaded the basal lamina. In addition to these phenotypes, profound disorders of the bigenic Wolffian duct derivatives were observed. The bigenic ampullary glands and vas deferens were extremely cystic, hypertrophic and hyperplastic; the enlarged epididymi showed a reduction of spermatozoa and the seminal vesicles exhibited a dramatic reduction of seminal secretions. Because of these severe abnormalities, these infertile males presented with diaphragmatic hernias, hemoperitoneum and many secondary abnormalities at sacrifice. Taken together, we show that ectopic FGF-3 expression severely perturbs normal prostate development and our system should be useful for the analyses of early changes in prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:11896623

Chua, Steven S; Ma, Zhi-Qing; Gong, Lei; Lin, Sue-Hwa; DeMayo, Francesco J; Tsai, Sophia Y

2002-03-14

150

Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 is strongly upregulated in cochlear inner hair cells and spiral ganglion cells of developing circling mice.  

PubMed

Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) plays a major role in hearing, and mice lacking the VGLUT3 are congenitally deaf due to absence of glutamate release at the inner hair cell afferent synapses. However, whether VGLUT3 is expressed normally in the cochleae of developing circling mice (homozygous (cir/cir) mice), the animal model for human deafness type DFNB6, has not been established. In this study, we investigated the developmental expression of VGLUT3 in cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) of homozygous (cir/cir) mice from postnatal day (P)1 to P14 using immunofluorescence (IF) staining and Western blot. VGLUT3 immunoreactivity (IR) and protein expression increased progressively with age in homozygous (cir/cir) and control mice (heterozygous (+/cir) mice and ICR mice). The rank order of VGLUT3 IR in IHCs and SGCs in P14 mice was homozygous (cir/cir) mice = heterozygous (+/cir) mice > ICR mice. The rank order of total protein expression was homozygous (cir/cir) mice > heterozygous (+/cir) mice = ICR mice at P14. IF staining and Western blot analysis indicated that developmental VGLUT3 expression in cochleae was most prominent in homozygous (cir/cir) mice. The possible contribution of VGLUT3 upregulation in the cochlear degeneration is discussed. PMID:25450145

Lee, Youngeun; Kim, Hak Rim; Ahn, Seung Cheol

2015-01-01

151

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

2013-01-01

152

Development of a novel diagnostic test for detection of bovine viral diarrhea persistently infected animals using hair  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether manually plucked hairs might serve as an alternative sample for a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing. Twenty three, 1~3 week old, non-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccinated calves, found to be positive for BVDV by immunohistochemical staining, were selected and hairs were manually plucked from the ear. qRT-PCR was performed on samples consisting of more than 30 hairs (30~100) and whole blood. All 23 animals were positive for the virus by qRT-PCR performed on the whole blood and when samples of more than 30 hairs were assayed. Additionally, qRT-PCR was performed on groups of 10 and 20 hairs harvested from 7 out of 23 immunohistochemical staining-positive calves. When groups of 20 and 10 hairs were tested, 6 and 4 animals, respectively, were positive for the virus. PMID:21897105

Miller, Myrna M.; Kohrt, Laura J.; Scherba, Gail; Garrett, Edgar F.; Fredrickson, Richard L.

2011-01-01

153

Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5?-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to minimize hair fibre breakage, improve hair volume or conceal visible bald scalp. PMID:22171680

Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

2011-12-01

154

Islet ?-Cells Deficient in Bcl-xL Develop but Are Abnormally Sensitive to Apoptotic Stimuli  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Bcl-xL is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins and a potent regulator of cell death. We investigated the importance of Bcl-xL for ?-cells by deleting the Bcl-x gene specifically in ?-cells and analyzing their survival in vivo and in culture. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Islets with ?-cells lacking the Bcl-x gene were assessed in vivo by histology and by treatment of mice with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). Islets were isolated by collagenase digestion and treated in culture with the apoptosis inducers staurosporine, thapsigargin, ?-irradiation, proinflammatory cytokines, or Fas ligand. Cell death was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of subgenomic DNA. RESULTS Bcl-xL–deficient ?-cells developed but were abnormally sensitive to apoptosis induced in vivo by low-dose STZ. Although a small proportion of ?-cells still expressed Bcl-xL, these did not have a survival advantage over their Bcl-xL–deficient neighbors. Islets appeared normal after collagenase isolation and whole-islet culture. They were, however, abnormally sensitive in culture to a number of different apoptotic stimuli including cytotoxic drugs, proinflammatory cytokines, and Fas ligand. CONCLUSIONS Bcl-xL expression in ?-cells is dispensible during islet development in the mouse. Bcl-xL is, however, an important regulator of ?-cell death under conditions of synchronous stress. Bcl-xL expression at physiological levels may partially protect ?-cells from apoptotic stimuli, including apoptosis because of mediators implicated in type 1 diabetes and death or degeneration of transplanted islets. PMID:19581414

Carrington, Emma M.; McKenzie, Mark D.; Jansen, Elisa; Myers, Michelle; Fynch, Stacey; Kos, Cameron; Strasser, Andreas; Kay, Thomas W.; Scott, Clare L.; Allison, Janette

2009-01-01

155

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... How to apply self tanner How to prevent athlete's foot How to prevent skin conditions in athletes How to shave How to treat sunburn Skin ... type of hair loss are: Male-pattern baldness. Female-pattern baldness. Androgenetic alopecia. Luckily, most causes of ...

156

Rice ORMDL Controls Sphingolipid Homeostasis Affecting Fertility Resulting from Abnormal Pollen Development  

PubMed Central

The orosomucoids (ORM) are ER-resisdent polypeptides encoded by ORM and ORMDL (ORM-like) genes. In humans, ORMDL3 was reported as genetic risk factor associated to asthma. In yeast, ORM proteins act as negative regulators of sphingolipid synthesis. Sphingolipids are important molecules regulating several processes including stress responses and apoptosis. However, the function of ORM/ORMDL genes in plants has not yet been reported. Previously, we found that temperature sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) rice lines controlled by tms2 contain a deletion of about 70 kb in chromosome 7. We identified four genes expressed in panicles, including an ORMDL ortholog, as candidates for tms2. In this report, we quantified expression of the only two candidate genes normally expressed in anthers of wild type plants grown in controlled growth rooms for fertile and sterile conditions. We found that only the ORMDL gene (LOC_Os07g26940) showed differential expression under these conditions. To better understand the function of rice ORMDL genes, we generated RNAi transgenic rice plants suppressing either LOC_Os07g26940, or all three ORMDL genes present in rice. We found that the RNAi transgenic plants with low expression of either LOC_Os07g26940 alone or all three ORMDL genes were sterile, having abnormal pollen morphology and staining. In addition, we found that both sphingolipid metabolism and expression of genes involved in sphingolipid synthesis were perturbed in the tms2 mutant, analogous to the role of ORMs in yeast. Our results indicated that plant ORMDL proteins influence sphingolipid homeostasis, and deletion of this gene affected fertility resulting from abnormal pollen development. PMID:25192280

Chueasiri, Chutharat; Chunthong, Ketsuwan; Pitnjam, Keasinee; Chakhonkaen, Sriprapai; Sangarwut, Numphet; Sangsawang, Kanidta; Suksangpanomrung, Malinee; Michaelson, Louise V.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Muangprom, Amorntip

2014-01-01

157

Towards a molecular understanding of hair loss and its treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most common forms of hair loss (alopecia) are caused by aberrant hair follicle cycling and changes in hair follicle morphology. However, current treatments for alopecia do not specifically target these processes. We are now beginning to identify the molecules and molecular pathways that control normal hair follicle formation, cycling and growth. In parallel, new techniques are being developed for delivering

George Cotsarelis; Sarah E Millar

2001-01-01

158

Abnormal Development of Tapetum and Microspores Induced by Chemical Hybridization Agent SQ-1 in Wheat  

PubMed Central

Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility. PMID:25803723

Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

2015-01-01

159

Tannic acid label indicates abnormal cell development coinciding with regeneration of renal tubules  

PubMed Central

Background Stem/progenitor cells are in the focus of research as a future therapeutic option to stimulate regeneration in diseased renal parenchyma. However, current data indicate that successful seeding of implanted stem/progenitor cells is prevented by harmful interstitial fluid and altered extracellular matrix. To find out possible parameters for cell adaptation, the present investigation was performed. Methods Renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in an artificial interstitium for perfusion culture. Exposure to chemically defined but CO2-independent culture media was tested during 13 days. Cell biological features were then analyzed by histochemistry, while structural details were investigated by transmission electron microscopy after conventional and improved fixation of specimens. Results Culture of renal stem/progenitor cells as well in Leibovitz’s L-15 Medium as CO2 Independent Medium shows in fluorescence microscopy spatial development of numerous tubules. Specimens of both media fixed by conventional glutaraldehyde exhibit in electron microscopy a homogeneous cell population in developed tubules. In contrast, fixation by glutaraldehyde including tannic acid illuminates that dispersed dark marked cells of unknown function are present. The screening further demonstrates that the dark cell type does not comply with cells found in embryonic, maturing or matured renal parenchyma. Conclusions The actual data show that development of abnormal cell features must be taken into account, when regeneration of renal tubules is simulated under in vitro conditions. PMID:25071418

2014-01-01

160

Review of hair follicle dermal cells  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle stem cells in the epithelial bulge are responsible for the continual regeneration of the hair follicle during cycling. The bulge cells reside in a niche composed of dermal cells. The dermal compartment of the hair follicle consists of the dermal papilla and dermal sheath. Interactions between hair follicle epithelial and dermal cells are necessary for hair follicle morphogenesis during development and in hair reconstitution assays. Dermal papilla and dermal sheath cells express specific markers and possess distinctive morphology and behavior in culture. These cells can induce hair follicle differentiation in epithelial cells and are required in hair reconstitution assays either in the form of intact tissue, dissociated freshly-prepared cells or cultured cells. This review will focus on hair follicle dermal cells since most therapeutic efforts to date have concentrated on this aspect of the hair follicle, with the idea that enriching hair-inductive dermal cell populations and expanding their number by culture while maintaining their properties, will establish an efficient hair reconstitution assay that could eventually have therapeutic implications. PMID:20022473

Yang, Chao-Chun; Cotsarelis, George

2010-01-01

161

Help! It's Hair Loss!  

MedlinePLUS

... more hairs than usual are in the resting phase and fall out more easily. As a result, you lose more hair than usual. You might notice more hair on your brush or a big clump of hair in the drain after you shower. A fever, stress, or surgery can cause this change in your hair. The good news is that ...

162

Deficiency of the chromatin regulator brpf1 causes abnormal brain development.  

PubMed

Epigenetic mechanisms are important in different neurological disorders, and one such mechanism is histone acetylation. The multivalent chromatin regulator BRPF1 (bromodomain- and plant homeodomain-linked (PHD) zinc finger-containing protein 1) recognizes different epigenetic marks and activates three histone acetyltransferases, so it is both a reader and a co-writer of the epigenetic language. The three histone acetyltransferases are MOZ, MORF, and HBO1, which are also known as lysine acetyltransferase 6A (KAT6A), KAT6B, and KAT7, respectively. The MORF gene is mutated in four neurodevelopmental disorders sharing the characteristic of intellectual disability and frequently displaying callosal agenesis. Here, we report that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene caused early postnatal lethality, neocortical abnormalities, and partial callosal agenesis. With respect to the control, the mutant forebrain contained fewer Tbr2-positive intermediate neuronal progenitors and displayed aberrant neurogenesis. Molecularly, Brpf1 loss led to decreased transcription of multiple genes, such as Robo3 and Otx1, important for neocortical development. Surprisingly, elevated expression of different Hox genes and various other transcription factors, such as Lhx4, Foxa1, Tbx5, and Twist1, was also observed. These results thus identify an important role of Brpf1 in regulating forebrain development and suggest that it acts as both an activator and a silencer of gene expression in vivo. PMID:25568313

You, Linya; Zou, Jinfeng; Zhao, Hong; Bertos, Nicholas R; Park, Morag; Wang, Edwin; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

2015-03-13

163

Congenital brain abnormalities: an update on malformations of cortical development and infratentorial malformations.  

PubMed

In the past two decades, significant progress in neuroimaging and genetic techniques has allowed for advances in the correct definition/classification of congenital brain abnormalities, which have resulted in a better understanding of their pathogenesis. In addition, new groups of diseases, such as axonal guidance disorders or tubulinopathies, are increasingly reported. Well-defined neuroimaging diagnostic criteria have been suggested for the majority of congenital brain abnormalities. Accurate diagnoses of these complex abnormalities, including distinction between malformations and disruptions, are of paramount significance for management, prognosis, and family counseling. In the next decade, these advances will hopefully be translated into deeper understanding of these disorders and more specific treatments. PMID:25192502

Poretti, Andrea; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M

2014-07-01

164

Hair Cycle-Dependent Changes in Adrenergic Skin Innervation, and Hair Growth Modulation by Adrenergic Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin nerves may exert ‘‘trophic’’ functions during hair follicle development, growth, and\\/or cycling. Here, we demonstrate hair cycle-related plasticity in the sympathetic innervation of skin and hair follicle in C57BL\\/6 mice. Compared with telogen skin, the number of nerve fibers containing norepinephrine or immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase increased during the early growth phase of the hair cycle (anagen) in dermis

Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Eva M. J. Peters; Natalia V. Botchkareva; Marcus Maurer; Ralf Paus

1999-01-01

165

Changing Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... straight when it's curly. Treatments That Can Damage Hair Are these treatments OK for kids? That's something ... woven, glued, or clipped into the hair. Damaged Hair? If you have used these or any other ...

166

Abnormal Sperm Development in pcd3J-/- Mice: the Importance of Agtpbp1 in Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Homozygous Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mutant males exhibit abnormal sperm development. Microscopic examination of the testes from pcd3J-/- mice at postnatal days 12, 15, 18 and 60 revealed histological differences, in comparison to wild-type mice, which were evident by day 18. Greatly reduced numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids were found in the adult testes, and apoptotic cells were identified among the differentiating germ cells after day 15. Our immunohistological analysis using an antihuman AGTPBP1 antibody showed that AGTPBP1 was expressed in spermatogenic cells between late stage primary spermatocytes and round spermatids. A global gene expression analysis from the testes of pcd3J-/- mice showed that expression of cyclin B3 and de-ubiquitinating enzymes USP2 and USP9y was altered by >1.5-fold compared to the expression levels in the wild-type. Our results suggest that the pcd mutant mice have defects in spermatogenesis that begin with the pachytene spermatocyte stage and continue through subsequent stages. Thus, Agtpbp1, the gene responsible for the pcd phenotype, plays an important role in spermatogenesis and is important for survival of germ cells at spermatocytes stage onward. PMID:21110128

Kim, Nameun; Xiao, Rui; Choi, Hojun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Sang-Jun, Uhm; Chankyu, Park

2011-01-01

167

Selenoprotein N deficiency in mice is associated with abnormal lung development.  

PubMed

Mutations in the human SEPN1 gene, encoding selenoprotein N (SepN), cause SEPN1-related myopathy (SEPN1-RM) characterized by muscle weakness, spinal rigidity, and respiratory insufficiency. As with other members of the selenoprotein family, selenoprotein N incorporates selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec). Most selenoproteins that have been functionally characterized are involved in oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, with the Sec residue located at their catalytic site. To model SEPN1-RM, we generated a Sepn1-knockout (Sepn1(-/-)) mouse line. Homozygous Sepn1(-/-) mice are fertile, and their weight and lifespan are comparable to wild-type (WT) animals. Under baseline conditions, the muscle histology of Sepn1(-/-) mice remains normal, but subtle core lesions could be detected in skeletal muscle after inducing oxidative stress. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels showed lower sensitivity to caffeine in SepN deficient myofibers, suggesting a possible role of SepN in RyR regulation. SepN deficiency also leads to abnormal lung development characterized by enlarged alveoli, which is associated with decreased tissue elastance and increased quasi-static compliance of Sepn1(-/-) lungs. This finding raises the possibility that the respiratory syndrome observed in patients with SEPN1 mutations may have a primary pulmonary component in addition to the weakness of respiratory muscles. PMID:23325319

Moghadaszadeh, Behzad; Rider, Branden E; Lawlor, Michael W; Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Gupta, Kushagra; Boukedes, Steve S; Owen, Caroline A; Beggs, Alan H

2013-04-01

168

Black hair follicular dysplasia, an autosomal recessive condition in dogs.  

PubMed Central

Using histology, a coat color abnormality and the subsequent hair loss were diagnosed as black hair follicular dysplasia. A pedigree analysis of an affected litter and literature review suggests that this is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor gene is ruled out by using linkage analysis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9789677

Schmutz, S M; Moker, J S; Clark, E G; Shewfelt, R

1998-01-01

169

The trajectory of gray matter development in Broca's area is abnormal in people who stutter.  

PubMed

The acquisition and mastery of speech-motor control requires years of practice spanning the course of development. People who stutter often perform poorly on speech-motor tasks thereby calling into question their ability to establish the stable neural motor programs required for masterful speech-motor control. There is evidence to support the assertion that these neural motor programs are represented in the posterior part of Broca's area, specifically the left pars opercularis. Consequently, various theories of stuttering causation posit that the disorder is related to a breakdown in the formation of the neural motor programs for speech early in development and that this breakdown is maintained throughout life. To date, no study has examined the potential neurodevelopmental signatures of the disorder across pediatric and adult populations. The current study aimed to fill this gap in our knowledge. We hypothesized that the developmental trajectory of cortical thickness in people who stutter would differ across the lifespan in the left pars opercularis relative to a group of control participants. We collected structural magnetic resonance images from 116 males (55 people who stutter) ranging in age from 6 to 48 years old. Differences in cortical thickness across ages and between patients and controls were investigated in 30 brain regions previously implicated in speech-motor control. An interaction between age and group was found for the left pars opercularis only. In people who stutter, the pars opercularis did not demonstrate the typical maturational pattern of gradual gray matter thinning with age across the lifespan that we observed in control participants. In contrast, the developmental trajectory of gray matter thickness in other regions of interest within the neural network for speech-motor control was similar for both groups. Our findings indicate that the developmental trajectory of gray matter in left pars opercularis is abnormal in people who stutter. PMID:25784869

Beal, Deryk S; Lerch, Jason P; Cameron, Brodie; Henderson, Rhaeling; Gracco, Vincent L; De Nil, Luc F

2015-01-01

170

Constitutively activated NLRP3 inflammasome causes inflammation and abnormal skeletal development in mice.  

PubMed

The NLRP3 inflammasome complex is responsible for maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1?. Mutations in NLRP3 are responsible for the cryopyrinopathies, a spectrum of conditions including neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). While excessive production of IL-1? and systemic inflammation are common to all cryopyrinopathy disorders, skeletal abnormalities, prominently in the knees, and low bone mass are unique features of patients with NOMID. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying skeletal abnormalities in NOMID, we generated knock-in mice globally expressing the D301N NLRP3 mutation (ortholog of D303N in human NLRP3). NOMID mice exhibit neutrophilia in blood and many tissues, including knee joints, and high levels of serum inflammatory mediators. They also exhibit growth retardation and severe postnatal osteopenia stemming at least in part from abnormally accelerated bone resorption, attended by increased osteoclastogenesis. Histologic analysis of knee joints revealed abnormal growth plates, with loss of chondrocytes and growth arrest in the central region of the epiphyses. Most strikingly, a tissue "spike" was observed in the mid-region of the growth plate in the long bones of all NOMID mice that may be the precursor to more severe deformations analogous to those observed in NOMID patients. These findings provide direct evidence linking a NOMID-associated NLRP3-activating mutation to abnormalities of postnatal skeletal growth and bone remodeling. PMID:22558291

Bonar, Sheri L; Brydges, Susannah D; Mueller, James L; McGeough, Matthew D; Pena, Carla; Chen, Debbie; Grimston, Susan K; Hickman-Brecks, Cynthia L; Ravindran, Soumya; McAlinden, Audrey; Novack, Deborah V; Kastner, Daniel L; Civitelli, Roberto; Hoffman, Hal M; Mbalaviele, Gabriel

2012-01-01

171

The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals  

E-print Network

The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals with abnormal hair A V Kalueff1 and P Tuohimaa2 1 Department of Anatomy, Medical School; 2 Department behaviour. Hair and skin exposed to water may be an important factor affecting the performance in this test

Kalueff, Allan V.

172

Migration of Melanoblasts into the Developing Murine Hair Follicle Is Accompanied by Transient c-Kit Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Disruption of the c-Kit\\/stem cell factor (SCF) signaling pathway interferes with the survival, migration, and differentiation of melanocytes during generation of the hair follicle pigmentary unit. We examined c-Kit, SCF, and S100 (a marker for precursor melanocytic cells) expression, as well as melanoblast\\/melanocyte ultrastructure, in perinatal C57BL\\/6 mouse skin. Before the onset of hair bulb melanogenesis (i.e., stages 0-4

Eva M. J. Peters; Desmond J. Tobin; Natasha Botchkareva; Marcus Maurer; Ralf Paus

2002-01-01

173

Pharmacological Disruption of Hair Follicle Pigmentation by Cyclophosphamide as a Model for Studying the Melanocyte Response to and Recovery from Cytotoxic Drug Damage In Situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we show that cyclophosphamide induces disruption of follicular melanogenesis, which is characterized by abnormal transfer of pigment granules to ectopic hair bulb locations, extrafollicular melanin incontinence, disordered formation of melanosomes, and inhibition of melanosome transfer into precortical keratinocytes. This is in contrast to dexamethasone-induced termination of follicle melanogenesis, which activates premature but predominantly normal catagen development. Cyclophosphamide-induced pigmentation disruption

Andrzej Slominski; Ralf Paus; Przemyslaw Plonka; Bori Handjiski; Marcus Maurer; Ashok Chakraborty; Martin C. Mihm Jr.

1996-01-01

174

Recent findings with computerized methods for scalp hair growth measurements.  

PubMed

Sensitive tools have been developed in order to monitor hair loss and treatment responses. Recently the Tricho-Scan was presented (by RH) as such a method which combines epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) with automatic digital image analysis. Herewith new TrichoScan data obtained from 10 women and 21 men with androgenetic hair loss after 6 mo of treatment with 5%-minoxidil are presented. Even in this small cohort of patients, we noticed a significant increase of hair density, cumulative hair thickness and terminal hair counts. Alternative methods were developed during a human alopecia investigation and research technology (HAIR Technology) programme at Skinterface. This involves contrast-enhancement, image acquisition, and processing by qualified technicians followed by computer-assisted image analysis. The specific identification of exogen hair, further adds to this very refined non-invasive investigative method for hair follicle function investigation. Regional variations of hair growth dynamics do exist in the human scalp such as in female patients complaining of hair loss, scalp hair density and growth on top of the head differs significantly from the occipital site. Finally, from transversal studies and from detailed monitoring of subsequent hair cycles during longitudinal studies, data were obtained that support the fact that shortening of hair cycle, slowing down of growth rates and thinning of hair shafts are heralding hair miniaturisation. In the workshop the TrichoScan, the method of Canfield and Skinterface have been shown. PMID:16382682

Hoffmann, Rolf; Van Neste, Dominique

2005-12-01

175

Abnormal development of placenta in HtrA1-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Abnormal levels of High temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) protein have been repeatedly observed in sera and placentas of preeclampsia patients. To understand the functions of HtrA1 in placentation and in the etiology of preeclampsia, we established HtrA1(-/-) mice. HtrA1(-/-) mice show intrauterine growth retardation, and their placentas are small due to a reduced size of the junctional zone and aberrant vascularization in the labyrinth at the mid-gestation stage. HtrA1 is expressed by Tpbpa-positive trophoblast precursors in the outer ectoplacental cone and junctional zone from embryonic day 7.5 to 10.5. In the HtrA1(-/-) placenta, Tpbpa-positive cell precursors are decreased in the early stage. Spongiotrophoblasts and glycogen trophoblast cells, both of which differentiate from Tpbpa-positive precursors, are consequently decreased in the junctional zone. Fewer spiral artery-associated trophoblast giant cells, another cell type derived from Tpbpa-positive precursors, invade the decidua and associate with maternal arteries in the HtrA1(-/-) placenta than in the wild type placenta. Maternal arteries in the HtrA1(-/-) decidua have narrower lumens, thicker arterial walls, and more vascular smooth muscle cells remaining in the walls than those in the wild type decidua, indicating impaired remodeling of maternal arteries. These results indicate that HtrA1 plays important roles in the differentiation of trophoblasts from Tpbpa-positive precursors in the ectoplacental cone. Insufficient levels of HtrA1 cause poor placental development and intrauterine growth retardation, due to aberrant trophoblast differentiation and consequent defects in maternal artery remodeling, and may contribute to the onset of preeclampsia. PMID:25446274

Hasan, Md Zobaer; Ikawati, Muthi; Tocharus, Jiraporn; Kawaichi, Masashi; Oka, Chio

2015-01-01

176

Hair cycle and hair pigmentation: dynamic interactions and changes associated with aging.  

PubMed

The tight coupling of hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle dramatically distinguishes follicular melanogenesis from the continuous melanogenesis of the epidermis. Cyclic re-construction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit occurs optimally in all scalp hair follicles during only the first 10 hair cycles, i.e. by approximately 40 years of age. Thereafter there appears to be a genetically regulated exhaustion of the pigmentary potential of each individual hair follicle leading to the formation of true gray and white hair. Pigment dilution results primarily from a reduction in tyrosinase activity within hair bulbar melanocytes. Thereafter, sub-optimal melanocyte-cortical keratinocyte interactions, and defective migration of melanocytes from a reservoir in the upper outer root sheath to the pigment-permitting microenvironment close to the follicular papilla of the hair bulb, will all disrupt normal function of the pigmentary unit. Evidence from studies on epidermal melanocyte aging suggest that reactive oxygen species-mediated damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA may lead to mutation accumulation in bulbar melanocytes. Parallel dysregulation of anti-oxidant mechanisms or pro/anti-apoptotic factors is also likely to occur within the cells. Pigment loss in canities may also affect keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, providing the tantalizing suggestion that melanocytes in the hair follicle contribute far more that packages of pigment alone. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of the development, regulation and control of the aging human hair follicle pigmentary system in relation with hair cycling. The exploitation of recently available methodologies to manipulate hair follicle melanocytes in vitro, and the observations that melanocytes remain in senile white hair follicles that can be induced to pigment in culture, raises the possibility of someday reversing canities. The perspective of rejuvenation of the whole hair follicle apparatus are still part of the dream but optimising its functional properties is clinically relevant and is close to reality. Finally as hair color influences its visibility when optical methods such as scalp photography are used to count hair fibers, the attention is drawn to possible interpretations of statistically significant changes in visible hair. Such changes may not exclusively be related to improved hair growth itself but also to changes in natural hair color that makes the hair more visible with the method used to count hairs. PMID:15036274

Van Neste, Dominique; Tobin, Desmond J

2004-01-01

177

Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral\\u000a disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities\\u000a and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high\\u000a resolution MRI to

Katherine G Akers; Steven A Kushner; Ana T Leslie; Laura Clarke; Derek van der Kooy; Jason P Lerch; Paul W Frankland

2011-01-01

178

Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship between ion channel clustering and synaptic formation in hair cells and afferent neurons. In future studies, we will determine when hair cell precursors acquire electrical tuning, and, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, identify and characterize their L-VGCC and BK currents. We will also use biophysical techniques to determine the number of L-VGCC and BK channels and the size and gating kinetics of their underlying L-VGCC and BK conductances, correlating these variables with the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillations produced by intracellular current steps. We expect these studies to determine how hair cells regulate ion channel expression to achieve specific physiological responses.

Baird, Richard A.

2003-01-01

179

Hair Styling Appliances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

1984-01-01

180

Control of hair cell excitability by vestibular primary sensory neurons Journal: Journal of Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Control of hair cell excitability by vestibular primary sensory neurons Journal: Journal, Neurosciences Keywords: Excitotoxicity, Development, Excitability, Hair Cell, repair, synapse impairement, utricle, voltage-gated sodium channel Themes & Topics: a. Hair celss, endorgans, and nerve

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

181

A Review of Gene Delivery and Stem Cell Based Therapies for Regenerating Inner Ear Hair Cells  

E-print Network

regenerative capacity of the inner ear hair cells. With recent advances in understanding the developmental biology of mammalian and non-mammalian hair cells a variety of strategies have emerged to restore lost hair cells are being developed. Two predominant...

Devarajan, Keerthana; Staecker, Hinrich; Detamore, Michael S.

2011-09-13

182

Abnormal development of cultured rat embryos in rat and human sera prepared after vitamin A ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Human and rat sera were assayed for teratogenic activity using a whole rat embryo culture technique. Sera prepared from blood withdrawn 1–5 h after the ingestion of vitamin A capsules caused developmental retardation and craniofacial abnormalities. Control sera permitted normal growth and differentiation.

C. E. Steele; J. D. Plenefisch; N. W. Klein

1982-01-01

183

Development and experimental validation of computational methods to simulate abnormal thermal and structural environments  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: (1) a purely regulatory approach, or (2) by a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches.

Moya, J.L.; Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.

1993-10-01

184

Hair follicle Formation of  

E-print Network

Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

185

Removing Hair Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... common methods of hair removal. back to top Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair follicles with heat. Sometimes it is ... a topical anesthetic product be used before a laser hair removal procedure, to minimize pain. In these ...

186

Hair Cosmetics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

2015-01-01

187

Assessment of styling performance in hair gels and hair sprays by means of a new two-point stiffness test.  

PubMed

A new two-point bending stiffness method on flat hair strands was developed and validated after application of hair styling gels and hair styling sprays. A special mold was used to align single hair fibers after applying the formulations to the hair. The styling gels used contain different commercially available thickeners and styling polymers, e.g., carbomer, acrylates/beheneth-25 methacrylate copolymer, Polyquaternium-86, PVP, VP/VA copolymers, and VP/methacrylamide/vinylimidazole copolymer. Evaluation of hair sprays was performed after spray application on flat hair strands. Commercially available hair styling resins were used, e.g. acrylates/t-butylacrylamide copolymer, octylacrylamide/acrylates/butylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer, and VP/VA copolymer (30:70). The new stiffness test method provided the best correlation with practically relevant sensory assessments on hair strands and a panel test in which styling gels were evaluated. However, we did not observe a correlation between the new stiffness method on flat hair strands and practical assessments in hair spray application. We postulate that different polymer/hair composites are responsible for these discrepancies. Hairs on model heads for half-side testing are spot-welded after spray application, while hairs are seam-welded in the stiffness test after alignment of single hair fibers. This alignment is necessary to achieve reproducible results. PMID:20939974

Hoessel, Peter; Riemann, Solveig; Knebl, Robert; Schroeder, Jens; Schuh, Gerd; Castillo, Catalina

2010-01-01

188

Hair analysis for ketamine and its metabolites.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of ketamine (K) and its major metabolite, norketamine (NK) in hair. After decontamination, the hair sample was incubated and extracted, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Limits of quantitation were found to be 0.05 ng/mg. Hair segments in black color were collected from 15 K abusers. Based on an experiment with 15 cavies with black, white, and brown hair, the mechanism of incorporation of K into hair was investigated. After shaving hair on the back of the cavies (8 cm x 4 cm), they were separated into three groups and administered intraperitoneally once a day for 7 successive days with high, medium, and low doses of K, respectively. Two days after this, hair segments with different colors were shaved. There was a direct correlation between the concentration of K in cavy hair and the dose and DHNK was detected only in high dosage group. The concentration of K increased in the order of white, brown, and black hair. The possible factors responsible for the incorporation of K and its metabolites in hair were discussed. PMID:16844332

Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min; Zhuo, Xianyi

2006-10-16

189

Hair loss in women.  

PubMed

Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

2015-03-01

190

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth. Antheraea polyphemus, III. Development of olfactory sensilla and the properties of hair-forming cells.  

PubMed

During adult development of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, the anlagen of olfactory sensilla arise within the first 2 days post-apolysis in the antennal epidermis (stage 1-3). Approximately on the second day, the primary dendrites as well as the axons grow out from the sensory neurons (stage 4). The trichogen cells start to grow apical processes approximately on the third day, and these hair-forming 'sprouts' reach their definite length around the ninth day (stages 5-6). Then the secretion of cuticle begins, the cuticulin layer having formed on day 10 (stage 7a). The primary dendrites are shed, the inner dendritic segments as well as the thecogen cells retract from the prospective hair bases, and the inner tormogen cells degenerate around days 10/11 (stage 7b). The hair shafts of the basiconic sensilla are completed around days 12/13 (stage 7c), and those of the trichoid sensilla around days 14/15 (stage 7d). The trichogen sprouts retract from the hairs after having finished cuticle formation, and the outer dendritic segments grow out into the hairs: in the basiconic sensilla directly through, and in the trichoid sensilla alongside, the sprouts. The trichogen sprouts contain numerous parallel-running microtubules. Besides their cytoskeletal function, these are most probably involved in the transport of membrane vesicles. During the phase of cuticle deposition, large numbers of vesicles are transported anterogradely from the cell bodies into the sprouts, where they fuse with the apical cell membrane and release their electron-dense contents (most probably cuticle precursors) to the outside. As the cuticle grows in thickness, the surface area of the sprouts is reduced by endocytosis of coated vesicles. When finally the sprouts retract from the completed hairs, the number of endocytotic vesicles is further increased and numerous membrane cisterns seem to be transported retrogradely along the microtubules to the cell bodies. Here the membrane material will most probably be used again in the formation of the sensillum lymph cavities. Thus, the trichogen cells are characterized by an intensive membrane recycling. The sensillum lymph cavities develop between days 16-20 (stage 8), mainly via apical invaginations of the trichogen cells. The imago emerges on day 21. PMID:18621189

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1991-01-01

191

WT1 mutations contribute to abnormal genital system development and hereditary Wilms' tumour  

Microsoft Academic Search

WILMS' tumour (WT), aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and mental retardation form a symptom group (WAGR syndrome) associated with hemizygous deletions of DNA in chromosome band 11p13 (refs 1,2). However, it has not been clear whether hemizygosity at a single locus contributes to more than one phenotype. The tumour suppressor gene for Wilms' tumour, WT1, has been characterized3,4: it is expressed at

Jerry Pelletier; Wendy Bruening; Frederick P. Li; Daniel A. Haber; Tom Glaser; David E. Housman

1991-01-01

192

Presynaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia and rats with abnormal prefrontal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia may be associated with abnormalities in synaptic structure and\\/or function and reflected in altered concentrations of proteins in presynaptic terminals and involved in synaptic plasticity (synaptobrevin\\/ vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25), syntaxin, synaptophysin and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43)). We examined the immunoreactivity of these synapse-associated proteins via quantitative immunoblotting in the prefrontal

N D Halim; C S Weickert; B W McClintock; T M Hyde; D R Weinberger; J E Kleinman; B K Lipska

2003-01-01

193

Making connections in the inner ear: recent insights into the development of spiral ganglion neurons and their connectivity with sensory hair cells  

PubMed Central

In mammals, auditory information is processed by the hair cells (HCs) located in the cochlea and then rapidly transmitted to the CNS via a specialized cluster of bipolar afferent connections known as the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Although many anatomical aspects of SGNs are well described, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their genesis, how they are precisely arranged along the cochlear duct, and the guidance mechanisms that promote the innervation of their hair cell targets are only now being understood. Building upon foundational studies of neurogenesis and neurotrophins, we review here new concepts and technologies that are helping to enrich our understanding of the development of the nervous system within the inner ear. PMID:23660234

Coate, Thomas M.; Kelley, Matthew W.

2013-01-01

194

Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple, specific, accurate, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of Lawsone in Trichup herbal hair powder (coded as a THHP), polyherbal formulation. The chromatographic development was carried out on aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 and good resolution was achieved with Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (8:1:1 v/v/v) as mobile phase. Lawsone detection was carried out densitometrically at 277 nm and obtained retardation factor value was 0.46 ± 0.02. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curve was achieved to be linear over a range of 5-60 ?g/ml and regression coefficient was obtained 0.998. Accuracy of chromatographic method was evaluated by standard addition method; recovery was obtained 99.25 ± 0.61%. The peak purity of Lawsone was achieved 0.999 r. Relative standard deviation for intraday and inter-day precision was 0.37-0.56% and 0.42-0.55%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the Lawsone were found to be 1.08 ?g/m land 3.28 ?g/ml, respectively. This result shows that the method was well validated. In the present study, the Lawsone content was found 0.322 ± 0.014% in THHP. This study reveals that the proposed high performance thin layer chromatography method is accurate, fast and cost- effective for routine estimation of Lawsone in polyherbal formulation. PMID:24083204

Patel, Maunang M; Solanki, Bhavna R; Gurav, Nilesh C; Patel, Prateek H; Verma, Shweta S

2013-07-01

195

Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography  

PubMed Central

A simple, specific, accurate, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of Lawsone in Trichup herbal hair powder (coded as a THHP), polyherbal formulation. The chromatographic development was carried out on aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 and good resolution was achieved with Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (8:1:1 v/v/v) as mobile phase. Lawsone detection was carried out densitometrically at 277 nm and obtained retardation factor value was 0.46 ± 0.02. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curve was achieved to be linear over a range of 5-60 ?g/ml and regression coefficient was obtained 0.998. Accuracy of chromatographic method was evaluated by standard addition method; recovery was obtained 99.25 ± 0.61%. The peak purity of Lawsone was achieved 0.999 r. Relative standard deviation for intraday and inter-day precision was 0.37-0.56% and 0.42-0.55%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the Lawsone were found to be 1.08 ?g/m land 3.28 ?g/ml, respectively. This result shows that the method was well validated. In the present study, the Lawsone content was found 0.322 ± 0.014% in THHP. This study reveals that the proposed high performance thin layer chromatography method is accurate, fast and cost- effective for routine estimation of Lawsone in polyherbal formulation. PMID:24083204

Patel, Maunang M.; Solanki, Bhavna R.; Gurav, Nilesh C.; Patel, Prateek H.; Verma, Shweta S.

2013-01-01

196

Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration  

PubMed Central

The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair. Recent studies have revealed that hair follicle stem cells are heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. Moreover, interactions between heterologous stem cells, including both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells, within the hair follicle are just now being explored. This review will describe how recent findings have expanded our understanding of the development, organization, and regeneration of hair follicle stem cells. At a basic level, this review is intended to help construct a reference point to integrate the surge of studies on the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells. PMID:22293183

Ito, Mayumi; Myung, Peggy

2012-01-01

197

Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Sim?i?, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

2007-07-01

198

CD34 EXPRESSION BY HAIR FOLLICLE STEM CELLS IS REQUIRED FOR SKIN TUMOR DEVELOPMENT IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

We used knockout mice to show that a cell surface protein called CD34 is required for skin tumor formation in mice. Wild type mice treated with 7-12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and a tumor promoter developed papillomas. When we treated CD34 knockout (KO) mice the same way, n...

199

White lupin cluster root acclimation to phosphorus deficiency and root hair development involve unique glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a phosphate (Pi) deficiency tolerant legume which develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and...

200

Sox2 signaling in prosensory domain specification and subsequent hair cell differentiation in the developing cochlea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sox2 is a high-mobility transcription factor that is one of the earliest markers of developing inner ear prosensory domains. In humans, mutations in SOX2 cause sensorineural hearing loss and a loss of function study in mice showed that Sox2 is required for prosensory formation in the cochlea. However, the specific roles of Sox2 have not been determined. Here we illustrate

Alain Dabdoub; Chandrakala Puligilla; Jennifer M. Jones; Bernd Fritzsch; Kathryn S. E. Cheah; Larysa H. Pevny; Matthew W. Kelley

2008-01-01

201

Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its computational and algorithmic  

E-print Network

1 Abstract Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its the complex behavior of long human hair, taking into account the hair-to-hair interactions. For long hair, we propose the thin shell volume (TSV) model for enhancing hair realism by simulating complex hair-hair

Shahabi, Cyrus

202

Developing Software to “Track and Catch” Missed Follow-up of Abnormal Test Results in a Complex Sociotechnical Environment  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed test results, we developed a software prototype to account for technical, usability, organizational, and workflow needs. Our evaluation has shown the feasibility of the prototype as a means of facilitating better follow-up for cancer-related abnormal test results. PMID:24155789

Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.

2013-01-01

203

A search for factors specifying tonotopy implicates DNER in hair-cell development in the chick's cochlea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate perception of sound frequency by vertebrates relies upon the tuning of hair cells, which are arranged along auditory organs according to frequency. This arrangement, which is termed a tonotopic gradient, results from the coordination of many cellular and extracellular features. Seeking the mechanisms that orchestrate those features and govern the tonotopic gradient, we used expression microarrays to identify

Lukasz Kowalik; A. J. Hudspeth

2011-01-01

204

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of prostaglandin E receptor 2 gene in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development.  

PubMed

As a member of the four subtypes of receptors for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) is in the family of G-protein coupled receptors and has been characterized to be involved in the development and growth of hair follicles. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of PTGER2 gene from cashmere goat skin. The entire open reading frame (ORF) of PTGER2 gene was 1047 bp and encoded 348 amino acid residues. The deduced protein contained one G-protein coupled receptors family 1 signature, seven transmembrane domains, and other potential sites. Tissue expression analysis showed that PTGER2 gene was expressed strongly in the skin. The general expression tendency of PTGER2 gene at different hair follicle developmental stages in the skin was gradually decreased from anagen to catagen to telogen. After comparing with the expression of BMP4 gene and related reports, we further presume that it seems to have a relationship between the hair follicle cycle and the expression level of PTGER2 gene in cashmere goat skin. PMID:24555795

Geng, Rong-Qing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yu-Lin

2014-04-01

205

Development, validation and application to real samples of a multiresidue LC-MS/MS method for determination of ?2 -agonists and anabolic steroids in bovine hair.  

PubMed

?(2) -agonists are often abused in cattle breeding because of their effects on animal growth and meat properties. The use of ?(2) -agonists as growth promoters is forbidden in the European Union (Council Directive 96/23/EC classifies them into group A of Annex I), due to their toxicity and carcinogenic properties, as for anabolic steroids, which are often administered in combination with ?(2) -agonists, to promote the storage of proteins and increase muscle size. A unique confirmatory liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative detection of 13 ?(2) -agonists and anabolic steroids plus the qualitative identification of other three analytes in bovine hair was developed and validated, according to Decision 2002/657/CE. Hair samples were washed with dichloromethane, digested within a NaOH solution and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction. The analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The absence of matrix interferents, together with good repeatability of both retention times and relative abundances of diagnostic transitions, allowed the correct identification of all analytes. The quantitative calibrations obtained from spiked blank hair samples proved linear in the range tested. CC? and CC? ranged from 0.5?ng/g to 30?ng/g. Intralaboratory reproducibility (CV%) ranged between 5.0 and 17.7 and trueness between 96%?±?7% and 105%?±?8%. The applicability of the method to real positive samples was demonstrated for both ?(2) -agonists and anabolic steroids. 17?-boldenone was found in most (70%) hair samples obtained from untreated animals, supporting the hypothesis of endogenous production of this steroid. PMID:25230191

Leporati, M; Bergoglio, M; Capra, P; Bozzetta, E; Abete, M C; Vincenti, M

2014-09-01

206

Survey of breeders’ management of horses in Europe, North America and Australia: Comparison of factors associated with the development of abnormal behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

An online survey of domestic horse breeders in the USA, UK, Australia, Canada and mainland Europe was carried out in order to examine management risk factors associated with the development of abnormal behaviour patterns. One hundred and forty breeders responded, and epidemiological results suggested that the overall number of horses showing abnormal behaviours may be declining (5.2% of the sample).

Matthew Parker; Deborah Goodwin; Edward S. Redhead

2008-01-01

207

Hair Loss in New Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair loss in new moms Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

208

Comparison of Phenotypes between Different vangl2 Mutants Demonstrates Dominant Effects of the Looptail Mutation during Hair Cell Development  

PubMed Central

Experiments utilizing the Looptail mutant mouse, which harbors a missense mutation in the vangl2 gene, have been essential for studies of planar polarity and linking the function of the core planar cell polarity proteins to other developmental signals. Originally described as having dominant phenotypic traits, the molecular interactions underlying the Looptail mutant phenotype are unclear because Vangl2 protein levels are significantly reduced or absent from mutant tissues. Here we introduce a vangl2 knockout mouse and directly compare the severity of the knockout and Looptail mutant phenotypes by intercrossing the two lines and assaying the planar polarity of inner ear hair cells. Overall the vangl2 knockout phenotype is milder than the phenotype of compound mutants carrying both the Looptail and vangl2 knockout alleles. In compound mutants a greater number of hair cells are affected and changes in the orientation of individual hair cells are greater when quantified. We further demonstrate in a heterologous cell system that the protein encoded by the Looptail mutation (Vangl2S464N) disrupts delivery of Vangl1 and Vangl2 proteins to the cell surface as a result of oligomer formation between Vangl1 and Vangl2S464N, or Vangl2 and Vangl2S464N, coupled to the intracellular retention of Vangl2S464N. As a result, Vangl1 protein is missing from the apical cell surface of vestibular hair cells in Looptail mutants, but is retained at the apical cell surface of hair cells in vangl2 knockouts. Similarly the distribution of Prickle-like2, a putative Vangl2 interacting protein, is differentially affected in the two mutant lines. In summary, we provide evidence for a direct physical interaction between Vangl1 and Vangl2 through a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches and propose that this interaction underlies the dominant phenotypic traits associated with the Looptail mutation. PMID:22363783

Yin, Haifeng; Copley, Catherine O.; Goodrich, Lisa V.; Deans, Michael R.

2012-01-01

209

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

210

Diagnosis of Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias. ImagesFigures 1-4 PMID:21221382

Coupe, Robert L.M.

1992-01-01

211

Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This image displays a close-up of the scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata ...

212

The diaphanous Gene of Drosophila Interacts Antagonistically with multiple wing hairs and Plays a Key Role in Wing Hair Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila wing is covered by an array of distally pointing hairs that has served as a key model system for studying planar cell polarity (PCP). The adult cuticular hairs are formed in the pupae from cell extensions that contain extensive actin filaments and microtubules. The importance of the actin cytoskeleton for hair growth and morphogenesis is clear from the wide range of phenotypes seen in mutations in well-known actin regulators. Formin proteins promote the formation of long actin filaments of the sort thought to be important for hair growth. We report here that the formin encoding diaphanous (dia) gene plays a key role in hair morphogenesis. Both loss of function mutations and the expression of a constitutively active Dia led to cells forming both morphologically abnormal hairs and multiple hairs. The conserved frizzled (fz)/starry night (stan) PCP pathway functions to restrict hair initiation and activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal most part of wing cells. It also ensures the formation of a single hair per cell. Our data suggest that the localized inhibition of Dia activity may be part of this mechanism. We found the expression of constitutively active Dia greatly expands the region for activation of the cytoskeleton and that dia functions antagonistically with multiple wing hairs (mwh), the most downstream member of the fz/stan pathway. Further we established that purified fragments of Dia and Mwh could be co-immunoprecipitated suggesting the genetic interaction could reflect a direct physical interaction. PMID:25730111

Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N.

2015-01-01

213

The diaphanous Gene of Drosophila Interacts Antagonistically with multiple wing hairs and Plays a Key Role in Wing Hair Morphogenesis.  

PubMed

The Drosophila wing is covered by an array of distally pointing hairs that has served as a key model system for studying planar cell polarity (PCP). The adult cuticular hairs are formed in the pupae from cell extensions that contain extensive actin filaments and microtubules. The importance of the actin cytoskeleton for hair growth and morphogenesis is clear from the wide range of phenotypes seen in mutations in well-known actin regulators. Formin proteins promote the formation of long actin filaments of the sort thought to be important for hair growth. We report here that the formin encoding diaphanous (dia) gene plays a key role in hair morphogenesis. Both loss of function mutations and the expression of a constitutively active Dia led to cells forming both morphologically abnormal hairs and multiple hairs. The conserved frizzled (fz)/starry night (stan) PCP pathway functions to restrict hair initiation and activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal most part of wing cells. It also ensures the formation of a single hair per cell. Our data suggest that the localized inhibition of Dia activity may be part of this mechanism. We found the expression of constitutively active Dia greatly expands the region for activation of the cytoskeleton and that dia functions antagonistically with multiple wing hairs (mwh), the most downstream member of the fz/stan pathway. Further we established that purified fragments of Dia and Mwh could be co-immunoprecipitated suggesting the genetic interaction could reflect a direct physical interaction. PMID:25730111

Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N

2015-01-01

214

Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.  

PubMed

Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways, and others, can explain many alternatives and specific variations of hair bending phenotypes. Mechanisms for hair papilla budding or its division by bisection or fission can explain MPC formation. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) and mesenchymal-to-epithelial (MET) transitions, acting in collaboration with epithelial-mesenchymal communications are also considered as mechanisms affecting hair growth and its bending and twisting. These may be treated as sub-mechanisms of an overall development from neural-crest stem cell (NCSC) lineages to differentiated hair follicle (HF) cell types, thus providing a unified framework for hair growth and development. PMID:24617997

Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

2014-08-01

215

Arsenic-induced alterations in embryonic transcription factor gene expression: implications for abnormal neural development.  

PubMed

We examined the morphological and molecular consequences of acute in utero exposure to teratogenic concentrations of arsenate. The treatment produced a dose-related increase in neural tube defects, along with a significant alteration in the pattern of gene expression for several transcription factors (creb, Hox 3.1, Pax3, and Emx-1) that were examined using in situ transcription and antisense RNA amplification procedures. On gestational day 9:0, there was a significant delay in the embryos progression through neural tube closure, accompanied by a significant downregulation of Hox 3.1 expression and a significant upregulation of Pax3, Emx-1, and creb. As both Hox 3.1 and Pax3 serve to regulate N-CAM expression, it is possible that abnormalities associated with N-CAM may compromise neural crest cell migration and normal neural tube closure. PMID:8754282

Wlodraczyk, B; Bennett, G D; Calvin, J A; Craig, J C; Finnell, R H

1996-01-01

216

Defining Hair Follicles in the Age of Stem Cell Bioengineering  

PubMed Central

One challenge faced by stem cell biologists is the bioengineering of an organ. Ehama et al. (2007, this issue) used cells derived from human and rodent epidermis and dermal papilla to reconstitute hair-follicle mini-organs. Some result in hair follicles; others are hair follicle–like. The challenge calls for the development of a set of criteria to define a hair follicle so that bioengineered products in the future can be evaluated. PMID:17700620

Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Cotsarelis, George; Stenn, Kurt

2015-01-01

217

Hair Loss (Alopecia)  

Cancer.gov

Some types of chemotherapy cause the hair on your head, and other parts of your body, to fall out. Radiation therapy can also cause hair loss on the part of the body radiation therapy. Hair loss is called alopecia. Talk with your health care team to learn if the cancer treatment you will be receiving causes hair loss. Your doctor or nurse will share strategies that have worked for others, including those listed below.

218

The structure of people’s hair  

PubMed Central

Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

2014-01-01

219

Ectodermal abnormalities in patients with Kabuki syndrome.  

PubMed

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is extensively described in the literature and characterized by a typical facial gestalt in combination with postnatal short stature, hypotonia, joint laxity, developmental delay, persistent fetal fingertip pads, and an ever-growing group of congenital abnormalities. In this study, we focus on some ectodermal manifestations that we have observed. We studied seven patients who fulfilled the clinical criteria for KS and undertook a detailed clinical, dental, cytogenetic, and immunoglobulin assessments. In addition, microscopic hair examinations were performed on all patients and compared with matched control patients. All patients had receding of the anterior hair line, but five had evident sparse frontal scalp hair. They all showed peculiar similar microscopic hair abnormalities in the form of twisting of the hair shafts, irregularity of the diameter of the hair, and trichorrhexis nodosa. In addition, hypoplastic nails, café-au-lait patches, and missing upper lateral incisors were observed in 57.1%, 28.6%, and 14.3% of the patients, respectively. Variable orodental anomalies were seen in all the patients with an everted lower lip found in four patients (57.1%). This report provides further evidence that some cases of KS have ectodermal involvement. PMID:21692838

Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Afifi, Hanan H; Eid, Maha M; El-Badry, Tarek H; Kholoussi, Naglaa

2011-01-01

220

Earlier- born secondary hair follicles exhibit phenotypic plasticity.  

PubMed

The mouse pelage is composed of four distinct hair types. The fact that the follicles that generate these hair types form in successive waves during late embryonic development suggested the model that distinct epigenetic states of the inductive mesenchyme fixed when the follicles are formed specify the distinctive hair morphologies. This model is inconsistent with the observation that many follicles produce different hair types in successive hair cycles. In this study, the characteristics of the hair follicles that switch between the production of different hair types were examined. These follicles were born earlier than those that do not switch between hair types and made longer hairs. They also expressed a higher level of Sox2 in the dermal papilla and had more DP cells per follicle. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that different birthdates specify the potential of different follicles. However, rather than directly specifying hair type, birthdate correlates with three types: guard hairs, a plastic population that can make awl, auchene or zigzag hairs, and a population that normally makes only zigzag hairs. Although Sox2 expression levels in the DP identify this subset during the morphogenetic cycle, Sox2 expression is not a fixed epigenetic state specified when the follicle is first formed. PMID:25431314

Chi, Woo; Wu, Eleanor; Morgan, Bruce A

2015-04-01

221

Abnormal P-selectin localization during megakaryocyte development determines thrombosis in the gata1low model of myelofibrosis  

PubMed Central

Patients with primary myelofibrosis have increased risk for bleeding and thrombosis. It is debated whether propensity to thrombosis is due to increased numbers of platelet microparticles and/or to pathological platelet-neutrophil interactions. Platelet neutrophil interactions are mediated by P-selectin and even though the megakaryocytes of myelofibrosis patients express normal levels of P-selectin, it remains abnormally localized to the demarcation membrane system rather than being assembled into the ?-granules in platelets. Mice carrying the hypomorphic Gata1low mutation express the same megakaryocyte abnormalities presented by primary myelofibrosis patients, including abnormal P-selectin localization to the DMS and develop with age myelofibrosis, a disease that closely resembles human primary myelofibrosis. Whether these mice would also develop thrombosis has not been investigated as yet. The aim of this study was to determine whether Gata1low mice would develop thrombosis with age and, in this case, the role played by P-selectin in the development of the trait. To this aim, Gata1low mice were crossed with P-selnull mice according to standard genetic protocols and Gata1lowP-selwt, Gata1lowP-selnull and Gata1WTP-selnull or Gata1wtP-selwt (as controls) littermates obtained. It was shown that platelet counts, but not hematocrit, are reduced in Gata1low mice. Moreover, platelet microparticles are reduced in Gata1low mice and P-selectin positive platelet microparticles were not found. To determine the phenotypic implications of the different mutations, bleeding time was estimated by a tail cut procedure. Mutant mice were sacrificed and presence of thrombosis was determined by immunohistological staining of organs. Gata1low mice with or without the P-selectin null trait had a prolonged bleeding time compared to wild type mice. However, in Gata1low mice significantly higher frequency of thrombotic events was seen in adult and old Gata1low mice compared to Gata1lowP-selnull mice. Thus, presence of the P-selectin null trait rescued Gata1low mice from the thrombotic phenotype, but did not change the level of platelet microparticles. Taken together these data indicate that abnormal localization of P-selectin, induced by the Gata1low mutation, and thus, increased pathological interactions with leucocytes, is responsible for the increased presence of thrombosis seen in these mice. PMID:24176039

Zetterberg, Eva; Verrucci, Maria; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zingariello, Maria; Sancillo, Laura; D’Amore, Emanuela; Rana, Rosa Alba; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

2014-01-01

222

Altered structure of cortical sulci in gilles de la Tourette syndrome: Further support for abnormal brain development.  

PubMed

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics. We hypothesized that patients with this syndrome would present an aberrant pattern of cortical formation, which could potentially reflect global alterations of brain development. Using 3 Tesla structural neuroimaging, we compared sulcal depth, opening, and length and thickness of sulcal gray matter in 52 adult patients and 52 matched controls. Cortical sulci were automatically reconstructed and identified over the whole brain, using BrainVisa software. We focused on frontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions, in which abnormal structure and functional activity were identified in previous neuroimaging studies. Partial correlation analysis with age, sex, and treatment as covariables of noninterest was performed amongst relevant clinical and neuroimaging variables in patients. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome showed lower depth and reduced thickness of gray matter in the pre- and post-central as well as superior, inferior, and internal frontal sulci. In patients with associated obsessive-compulsive disorder, additional structural changes were found in temporal, insular, and olfactory sulci. Crucially, severity of tics and of obsessive-compulsive disorder measured by Yale Global Tic severity scale and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale, respectively, correlated with structural sulcal changes in sensorimotor, temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and middle cingulate cortical areas. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome displayed an abnormal structural pattern of cortical sulci, which correlated with severity of clinical symptoms. Our results provide further evidence of abnormal brain development in GTS. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:25820811

Muellner, Julia; Delmaire, Christine; Valabrégue, Romain; Schüpbach, Michael; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia

2015-04-15

223

Nail abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Infection: Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may cause a ...

224

Chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome

K. Goh; R. F. Jacox; F. W. Anderson

1980-01-01

225

Minor Abnormalities of Testis Development in Mice Lacking the Gene Encoding the MAPK Signalling Component, MAP3K1  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway. In individuals harbouring heterozygous mutations in MAP3K1, dysregulation of MAPK signalling was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, suggesting a causal role for these mutations in disrupting XY sexual development. Mice lacking the cognate gene, Map3k1, are viable and exhibit the eyes open at birth (EOB) phenotype on a mixed genetic background, but on the C57BL/6J genetic background most mice die at around 14.5 dpc due to a failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. However, no systematic examination of sexual development in Map3k1-deficient mice has been described, an omission that is especially relevant in the case of C57BL/6J, a genetic background that is sensitized to disruptions to testis determination. Here, we report that on a mixed genetic background mice lacking Map3k1 are fertile and exhibit no overt abnormalities of testis development. On C57BL/6J, significant non-viability is observed with very few animals surviving to adulthood. However, an examination of development in Map3k1-deficient XY embryos on this genetic background revealed no significant defects in testis determination, although minor abnormalities were observed, including an increase in gonadal length. Based on these observations, we conclude that MAP3K1 is not required for mouse testis determination. We discuss the significance of these data for the functional interpretation of sex-reversing MAP3K1 mutations in humans. PMID:21559298

Warr, Nick; Brixey, Rachel; Tateossian, Hilda; Dopplapudi, Asha; Wells, Sara; Cheeseman, Michael; Xia, Ying; Ostrer, Harry; Greenfield, Andy

2011-01-01

226

Spontaneous hair cell regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea in vivo  

PubMed Central

Loss of cochlear hair cells in mammals is currently believed to be permanent, resulting in hearing impairment that affects more than 10% of the population. Here, we developed two genetic strategies to ablate neonatal mouse cochlear hair cells in vivo. Both Pou4f3DTR/+ and Atoh1-CreER™; ROSA26DTA/+ alleles allowed selective and inducible hair cell ablation. After hair cell loss was induced at birth, we observed spontaneous regeneration of hair cells. Fate-mapping experiments demonstrated that neighboring supporting cells acquired a hair cell fate, which increased in a basal to apical gradient, averaging over 120 regenerated hair cells per cochlea. The normally mitotically quiescent supporting cells proliferated after hair cell ablation. Concurrent fate mapping and labeling with mitotic tracers showed that regenerated hair cells were derived by both mitotic regeneration and direct transdifferentiation. Over time, regenerated hair cells followed a similar pattern of maturation to normal hair cell development, including the expression of prestin, a terminal differentiation marker of outer hair cells, although many new hair cells eventually died. Hair cell regeneration did not occur when ablation was induced at one week of age. Our findings demonstrate that the neonatal mouse cochlea is capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration after damage in vivo. Thus, future studies on the neonatal cochlea might shed light on the competence of supporting cells to regenerate hair cells and on the factors that promote the survival of newly regenerated hair cells. PMID:24496619

Cox, Brandon C.; Chai, Renjie; Lenoir, Anne; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhang, LingLi; Nguyen, Duc-Huy; Chalasani, Kavita; Steigelman, Katherine A.; Fang, Jie; Cheng, Alan G.; Zuo, Jian

2014-01-01

227

Spontaneous hair cell regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea in vivo.  

PubMed

Loss of cochlear hair cells in mammals is currently believed to be permanent, resulting in hearing impairment that affects more than 10% of the population. Here, we developed two genetic strategies to ablate neonatal mouse cochlear hair cells in vivo. Both Pou4f3(DTR/+) and Atoh1-CreER™; ROSA26(DTA/+) alleles allowed selective and inducible hair cell ablation. After hair cell loss was induced at birth, we observed spontaneous regeneration of hair cells. Fate-mapping experiments demonstrated that neighboring supporting cells acquired a hair cell fate, which increased in a basal to apical gradient, averaging over 120 regenerated hair cells per cochlea. The normally mitotically quiescent supporting cells proliferated after hair cell ablation. Concurrent fate mapping and labeling with mitotic tracers showed that regenerated hair cells were derived by both mitotic regeneration and direct transdifferentiation. Over time, regenerated hair cells followed a similar pattern of maturation to normal hair cell development, including the expression of prestin, a terminal differentiation marker of outer hair cells, although many new hair cells eventually died. Hair cell regeneration did not occur when ablation was induced at one week of age. Our findings demonstrate that the neonatal mouse cochlea is capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration after damage in vivo. Thus, future studies on the neonatal cochlea might shed light on the competence of supporting cells to regenerate hair cells and on the factors that promote the survival of newly regenerated hair cells. PMID:24496619

Cox, Brandon C; Chai, Renjie; Lenoir, Anne; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhang, LingLi; Nguyen, Duc-Huy; Chalasani, Kavita; Steigelman, Katherine A; Fang, Jie; Rubel, Edwin W; Cheng, Alan G; Zuo, Jian

2014-02-01

228

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C.E.

1995-01-01

229

Algorithm of hair restoration surgery in children.  

PubMed

Hair is an inseparable element of external appearance of every human being. Although various fashion trends come and go, the lack of hair is for many a major aesthetic and psychological problem. Even if men's balding can be accepted as a natural phenomenon, hair loss in children is considered to be a condition demanding correction. During an 18-year period, 8440 hair restoration operations were performed at the Hair Clinic Poznan, in Poznan, Poland. Most patients were men treated for androgenic alopecia. Among the patients were 57 children in whom hair loss resulted from hereditary factors, perinatal traumas, radiotherapy, and mechanical, thermal, and chemical damage. Methods of restoration were adjusted to type of hair loss, patient age, and ability to cooperate with the surgeon. In cases of single massive scars, skin flap correction was usually used. The flaps were prepared with the use of expanders. In cases of numerous scattered defects or considerable thinning of the scalp, the method of choice was hair transplantation. The "four-hand stick-and-place" technique developed by the authors enabled the surgeon to quickly and precisely carry out the procedure. Application of varied surgery techniques in scalp reconstruction procedures in children gave very good aesthetic results with a minimal complication rate. PMID:12900598

Kolasiñski, Jerzy; Kolenda, Ma?gorzata

2003-08-01

230

Two new standard reference materials for the determination of drugs of abuse in human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new standard reference materials (SRM) for drugs of abuse in human hair have been developed. SRM 2379 consists of hair spiked with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, phencyclidine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. SRM 2380 consists of hair spiked with codeine, morphine, monoacetylmorphine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The SRMs were prepared by soaking the hair in a solution of the target analytes in water-dimethylsulfoxide.

Michael J. Welch; Lorna T. Sniegoski; Susan Tai

2003-01-01

231

Hair follicular cell\\/organ culture in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair follicles are complex organs composed of the dermal papilla (DP), dermal sheath (DS), outer root sheath (ORS), inner root sheath (IRS) and hair shaft. Development of hair follicles begins towards the end of the first trimester of pregnancy and is controlled by epidermal–mesenchymal interaction (EMI), which is a signaling cascade between epidermal and mesenchymal cell populations. Hair grows in

Bo-Young Yoo; Youn-Ho Shin; Hee-Hoon Yoon; Young-Kwon Seo; Jung-Keug Park

2010-01-01

232

ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL  

E-print Network

415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

Jülicher, Frank

233

Development, optimization, and validation of a novel extraction procedure for the removal of opiates from human hair's surface.  

PubMed

Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have proved to be efficient extraction media for several systems, and their ability to capture volatile compounds from the atmosphere is well established. We report herein a contactless extraction procedure for the removal of opiate drugs from the surface of human hair. The compounds were chosen as a model drug, particularly due to their low volatility. Equal amounts of IL and hair (about 100 mg) were introduced in a customized Y-shaped vial, and the process occurred simply by heating. After testing several ILs, some of them (e.g. 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate, phenyl-trimethyl-ammonium triflate or bis(dimethyl) diheptylguanidinium iodide) showed extraction efficiencies higher than 80% for the two studied compounds, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine. Using the design of experiments (DOE) approach as an optimization tool, and bearing in mind the hygroscopic properties of the ILs (in particular, 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate), the process was optimized concerning the following variables: temperature (50-120 ºC), extraction time (8-24 h), IL amount (50-200 mg) and water content of the IL (0.01-60%). This study not only provided the optimum conditions for the process (120 ºC, 16 h, 100 mg of IL containing 40% of water), but has also showed that the water content of the IL represents the variable with the most significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Finally, we validated our method through the comparison of the results obtained by treating hair samples with the described procedure to those obtained using a standard washing method and criteria for positivity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044614

Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

2014-07-15

234

Cosmetics and hair loss.  

PubMed

Cosmetic hair care products are often implicated by the user or the clinician in cases of hair loss. Yet, these products are used ad lib, in a wide variety of home conditions and on a wide variety of hair types, by millions of consumers every day with no adverse effects. Based on this extensive data set, the absence of literature reports, and a detailed understanding of the mode of action of cosmetic hair care products, we can conclude that they do not cause hair loss. Clinicians investigating cases of hair loss must fully appreciate the hair cycle, the length of time a single fibre may be present on the head, and its biological and cosmetic history in order to understand the causes of hair loss and make the correct diagnosis. With a better understanding of the cosmetic practices used by everyday consumers, the clinician will be in a strong position to help patients re-grow their hair and guide them through a high quality hair care regime. PMID:12190643

Gummer, C L

2002-07-01

235

Hair Loss and Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenocortical Axis Activity in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Hair loss is a common problem in captive macaque colonies. A potential factor is the possible influence of stressful environments in the development of hair loss. We examined the relationship between hair loss and chronic hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity by measuring cortisol in hair. Adult male and female rhesus macaques housed at 3 primate facilities in the United States were screened for degree of hair loss and observed for evidence of hair-plucking behavior. Hair samples and photographic data were obtained from 99 subjects, none of which were hair-pluckers. Macaques with greater than 30% hair loss (alopecia group) showed higher concentrations of hair cortisol than did those with less than 5% hair loss (control group), a finding that was unrelated to age, body weight, or the month in which the sample was collected. Hair loss scores were positively correlated with hair cortisol levels across all monkeys and within the alopecic group alone. In addition, the strong relationship between hair cortisol and alopecia was noted in 2 but not the third facility. Friction with cage surfaces appeared to contribute to hair loss in 18 monkeys. These findings suggest that stress may be one of several factors related to hair loss in some captive nonhuman primates, although whether this relationship is causal or merely correlational is unclear. Moreover, the source of the additional cortisol in the hair of alopecic monkeys (that is, from the circulation or from local synthesis in the skin) remains to be determined. PMID:24827567

Novak, Melinda A; Hamel, Amanda F; Coleman, Kris; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Menard, Mark; Ryan, Amy; Rosenberg, Kendra; Meyer, Jerrold S

2014-01-01

236

Hair loss and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).  

PubMed

Hair loss is a common problem in captive macaque colonies. A potential factor is the possible influence of stressful environments in the development of hair loss. We examined the relationship between hair loss and chronic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity by measuring cortisol in hair. Adult male and female rhesus macaques housed at 3 primate facilities in the United States were screened for degree of hair loss and observed for evidence of hair-plucking behavior. Hair samples and photographic data were obtained from 99 subjects, none of which were hair-pluckers. Macaques with greater than 30% hair loss (alopecia group) showed higher concentrations of hair cortisol than did those with less than 5% hair loss (control group), a finding that was unrelated to age, body weight, or the month in which the sample was collected. Hair loss scores were positively correlated with hair cortisol levels across all monkeys and within the alopecic group alone. In addition, the strong relationship between hair cortisol and alopecia was noted in 2 but not the third facility. Friction with cage surfaces appeared to contribute to hair loss in 18 monkeys. These findings suggest that stress may be one of several factors related to hair loss in some captive nonhuman primates, although whether this relationship is causal or merely correlational is unclear. Moreover, the source of the additional cortisol in the hair of alopecic monkeys (that is, from the circulation or from local synthesis in the skin) remains to be determined. PMID:24827567

Novak, Melinda A; Hamel, Amanda F; Coleman, Kris; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Menard, Mark; Ryan, Amy; Rosenberg, Kendra; Meyer, Jerrold S

2014-05-01

237

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

238

Light scattering and shine measurements of human hair: A sensitive probe of the hair surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an instrumental method for measuring hair shine is presented and shown to exhibit excellent correlation with a large series of subjective evaluations of shine. In addition to providing shine values, the light-scattering methods developed are shown, in many cases, to provide a sensitive means of following changes to the hair surface, including deposition (soiling), particle removal (cleaning),

CHARLES REICH; CLARENCE R. ROBBINS

1993-01-01

239

Taking Care of Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... or pulling them out without professional help can cause hair and scalp damage or even hair loss. Sometimes hair breakage and dry, brittle hair are signs of a medical problem, such as hypothyroidism or an eating disorder. If your hair is breaking even though you ...

240

Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.  

PubMed

Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention. PMID:25360097

Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

2014-01-01

241

Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning  

PubMed Central

Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention. PMID:25360097

Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G.; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

2014-01-01

242

Hair phenotype in non-syndromic deafness.  

PubMed

The GJB2 gene is located on chromosome 13q12 and it encodes the connexin 26, a transmembrane protein involved in cell-cell attachment of almost all tissues. GJB2 mutations cause autosomal recessive (DFNB1) and sometimes dominant (DFNA3) non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that connexins are involved in regulation of growth and differentiation of epidermal tissues. Hence, mutations in GJB2 gene, which is responsible for non-syndromic deafness, may be associated with an abnormal skin and hair phenotype. We analyzed hair samples from 96 subjects: a study group of 42 patients with hearing impairments of genetic origin (38 with a non-syndromic form, 4 with a syndromic form), and a control group including 54 people, i.e. 43 patients with other, non-genetic hearing impairments and 11 healthy volunteers aged up to 10 years old. The surface structure of 49 hair samples was normal, whereas in 45 cases it was altered, with a damaged appearance. Two hair samples were considered unclassifiable: one from the patient heterozygotic for the pendrin mutation (Fig. 2C), the other from a patient from Ghana with a R134W mutation (Fig. 2D). Among the 43 altered hair samples, 31 belonged to patients with connexin mutations and the other 12 came from patients without connexin mutations. PMID:23751281

Volo, T; Sathiyaseelan, T; Astolfi, L; Guaran, V; Trevisi, P; Emanuelli, E; Martini, A

2013-08-01

243

Abnormal Cortical Development after Premature Birth Shown by Altered Allometric Scaling of Brain Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe postulated that during ontogenesis cortical surface area and cerebral volume are related by a scaling law whose exponent gives a quantitative measure of cortical development. We used this approach to investigate the hypothesis that premature termination of the intrauterine environment by preterm birth reduces cortical development in a dose-dependent manner, providing a neural substrate for functional impairment.Methods and FindingsWe

Olga Kapellou; Serena J. Counsell; Nigel Kennea; Leigh Dyet; Nadeem Saeed; Jaroslav Stark; Elia Maalouf; Philip Duggan; Morenike Ajayi-Obe; Jo Hajnal; Joanna M. Allsop; James Boardman; Mary A. Rutherford; Frances Cowan; A. David Edwards

2006-01-01

244

Molecular Remodeling of Tip Links Underlies Mechanosensory Regeneration in Auditory Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Sound detection by inner ear hair cells requires tip links that interconnect mechanosensory stereocilia and convey force to yet unidentified transduction channels. Current models postulate a static composition of the tip link, with protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) at the lower and cadherin 23 (CDH23) at the upper end of the link. In terminally differentiated mammalian auditory hair cells, tip links are subjected to sound-induced forces throughout an organism's life. Although hair cells can regenerate disrupted tip links and restore hearing, the molecular details of this process are unknown. We developed a novel implementation of backscatter electron scanning microscopy to visualize simultaneously immuno-gold particles and stereocilia links, both of only a few nanometers in diameter. We show that functional, mechanotransduction-mediating tip links have at least two molecular compositions, containing either PCDH15/CDH23 or PCDH15/PCDH15. During regeneration, shorter tip links containing nearly equal amounts of PCDH15 at both ends appear first. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that these transient PCDH15/PCDH15 links mediate mechanotransduction currents of normal amplitude but abnormal Ca2+-dependent decay (adaptation). The mature PCDH15/CDH23 tip link composition is re-established later, concomitant with complete recovery of adaptation. Thus, our findings provide a molecular mechanism for regeneration and maintenance of mechanosensory function in postmitotic auditory hair cells and could help identify elusive components of the mechanotransduction machinery. PMID:23776407

Indzhykulian, Artur A.; Stepanyan, Ruben; Nelina, Anastasiia; Spinelli, Kateri J.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.; Frolenkov, Gregory I.

2013-01-01

245

Development and validation of a single LC-MS/MS assay following SPE for simultaneous hair analysis of amphetamines, opiates, cocaine and metabolites.  

PubMed

The two major challenges in hair analysis are the limited amount of samples usually available and the low targeted concentrations. To overcome these limitations, a liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) allowing the simultaneous analysis of 17 amphetamines (amphetamine, BDB, m-CPP, dexfenfluramine, DOB, DOM, ephedrine, MBDB, MDA, MDEA, MDMA, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, 4-MTA, norephedrine, norfenfluramine and PMA), 5 opiates (morphine, codeine, heroin, ethylmorphine, and 6AM), cocaine and 5 metabolites [ecgonine methyl ester (EME), benzoylecgonine (BZE), anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AME), cocaethylene, and norcocaine] has been developed. The validation procedure included linearity, intra-day and inter-day variability and accuracy for 5 days (5 replicates at 3 concentration levels). Proficiency studies were used to check the accuracy of the method. As a result, all amphetamines, opiates and cocaine derivatives were satisfactory identified by 2 MRM transitions in 15 min. Calibration curves were performed by a quadratic 1/X weighted regression. The calibration model fits from 0.05 to 10 ng/mg. The limits of detection (LODs) range between 0.005 and 0.030 ng/mg. Precision has been checked by intra-day and inter-day RSD, and associated relative bias, which were lower than 25% for the limits of quantifications (LOQs) and lower than 20% for the other levels tested. This method was routinely applied to hair samples: two positive results of adult drug addicts are presented. PMID:24378313

Imbert, L; Dulaurent, S; Mercerolle, M; Morichon, J; Lachâtre, G; Gaulier, J-M

2014-01-01

246

Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.  

PubMed

Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. PMID:24680003

Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

2014-04-01

247

Familial liability, obstetric complications and childhood development abnormalities in early onset schizophrenia: a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions are linked to higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia\\u000a in accordance with the neurodevelopmental model of disease; little is known about risk factors and early development in early-onset\\u000a schizophrenia (EOS) and very early-onset schizophrenia (VEOS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We present a case-control study of a sample of 21 patients with EOS\\/VEOS and a control group of

Francesco Margari; Maria G Petruzzelli; Paola A Lecce; Orlando Todarello; Andrea De Giacomo; Elisabetta Lucarelli; Domenico Martinelli; Lucia Margari

2011-01-01

248

Annual Research Review: Growth connectomics – the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development  

PubMed Central

Background We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). Synthesis We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. Conclusions We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. PMID:25441756

Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

2015-01-01

249

Abnormal Development of Peripheral Lymphoid Organs in Mice Deficient in Lymphotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice rendered deficient in lymphotoxin (LT) by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells have no morphologically detectable lymph nodes or Peyer's patches, although development of the thymus appears normal. Within the white pulp of the spleen, there is failure of normal segregation of B and T cells. Spleen and peripheral blood contain CD4^+CD8^- and CD4^-CD8^+ T cells in a normal

Pietro de Togni; Joseph Goellner; Nancy H. Ruddle; Philip R. Streeter; Andrea Fick; Sanjeev Mariathasan; Stacy C. Smith; Rebecca Carlson; Laurie P. Shornick; Jena Strauss-Schoenberger; John H. Russell; Robert Karr; David D. Chaplin

1994-01-01

250

Abnormal development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in mice lacking the CXCR4 chemokine receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor in development of the mouse hippocampus. CXCR4 mRNA is expressed at sites of neuronal and progenitor cell migration in the hippocampus at late embryonic and early postnatal ages. mRNA for stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), the only known ligand for the CXCR4 receptor, is expressed close to these migration sites, in

Meiling Lu; Elizabeth A. Grove; Richard J. Miller

2002-01-01

251

Abnormal development of pacinian corpuscles in double trkB;trkC knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacinian corpuscles depend on either A? or A? nerve fibers of the large- and intermediate-sized sensory neurons for the development and maintenance of the structural integrity. These neurons express TrkB and TrkC, two members of the family of signal transducing neurotrophin receptors, and mice lacking TrkB and TrkC lost specific neurons and the sensory corpuscles connected to them. The impact

F. de Carlos; J. Cobo; G. Germanà; I. Silos-Santiago; R. Laurà; J. J. Haro; I. Fariñas; J. A. Vega

2006-01-01

252

Abnormal development of the diaphragm in mdx:MyoD-/-(9th) embryos leads to pulmonary hypoplasia.  

PubMed

In vitro studies have shown that mechanical factors play an important role in cell cycle kinetics and cell differentiation of the lung through an unknown mechanochemical signal transduction pathway. In this study we evaluated the in vivo role of mechanical factors due to fetal breathing movements (primarily executed by the diaphragm, which is the main respiratory muscle) on lung growth and development by using genetically engineered embryos. Lung growth and development of wild-type, mdx:MyoD+/-(9th) (in which the diaphragm develops normally) and mdx:MyoD-/-(9th) (in which the diaphragm muscle is significantly thinned and not functional) embryos were compared at embryonic day 18.5 using immunohistochemistry, in vivo TUNEL detection and morphometry. No abnormalities in lung organogenesis were observed in mdx:MyoD+/-(9th) term embryos, whereas lung hypoplasia was detected in mdx:MyoD-/-(9th) embryos. In the hypoplastic lung, the number of proliferating lung cells was lower in comparison to the wild-type and mdx:MyoD+/-(9th) embryos, while the gradient of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) was not maintained. Surprisingly, no difference was observed in distribution and occurrence of apoptotic lung cells in mdx:MyoD-/-(9th) embryos. Together, it appears that mechanical forces generated by contractile activity of the diaphragm muscle play an important role in normal lung growth and development by affecting cell proliferation and TTF-1 expression. PMID:12895031

Inanlou, Mohammad-Reza; Kablar, Boris

2003-06-01

253

Elevated Id2 expression results in precocious neural stem cell depletion and abnormal brain development  

PubMed Central

Id2 is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor essential for normal development and its expression is dysregulated in many human neurological conditions. Although it is speculated that elevated Id2 levels contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders, it is unknown whether dysregulated Id2 expression is sufficient to perturb normal brain development or function. Here, we show that mice with elevated Id2 expression during embryonic stages develop microcephaly, and that females in particular are prone to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Analyses of Id2 transgenic brains indicate that Id2 activity is highly cell context specific: elevated Id2 expression in naive NSCs in early neuroepithelium induces apoptosis and loss of NSCs and intermediate progenitors. Activation of Id2 in maturing neuroepithelium results in less severe phenotypes and is accompanied by elevation of G1 Cyclin expression and p53 target gene expression. In contrast, activation of Id2 in committed intermediate progenitors has no significant phenotype. Functional analysis with Id2 over-expressing and Id2-null NSCs shows that Id2 negatively regulates NSC self-renewal in vivo, in contrast to previous cell culture experiments. Deletion of p53 function from Id2-transgenic brains rescues apoptosis and results in increased incidence of brain tumors. Furthermore, Id2 over-expression normalizes the increased self-renewal of p53-null NSCs, suggesting that Id2 activates and modulates the p53 pathway in NSCs. Together, these data suggest that elevated Id2 expression in embryonic brains can cause deregulated NSC self-renewal, differentiation and survival that manifest in multiple neurological outcomes in mature brains, including microcephaly, seizures, and brain tumors. PMID:23390122

Park, H.J.; Hong, M.; Bronson, R.T.; Israel, M.A.; Frankel, W. N.; Yun, K.

2013-01-01

254

Abnormal development of pacinian corpuscles in double trkB;trkC knockout mice.  

PubMed

Pacinian corpuscles depend on either Aalpha or Abeta nerve fibers of the large- and intermediate-sized sensory neurons for the development and maintenance of the structural integrity. These neurons express TrkB and TrkC, two members of the family of signal transducing neurotrophin receptors, and mice lacking TrkB and TrkC lost specific neurons and the sensory corpuscles connected to them. The impact of single or double targeted mutations in trkB and trkC genes in the development of Pacinian corpuscles was investigated in 25-day-old mice using immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural techniques. Single mutations on trkB or trkC genes were without effect on the structure and S100 protein expression, and caused a slight reduction in the number of corpuscles. In mice carrying a double mutation on trkB;trkC genes most of the corpuscles were normal with a reduction of 17% in trkB-/-;trkC+/- mice, and 8% in trkB +/-;trkC -/- mice. Furthermore, a subset of the remaining Pacinian corpuscles (23% in trkB-/-;trkC+/- mice; 3% in trkB+/-;trkC-/- mice) were hypoplasic or atrophic. Present results strongly suggest that the development of a subset of murine Pacinian corpuscles is regulated by the Trk-neurotrophin system, especially TrkB, acting both at neuronal and/or peripheral level. The precise function of each member of this complex in the corpuscular morphogenesis remains to be elucidated, though. PMID:17101216

de Carlos, F; Cobo, J; Germanà, G; Silos-Santiago, I; Laurà, R; Haro, J J; Fariñas, I; Vega, J A

2006-12-27

255

Topical liposome targeting of dyes, melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles.  

PubMed

For therapeutic and cosmetic modification of hair, we have developed a hair-follicle-selective macromolecule and small molecule targeting system with topical application of phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes. Liposome-entrapped melanins, proteins, genes, and small-molecules have been selectively targeted to the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis, or bloodstream thereby demonstrating selective follicle delivery. Naked molecules are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease as well as for cosmesis has been demonstrated in 3-dimensional histoculture of hair-growing skin and mouse in vivo models. Topical liposome selective delivery to hair follicles has demonstrated the ability to color hair with melanin, the delivery of the active lac-Z gene to hair matrix cells and delivery of proteins as well. Liposome-targeting of molecules to hair follicles has also been achieved in human scalp in histoculture. Liposomes thus have high potential in selective hair follicle targeting of large and small molecules, including genes, opening the field of gene therapy and other molecular therapy of the hair process to restore hair growth, physiologically restore or alter hair pigment, and to prevent or accelerate hair loss. PMID:9588863

Hoffman, R M

1998-01-01

256

Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10) decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50) decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes. PMID:23813869

Liu, Leah Y.; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Trista E.; Goessling, Wolfram

2013-01-01

257

Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10) decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50) decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes. PMID:23813869

Liu, Leah Y; Fox, Caroline S; North, Trista E; Goessling, Wolfram

2013-09-01

258

Copy number variants and infantile spasms: evidence for abnormalities in ventral forebrain development and pathways of synaptic function  

PubMed Central

Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content of these CNVs for enrichment in pathways of pathogenesis. Several important findings emerged. First, the gene content was enriched for the gene regulatory network involved in ventral forebrain development. Second, genes in pathways of synaptic function were overrepresented, significantly those involved in synaptic vesicle transport. Evidence also suggested roles for GABAergic synapses and the postsynaptic density. Third, we confirm the association of ISS with duplication of 14q12 and maternally inherited duplication of 15q11q13, and report the association with duplication of 21q21. We also present a patient with ISS and deletion 7q11.3 not involving MAGI2. Finally, we provide evidence that ISS in deletion 1p36 may be associated with deletion of KLHL17 and expand the epilepsy phenotype in that syndrome to include early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Several of the identified pathways share functional links, and abnormalities of forebrain synaptic growth and function may form a common biologic mechanism underlying both ISS and autism. This study demonstrates a novel approach to the study of gene content in subjects with ISS and copy number variation, and contributes further evidence to support specific pathways of pathogenesis. PMID:21694734

Paciorkowski, Alex R; Thio, Liu Lin; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Gajecka, Marzena; Gurnett, Christina A; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Chung, Wendy K; Marsh, Eric D; Gentile, Mattia; Reggin, James D; Wheless, James W; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Kumar, Ravinesh; Christian, Susan L; Marini, Carla; Guerrini, Renzo; Maltsev, Natalia; Shaffer, Lisa G; Dobyns, William B

2011-01-01

259

Copy number variants and infantile spasms: evidence for abnormalities in ventral forebrain development and pathways of synaptic function.  

PubMed

Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content of these CNVs for enrichment in pathways of pathogenesis. Several important findings emerged. First, the gene content was enriched for the gene regulatory network involved in ventral forebrain development. Second, genes in pathways of synaptic function were overrepresented, significantly those involved in synaptic vesicle transport. Evidence also suggested roles for GABAergic synapses and the postsynaptic density. Third, we confirm the association of ISS with duplication of 14q12 and maternally inherited duplication of 15q11q13, and report the association with duplication of 21q21. We also present a patient with ISS and deletion 7q11.3 not involving MAGI2. Finally, we provide evidence that ISS in deletion 1p36 may be associated with deletion of KLHL17 and expand the epilepsy phenotype in that syndrome to include early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Several of the identified pathways share functional links, and abnormalities of forebrain synaptic growth and function may form a common biologic mechanism underlying both ISS and autism. This study demonstrates a novel approach to the study of gene content in subjects with ISS and copy number variation, and contributes further evidence to support specific pathways of pathogenesis. PMID:21694734

Paciorkowski, Alex R; Thio, Liu Lin; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Gajecka, Marzena; Gurnett, Christina A; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Chung, Wendy K; Marsh, Eric D; Gentile, Mattia; Reggin, James D; Wheless, James W; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Kumar, Ravinesh; Christian, Susan L; Marini, Carla; Guerrini, Renzo; Maltsev, Natalia; Shaffer, Lisa G; Dobyns, William B

2011-12-01

260

R6/2 Huntington’s disease Mice Develop Early and Progressive Abnormal Brain Metabolism and Seizures  

PubMed Central

A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several HD mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI-signals (relative cerebral blood volumes-rCBV) and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions- thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [14C] deoxyglucose (2DG) maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice, and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models. PMID:22573668

Cepeda-Prado, E; Popp, S; Khan, U; Stefanov, D; Rodriguez, J; Menalled, L; Dow-Edwards, D; Small, SA; Moreno, H

2012-01-01

261

Abnormal development of monoaminergic neurons is implicated in mood fluctuations and bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Subtle mood fluctuations are normal emotional experiences, whereas drastic mood swings can be a manifestation of bipolar disorder (BPD). Despite their importance for normal and pathological behavior, the mechanisms underlying endogenous mood instability are largely unknown. During embryogenesis, the transcription factor Otx2 orchestrates the genetic networks directing the specification of dopaminergic (DA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. Here we behaviorally phenotyped mouse mutants overexpressing Otx2 in the hindbrain, resulting in an increased number of DA neurons and a decreased number of 5-HT neurons in both developing and mature animals. Over the course of 1 month, control animals exhibited stable locomotor activity in their home cages, whereas mutants showed extended periods of elevated or decreased activity relative to their individual average. Additional behavioral paradigms, testing for manic- and depressive-like behavior, demonstrated that mutants showed an increase in intra-individual fluctuations in locomotor activity, habituation, risk-taking behavioral parameters, social interaction, and hedonic-like behavior. Olanzapine, lithium, and carbamazepine ameliorated the behavioral alterations of the mutants, as did the mixed serotonin receptor agonist quipazine and the specific 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809101. Testing the relevance of the genetic networks specifying monoaminergic neurons for BPD in humans, we applied an interval-based enrichment analysis tool for genome-wide association studies. We observed that the genes specifying DA and 5-HT neurons exhibit a significant level of aggregated association with BPD but not with schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The results of our translational study suggest that aberrant development of monoaminergic neurons leads to mood fluctuations and may be associated with BPD. PMID:25241801

Jukic, Marin M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Bar, Michal; Becker, Gal; Jovanovic, Vukasin M; Zega, Ksenija; Binder, Elisabeth B; Brodski, Claude

2015-03-01

262

Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and the stabilization of p53 protein of American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after pupariation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with increasing doses of electron beam irradiation (six levels between 30 and 200 Gy). At 150 Gy, the number of adults that developed from irradiated eggs, larvae and puparia was lower than in the untreated control. Fecundity and egg hatchability decreased depending on the doses applied. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated flies demonstrated that males were more radiotolerant than females. Adult longevity was not affected in all stages. The levels of DNA damage in L. trifolii adults were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay. Our results indicate that electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low doses of electron beam irradiation led to the rapid appearance of p53 protein within 6 h; however, it decreased after exposure to high doses (150 Gy and 200 Gy). These results suggest that electron beam irradiation induced not only abnormal development and reproduction but also p53 stability caused by DNA damage in L. trifolii. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for female sterilization of L. trifolii.

Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Changmann; Kim, Gil-Hah

2012-01-01

263

Silencing Abnormal Wing Disc Gene of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Disrupts Adult Wing Development and Increases Nymph Mortality  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5th) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP. PMID:23734251

El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

2013-01-01

264

Silencing abnormal wing disc gene of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri disrupts adult wing development and increases nymph mortality.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5(th)) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5(th) instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP. PMID:23734251

El-Shesheny, Ibrahim; Hajeri, Subhas; El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

2013-01-01

265

Developing and testing a multi-probe resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for detecting breast abnormalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our clinical breast imaging facility. We are conducting a prospective study to assess performance when using this REIS system under an approved IRB protocol. Over 200 examinations have been conducted to date. Our experience showed that this new REIS system was easy to operate and the REIS examination was fast and considered "comfortable" by examinees since the women presses her breast into the cup herself without any need for forced breast compression, and all but a few highly sensitive women have any sensation of an electrical current during the measurement.

Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita

2009-02-01

266

Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

2014-01-01

267

Hair Cycle and Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male pattern alopecia is the outcome of profound modifications in the duration, succession and frequency of hair cycles. These phenomena were studied by phototrichogram in 10 male subjects, with or without alopecia, over a period of 15 years. Almost 10,000 hair cycles were accounted for, yielding a detailed picture of the alopecia condition: (1) A decrease in the duration of

Monique Courtois; Geneviève Loussouarn; Colette Hourseau; Jean François Grollier

1994-01-01

268

Hair Follicle Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop on Hair Follicle Stem Cells brought together investigators who have used a variety of approaches to try to understand the biology of follicular epithelial stem cells, and the role that these cells play in regulating the hair cycle. One of the main concepts to emerge from this workshop is that follicular epithelial stem cells are multipotent, capable of

Robert M. Lavker; Tung-Tien Sun; Hideo Oshima; Yann Barrandon; Masashi Akiyama; Corinne Ferraris; Genevieve Chevalier; Bertrand Favier; Colin A. B. Jahoda; Danielle Dhouailly; Andrei A. Panteleyev; Angela M. Christiano

2003-01-01

269

Laser Hair Removal  

MedlinePLUS

... skin and dark, coarse hair. With the latest technology, all skin types can be treated; however, more treatments may be required for patients with darker skin. Removing hairs that are white, gray, blond, or that are fine is a challenge. Expected Results Success is determined by multiple variables. ...

270

Notch signaling in mammalian hair cell regeneration.  

PubMed

In the inner ear, Notch signaling has been shown to have two key developmental roles. The first occurs early in otic development and defines the prosensory domains that will develop into the six sensory organs of the inner ear. The second role occurs later in development and establishes the mosaic-like pattern of the mechanosensory hair cells and their surrounding support cells through the more well-characterized process of lateral inhibition. These dual developmental roles have inspired several different strategies to regenerate hair cells in the mature inner ear organs. These strategies include (1) modulation of Notch signaling in inner ear stem cells in order to increase hair cell yield, (2) activation of Notch signaling in order to promote the formation of ectopic sensory regions in normally non-sensory regions within the inner ear, and (3) inhibition of Notch signaling to disrupt lateral inhibition and allow support cells to transdifferentiate into hair cells. In this review, we summarize some of the promising studies that have used these various strategies for hair cell regeneration through modulation of Notch signaling and some of the challenges that remain in developing therapies based on hair cell regeneration. PMID:25328289

Slowik, Amber D; Bermingham-McDonogh, Olivia

2013-01-01

271

Vellus hair follicle-derived keratinocyte culture: a new experimental model in human hair research.  

PubMed

Biological and biochemical mechanisms of hair growth are difficult to study in vivo; therefore the development of in vitro models is of great interest. Today, we have of our disposal reliable techniques to cultivate cell populations and entire components of terminal hair follicles; however, in vitro culture models for cells derived from vellus hair follicles have not yet been established. In this study, we present a technique for cultivating vellus hair follicle-derived keratinocytes (VHK) and we present first findings on their characterization. Primary cultures of VHK were obtained as outgrowths of cultured intact vellus hair follicles prepared by microsurgical means after incubation of full-thickness human skin with dispase. (1) VHK cultures reached confluency after 16-20 days and 3-4 subcultures were possible. (2) VHK were characterized as epithelial cells by light and electron microscopy. (3) A multi-layered stratified epithelium with 8-10 cell layers was observed by electron microscopy presenting abundant keratinosomes in individual cells in contrast to outer root sheath keratinocytes. (4) Synthesis studies of two glycoproteins characteristic for undifferentiated (gp 38) and for differentiated (gp 80) keratinocytes revealed higher synthesis levels for gp 80 and lower levels for gp 38 in VHK as compared to normal epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. These findings suggest a distinct morphologic and differentiation pattern of VHK in culture. This experimental model provides a new tool to study mechanisms of hair growth regulation in vellus hair follicles and to compare them to those of terminal hair follicles. PMID:8003319

Blume, U; Schön, M P; Zouboulis, C C; Detmar, M; Orfanos, C E

1994-01-01

272

Laser hair removal.  

PubMed

The extended theory of selective photothermolysis enables the laser surgeon to target and destroy hair follicles, thereby leading to hair removal. Today, laser hair removal (LHR) is the most commonly requested cosmetic procedure in the world and is routinely performed by dermatologists, other physicians, and non-physician personnel with variable efficacy. The ideal candidate for LHR is fair skinned with dark terminal hair; however, LHR can today be successfully performed in all skin types. Knowledge of hair follicle anatomy and physiology, proper patient selection and preoperative preparation, principles of laser safety, familiarity with the various laser/light devices, and a thorough understanding of laser-tissue interactions are vital to optimizing treatment efficacy while minimizing complications and side effects. PMID:21276162

Ibrahimi, Omar A; Avram, Mathew M; Hanke, C William; Kilmer, Suzanne L; Anderson, R Rox

2011-01-01

273

Automated Digital Image Analysis (TrichoScan®) for Human Hair Growth Analysis: Ease versus Errors  

PubMed Central

Background: TrichoScan® is considered to be time-saving, easy to perform and consistent for quantifying hair loss/growth. Conflicting results of our study lead us to closely observe the image analysis, and certain repeated errors in the detection of hair were highlighted. Aims: To assess the utility of TrichoScan in quantification of diffuse hair loss in males with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and females with diffuse telogen hair loss, with regard to total hair density (THD), telogen and vellus hair percentages. Materials and Methods: TrichoScan procedure was performed on 77 cases and 20 controls. Results and Discussion: In the cases, THD decreased with increasing severity of alopecia. Surprisingly, more than 85% of the healthy volunteers had an unexplained abnormal telogen hair percentage of more than 20. Also, the telogen hair percentages were not significantly different between cases and controls. Also, 65% of the patients with advanced thinning of hair did not have the expected elevation of vellus hair percentages on TrichoScan evaluation. Multiple errors were highlighted in hair detection by the software. Errors were noted at the exit points of follicular ostia, at places where hair strand thickness was not uniform throughout its length, where there was crossing, overlapping of the neighboring strands, and when more than one hair emerged from a single ostium. Conclusion: TrichoScan is promoted as a validated and precise tool for measurement of hair growth parameters. Under certain conditions, it may seem suitable for clinical trials evaluating treatment response. We provide evidence that this is an overstatement. This study concludes that TrichoScan-analyzed anagen/telogen hair detection is not optimal; moreover, there is overestimation of THD and the vellus hair percentage does not correlate with clinical severity of alopecia. The current form of TrichoScan, though easy to use, is error-prone and awaits refinement. PMID:21188016

Saraogi, Punit P; Dhurat, Rachita S

2010-01-01

274

Light microscopic hair shaft analysis in ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to catalog hair shaft abnormalities in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes using light microscopy and to compare findings with those in unaffected controls. Light microscopy was performed in a nonblinded manner on hair shafts from 65 participants with seven types of ED (hypohidrotic ED, ED-ectrodactyly-cleft lip or palate, ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip and palate, Clouston syndrome, Goltz syndrome, Schopf-Schulz Passarge syndrome, and oculodentodigital dysplasia) and 41 unaffected controls. Hair donations were collected at the 28th Annual National Family Conference held by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Control participants were recruited from a private dermatology practice and an academic children's hospital outpatient dermatology clinic. Sixty-five affected participants and 41 unaffected controls were included in the analysis. We assessed the hair shafts of ED and control participants for abnormalities visible using LM. Light microscopy identified various pathologic hair shaft abnormalities in each type of ED, although none of the findings were statistically significantly different from those of the control group. Light microscopy is a poor adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of ED syndromes. Most findings are nonspecific and not sufficiently sensitive. PMID:22084904

Hirano, Stefanie A; Mason, Ashley R; Salkey, Kimberly; Williams, Judith V; Pariser, David M

2012-01-01

275

Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.  

PubMed

Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer. PMID:22960813

Handa, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Rahul; De, Dipankar

2012-01-01

276

dusky-like is required to maintain the integrity and planar cell polarity of hairs during the development of the Drosophila wing  

PubMed Central

The cuticular hairs and sensory bristles that decorate the adult Drosophila epidermis and the denticles found on the embryo have been used in studies on planar cell polarity and as models for the cytoskeletal mediated morphogenesis of cellular extensions. ZP domain proteins have recently been found to be important for the morphogenesis of both denticles and bristles. Here we show that the ZP domain protein Dusky-Like is a key player in hair morphogenesis. As is the case in bristles, in hairs dyl mutants display a dramatic phenotype that is the consequence of a failure to maintain the integrity of the extension after outgrowth. Hairs lacking dyl function are split, thinned, multipled and often very short. dyl is required for normal chitin deposition in hairs, but chitin is not required for the normal accumulation of Dyl, hence dyl acts upstream of chitin. A lack of chitin however, does not mimic the dyl hair phenotype, thus Dyl must have other targets in hair morphogenesis. One of these appears to be the actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, dyl mutants also display a unique planar cell polarity phenotype that is distinct from that seen with mutations in frizzled/starry night or dachsous/fat pathway genes. Rab11 was previously found to be essential for Dyl plasma membrane localization in bristles. Here we found that the expression of a dominant negative Rab11 can mimic the dyl hair morphology phenotype consistent with Rab11 also being required for Dyl function in hairs. We carried out a small directed screen to identify genes that might function with dyl and identified Chitinase 6 (Cht6) as a strong candidate, as knocking down Cht6 function led to weak versions of all of the dyl hair phenotypes. PMID:23623898

Sobala, Lukasz F.; Thom, DeSean; Nagaraj, Ranganayaki

2013-01-01

277

Therapeutic strategy for hair regeneration: Hair cycle activation, niche environment modulation, wound-induced follicle neogenesis and stem cell engineering  

PubMed Central

Introduction There are major new advancements in the fields of stem cell biology, developmental biology, regenerative hair cycling, and tissue engineering. The time is ripe to integrate, translate and apply these findings to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Readers will learn about new progress in cellular and molecular aspects of hair follicle development, regeneration and potential therapeutic opportunities these advances may offer. Areas covered Here we use hair follicle formation to illustrate this progress and to identify targets for potential strategies in therapeutics. Hair regeneration is discussed in four different categories. (1) Intra-follicle regeneration (or renewal) is the basic production of hair fibers from hair stem cells and dermal papillae in existing follicles. (2) Chimeric follicles via epithelial-mesenchymal recombination to identify stem cells and signaling centers. (3) Extra-follicular factors including local dermal and systemic factors can modulate the regenerative behavior of hair follicles, and may be relatively easy therapeutic targets. (4) Follicular neogenesis means the de novo formation of new follicles. In addition, scientists are working to engineer hair follicles, which require hair forming competent epidermal cells and hair inducing dermal cells. Expert opinion Ideally self-organizing processes similar to those occurring during embryonic development should be elicited with some help from biomaterials. PMID:23289545

Chueh, Shan-Chang; Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Chih-Chiang; Lei, Mingxing; Wang, Ling Mei; Widelitz, Randall B.; Hughes, Michael W.; Jiang, Ting-Xing; Chuong, Cheng Ming

2013-01-01

278

Dynamic Hair Capture Princeton University  

E-print Network

Dynamic Hair Capture Linjie Luo Princeton University Sylvain Paris Adobe Systems Inc. Hao Li University Figure 1: Our system reconstructs a temporally coherent set of hair fibers for real-world dynamic hair. It accommodates a variety of hair types and styles, as well as nontrivial motion (top: input

279

Photo yellowing of human hair.  

PubMed

In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content. PMID:17627835

Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

2007-09-25

280

Multiple renal cyst development but not situs abnormalities in transgenic RNAi mice against Inv::GFP rescue gene.  

PubMed

In this study we generated RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown transgenic mice (transgenic RNAi mice) against the functional Inv gene. Inv mutant mice show consistently reversed internal organs (situs inversus), multiple renal cysts and neonatal lethality. The Inv::GFP-rescue mice, which introduced the Inv::GFP fusion gene, can rescue inv mutant mice phenotypes. This indicates that the Inv::GFP gene is functional in vivo. To analyze the physiological functions of the Inv gene, and to demonstrate the availability of transgenic RNAi mice, we introduced a short hairpin RNA expression vector against GFP mRNA into Inv::GFP-rescue mice and analyzed the gene silencing effects and Inv functions by examining phenotypes. Transgenic RNAi mice with the Inv::GFP-rescue gene (Inv-KD mice) down-regulated Inv::GFP fusion protein and showed hypomorphic phenotypes of inv mutant mice, such as renal cyst development, but not situs abnormalities or postnatal lethality. This indicates that shRNAi-mediated gene silencing systems that target the tag sequence of the fusion gene work properly in vivo, and suggests that a relatively high level of Inv protein is required for kidney development in contrast to left/right axis determination. Inv::GFP protein was significantly down-regulated in the germ cells of Inv-KD mice testis compared with somatic cells, suggesting the existence of a testicular germ cell-specific enhanced RNAi system that regulates germ cell development. The Inv-KD mouse is useful for studying Inv gene functions in adult tissue that are unable to be analyzed in inv mutant mice showing postnatal lethality. In addition, the shRNA-based gene silencing system against the tag sequence of the fusion gene can be utilized as a new technique to regulate gene expression in either in vitro or in vivo experiments. PMID:24586938

Kamijho, Yuki; Shiozaki, Yayoi; Sakurai, Eiki; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Daisuke

2014-01-01

281

A Model of Filiform Hair Distribution on the Cricket Cercus  

PubMed Central

Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is covered with between 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement axes, are very stereotypical across different animals in this species, and the development of this system has been studied extensively. Although hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying pattern development of the hair array have been proposed in previous studies, no quantitative modeling studies have been published that test these hypotheses. We demonstrate that several aspects of the global pattern of mechanosensory hairs can be predicted with considerable accuracy using a simple model based on two independent morphogen systems. One system constrains inter-hair spacing, and the second system determines the directional movement axes of the hairs. PMID:23056357

Heys, Jeffrey J.; Rajaraman, Prathish K.; Gedeon, Tomas; Miller, John P.

2012-01-01

282

Microtubules in root hairs.  

PubMed

The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis. PMID:4066793

Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

1985-06-01

283

Computational identification of root hair-specific genes in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Activated cortical domains (ACDs) are regions of the plant cell cortex performing localized membrane turnover, delimited by concerted action of the cortical cytoskeleton and endomembrane compartments. Arabidopsis thaliana rhizodermis consists of two cell types differing by a single ACD (trichoblasts, carrying tip-growing root hairs, and hairless atrichoblasts), providing a model for the study of ACD determination. We compiled a set of genes specifically upregulated in root hairs from published transcriptome data, and compared it with a "virtual Arabidopsis root hair proteome", i.e. a list of computationally identified homologs of proteins from the published soybean root hair proteome. Both data sets were enriched in genes and proteins associated with root hairs in functional studies, but there was little overlap between the transcriptome and the proteome: the former captured gene products specific to root hairs, while the latter selected those abundant in root hairs but not necessarily specific to them. Decisive steps in ACD specification may be performed by signaling proteins of high expression specifity and low abundance. Nevertheless, 73 genes specifically transcribed in Arabidopsis trichoblasts or root hairs encode homologs of abundant root hair proteins from soybean. Most of them encode "housekeeping" proteins required for rapid tip growth. However, among the "candidates" is also a generative actin isoform, ACT11. Preliminary characterization of an act11 mutant allele indeed suggests a hitherto unexpected role for this gene in root and root hair development. PMID:21051945

Cvr?ková, Fatima; Bezvoda, Radek; Zárský, Viktor

2010-11-01

284

Staurosporine-induced collapse of cochlear hair bundles  

PubMed Central

Early postnatal mouse cochlear cultures were treated with a small panel of kinase inhibitors to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of hair-bundle structure in the developing inner ear. At low concentrations (1–10 nM), staurosporine causes the collapse and loss of hair bundles without provoking hair-cell death, as judged by lack of terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) labeling or reactivity to anti-activated caspase-3. Staurosporine exposure results in the fusion of the hair bundle’s stereocilia, a resorption of the parallel actin bundles of the stereocilia into the cytoplasm of the hair cell, a detachment of the apical, non-stereociliary membrane of the hair cell from the underlying cuticular plate, and a severing of the hair-bundle’s rootlets from the actin cores of the stereocilia. It does not block membrane retrieval at the apical pole of the hair cells, nor does it elicit the externalization of phosphatidylserine. Staurosporine treatment causes a reduction in levels of the phosphorylated forms of ezrin, radixin, and moesin in cochlear cultures during the period of hair-bundle loss, indicating the integrity of the hair bundle may be actively maintained by the phosphorylation status of these proteins. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3281–3294, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24700109

Goodyear, Richard J; Ratnayaka, Helen SK; Warchol, Mark E; Richardson, Guy P

2014-01-01

285

Methods of evaluating hair growth.  

PubMed

For decades, scientists and clinicians have examined methods of measuring scalp hair growth. With the development of drugs that stem or even reverse the miniaturization of androgenetic alopecia, there has been a greater need for reliable, economical and minimally invasive means of measuring hair growth and, specifically, response to therapy. We review the various methods of measurement described to date, their limitations and value to the clinician. In our opinion, the potential of computer-assisted technology in this field is yet to be maximized and the currently available tools are less than ideal. The most valuable means of measurement at the present time are global photography and phototrichogram-based techniques (with digital image analysis) such as the 'TrichoScan'. Subjective scoring systems are also of value in the overall assessment of response to therapy and these are under-utilized and merit further refinement. PMID:12581076

Chamberlain, Alexander J; Dawber, Rodney P R

2003-02-01

286

[Developmental abnormalities and nevi of the scalp].  

PubMed

Unusual congenital or early-onset skin lesions on the scalp often pose a diagnostic challenge particularly as the clinical evaluation may be hampered by dense hair growth. Thus, this paper provides a concise review on developmental abnormalities and nevi with exclusive or predominant scalp localization. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated finding, in association with genetic syndromes, nevi and anomalies or as a consequence of intrauterine trauma and teratogens. A hairless area with a narrow surrounding rim of hypertrichosis (hair collar sign) may point to occult cranial dysraphism, especially if accompanied by further suggestive signs as port-wine stains, large hemangiomas, dimples, congenital dermoid cysts, and sinuses. Many diverse entities may hide behind cutis verticis gyrata with the primary essential form being rare and representing a diagnosis of exclusion. In contrast to former belief, benign adnexal tumors arise in a nevus sebaceus considerably more often than basal cell carcinomas and other malignant epithelial tumors. Provided that tumor development is not suspected, excision of a nevus sebaceus nevus is indicated primarily for aesthetic-psychosocial reasons. However, surgical treatment is considerably easier in small children. Nevus sebaceus may be a cutaneous marker for several complex syndromes whereas nevus psiloliparus presents almost always in connection with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. Congenital melanocytic nevi of the scalp tend toward clinical regression, so that surgical intervention in large lesions should be carefully considered. In contrast, the threshold for excision of blue nevi and other conspicuous melanocytic nevi on the scalp should be low, especially since they are difficult to monitor. PMID:25298254

Behle, V; Hamm, H

2014-12-01

287

Neurotrophin3 Involvement in the Regulation of Hair Follicle Morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair follicle epithelium and nervous system share a common ectodermal origin, and some neurotrophins can modulate keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis. It is therefore reasonable to ask whether growth factors that control neural development are also involved in the regulation of hair follicle morphogenesis. Focusing on neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its high-affinity-receptor [tyrosine kinase C (TrkC)], we show that hair placode keratinocytes

Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Natalia V. Botchkareva; Kathryn M. Albers; Carina van der Veen; Gary R Lewin; Ralf Paus

1998-01-01

288

Induction of Hair Re-growth by Protein Kinase C ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair development is controlled by several families of signaling molecules, including Fgfs, Wnts and protein kinase Cs (PKC).\\u000a Among PKC genes expressing in skin and hair follicle, the eta (?) isoform of PKC has been known to be a key regulator of the\\u000a growth and differentiation of keratinocytes. We describe here that PKC? is involved in the hair cycle progression

Motoi Ohba

289

The trajectory of gray matter development in Broca’s area is abnormal in people who stutter  

PubMed Central

The acquisition and mastery of speech-motor control requires years of practice spanning the course of development. People who stutter often perform poorly on speech-motor tasks thereby calling into question their ability to establish the stable neural motor programs required for masterful speech-motor control. There is evidence to support the assertion that these neural motor programs are represented in the posterior part of Broca’s area, specifically the left pars opercularis. Consequently, various theories of stuttering causation posit that the disorder is related to a breakdown in the formation of the neural motor programs for speech early in development and that this breakdown is maintained throughout life. To date, no study has examined the potential neurodevelopmental signatures of the disorder across pediatric and adult populations. The current study aimed to fill this gap in our knowledge. We hypothesized that the developmental trajectory of cortical thickness in people who stutter would differ across the lifespan in the left pars opercularis relative to a group of control participants. We collected structural magnetic resonance images from 116 males (55 people who stutter) ranging in age from 6 to 48 years old. Differences in cortical thickness across ages and between patients and controls were investigated in 30 brain regions previously implicated in speech-motor control. An interaction between age and group was found for the left pars opercularis only. In people who stutter, the pars opercularis did not demonstrate the typical maturational pattern of gradual gray matter thinning with age across the lifespan that we observed in control participants. In contrast, the developmental trajectory of gray matter thickness in other regions of interest within the neural network for speech-motor control was similar for both groups. Our findings indicate that the developmental trajectory of gray matter in left pars opercularis is abnormal in people who stutter. PMID:25784869

Beal, Deryk S.; Lerch, Jason P.; Cameron, Brodie; Henderson, Rhaeling; Gracco, Vincent L.; De Nil, Luc F.

2015-01-01

290

Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair  

PubMed Central

The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

2014-01-01

291

Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.  

PubMed

The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

2014-01-01

292

Development of a simultaneous analytical method for selected anorectics, methamphetamine, MDMA, and their metabolites in hair using LC-MS/MS to prove anorectics abuse.  

PubMed

Owing to the tight control of methamphetamine, it is presumed that phentermine, an amphetamine-type anorectic, has recently been considered a supplement for methamphetamine abusers in Korea. In addition, the abuse of other anorectics obtained by inappropriate means has become a social issue. Hair is a useful specimen to prove chronic drug use. Therefore, an analytical method for the simultaneous detection of phentermine, phendimetrazine, amfepramone, fenfluramine, mazindol, methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), as well as their metabolites, which covers the major amphetamines and anorectic agents in Korea, in hair was established and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The drugs and their metabolites in hair were extracted using 1 % HCl in methanol and then filtered and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive mode. The validation results for selectivity, linearity, matrix effect, recovery, process efficiency, intra- and interassay precision and accuracy, and processed sample stability were satisfactory. The limits of detection ranged from 0.025 to 1 ng/10 mg hair and the limits of quantification were 0.25 ng/10 mg hair for every analyte except mazindol and phentermine, for which they were 10 ng/10 mg hair. The method was successfully applied for the segmental determination of selected anorectics, methamphetamine, MDMA, and their metabolites in hair from 39 drug suspects. Among the anorectics, phentermine and/or phendimetrazine were identified with or without methamphetamine in the hair samples. Closer supervision of the inappropriate use of anorectics is necessary. Also, hair analysis is useful for monitoring the abuse potential of unnoticed drugs. PMID:22460079

Lee, Sooyeun; Kim, Jihyun; In, Sanghwan; Choi, Hwakyung; Oh, Seung Min; Jang, Choon-Gon; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

2012-05-01

293

At the dawn of hair research - testing the limits of hair follicle regeneration.  

PubMed

In the late 1960s, tissue recombination studies by Roy Oliver on the model of rat vibrissae provided invaluable information about the morphogenetic properties of hair follicles. Now more than ever, the field is hopeful that a clinically reproducible procedure for cell-based hair regeneration is achievable. Highly inductive mesenchymal cells are thought to be the key ingredient necessary to achieve robust hair regeneration, and efforts are underway to develop protocols to improve the naturally low inductive properties of human dermal papilla cells. In this respect, the original studies by Oliver provide essential rodent research benchmarks, which current-day human studies should aim to reach. PMID:24494858

Plikus, Maksim V

2014-05-01

294

Tips for Healthy Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... acne Acne treatment Media and retouching Our skin self-esteem Skin health Introduction Daily habits Hair care: Introduction ... truths Acne treatment Media and retouching Our skin self-esteem Skin health Skin: Introduction Skin: Skin types Skin: ...

295

Abnormal Cats' Paws  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABNORMITIES in cats' paws occur rather frequently in Massachusetts. They are called mitten cats, and are much in demand because they are considered to be good mousers. The first I ever saw was a male yellow tiger, whose four paws had two extra toes strongly developed. A little stray female kitten which was brought up at my house had two

H. A. Hagen

1887-01-01

296

Leptomeningeal angiomatosis accompanied by hair follicle nevus.  

PubMed

A 5-day-old male infant with leptomeningeal angiomatosis accompanied by hair follicle nevus and congenital alopecia is reported. Admitted for frequent left hemiconvulsions, he had three small papular lesions around his right eye and ipsilateral alopecia from the frontal to parietal areas. Histopathological examination of the papular lesions revealed crowding of hair follicles. There were no other skin lesions and no ophthalmic abnormalities. Ictal EEG showed a theta burst in the right parietal area. Computed tomography of the brain revealed cerebral atrophy and a slightly high intensity lesion in the right parietal and occipital lobes with calcification. Gyriform enhancement was demonstrated by contrast MRI in these areas. The pathogenesis is discussed. This case may represent a previously unknown neurocutaneous syndrome. PMID:9660127

Okada, Y; Hamano, K; Iwasaki, N; Iijima, S; Anno, I

1998-01-01

297

Topical liposome delivery of molecules to hair follicles in mice.  

PubMed

The hair cycle consisting of growing and resting phases, is subject to widespread disease such as androgenic alopecia or loss of pigment which are in need of effective, targeted therapeutics. In order to develop a hair-follicle delivery system we demonstrate here that phosphatidylcholine liposomes entrapping either the fluorescent dye calcein or the pigment melanin can deliver these molecules into the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice when applied topically. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis or blood stream thereby demonstrating the enrichment of follicle delivery. Naked calcein and melanin are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease is discussed. PMID:9039973

Li, L; Hoffman, R M

1997-02-01

298

Torsional method for evaluating hair damage and performance of hair care ingredients.  

PubMed

In this study, we have developed a single hair fiber torsional pendulum method to determine the role of the cuticle and the cortex on torsional properties with respect to fiber cross-sectional area, fiber rigidity, and energy dissipation at 65% RH and in the wet state. Our results demonstrate that in fine diameter fibers with a high cuticle-to-cortex ratio, the cuticula exert a significant effect on the torsional deformation behavior of hair fibers at both normal humidities and in the wet condition. In addition, our data indicate that energy dissipation is confined to fibers with a high cuticle-to-cortex ratio, and the amount of energy dissipated becomes more pronounced with increasing water content. The torsional properties of hair spray-treated fibers suggest that the deposited hair spray film masks the properties of the base fiber and imparts its own dissipative character to the measurement. Since tensile mechanical properties are often used to make claims about the performance of hair care products, we have compared the results obtained from torsional and tensile measurements on over-processed bleached hair fibers conditioned with Polyquaternium-10 and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CETAB) to evaluate which method is more advantageous. Our data demonstrate that torsional measurements can distinguish hair care products which reinforce the cuticle from those which affect the cortex, while tensile measurements showed no significant differences. PMID:15645103

Persaud, D; Kamath, Y K

2004-01-01

299

The expression and role of c-Myc in mouse hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling.  

PubMed

Although the function of c-Myc has been clarified in many tissues, until now its expression and role in hair follicle morphogenesis and the hair cycle remains unknown. In this study we detected c-Myc expression pattern in the process of mouse hair follicle development and normal cycle. We found that during hair follicle morphogenesis, the stage-specific expression of c-Myc was detected in mouse skin and was predominantly localized to the hair follicle epithelium. c-Myc expression was also consistently found in mouse skin throughout the hair follicle cycle. Through the in vivo injection of c-Myc inhibitory peptide and c-Myc expression plasmid, we also investigated the direct effects of c-Myc on the hair follicle structures during the hair follicle cycle. Our results showed that c-Myc inhibitory peptide significantly restrained the development of anagen hair follicles, while the injection of plasmid DNA encoding c-Myc in vivo clearly promoted anagen development. Our data indicate that c-Myc may play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of the hair follicle keratinocytes during hair follicle development. c-Myc also was shown to participate in the regulation of the mouse hair growth cycle and could promote the proliferation of the hair matrix keratinocytes as well as the differentiation of the inner root sheath. PMID:21621827

Wang, Ning; Yang, Tian; Li, Jin; Lei, Mingxing; Shi, Jiazhong; Qiu, Weiming; Lian, Xiaohua

2012-05-01

300

Proliferation of Functional Hair Cells in Vivo in the Absence of the Retinoblastoma Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mammals, hair cell loss causes irreversible hearing and balance impairment because hair cells are terminally differentiated and do not regenerate spontaneously. By profiling gene expression in developing mouse vestibular organs, we identified the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) as a candidate regulator of cell cycle exit in hair cells. Differentiated and functional mouse hair cells with a targeted deletion of Rb1 undergo mitosis, divide, and cycle, yet continue to become highly differentiated and functional. Moreover, acute loss of Rb1 in postnatal hair cells caused cell cycle reentry. Manipulation of the pRb pathway may ultimately lead to mammalian hair cell regeneration.

Sage, Cyrille; Huang, Mingqian; Karimi, Kambiz; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Vollrath, Melissa A.; Zhang, Duan-Sun; García-Añoveros, Jaime; Hinds, Philip W.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.; Corey, David P.; Chen, Zheng-Yi

2005-02-01

301

Hair melanin content and photodamage.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility of hair with different melanin content (virgin white, blond and dark-brown) to photodegradation, evaluating changes on hair color and mechanical properties. Light exposure was carried out with a mercury-vapor lamp for up to 1800h. It was observed that color changes are different for each hair type and dependent on the wavelength range. Breaking elongation and breaking strength were affected in all hair types, mainly by UVB radiation. Results show that the melanin type and content of each hair is not the only parameter related to hair damages caused by sun exposure. PMID:17728939

Santos Nogueira, Ana Carolina; Joekes, Inés

2007-01-01

302

Copy number variants and infantile spasms: evidence for abnormalities in ventral forebrain development and pathways of synaptic function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content

Alex R Paciorkowski; Liu Lin Thio; Jill A Rosenfeld; Marzena Gajecka; Christina A Gurnett; Shashikant Kulkarni; Wendy K Chung; Eric D Marsh; Mattia Gentile; James D Reggin; James W Wheless; Sandhya Balasubramanian; Ravinesh Kumar; Susan L Christian; Carla Marini; Renzo Guerrini; Natalia Maltsev; Lisa G Shaffer; William B Dobyns

2011-01-01

303

Prevalence of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in a Middle-Aged, Biracial Population: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies to date have described the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in a biracial middle-aged cohort. Methods and Results Participants underwent measurement of traditional risk factors and 12-lead ECGs coded using both Minnesota Code (MC) and Novacode (NC) criteria. Among 2585 participants, of whom 57% were women and 44% were black (mean age 45 years), the prevalence of major and minor abnormalities were significantly higher (all P<0.001) among black men and women compared to whites. These differences were primarily due to higher QRS voltage and ST/T wave abnormalities among blacks. There was also a higher prevalence of Q waves (MC 1-1, 1-2, 1-3) than described by previous studies. These racial differences remained after multivariate adjustment for traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Conclusions Black men and women have a significantly higher prevalence of ECG abnormalities, independent of traditional CV risk factors, than whites in a contemporary cohort middle-aged participants. PMID:20374967

Walsh, Joseph A; Prineas, Ronald; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Lewis, Cora E.; Sidney, Steven; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Iribarren, Carlos; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

2013-01-01

304

Determination of GHB in human hair by HPLC-MS/MS: Development and validation of a method and application to a study group and three possible single exposure cases.  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) over the last two decades has generated increased notoriety as a euphoric and disinhibiting drug of abuse in cases of drug-related sexual assault and for this reason it is considered a 'date rape' drug. The first aim of this paper was to develop and fully validate a method for the detection of GHB in human hair by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The second aim was the application of the method to hair samples of 30 GHB-free users in order to determine the basal level. The results obtained showed no significant differences in endogenous concentrations (p?=?0.556) between hair samples of the three groups (black, blonde, and dyed hair) and the age and sex of the subjects did not affect the endogenous levels. Another 12 healthy volunteers, with no previous history of GHB use, were selected and a single dose (25?mg/Kg) was orally administered to all of them and hair samples were collected before the administration of the single dose and other two samples were collected one month and two months later, respectively. The segmental analysis of the latter two samples allowed us to calculate two ratios: 4.45:1 (95% C.I. 3.52-5.63) and 3.35:1 (95% C.I. 2.14-5.18), respectively, which can be recommended as reasonable values for a positive identification of GHB intake. Finally the method was applied to three real cases where a GHB single exposure probably occurred. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24947196

Bertol, Elisabetta; Mari, Francesco; Vaiano, Fabio; Romano, Guido; Zaami, Simona; Baglìo, Giovanni; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

2014-06-19

305

Analysis of apoptotic cell death in human hair follicles in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

We analyzed changes of growth and apoptotic cell death in human hair follicles. In anagen hair follicles, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick labeling-positive cells were observed in the keratogenous zone of the upper bulb matrix, the inner root sheath, and the companion layer of the outer root sheath. DNA ladder formation was also detected in anagen hair follicles. In catagen hair follicles, the lower bulb matrix cells around the dermal papilla and the outer layer cells of the outer root sheath became strongly positive, showing that apoptosis in catagen hair is distinct from that in anagen hair. We also confirmed the mRNA expression of four caspases (caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-4, and caspase-7) in anagen hair follicles by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. When human anagen hair follicles were cultured in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the serum-free medium, transforming growth factor-beta but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced catagen-like morphologic changes, which were indistinguishable from normal catagen hair follicles. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, however, strongly inhibited the elongation of the hair shaft in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by abnormal morphology and increased cell death in the bulb matrix cells. Our results suggest that apoptosis in hair follicles involves two different types. One is related to the terminal differentiation of follicular epithelial cells in anagen hair. The other occurs as a major driving force to eliminate the distinct portion of epithelial components in catagen hair. Furthermore, this study strongly indicates that the transforming growth factor-beta pathway is involved in the induction of catagen phase in human hair cycle. PMID:9856801

Soma, T; Ogo, M; Suzuki, J; Takahashi, T; Hibino, T

1998-12-01

306

Excessive or unwanted hair in women  

MedlinePLUS

Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

307

Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy hair care Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common hair care practices can lead ... a conditioner. Teaching your child other healthy hair care habits Many things that we do to style ...

308

Aging changes in hair and nails  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which is produced by hair follicles. These are ... grow hair. With aging, the follicle makes less melanin. Graying often begins in the 30s. Scalp hair ...

309

Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. XI. Disposition of benzphetamine and its metabolites into hair and comparison of benzphetamine use and methamphetamine use by hair analysis.  

PubMed

In order to study the disposition of benzphetamine (BZP) and its metabolites, desmethyl benzphetamine (norBZP), p-hydroxy desmethyl benzphetamine (OHnorBZP), methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP), from plasma to hair in rats, an analytical method for identifying these drugs in plasma, urine and hair was developed with selected ion monitoring of gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS-SIM) results. After the intraperitoneal administration of BZP to rats (10 mg/kg/d, 10d, n = 3), concentrations of BZP and its metabolites in rat hair newly grown for 4 weeks were compared to the areas under the concentration versus time curve (AUCs) of these drugs in the rat plasma. The concentrations of BZP, norBZP, OHnorBZP, MA and AP in the rat hair were 14.8 +/- 1.4, 6.1 +/- 0.3, 2.6 +/- 0.5, 2.3 +/- 0.1 and 9.2 +/- 0.3 ng/mg, and the ratio of the concentrations in the hair to AUCs in the rat plasma was 3.0:0.1:0.1:0.6:0.2, respectively. This fact suggested that BZP tends to be readily incorporated into hair from blood. The method was applied to the determination of the metabolites in scalp hair and pubic hair of humans who orally ingested BZP (30 mg/d, 5d, n = 2). BZP, norBZP, MA and AP were detected at 0.14-0.56, 0.29-0.63, 0.10 and 1.06-1.66 ng/mg in the scalp hair and at 0.10-0.20, 0.13-0.18, trace-0.15 and 0.23 ng/mg in the pubic hair, respectively. It was shown that BZP use could be retrospectively distinguished from MA use by the detection of BZP and/or norBZP in hair. PMID:8787790

Kikura, R; Nakahara, Y

1995-12-01

310

Severity of liver disease predicts the development of glucose abnormalities in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C following achievement of sustained virological response to antiviral therapy.  

PubMed

A higher prevalence of glucose abnormalities has been reported in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection compared to patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, previous studies considered some confounding factors and ignored others, which might influence the comparative risk assessment between HBV and HCV infections. Fasting plasma glucose concentration, severity of liver disease and viral load were determined in 220 patients with HCV genotype 4 infection, and 200 patients with HBV infection. Patients completing antiviral therapy were followed-up, and the fasting plasma glucose levels were determined in patients with and without sustained virological response. The prevalence of glucose abnormalities in HCV infection (41%) was significantly higher than that in HBV infection (16%). However, when controlling the severity of liver disease and other risk factors, the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in patients with HCV infection was comparable to that in patients with HBV infection. After attaining of sustained virological response, a decrease of the median fasting plasma glucose value was observed only in chronic hepatitis C. In the group of patients with normal fasting plasma glucose levels, an association of nonsustained virological response with the development of impaired fasting glucose was only observed in chronic hepatitis C. The severity of liver disease was a common predictor of impaired fasting glucose in hepatitis B and C infections. These results indicate that high prevalence of glucose abnormalities can be associated with HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, and that clearance of HCV, but not HBV, may improve glucose metabolism. PMID:19235842

Chehadeh, Wassim; Al-Nakib, Widad

2009-04-01

311

The biology of hair diversity.  

PubMed

Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

2013-08-01

312

Inhibition of Bmp signaling affects growth and differentiation in the anagen hair follicle  

PubMed Central

Growth and differentiation of postnatal hair follicles are controlled by reciprocal interactions between the dermal papilla and the surrounding epidermal hair precursors. The molecular nature of these interactions is largely unknown, but they are likely to involve several families of signaling molecules, including Fgfs, Wnts and Bmps. To analyze the function of Bmp signaling in postnatal hair development, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the Bmp inhibitor, Noggin, under the control of the proximal Msx2 promoter, which drives expression in proliferating hair matrix cells and differentiating hair precursor cells. Differentiation of the hair shaft but not the inner root sheath is severely impaired in Msx2–Noggin transgenic mice. In addition to hair keratins, the expression of several transcription factors implicated in hair development, including Foxn1 and Hoxc13, is severely reduced in the transgenic hair follicles. Proliferating cells, which are normally restricted to the hair matrix surrounding the dermal papilla, are found in the precortex and hair shaft region. These results identify Bmps as key regulators of the genetic program controlling hair shaft differentiation in postnatal hair follicles. PMID:11118201

Kulessa, Holger; Turk, Gail; Hogan, Brigid L.M.

2000-01-01

313

Molecular Genetic and Endocrine Mechanisms of Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal morphogenesis of hair follicles depends upon a precisely regulated series of molecular genetic processes. Hormones and their receptors play prominent roles in modulating postnatal hair cycling, which recapitulates some aspects of morphogenesis. The responses to androgen are the most obvious of these. The postnatal androgen sensitivity of pilosebaceous units in different skin areas is programmed during prenatal development

Laura C. Alonso; Robert L. Rosenfield

2003-01-01

314

A 3-Month, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Ability of an Extra-Strength Marine Protein Supplement to Promote Hair Growth and Decrease Shedding in Women with Self-Perceived Thinning Hair  

PubMed Central

An oral marine protein supplement (MPS) is designed to promote hair growth in women with temporary thinning hair (Viviscal Extra Strength; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL). This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the ability of MPS to promote terminal hair growth in adult women with self-perceived thinning hair associated with poor diet, stress, hormonal influences, or abnormal menstrual cycles. Adult women with thinning hair were randomized to receive MPS (N = 30) or placebo (N = 30) twice daily for 90 days. Digital images were obtained from a 4?cm2 area scalp target area. Each subject's hair was washed and shed hairs were collected and counted. After 90 days, these measures were repeated and subjects completed Quality of Life and Self-Assessment Questionnaires. MPS-treated subjects achieved a significant increase in the number of terminal hairs within the target area (P < 0.0001) which was significantly greater than placebo (P < 0.0001). MPS use also resulted in significantly less hair shedding (P = 0.002) and higher total Self-Assessment (P = 0.006) and Quality of Life Questionnaires scores (P = 0.035). There were no reported adverse events. MPS promotes hair growth and decreases hair loss in women suffering from temporary thinning hair. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02297360.

Ablon, Glynis

2015-01-01

315

Protein Kinase C?, Which Is Linked to Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Development of Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Stimulates Rapid Turnover of Adult Hair Follicle Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

To find clues about the mechanism by which kinase C epsilon (PKC?) may impart susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), we compared PKC? transgenic (TG) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates for (1) the effects of UVR exposures on percent of putative hair follicle stem cells (HSCs) and (2) HSCs proliferation. The percent of double HSCs (CD34+ and ?6-integrin or CD34+/CD49f+) in the isolated keratinocytes were determined by flow cytometric analysis. Both single and chronic UVR treatments (1.8?kJ/m2) resulted in an increase in the frequency of double positive HSCs in PKC? TG mice as compared to their WT littermates. To determine the rate of proliferation of bulge region stem cells, a 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine labeling (BrdU) experiment was performed. In the WT mice, the percent of double positive HSCs retaining BrdU label was 28.4 ± 0.6% compared to 4.0 ± 0.06% for the TG mice, an approximately 7-fold decrease. A comparison of gene expression profiles of FACS sorted double positive HSCs showed increased expression of Pes1, Rad21, Tfdp1 and Cks1b genes in TG mice compared to WT mice. Also, PKC? over expression in mice increased the clonogenicity of isolated keratinocytes, a property commonly ascribed to stem cells. PMID:23738074

Singh, Ashok; Singh, Anupama; Sand, Jordan M.; Heninger, Erika; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Verma, Ajit K.

2013-01-01

316

Evaluation of hair humidity resistance/moisturization from hair elasticity.  

PubMed

Average water regain and hair elasticity (Young's modulus) of virgin dark brown and bleached hair fibers under different relative humidity (RH) were determined. It is observed that hair water regain increases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 40-85%; and the remaining percent of hair elasticity decreases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 50-80%. Therefore, measurements of average hair elasticity at 50% and 80% RH, respectively, under various equilibrium times before and after cosmetic treatments can be used to evaluate effects of cosmetic treatments on water adsorption behavior of hair-improvement in hair humidity resistance or enhancement in hair moisture uptake. A Hair Humidity Resistance Factor (H(2)RF) has been defined. If R(2)HF > 1, the product improves hair humidity resistance-anti-frizz; if R(2)HF < 1, the product enhances hair water adsorption; when R(2)HF approximately 1, the product has no significant effect on hair water adsorption behavior. This method was applied to evaluate anti-frizz performance of several shampoo formulations containing Polyquaternium-10, or Polyquaternium-70, or Polyquaternium-67, or Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. It was found PQ-70 shampoo showed the highest H(2)RF value and the best anti-frizz performance among these tested shampoos. The results were consistent with those obtained from Image Analysis. PMID:17728940

Gao, Timothy

2007-01-01

317

New trends in hair analysis and scientific demands on validation and technical notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on basic aspects of method development and validation of hair testing procedures. Quality assurance is a major issue in drug testing in hair resulting in new recommendations, validation procedures and inter-laboratory comparisons. Furthermore recent trends in research concerning hair analysis are discussed, namely mechanisms of drug incorporation and retention, novel analytical procedures (especially ones using liquid chromatography–mass

Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea

2007-01-01

318

Follicular unit extraction with the Artas robotic hair transplant system system: an evaluation of FUE yield.  

PubMed

Hair transplants were developed and championed by dermatologists. However, dermatology literature has few contributions from within our specialty. In this manuscript, we present our evaluation of a specific graft harvesting approach for hair transplants referred to as Follicular unit extraction (FUE). In particular, we sought to evaluate the rate of harvest attempts that did not produce an actual hair folliclular unit graft. PMID:24746303

Rashid, Rashid M

2014-01-01

319

MicroRNA-122 Influences the Development of Sperm Abnormalities from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Regulating TNP2 Expression  

PubMed Central

Sperm abnormalities are one of the main factors responsible for male infertility; however, their pathogenesis remains unclear. The role of microRNAs in the development of sperm abnormalities in infertile men has not yet been investigated. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate the influence of miR-122 expression on the differentiation of these cells into spermatozoa-like cells in vitro. After induction, mutant miR-122-transfected cells formed spermatozoa-like cells. Flow cytometry of DNA content revealed a significant increase in the haploid cell population in spermatozoa-like cells derived from mutant miR-122-transfected cells as compared to those derived from miR-122-transfected cells. During induction, TNP2 and protamine mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in mutant miR-122-transfected cells than in miR-122-transfected cells. High-throughput isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification were used to identify and quantify the different protein expression levels in miR-122- and mutant miR-122-transfected cells. Among all the proteins analyzed, the expression of lipoproteins, for example, APOB and APOA1, showed the most significant difference between the two groups. This study illustrates that miR-122 expression is associated with abnormal sperm development. MiR-122 may influence spermatozoa-like cells by suppressing TNP2 expression and inhibiting the expression of proteins associated with sperm development. PMID:23327642

Huang, Yongyi; Liu, Jianjun; Zhao, Yanhui; Jiang, Lizhen; Huang, Qin

2013-01-01

320

European hair and eye color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

Peter Frost

2006-01-01

321

Concentrations of chromium, selenium, and copper in the hair of viscerally obese adults are associated with insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Visceral adiposity is linked to the development of insulin resistance, which is a condition that may contribute to metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease. Various minerals play essential roles in different metabolic functions in the body. Thus, the relationships between mineral concentrations in the hair and insulin resistance were analyzed in 144 Korean adults (71 viscerally obese subjects and 73 normal control subjects) in this cross-sectional study. Visceral obesity was measured using a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and insulin resistance levels were assessed using the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The viscerally obese group exhibited significantly higher levels of serum glucose (96.5 vs 91.0 mg/dL, P?=?0.023), insulin concentration (4.78 vs 2.98 ?IU/mL, P?=?0.003), and the HOMA-IR index (1.18 vs 0.64, P?=?0.003) compared with the normal control group. After adjusting for age and sex, there was a positive correlation between copper levels in the hair and the HOMA-IR index in the viscerally obese group (r?=?0.241, P?=?0.046) whereas chromium and selenium levels in the hair were negatively correlated with the HOMA-IR index (r?=?-0.256, P?=?0.034, and r?=?-0.251, P?=?0.038, respectively). Thus, chromium and selenium levels in the hair of viscerally obese adults were inversely associated with insulin resistance, whereas copper levels in the hair were positively associated with insulin resistance. This suggests that the mineral status of viscerally obese adults might play a role in the development of insulin resistance. PMID:24643468

Kim, Ha-Na; Song, Sang-Wook

2014-05-01

322

Microrefined microfollicular hair transplant: a new modification in hair transplant.  

PubMed

: Hair transplant is the most common cosmetic surgery procedure in men; at our center, we perform nearly 40 transplants a month, with nearly 450 procedures in a year. Current techniques of hair transplant are well established and several authors have had remarkable results using the current techniques of microfollicular hair transplant. Orentreich described hair transplant, Shiell has reviewed current techniques in his paper, whereas Rose reviews the latest innovations in hair transplant including Neograft and robotic procedures. We present our modifications to the process based on our experience of more than 1000 cases in the last 3 years.Microrefined microfollicular hair transplant is a procedure with innovations at each step of the standard microfollicular hair transplant procedure to improve results.The steps of the procedure are as follows: PMID:24374401

Gupta, Amit

2014-09-01

323

COLLAPSED ABNORMAL POLLEN1 Gene Encoding the Arabinokinase-Like Protein Is Involved in Pollen Development in Rice1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

We isolated a pollen-defective mutant, collapsed abnormal pollen1 (cap1), from Tos17 insertional mutant lines of rice (Oryza sativa). The cap1 heterozygous plant produced equal numbers of normal and collapsed abnormal grains. The abnormal pollen grains lacked almost all cytoplasmic materials, nuclei, and intine cell walls and did not germinate. Genetic analysis of crosses revealed that the cap1 mutation did not affect female reproduction or vegetative growth. CAP1 encodes a protein consisting of 996 amino acids that showed high similarity to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) l-arabinokinase, which catalyzes the conversion of l-arabinose to l-arabinose 1-phosphate. A wild-type genomic DNA segment containing CAP1 restored mutants to normal pollen grains. During rice pollen development, CAP1 was preferentially expressed in anthers at the bicellular pollen stage, and the effects of the cap1 mutation were mainly detected at this stage. Based on the metabolic pathway of l-arabinose, cap1 pollen phenotype may have been caused by toxic accumulation of l-arabinose or by inhibition of cell wall metabolism due to the lack of UDP-l-arabinose derived from l-arabinose 1-phosphate. The expression pattern of CAP1 was very similar to that of another Arabidopsis homolog that showed 71% amino acid identity with CAP1. Our results suggested that CAP1 and related genes are critical for pollen development in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. PMID:23629836

Ueda, Kenji; Yoshimura, Fumiaki; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Wabiko, Hiroetsu

2013-01-01

324

Red hair may increase melanoma risk  

Cancer.gov

A person’s skin pigment, which determines hair color and skin tone, is influenced by the melanocortin-1 (MC1R) gene receptor. For the population’s 1 to 2 percent of redheads, a mutation in MC1R accounts for their red hair color and typical light skin. Now researchers from Harvard Medical School (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) have discovered that the same MC1R mutation responsible for the red-hair phenotype also promotes an important cancer-causing pathway. The new findings, reported online August 22 in the journal Molecular Cell, help to explain the molecular mechanisms that underlie redheads’ well-known risk of developing melanoma, providing new insights for treating and preventing this dangerous type of skin cancer.

325

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position ...

326

Robust algorithmic detection of the developed cardiac pathologies and emerging or transient abnormalities from short periods of RR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous research efforts and clinical testing have confirmed validity of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis as one of the cardiac diagnostics modalities. The majority of HRV analysis tools currently used in practice are based on linear indicators. Methods from nonlinear dynamics (NLD) provide more natural modeling framework for adaptive biological systems with multiple feedback loops. Compared to linear indicators, many NLD-based measures are much less sensitive to data artifacts and non-stationarity. However, majority of NLD measures require long time series for stable calculation. Similar restrictions also apply for linear indicators. Such requirements could drastically limit practical usability of HRV analysis in many applications, including express diagnostics, early indication of subtle directional changes during personalization of medical treatment, and robust detection of emerging or transient abnormalities. Recently we have illustrated that these challenges could be overcome by using classification framework based on boosting-like ensemble learning techniques that are capable of discovering robust meta-indicators from existing HRV measures and other incomplete empirical knowledge. In this paper we demonstrate universality of such meta-indicators and discuss operational details of their practical usage. Using such pathology examples as congestive heart failure (CHF) and arrhythmias, we show that classifiers trained on short RR segments (down to several minutes) could achieve reasonable classification accuracy (˜80-85% and higher). These indicators calculated from longer RR segments could be applicable for accurate diagnostics with classification accuracy approaching 100%. In addition, it is feasible to discover single "normal-abnormal" meta-classifier capable of detecting multiple abnormalities.

Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.; Senyukova, Olga

2011-06-01

327

Auxin, the organizer of the hormonal/environmental signals for root hair growth  

PubMed Central

The root hair development is controlled by diverse factors such as fate-determining developmental cues, auxin-related environmental factors, and hormones. In particular, the soil environmental factors are important as they maximize their absorption by modulating root hair development. These environmental factors affect the root hair developmental process by making use of diverse hormones. These hormonal factors interact with each other to modulate root hair development in which auxin appears to form the most intensive networks with the pathways from environmental factors and hormones. Moreover, auxin action for root hair development is genetically located immediately upstream of the root hair-morphogenetic genes. These observations suggest that auxin plays as an organizing node for environmental/hormonal pathways to modulate root hair growth. PMID:24273547

Lee, Richard D.-W.; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

2013-01-01

328

Common Hair Disorders  

PubMed Central

Four of the commonest hair conditions seen by family practitioners are: seborrheic dermatitis, physiologic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. This article summarizes the clinical findings in each of these disorders and suggests methods of treatment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:20469068

Unger, Walter P.

1974-01-01

329

The Hair Colour Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class activity is designed to introduce young learners to the concept of tree diagrams. This class activity requires learners to organize data about the individual student's physical characteristics(gender, hair and eye color) utilizing connecting cubes. The activity includes a follow up activity, questions, tips on getting started, a teacher resource page, and a printable version of the problem.

NRICH team

2012-01-01

330

Recent developments in meconium and hair testing methods for the confirmation of gestational exposures to alcohol and tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alcohol and tobacco is prevalent among pregnant women despite the well-known adverse effects of these substances imposed on the developing fetus and immense public health education efforts. Confirmation of gestational exposures to these compounds have relied mostly on maternal self-reporting, which is often underestimated because of guilt, embarrassment, and fear of punitive action. The presence of fatty

Daphne Chan; Daniela Caprara; Phillip Blanchette; Julia Klein; Gideon Koren

2004-01-01

331

Lis1 mediates planar polarity of auditory hair cells through regulation of microtubule organization  

PubMed Central

The V-shaped hair bundles atop auditory hair cells and their uniform orientation are manifestations of epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP) required for proper perception of sound. PCP is regulated at the tissue level by a conserved core Wnt/PCP pathway. However, the hair cell-intrinsic polarity machinery is poorly understood. Recent findings implicate hair cell microtubules in planar polarization of hair cells. To elucidate the microtubule-mediated polarity pathway, we analyzed Lis1 function in the auditory sensory epithelium in the mouse. We show that conditional deletion of Lis1 in developing hair cells causes defects in cytoplasmic dynein and microtubule organization, resulting in planar polarity defects without overt effects on the core PCP pathway. Lis1 ablation during embryonic development results in defects in hair bundle morphology and orientation, cellular organization and junctional nectin localization. We present evidence that Lis1 regulates localized Rac-PAK signaling in embryonic hair cells, probably through microtubule-associated Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac. Lis1 ablation in postnatal hair cells significantly disrupts centrosome anchoring and the normal V-shape of hair bundles, accompanied by defects in the pericentriolar matrix and microtubule organization. Lis1 is also required for proper positioning of the Golgi complex and mitochondria as well as for hair cell survival. Together, our results demonstrate that Lis1 mediates the planar polarity of hair cells through regulation of microtubule organization downstream of the tissue polarity pathway. PMID:23533177

Sipe, Conor W.; Liu, Lixia; Lee, Jianyi; Grimsley-Myers, Cynthia; Lu, Xiaowei

2013-01-01

332

Black Hole's 1/N Hair  

E-print Network

According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

2012-03-29

333

The evolution of root hairs and rhizoids  

PubMed Central

Background Almost all land plants develop tip-growing filamentous cells at the interface between the plant and substrate (the soil). Root hairs form on the surface of roots of sporophytes (the multicellular diploid phase of the life cycle) in vascular plants. Rhizoids develop on the free-living gametophytes of vascular and non-vascular plants and on both gametophytes and sporophytes of the extinct rhyniophytes. Extant lycophytes (clubmosses and quillworts) and monilophytes (ferns and horsetails) develop both free-living gametophytes and free-living sporophytes. These gametophytes and sporophytes grow in close contact with the soil and develop rhizoids and root hairs, respectively. Scope Here we review the development and function of rhizoids and root hairs in extant groups of land plants. Root hairs are important for the uptake of nutrients with limited mobility in the soil such as phosphate. Rhizoids have a variety of functions including water transport and adhesion to surfaces in some mosses and liverworts. Conclusions A similar gene regulatory network controls the development of rhizoids in moss gametophytes and root hairs on the roots of vascular plant sporophytes. It is likely that this gene regulatory network first operated in the gametophyte of the earliest land plants. We propose that later it functioned in sporophytes as the diploid phase evolved a free-living habit and developed an interface with the soil. This transference of gene function from gametophyte to sporophyte could provide a mechanism that, at least in part, explains the increase in morphological diversity of sporophytes that occurred during the radiation of land plants in the Devonian Period. PMID:22730024

Jones, Victor A.S.; Dolan, Liam

2012-01-01

334

The Female Pattern Hair Loss: Review of Etiopathogenesis and Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women. Initial signs may develop during teenage years leading to a progressive hair loss with a characteristic pattern distribution. The condition is characterized by progressive replacement of terminal hair follicles over the frontal and vertex regions by miniaturized follicles, that leads progressively to a visible reduction in hair density. Women diagnosed with FPHL may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. FPHL diagnosis is mostly clinical. Depending on patient history and clinical evaluation, further diagnostic testing may be useful. The purpose of the paper is to review the current knowledge about epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of FPHL. PMID:24812631

Vujovic, Anja; Del Marmol, Véronique

2014-01-01

335

Analysis of psilocin, bufotenine and LSD in hair.  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous extraction of the hallucinogens psilocin, bufotenine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as well as iso-LSD, nor-LSD and O-H-LSD from hair with hydrochloride acid and methanol is presented. Clean-up of the hair extracts is performed with solid phase extraction using a mixed-mode cation exchanger. Extracts are measured with liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The method was successfully validated according to the guidelines of the 'Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry' (GTFCh). To obtain reference material hair was soaked in a solution of the analytes in dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol to allow incorporation into the hair. These fortified hair samples were used for method development and can be employed as quality controls. PMID:25540060

Martin, Rafaela; Schürenkamp, Jennifer; Gasse, Angela; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Köhler, Helga

2015-03-01

336

Endovascular Treatment of AVF after Hair Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the scalp is a very rare complication of hair transplantation. Only 9 cases have been reported in nearly half a century. The diagnosis is clinical but angiography is necessary for defining the angioarchitecture of the lesion. Due to technical developments, endovascular embolization has become the primary treatment for AVF of the scalp.

Dogan, Sozen; Cinar, Celal; Demirpolat, Gulen; Memis, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmemis@yahoo.co [Ege University, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-07-15

337

Determination of trace elements in hair of Wilson's disease patients using PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contents of nine elements (P, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Se, Sr) in the hair of 52 patients with Wilson's disease (HLD) and 52 well matched healthy controls were determined by the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method and they were in good agreement with published data. The apparently abnormal contents of Ca and Cu in the patient's hair were not observed. The Zn content of hair in Wilson's disease patients with splenomegaly was obviously higher than that in the matched controls ( P < 0.025). The abnormal content of Zn seems to indicate that Wilson's disease is a disease with a multielemental metabolic disturbance. Our results provide a proper ground for treatment of Wilson's disease patients with zinc sulphate. In contrast to reports from western countries, the content of Cu in the hair of healthy females was lower than that of healthy males.

Sha, Yin; Liu, Pingsheng; Zhang, Runhua; Liu, Guilin; Zhang, Zhengxin; Feng, Yinkun; Liu, Guodong; Sun, Guiqin; Wang, Shizhen

1987-03-01

338

Pseudofolliculitis cutis: a vexing disorder of hair growth.  

PubMed

Pseudofolliculitis cutis (PFC) is a troublesome and potentially disfiguring cutaneous disorder characterized by a chronic inflammatory response to ingrown hair. Despite a simple precipitating stimulus, ingrown hair, PFC has a relatively complex aetiology that can involve grooming practices, hair type, genetic predisposition and medication history. Curly hair and a single-nucleotide substitution in the gene encoding keratin 75 may act synergistically to increase the risk for developing this condition. PFC is most common in men of sub-Saharan African lineage, but can occur in men and women of many different ethnicities, particularly in body areas where hair is coarse, abundant and subject to traumatic removal. Treatment options for PFC can be divided into three main categories: modifying hair removal practices, managing symptoms with medication, and long-term hair removal with laser therapy. Laser hair removal is safe and effective in most skin types and has become increasingly popular among dermatologists in the treatment of PFC. However, it is imperative that the laser system and parameters are specifically matched to the patient's skin type. PMID:25255890

Jasterzbski, T J; Schwartz, R A

2015-04-01

339

EGFR-ras-raf signaling in epidermal stem cells: roles in hair follicle development, regeneration, tissue remodeling and epidermal cancers.  

PubMed

The mammalian skin is the largest organ of the body and its outermost layer, the epidermis, undergoes dynamic lifetime renewal through the activity of somatic stem cell populations. The EGFR-Ras-Raf pathway has a well-described role in skin development and tumor formation. While research mainly focuses on its role in cutaneous tumor initiation and maintenance, much less is known about Ras signaling in the epidermal stem cells, which are the main targets of skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we briefly discuss the properties of the epidermal stem cells and review the role of EGFR-Ras-Raf signaling in keratinocyte stem cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions. PMID:24071938

Doma, Eszter; Rupp, Christian; Baccarini, Manuela

2013-01-01

340

EGFR-Ras-Raf Signaling in Epidermal Stem Cells: Roles in Hair Follicle Development, Regeneration, Tissue Remodeling and Epidermal Cancers  

PubMed Central

The mammalian skin is the largest organ of the body and its outermost layer, the epidermis, undergoes dynamic lifetime renewal through the activity of somatic stem cell populations. The EGFR-Ras-Raf pathway has a well-described role in skin development and tumor formation. While research mainly focuses on its role in cutaneous tumor initiation and maintenance, much less is known about Ras signaling in the epidermal stem cells, which are the main targets of skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we briefly discuss the properties of the epidermal stem cells and review the role of EGFR-Ras-Raf signaling in keratinocyte stem cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions. PMID:24071938

Doma, Eszter; Rupp, Christian; Baccarini, Manuela

2013-01-01

341

Lichen planopilaris following hair transplantation and face-lift surgery.  

PubMed

Cosmetic surgical procedures, including hair transplantation and face-lift surgery, are becoming increasingly popular. However, there is very little information regarding the associated development of dermatological conditions following these procedures. Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an uncommon inflammatory hair disorder of unknown aetiology that results in permanent alopecia and replacement of hair follicles with scar-like fibrous tissue. Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), a variant of LPP, involves the frontal hairline and shares similar histological findings with those of LPP. We report 10 patients who developed LPP/FFA following cosmetic scalp surgery. Seven patients developed LPP following hair transplantation, and three patients developed FFA following face-lift surgery. In all cases there was no previous history of LPP or FFA. There is currently a lack of evidence to link the procedures of hair transplantation and cosmetic face-lift surgery to LPP and FFA, respectively. This is the first case series to describe this connection and to postulate the possible pathological processes underlying the clinical observation. Explanations include Koebner phenomenon induced by surgical trauma, an autoimmune process targeting an (as yet, unknown) hair follicle antigen liberated during surgery or perhaps a postsurgery proinflammatory milieu inducing hair follicle immune privilege collapse and follicular damage in susceptible individuals. PMID:21985326

Chiang, Y Z; Tosti, A; Chaudhry, I H; Lyne, L; Farjo, B; Farjo, N; Cadore de Farias, D; Griffiths, C E M; Paus, R; Harries, M J

2012-03-01

342

Regulation of hair shedding by the type 3 IP3 receptor.  

PubMed

Here we showed that the type 3 IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R3) is specifically expressed in hair follicles of the skin and plays an important role in the regulation of the hair cycle. We found that IP(3)R3-deficient (Itpr3(-/-)) mice had prominent alopecia, which was characterized by repeated hair loss and regrowth. The alopecic stripe runs along the body axis like a wave, suggesting disturbed hair-cycle regulation. Indeed, the hair follicles of the alopecic region were in the early anagen stage. Although the hair growth and proliferation activity of the hair matrix cells in the anagen phase were normal in Itpr3(-/-) mice, telogen club hairs in the telogen-anagen transition phase were loosely attached to the hair follicles and were easily removed in contrast to the more tightly attached club hairs of Itpr3(+/+) mice. Itpr3(-/-) keratinocytes surrounding the telogen club hairs have sparse cytokeratin filaments extending in random directions, as well as less developed desmosomes. Furthermore, nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) failed to translocate into the nucleus of keratin 6-positive bulge cells in Itpr3(-/-) telogen follicles. We propose that hair shedding is actively controlled by the IP(3)R3/NFAT-dependent signaling pathway, possibly through the regulation of cytokeratin filaments in keratinocytes. PMID:22572820

Sato-Miyaoka, Mai; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ogawa, Naoko; Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

2012-09-01

343

Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.

Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jülicher, F.

2009-02-01

344

No-hair theorems for black holes in the Abelian Higgs model  

E-print Network

Motivated by the study of holographic superconductors, we generalize no-hair theorems for minimally coupled scalar fields charged under an Abelian gauge field, in arbitrary dimensions and with arbitrary horizon topology. We first present a straightforward generalization of no-hair theorems for neutral scalar hair. We then consider the existence of extremal black holes with scalar hair, and in the case of horizons with zero or positive curvature, provide a bound on the mass and charge of the scalar field that are necessary for the scalar hair to develop.

Juan Fernandez-Gracia; Bartomeu Fiol

2009-10-26

345

Hair Cell Overexpression of Islet1 Reduces Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Isl1 is a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor that is critical in the development and differentiation of multiple tissues. In the mouse inner ear, Isl1 is expressed in the prosensory region of otocyst, in young hair cells and supporting cells, and is no longer expressed in postnatal auditory hair cells. To evaluate how continuous Isl1 expression in postnatal hair cells affects hair cell development and cochlear function, we created a transgenic mouse model in which the Pou4f3 promoter drives Isl1 overexpression specifically in hair cells. Isl1 overexpressing hair cells develop normally, as seen by morphology and cochlear functions (auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emissions). As the mice aged to 17 months, wild-type (WT) controls showed the progressive threshold elevation and outer hair cell loss characteristic of the age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in the background strain (C57BL/6J). In contrast, the Isl1 transgenic mice showed significantly less threshold elevation with survival of hair cells. Further, the Isl1 overexpression protected the ear from noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL): both ABR threshold shifts and hair cell death were significantly reduced when compared with WT littermates. Our model suggests a common mechanism underlying ARHL and NIHL, and provides evidence that hair cell-specific Isl1 expression can promote hair cell survival and therefore minimize the hearing impairment that normally occurs with aging and/or acoustic overexposure. PMID:24048839

Huang, Mingqian; Kantardzhieva, Albena; Scheffer, Deborah; Liberman, M. Charles

2013-01-01

346

Hair cell overexpression of Islet1 reduces age-related and noise-induced hearing loss.  

PubMed

Isl1 is a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor that is critical in the development and differentiation of multiple tissues. In the mouse inner ear, Isl1 is expressed in the prosensory region of otocyst, in young hair cells and supporting cells, and is no longer expressed in postnatal auditory hair cells. To evaluate how continuous Isl1 expression in postnatal hair cells affects hair cell development and cochlear function, we created a transgenic mouse model in which the Pou4f3 promoter drives Isl1 overexpression specifically in hair cells. Isl1 overexpressing hair cells develop normally, as seen by morphology and cochlear functions (auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emissions). As the mice aged to 17 months, wild-type (WT) controls showed the progressive threshold elevation and outer hair cell loss characteristic of the age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in the background strain (C57BL/6J). In contrast, the Isl1 transgenic mice showed significantly less threshold elevation with survival of hair cells. Further, the Isl1 overexpression protected the ear from noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL): both ABR threshold shifts and hair cell death were significantly reduced when compared with WT littermates. Our model suggests a common mechanism underlying ARHL and NIHL, and provides evidence that hair cell-specific Isl1 expression can promote hair cell survival and therefore minimize the hearing impairment that normally occurs with aging and/or acoustic overexposure. PMID:24048839

Huang, Mingqian; Kantardzhieva, Albena; Scheffer, Deborah; Liberman, M Charles; Chen, Zheng-Yi

2013-09-18

347

Hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on basic aspects and recent studies of hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs and is discussed with 164 references. Firstly, biology of hair and sampling of hair specimens have been commented for the sake of correct interpretation of the results from hair analysis. Then the usual washing methods of hair samples and the extraction methods for

Yuji Nakahara

1999-01-01

348

The ovo gene required for cuticle formation and oogenesis in flies is involved in hair formation and spermatogenesis in mice  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila svb/ovo gene gives rise to differentially expressed transcripts encoding a zinc finger protein. svb/ovo has two distinct genetic functions: shavenbaby (svb) is required for proper formation of extracellular projections that are produced by certain epidermal cells in late-stage differentiation; ovo is required for survival and differentiation of female germ cells. We cloned a mouse gene, movo1 encoding a nuclear transcription factor that is highly similar to its fly counterpart in its zinc-finger sequences. In mice, the gene is expressed in skin, where it localizes to the differentiating cells of epidermis and hair follicles, and in testes, where it is present in spermatocytes and spermatids. Using gene targeting, we show that movo1 is required for proper development of both hair and sperm. movo1?/? mice are small, produce aberrant hairs, and display hypogenitalism, with a reduced ability to reproduce. These mice also develop abnormalities in kidney, where movo1 is also expressed. Our findings reveal remarkable parallels between mice and flies in epidermal appendage formation and in germ-cell maturation. Furthermore, they uncover a phenotype similar to that of Bardet–Biedl syndrome, a human disorder that maps to the same locus as human ovo1. PMID:9808631

Dai, Xing; Schonbaum, Christopher; Degenstein, Linda; Bai, Wenyu; Mahowald, Anthony; Fuchs, Elaine

1998-01-01

349

Morphological, genetic and molecular characteristics of barley root hair mutants.  

PubMed

Root hairs are tubular outgrowths of specialized epidermal cells called trichoblasts. They affect anchoring plants in soil, the uptake of water and nutrients and are the sites of the interaction between plants and microorganisms. Nineteen root hair mutants of barley representing different stages of root hair development were subjected to detailed morphological and genetic analyses. Each mutant was monogenic and recessive. An allelism test revealed that nine loci were responsible for the mutated root hair phenotypes in the collection and 1-4 mutated allelic forms were identified at each locus. Genetic relationships between the genes responsible for different stages of root hair formation were established. The linkage groups of four loci rhl1, rhp1, rhi1 and rhs1, which had previously been mapped on chromosomes 7H, 1H, 6H and 5H, respectively, were enriched with new markers that flank the genes at a distance of 0.16 cM to 4.6 cM. The chromosomal position of three new genes - two that are responsible for the development of short root hairs (rhs2 and rhs3) and the gene that controls an irregular root hair pattern (rhi2) - were mapped on chromosomes 6H, 2H and 1H, respectively. A comparative analysis of the agrobotanical parameters between some mutants and their respective parental lines showed that mutations in genes responsible for root hair development had no effect on the agrobotanical performance of plants that were grown under controlled conditions. The presented mutant collection is a valuable tool for further identification of genes controlling root hair development in barley. PMID:24899566

Chmielewska, Beata; Janiak, Agnieszka; Karcz, Jagna; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Forster, Brian P; Nawrot, Malgorzata; Rusek, Anna; Smyda, Paulina; Kedziorski, Piotr; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

2014-11-01

350

Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction  

PubMed Central

Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

2015-01-01

351

Diffusion MRI of the Developing Cerebral Cortical Gray Matter can be Used to Detect Abnormalities in Tissue Microstructure Associated with Fetal Ethanol Exposure  

PubMed Central

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) comprise a wide range of neurological deficits that result from fetal exposure to ethanol (EtOH), and are the leading cause of environmentally related birth defects and mental retardation in the western world. One aspect of diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategies that could substantially improve our ability to combat this significant problem would be to facilitate earlier detection of the disorders within individuals. Light microscopy-based investigations performed by several laboratories have previously shown that morphological development of neurons within the early-developing cerebral cortex is abnormal within the brains of animals exposed to EtOH during fetal development. We and others have recently demonstrated that diffusion MRI can be of utility for detecting abnormal cellular morphological development in the developing cerebral cortex. We therefore assessed whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be used to distinguish the developing cerebral cortices of ex vivo rat pup brains born from dams treated with EtOH (EtOH; 4.5 g/kg, 25%) or calorie-matched quantities of maltose/dextrin (M/D) throughout gestation. Water diffusion and tissue microstructure were investigated using DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA) and histology (anisotropy index, AI), respectively. Both FA and AI decreased with age, and were higher in the EtOH than the M/D group at postnatal ages (P)0, P3, and P6. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between FA and AI measurements. These findings provide evidence that disruptions in cerebral cortical development induced by EtOH exposure can be revealed by water diffusion anisotropy patterns, and that these disruptions are directly related to cerebral cortical differentiation. PMID:23921100

Leigland, Lindsey A.; Budde, Matthew D.; Cornea, Anda; Kroenke, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

352

Diffusion MRI of the developing cerebral cortical gray matter can be used to detect abnormalities in tissue microstructure associated with fetal ethanol exposure.  

PubMed

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) comprise a wide range of neurological deficits that result from fetal exposure to ethanol (EtOH), and are the leading cause of environmentally related birth defects and mental retardation in the western world. One aspect of diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategies that could substantially improve our ability to combat this significant problem would be to facilitate earlier detection of the disorders within individuals. Light microscopy-based investigations performed by several laboratories have previously shown that morphological development of neurons within the early-developing cerebral cortex is abnormal within the brains of animals exposed to EtOH during fetal development. We and others have recently demonstrated that diffusion MRI can be of utility for detecting abnormal cellular morphological development in the developing cerebral cortex. We therefore assessed whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be used to distinguish the developing cerebral cortices of ex vivo rat pup brains born from dams treated with EtOH (EtOH; 4.5 g/kg, 25%) or calorie-matched quantities of maltose/dextrin (M/D) throughout gestation. Water diffusion and tissue microstructure were investigated using DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA) and histology (anisotropy index, AI), respectively. Both FA and AI decreased with age, and were higher in the EtOH than the M/D group at postnatal ages (P)0, P3, and P6. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between FA and AI measurements. These findings provide evidence that disruptions in cerebral cortical development induced by EtOH exposure can be revealed by water diffusion anisotropy patterns, and that these disruptions are directly related to cerebral cortical differentiation. PMID:23921100

Leigland, Lindsey A; Budde, Matthew D; Cornea, Anda; Kroenke, Christopher D

2013-12-01

353

A mutation in Tubb2b, a human polymicrogyria gene, leads to lethality and abnormal cortical development in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Human cortical malformations, including lissencephaly, polymicrogyria and other diseases of neurodevelopment, have been associated with mutations in microtubule subunits and microtubule-associated proteins. Here we report our cloning of the brain dimple (brdp) mouse mutation, which we recovered from an ENU screen for recessive perinatal phenotypes affecting neurodevelopment. We identify the causal mutation in the tubulin, beta-2b (Tubb2b) gene as a missense mutation at a highly conserved residue (N247S). Brdp/brdp homozygous mutants have significant thinning of the cortical epithelium, which is markedly more severe in the caudo-lateral portion of the telencephalon, and do not survive past birth. The cortical defects are largely due to a major increase in apoptosis and we note abnormal proliferation of the basal progenitors. Adult brdp/+ mice are viable and fertile but exhibit behavioral phenotypes. This allele of Tubb2b represents the most severely affected mouse tubulin phenotype reported to date and this is the first report of a tubulin mutation affecting neuronal proliferation and survival. PMID:23727838

Stottmann, R.W.; Donlin, M.; Hafner, A.; Bernard, A.; Sinclair, D.A.; Beier, D.R.

2013-01-01

354

Forensic Science: Hair Sample Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into how hairs from a crime scene are matched to suspects. Learners each take a single hair from their own head, then put it directly into the beam of a laser pointer. This projects the unique pattern of each hair onto a piece of paper to be traced, measured, identified and compared with the others. Learners can conclude this activity by setting up a mystery exercise with prepared samples of hair already in frames. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forensics.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

355

Nonlinear amplification by active sensory hair bundles  

E-print Network

vulnerable mechanism. In the cochlea, sensory hair bundles transduce sound-induced vibrations into neural on a hair bundle from the sacculus of the bullfrog with real-time stochastic simulations of hair

Jülicher, Frank

356

Interrelated striated elements in vestibular hair cells of the rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of interrelated striated organelles in types I and II vestibular hair cells of the rat which appear to be less developed in cochlear hair cells have been revealed by unusual fixation procedures, suggesting that contractile elements may play a role in sensory transduction in the inner ear, especially in the vestibular system. Included in the series of interrelated striated elements are the cuticular plate and its basal attachments to the hair cell margins, the connections of the strut array of the kinociliary basal body to the cuticular plate, and striated organelles associated with the plasma membrane and extending below the apical junctional complexes.

Ross, M. D.; Bourne, C.

1983-01-01

357

Developmental and histological studies of seed hair in Gossypium  

E-print Network

of hairs during the early stages of growth. He found that there was an approximate increase in numbers of hairs upon the seed from 4,530 at the time of flowering to 16,420 twenty eight days later, and an increase of non fiber forming cells from 22... of pollination. Flowers picked at noon on the day of flowering showed well-defined lint hairs, approximately equal in length and breadth. He stated that the development of the fiber began before fertili? zation was accomplished, by radial growth of a large...

Heiba, Ahmed S.

1949-01-01

358

Beyond generalized hair cells: Molecular cues for hair cell types  

PubMed Central

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti (OC) from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral, LOC and medial, MOC olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the OC. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

2012-01-01

359

Beyond generalized hair cells: molecular cues for hair cell types.  

PubMed

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner and outer hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral and medial olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the organ of Corti. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision-making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

2013-03-01

360

Selected variants of the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) do not confer susceptibility to female pattern hair loss.  

PubMed

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common hair loss disorder in women with a complex mode of inheritance. Its etiopathogenesis is poorly understood. Widespread assumptions of overlapping susceptibility variants between FPHL and male pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia) and a crucial role of androgens or distinct sexual steroid hormones in the development of FPHL could neither be clearly demonstrated nor completely excluded at the molecular level up to date. Interestingly, recent studies suggested an association of metabolic syndrome-including obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 or abnormally high fasting blood glucose-with FPHL. Of note, mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) have been identified in patients with morbid obesity. Interestingly, this neuropeptide receptor has been detected amongst others in the dermal papilla of the hair follicle. As almost half of our FPHL patients of German origin present with adipositas and/or obesity, we hypothesized as to whether FPHL could be associated with variants of the MC4R gene. Thus, we genotyped a total of six variants from MC4R in our case-control sample comprising 245 UK patients of German and UK origin. However, based on our present study none of the genotyped MC4R variants displayed any significant association, neither in the overall UK and German samples nor in any subgroup analyses. In summary, these results do not point to an involvement of MC4R in FPHL. PMID:23124548

Mahmoudi, Hassnaa; Redler, Silke; Birch, Pattie; Drichel, Dmitriy; Dobson, Kathy; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid; Teßmann, Peter; Giehl, Kathrin A; Kruse, Roland; Lutz, Gerhard; Hanneken, Sandra; Wolff, Hans; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Becker, Tim; Nöthen, Markus M; Messenger, Andrew G; Böhm, Markus; Betz, Regina C

2013-04-01

361

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. When hormones are the problem, doctors call the ... bleeding, or DUB. Abnormal bleeding caused by hormone imbalance is more common in teenagers or in women ...

362

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

363

Hair as a specimen to document tetramethylene disulfotetramine exposure.  

PubMed

Tetramethylene disulfotetramine (tetramine) is a rodenticide that has been banned for many years in China. Since 2005, inhabitants of a village in the Henan Province have been suffering from grand mal seizures. To investigate the possibility of tetramine as the cause, we developed a method to determine tetramine in human hair. Sample preparation involved external decontamination, frozen pulverization, and ultrasonication in 2 mL ethyl acetate in the presence of cocaine-d3 as an internal standard. The method exhibited good linearity; calibration curve was linear over a range of 0.1-20 ng/mg hair. The limit of detection for the assay was 0.05 ng/mg hair. Except for one subject (No. 4), all head and pubic hair samples were positive for tetramine. The concentrations of tetramine in pubic hair were significantly higher than those in the same subjects' head hair samples. Because of a long retention in body, segmental head hair analysis cannot provide an accurate exposure history of tetramine in the body. PMID:22372923

Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Zhou, Fuxiang; Shen, Baohua; Shi, Yan

2012-05-01

364

Hair analysis provides a historical record of cortisol levels in Cushing's syndrome.  

PubMed

The severity of Cushing's Syndrome (CS) depends on the duration and extent of the exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Current measurements of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine reflect systemic cortisol levels at the time of sample collection, but cannot assess past cortisol levels. Hair cortisol levels may be increased in patients with CS, and, as hair grows about 1 cm/month, measurement of hair cortisol may provide historical information on the development of hypercortisolism. We attempted to measure cortisol in hair in relation to clinical course in six female patients with CS and in 32 healthy volunteers in 1 cm hair sections. Hair cortisol content was measured using a commercially available salivary cortisol immune assay with a protocol modified for use with hair. Hair cortisol levels were higher in patients with CS than in controls, the medians (ranges) were 679 (279-2500) and 116 (26-204) ng/g respectively (P<0.001). Segmental hair analysis provided information for up to 18 months before time of sampling. Hair cortisol concentrations appeared to vary in accordance with the clinical course. Based on these data, we suggest that hair cortisol measurement is a novel method for assessing dynamic systemic cortisol exposure and provides unique historical information on variation in cortisol, and that more research is required to fully understand the utility and limits of this technique. PMID:19609841

Thomson, S; Koren, G; Fraser, L-A; Rieder, M; Friedman, T C; Van Uum, S H M

2010-02-01

365

Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope.  

E-print Network

Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope. *Pull 50 hairs from the tail or mane (do not use hairs shed on brush) #Hairs must be pulled, not cut #Hairs must contain hair root *Align the "roots" of the hairs and trim

Keinan, Alon

366

Hair loss in women.  

PubMed

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a progestogen. Antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, always accompanied by tricyclic contraceptives, are the best choice of antiandrogens to use in patients with FPHL. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists such as leuprolide acetate suppress pituitary and gonadal function through a reduction in luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Subsequently, ovarian steroid levels also will be reduced, especially in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. When polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, metformin must be considered as treatment. Hyperprolactinemic SAHA and alopecia of pituitary hyperandrogenism should be treated with bromocriptine or cabergoline. Postmenopausal alopecia, with previous high levels of androgens or with prostatic-specific antigen greater than 0.04 ng/mL, improves with finasteride or dutasteride. Although we do not know the reason, postmenopausal alopecia in normoandrogenic women also improves with finasteride or dutasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg per day. Dermatocosmetic concealment with a hairpiece, hair prosthesis as extensions, or partial hairpieces can be useful. Lastly, weight loss undoubtedly improves hair loss in hyperandrogenic women. PMID:19341939

Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

2009-03-01

367

Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD  

PubMed Central

Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD. PMID:21541845

Vaidya, Chandan J.

2012-01-01

368

Effect of Adenovirus-Mediated Expression of Sonic Hedgehog Gene on Hair Regrowth in Mice With Chemotherapy Induced Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene is involved in the initiation of hair growth. We have shown that localized, transient, enhanced expression of the Shh gene in mouse skin mediated by an adenovirus (AdShh) vector accelerates initiation of the anagen (i.e., growth) phase of hair follicle development. Be- cause hair regrowth in chemotherapy- induced alopecia is associated with fol- licle

Noboru Sato; Philip L. Leopold; Ronald G. Crystal

369

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Martinez A. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association ... Buffler PA. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Cancer Causes and Control 2008; ...

370

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

371

Notch signaling limits supporting cell plasticity in the hair cell-damaged early postnatal murine cochlea.  

PubMed

In mammals, auditory hair cells are generated only during embryonic development and loss or damage to hair cells is permanent. However, in non-mammalian vertebrate species, such as birds, neighboring glia-like supporting cells regenerate auditory hair cells by both mitotic and non-mitotic mechanisms. Based on work in intact cochlear tissue, it is thought that Notch signaling might restrict supporting cell plasticity in the mammalian cochlea. However, it is unresolved how Notch signaling functions in the hair cell-damaged cochlea and the molecular and cellular changes induced in supporting cells in response to hair cell trauma are poorly understood. Here we show that gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in early postnatal mouse cochlear tissue induces rapid morphological changes in supporting cells, which facilitate the sealing of gaps left by dying hair cells. Moreover, we provide evidence that Notch signaling is active in the hair cell damaged cochlea and identify Hes1, Hey1, Hey2, HeyL, and Sox2 as targets and potential Notch effectors of this hair cell-independent mechanism of Notch signaling. Using Cre/loxP based labeling system we demonstrate that inhibition of Notch signaling with a ?- secretase inhibitor (GSI) results in the trans-differentiation of supporting cells into hair cell-like cells. Moreover, we show that these hair cell-like cells, generated by supporting cells have molecular, cellular, and basic electrophysiological properties similar to immature hair cells rather than supporting cells. Lastly, we show that the vast majority of these newly generated hair cell-like cells express the outer hair cell specific motor protein prestin. PMID:24023676

Korrapati, Soumya; Roux, Isabelle; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

2013-01-01

372

Notch Signaling Limits Supporting Cell Plasticity in the Hair Cell-Damaged Early Postnatal Murine Cochlea  

PubMed Central

In mammals, auditory hair cells are generated only during embryonic development and loss or damage to hair cells is permanent. However, in non-mammalian vertebrate species, such as birds, neighboring glia-like supporting cells regenerate auditory hair cells by both mitotic and non-mitotic mechanisms. Based on work in intact cochlear tissue, it is thought that Notch signaling might restrict supporting cell plasticity in the mammalian cochlea. However, it is unresolved how Notch signaling functions in the hair cell-damaged cochlea and the molecular and cellular changes induced in supporting cells in response to hair cell trauma are poorly understood. Here we show that gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in early postnatal mouse cochlear tissue induces rapid morphological changes in supporting cells, which facilitate the sealing of gaps left by dying hair cells. Moreover, we provide evidence that Notch signaling is active in the hair cell damaged cochlea and identify Hes1, Hey1, Hey2, HeyL, and Sox2 as targets and potential Notch effectors of this hair cell-independent mechanism of Notch signaling. Using Cre/loxP based labeling system we demonstrate that inhibition of Notch signaling with a ?- secretase inhibitor (GSI) results in the trans-differentiation of supporting cells into hair cell-like cells. Moreover, we show that these hair cell-like cells, generated by supporting cells have molecular, cellular, and basic electrophysiological properties similar to immature hair cells rather than supporting cells. Lastly, we show that the vast majority of these newly generated hair cell-like cells express the outer hair cell specific motor protein prestin. PMID:24023676

Korrapati, Soumya; Roux, Isabelle; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

2013-01-01

373

Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle  

PubMed Central

The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases during catagen and telogen. Administration of antisense miR-31 inhibitor into mouse skin during the early- and midanagen phases of the hair cycle results in accelerated anagen development, and altered differentiation of hair matrix keratinocytes and hair shaft formation. Microarray, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that miR-31 negatively regulates expression of Fgf10, the components of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways Sclerostin and BAMBI, and Dlx3 transcription factor, as well as selected keratin genes, both in vitro and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assay, we show that Krt16, Krt17, Dlx3, and Fgf10 serve as direct miR-31 targets. Thus, by targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, miR-31 is involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the hair follicle required for its proper growth and hair fiber formation.—Mardaryev, A. N., Ahmed, M. I., Vlahov, N. V., Fessing, M. Y., Gill, J. H., Sharov, A. A., and Botchkareva, N. V. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle. PMID:20522784

Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Ahmed, Mohammed I.; Vlahov, Nikola V.; Fessing, Michael Y.; Gill, Jason H.; Sharov, Andrey A.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.

2010-01-01

374

Chondrodysplasia and Abnormal Joint Development Associated with Mutations in IMPAD1, Encoding the Golgi-Resident Nucleotide Phosphatase, gPAPP  

PubMed Central

We used whole-exome sequencing to study three individuals with a distinct condition characterized by short stature, chondrodysplasia with brachydactyly, congenital joint dislocations, cleft palate, and facial dysmorphism. Affected individuals carried homozygous missense mutations in IMPAD1, the gene coding for gPAPP, a Golgi-resident nucleotide phosphatase that hydrolyzes phosphoadenosine phosphate (PAP), the byproduct of sulfotransferase reactions, to AMP. The mutations affected residues in or adjacent to the phosphatase active site and are predicted to impair enzyme activity. A fourth unrelated patient was subsequently found to be homozygous for a premature termination codon in IMPAD1. Impad1 inactivation in mice has previously been shown to produce chondrodysplasia with abnormal joint formation and impaired proteoglycan sulfation. The human chondrodysplasia associated with gPAPP deficiency joins a growing number of skeletoarticular conditions associated with defective synthesis of sulfated proteoglycans, highlighting the importance of proteoglycans in the development of skeletal elements and joints. PMID:21549340

Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; Lausch, Ekkehart; Unger, Sheila; Campos-Xavier, Ana Belinda; Gilissen, Christian; Rossi, Antonio; Del Rosario, Marisol; Venselaar, Hanka; Knoll, Ute; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Nair, Mohandas; Spranger, Jürgen; Brunner, Han G.; Bonafé, Luisa; Veltman, Joris A.; Zabel, Bernhard; Superti-Furga, Andrea

2011-01-01

375

A 'calcium capacitor' shapes cholinergic inhibition of cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed

Efferent cholinergic neurons project from the brainstem to inhibit sensory hair cells of the vertebrate inner ear. This inhibitory synapse combines the activity of an unusual class of ionotropic cholinergic receptor with that of nearby calcium-dependent potassium channels to shunt and hyperpolarize the hair cell. Postsynaptic calcium signalling is constrained by a thin near-membrane cistern that is co-extensive with the efferent terminal contacts. The postsynaptic cistern may play an essential role in calcium homeostasis, serving as sink or source, depending on ongoing activity and the degree of buffer saturation. Release of calcium from postsynaptic stores leads to a process of retrograde facilitation via the synthesis of nitric oxide in the hair cell. Activity-dependent synaptic modification may contribute to changes in hair cell innervation that occur during development, and in the aged or damaged cochlea. PMID:24566542

Fuchs, Paul Albert

2014-08-15

376

Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: Frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior  

PubMed Central

Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell’s lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations. PMID:14514199

Weitzel, Erik K.; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E.

2010-01-01

377

The Role of Chronic Hypoxia in the Development of Neurocognitive Abnormalities in Preterm Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common pulmonary morbidity in preterm infants and is associated with chronic hypoxia. Animal studies have demonstrated structural, neurochemical and functional alterations due to chronic hypoxia in the developing brain. Long-term impairments in visual-motor, gross and fine motor, articulation, reading,…

Raman, Lakshmi; Georgieff, Michael K.; Rao, Raghavendra

2006-01-01

378

Hair follicle morphogenesis and epidermal homeostasis in we/we wal/wal mice with postnatal alopecia.  

PubMed

Mice with skin and hair follicle (HF) defects are common models of human skin disorders. A mutant strain with the we/we wal/wal genotype develops alopecia. We found the hair shaft structure in the pelage of mutant mice to have significant defects. Although these mice lose their hair at 21 days, a label-retaining cell population persists in HFs until at least day 54. Depilation-induced anagen was accomplished in we/we wal/wal mutants but the resulting hair shafts were short and extremely deformed. Serious abnormalities in epidermis stratification and HF morphogenesis exist in we/we wal/wal homozygous E18.5 embryos. There were significantly fewer HF primordia in this mutant compared with wild type. We discovered specific structures, identified as invalid placodes, positive for ectodysplasin A1 receptor, nuclear ?-catenin, and LEF1, which failed to invaginate, produced a double basal-like layer of epidermal cells, and lacked cylindrical keratinocytes. Specification of dermal papillae (DP) was impaired, and the papillary dermis expressed alkaline phosphatase and LEF1. We also detected DP-like groups of intensively stained cells in the absence of visible signs of folliculogenesis in the epidermis. We showed differentiation disturbances in the mutant embryonic E18.5 epidermis and HFs: The cornified layer was absent, the width of the spinous layer was reduced, and HFs lacked LEF1-positive precortex cells. In this study, we used a very interesting and useful mouse model of alopecia. The presence of symptoms of skin disorders in we/we wal/wal murine embryos correlates with the postnatal skin phenotype. This correlation may help to evaluate reasons of alopecia. PMID:25366125

Rippa, Alexandra; Terskikh, Vasily; Nesterova, Anastasia; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina

2015-05-01

379

Hair as Race: Why “Good Hair” May Be Bad for Black Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically examining the relationship between race, Black female beauty, and hair texture, this qualitative study used narratives from 38 Black females between the ages of 19 and 81, to determine messages that communicate hair valuations to Black females, definitions of good and bad hair, and motivations for desiring good hair. A legacy of slavery, hair valuations reflect racially motivated beauty

Cynthia L. Robinson

2011-01-01

380

Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

E-print Network

Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell Jean of the hair cells' responsiveness to small stimuli. As revealed by spontaneous oscillations and forms of mechanical excitability in response to force steps, the hair bundle that adorns each hair cell is both

Jülicher, Frank

381

Hair cycle and hair pigmentation: dynamic interactions and changes associated with aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tight coupling of hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle dramatically distinguishes follicular melanogenesis from the continuous melanogenesis of the epidermis. Cyclic re-construction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit occurs optimally in all scalp hair follicles during only the first 10 hair cycles, i.e. by approximately 40 years of age. Thereafter there appears to be a genetically

Dominique Van Neste; Desmond J Tobin

2004-01-01

382

The color(s) of human hair—Forensic hair analysis with SpectraCube ®  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is among the most common kind of evidence secured at crime scenes. Although DNA analysis through STR-typing is possible in principle, it is not very promising for telogenic hair or single hairs. For the mixed traces frequently found in practice, composed of different hair from an unknown number of individuals, mtDNA sequencing of each individual hair seems to

Christoph Birngruber; Frank Ramsthaler; Marcel A. Verhoff

2009-01-01

383

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING  

E-print Network

#12;STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes May 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 #12;2 Hair Interactions

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

384

Hair-color modeling and head detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on hair-color modeling to detect human head in color images was proposed. The presented algorithm compared the performance of four different chrominance spaces for the distribution of hair color and built a human hair color model in YCbCr space. A Gaussian mixture density model was used to describe the distribution of hair color and segmentation threshold value

Min Zhao; Dihua Sun; Hengpan He

2008-01-01

385

Efficient DNA extraction from hair shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairs are common biological samples in crime scene investigation. However, most of this evidence is comprised of hair fragments without the root. As the major part of DNA is located in the root, hair shafts are usually problematic samples in forensic analysis. For these reasons, hair DNA typing is directed at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is present in high copy

M. Almeida; E. Betancor; R. Fregel; N. M. Suárez; J. Pestano

386

Simulating Rapunzel's hair in Disney's Tangled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair simulation is known to be a complex problem in animation. In Tangled we have the extreme task of simulating 70 feet of hair for the film's main character, Rapunzel. The excessive hair length in addition to the loose style and intricate structure of the hair present many unique challenges in simulation. Moreover, the specific art direction of the film

Kelly Ward; Maryann Simmons; Andy Milne; Hidetaka Yosumi; Xinmin Zhao

2010-01-01

387

Abnormalities of sexual development in male rats with in utero and lactational exposure to the antiandrogenic plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.  

PubMed Central

Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP (0, 375, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg/day, per os) from gestation day 3 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Dose-related effects on male offspring included reduced anogenital distance, areola and nipple retention, undescended testes, and permanently incomplete preputial separation. Testis, epididymis, glans penis, ventral prostate, dorsolateral prostate, anterior prostate, and seminal vesicle weights were reduced at PND 21, 63, and/or 105-112. Additional dose-related effects included a high incidence of anterior prostate agenesis, a lower incidence of partial or complete ventral prostate agenesis, occasional dorsolateral prostate and seminal vesicle agenesis, reduced sperm counts, and testicular, epididymal, and penile malformations. Many DEHP-exposed males were sexually inactive in the presence of receptive control females, but sexual inactivity did not correlate with abnormal male reproductive organs. These results suggest that in utero and lactational DEHP exposure also inhibited sexually dimorphic central nervous system development. No major abnormalities were found in any of eight control litters, but DEHP caused severe male reproductive system toxicity in five of eight litters at 375 mg/kg/day, seven of eight litters at 750 mg/kg/day, and five of five litters at 1,500 mg/kg/day. These results demonstrate that the male reproductive system is far more sensitive to DEHP early in development than when animals are exposed as juveniles or adults. The effects of DEHP on male reproductive organs and sexual behaviors and the lack of significant effects on time to vaginal opening and first estrus in their littermates demonstrate that DEHP (and/or its metabolites) affects development of the male reproductive system primarily by acting as an antiandrogen. The pattern of effects of in utero and lactational DEHP exposure differed from patterns caused by other phthalate esters, and the preponderance of anterior prostate agenesis appears to be unique among all chemicals. These results suggest that DEHP acts partly by mechanisms distinct from those of other antiandrogens. PMID:11333183

Moore, R W; Rudy, T A; Lin, T M; Ko, K; Peterson, R E

2001-01-01

388

Transgenic mice overexpressing the mouse homoeobox-containing gene Hox-1.4 exhibit abnormal gut development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse homoeobox-containing genes exhibit temporally and spatially specific patterns of expression in embryonic and adult tissues and are thought to be important in regulation of development and cellular differentiation, perhaps by mechanisms analogous to homoeotic genes in Drosophila melanogaster 1-4. There has been no direct demonstration that expression of these mammalian genes can affect developmental processes, however. Hox-1.4, like

Debra J. Wolgemuth; Richard R. Behringer; Margaret P. Mostoller; Ralph L. Brinster; Richard D. Palmiter

1989-01-01

389

A theoretical approach for assessing the role of rock and fluid properties in the development of abnormal fluid pressures  

E-print Network

to show the potential role that rock properties play in the development of aquathermal pressures. It was found that thermal pressures can be significantly reduced in sot't rocks such as shales which expand both elastical ly and thermally to accomodate... of the fluid properties. An analytical excess pressure basin model modified from a model first set forth by Bredehoeft and Hanshaw (196B) was used to show that aquathermal pressures can be maintained under conditions of fluid flow in both sandstones...

Hastings, Thomas Worcester

1985-01-01

390

No hair theorems for positive ?  

E-print Network

We extend all known black hole no-hair theorems to space-times endowed with a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda.$ Specifically, we prove that static spherical black holes with $\\Lambda>0$ cannot support scalar fields in convex potentials and Proca-massive vector fields in the region between black hole and cosmic horizons. We also demonstrate the existence of at least one type of quantum hair, and of exactly one charged solution for the Abelian Higgs model. Our method of proof can be applied to investigate other types of quantum or topological hair on black holes in the presence of a positive $\\Lambda.$

Sourav Bhattacharya; Amitabha Lahiri

2007-11-19

391

How Thick is Your Hair?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 13 of the PDF, learners use a laser pointer (with known wavelength of light) to measure the thickness of a human hair. By shining the laser on a hair, analyzing the patterns created, and completing some calculations, learners the thickness of a hair in nanometers. Learners can calibrate the laser to find its wavelength by completing the first activity in the manual entitled, "Spots, Lines and Lasers." This manual contains 4 activities related to the Spectra: The Original Laser Superhero Force comic book published by the American Physical Society.

Rebecca Thompson-Flagg

2010-01-01

392

Forebrain-specific CRF overproduction during development is sufficient to induce enduring anxiety and startle abnormalities in adult mice.  

PubMed

Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) regulates physiological and behavioral responses to stress. Trauma in early life or adulthood is associated with increased CRF in the cerebrospinal fluid and heightened anxiety. Genetic variance in CRF receptors is linked to altered risk for stress disorders. Thus, both heritable differences and environmentally induced changes in CRF neurotransmission across the lifespan may modulate anxiety traits. To test the hypothesis that CRF hypersignaling is sufficient to modify anxiety-related phenotypes (avoidance, startle, and conditioned fear), we induced transient forebrain-specific overexpression of CRF (CRFOE) in mice (1) during development to model early-life stress, (2) in adulthood to model adult-onset stress, or (3) across the entire postnatal lifespan to model heritable increases in CRF signaling. The consequences of these manipulations on CRF peptide levels and behavioral responses were examined in adulthood. We found that transient CRFOE during development decreased startle habituation and prepulse inhibition, and increased avoidance (particularly in females) recapitulating the behavioral effects of lifetime CRFOE despite lower CRF peptide levels at testing. In contrast, CRFOE limited to adulthood reduced contextual fear learning in females and increased startle reactivity in males but did not change avoidance or startle plasticity. These findings suggest that forebrain CRFOE limited to development is sufficient to induce enduring alterations in startle plasticity and anxiety, while forebrain CRFOE during adulthood results in a different phenotype profile. These findings suggest that startle circuits are particularly sensitive to forebrain CRFOE, and that the impact of CRFOE may be dependent on the time of exposure. PMID:24326400

Toth, Mate; Gresack, Jodi E; Bangasser, Debra A; Plona, Zach; Valentino, Rita J; Flandreau, Elizabeth I; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Geyer, Mark A; Risbrough, Victoria B

2014-05-01

393

Microscopic high-resolution digital volumetric imaging of human hair fibers.  

PubMed

Methods for examining cationic polymer deposition on hair are well known and polymers such as Polyquaternium-10 have enjoyed a significant commercial impact on shampoos and body washes as unique conditioning materials. It was recently reported that hair can be examined using a new microscopic called Digital Volumetric Imaging or DVI (10). By employing fluorescent dyes, deposition of cationic oligosaccharides onto damaged blond hair fibers was discussed. Because hair auto-fluorescences, the microscope allows for examination of hair fibers directly including viewing of the cuticle, cortex and melanin within the cortex and careful imaging even distinguishes the medulla of the hair fiber. In this paper, examination of six virgin hair types including: 1) Afro-American, 2) Asian, 3) European brown, 4) red, 5) blond and 6) gray was conducted looking for differences that each hair type brings to the visualizing technique. Digital manipulation of the fluorescent data allows for examination of interior hair fiber structures as well as the development of animated movies of three dimensional hair fiber structures. PMID:15645100

Gruber, J V; Kerschman, R

2004-01-01

394

Streptomycin ototoxicity and hair cell regeneration in the adult pigeon utricle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to investigate the regeneration of utricular hair cells in the adult pigeon (Columba livia) following complete hair cell loss through administration of streptomycin. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups. Group 1 received 10 to 15 days of systemic streptomycin injections. Animals in Groups 2 and 3 received a single direct placement of a 1-, 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose into the perilymphatic space. Animals in Groups 1 and 2 were analyzed within 1 week from injection to investigate hair cell destruction, whereas Group 3 was investigated at later dates to study hair cell recovery. Group 4 animals received a control injection of saline into the perilymphatic space. Damage and recovery were quantified by counting hair cells in isolated utricles using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Although systemic injections failed to reliably achieve complete utricular hair cell destruction, a single direct placement of a 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose caused complete destruction within the first week. Incomplete hair cell loss was observed with the 1-mg dose. Over the long term, regeneration of the hair cells was seen with the 2-mg dose but not the 8-mg dose. Control injections of saline into the perilymphatic space caused no measurable hair cell loss. CONCLUSIONS: Direct placement of streptomycin into the perilymph is an effective, reliable method for complete destruction of utricular hair cells while preserving the regenerative potential of the neuroepithelium.

Frank, T. C.; Dye, B. J.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

1999-01-01

395

In Situ Detection and Identification of Hair Dyes Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).  

PubMed

Hair is one of the most common types of physical evidence found at a crime scene. Forensic examination may suggest a connection between a suspect and a crime scene or victim, or it may demonstrate an absence of such associations. Therefore, forensic analysis of hair evidence is invaluable to criminal investigations. Current hair forensic examinations are primarily based on a subjective microscopic comparison of hair found at the crime scene with a sample of suspect's hair. Since this is often inconclusive, the development of alternative and more-accurate hair analysis techniques is critical. In this study, we utilized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to demonstrate that artificial dyes can be directly detected on hair. This spectroscopic technique is capable of a confirmatory identification of analytes with single molecule resolution, requires minimal sample, and has the advantage of fluorescence quenching. Our study reveals that SERS can (1) identify whether hair was artificially dyed or not, (2) determine if a permanent or semipermanent colorants were used, and (3) distinguish the commercial brands that are utilized to dye hair. Such analysis is rapid, minimally destructive, and can be performed directly at the crime scene. This study provides a novel perspective of forensic investigations of hair evidence. PMID:25635868

Kurouski, Dmitry; Van Duyne, Richard P

2015-03-01

396

Dynamic gene expression by putative hair-cell progenitors during regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.  

PubMed

Hearing loss is most commonly caused by the destruction of mechanosensory hair cells in the ear. This condition is usually permanent: Despite the presence of putative hair-cell progenitors in the cochlea, hair cells are not naturally replenished in adult mammals. Unlike those of the mammalian ear, the progenitor cells of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate hair cells throughout life. The basis of this difference remains largely unexplored but may lie in molecular dissimilarities that affect how progenitors respond to hair-cell death. To approach this issue, we analyzed gene expression in hair-cell progenitors of the lateral-line system. We developed a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses a red fluorescent protein in the presumptive hair-cell progenitors known as mantle cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting from the skins of transgenic larvae, followed by microarray-based expression analysis, revealed a constellation of transcripts that are specifically enriched in these cells. Gene expression analysis after hair-cell ablation uncovered a cohort of genes that are differentially regulated early in regeneration, suggesting possible roles in the response of progenitors to hair-cell death. These results provide a resource for studying hair-cell regeneration and the biology of sensory progenitor cells. PMID:24706895

Steiner, Aaron B; Kim, Taeryn; Cabot, Victoria; Hudspeth, A J

2014-04-01

397

Targeted disruption of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) in mouse skin epithelial cells impairs postnatal hair follicle morphogenesis that is partially rescued through inhibition of COX-2  

PubMed Central

Selenoproteins are essential molecules for the mammalian antioxidant network. We previously demonstrated that targeted loss of all selenoproteins in mouse epidermis disrupted skin and hair development and caused premature death. In the current study we targeted specific selenoproteins for epidermal deletion to determine whether similar phenotypes developed. Keratinocyte-specific knockout mice lacking either the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) or thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) gene were generated by cre-lox technology using K14-cre. TR1 knockout mice had a normal phenotype in resting skin while GPx4 loss in epidermis caused epidermal hyperplasia, dermal inflammatory infiltrate, dysmorphic hair follicles and alopecia in perinatal mice. Unlike epidermal ablation of all selenoproteins, mice ablated for GPx4 recovered after 5 weeks and had a normal lifespan. GPx1 and TR1 were upregulated in the skin and keratinocytes of GPx4 knockout mice. GPx4 deletion reduces keratinocyte adhesion in culture and increases lipid peroxidation and COX-2 levels in cultured keratinocytes and whole skin. Feeding a COX-2 inhibitor to nursing mothers partially prevents development of the abnormal skin phenotype in knockout pups. These data link the activity of cutaneous GPx4 to the regulation of COX-2 and hair follicle morphogenesis and provide insight into the function of individual selenoprotein activity in maintaining cutaneous homeostasis. PMID:23364477

Sengupta, Aniruddha; Lichti, Ulrike F.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Cataisson, Christophe; Ryscavage, Andrew O.; Mikulec, Carol; Conrad, Marcus; Fischer, Susan M.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Yuspa, Stuart H.

2013-01-01

398

[A boy with nail abnormalities].  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

2013-01-01

399

Abnormalities of the optic disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optic disc represents the anterior end of the optic nerve, the most forward extension of the central nervous system (CNS). The optic disc gives a rare glimpse into the CNS. Hence, diseases of the CNS are often manifested on fundus examination. Abnormalities of the optic disc may reflect eye disease (such as glaucoma), problems in development (as in various

Alfredo A. Sadun; Michelle Y. Wang

2011-01-01

400

NEW FRONTIER IN UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent advancements in molecular developmental biology afford an opportunity to apply newly developed tools for understanding the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal development. lthough a number of agents have been identified as causing developmental abnormalities, knowledge ...

401

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia caused by novel compound heterozygous RMRP mutations.  

PubMed

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a rare, autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, caused by mutations in the RMRP gene. The skeletal abnormalities include irregular metaphyses and cone shaped epiphyses of the hands. Molecular diagnosis confirmed two novel RMRP mutations in a compound heterozygous state in two siblings with this condition. PMID:21813924

Reicherter, Kerstin; Veeramani, Amithkumar Iynapillai; Jagadeesh, Sujatha

2011-07-01

402

Conditional ablation of Tbr2 results in abnormal development of the olfactory bulbs and subventricular zone-rostral migratory stream  

PubMed Central

Background Development of the olfactory bulb (OB) is a complex process that requires contributions from several progenitor cell niches to generate neuronal diversity. Previous studies showed that Tbr2 is expressed during the generation of glutamatergic OB neurons in rodents. However, relatively little is known about the role of Tbr2 in the developing OB or in the subventricular zone-rostral migratory stream (SVZ-RMS) germinal niche that gives rise to many OB neurons. Results Here, we use conditional gene ablation strategies to knockout Tbr2 during embryonic mouse olfactory bulb morphogenesis, as well as during perinatal and adult neurogenesis from the SVZ-RMS niche, and describe the resulting phenotypes. We find that Tbr2 is important for the generation of mitral cells in the OB, and that the olfactory bulbs themselves are hypoplastic and disorganized in Tbr2 mutant mice. Furthermore, we show that the SVZ-RMS niche is expanded and disordered following loss of Tbr2, which leads to ectopic accumulation of neuroblasts in the RMS. Lastly, we show that adult glutamatergic neurogenesis from the SVZ is impaired by loss of Tbr2. Conclusions Tbr2 is essential for proper morphogenesis of the OB and SVZ-RMS, and is important for the generation of multiple lineages of glutamatergic olfactory bulb neurons. PMID:24550175

Kahoud, Robert J.; Elsen, Gina E.; Hevner, Robert F.; Hodge, Rebecca D.

2014-01-01

403

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

404

Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.  

PubMed

Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found significant differences in the binding behavior of cationic polymers and surfactants (polyquaternium-55 and quaternium-26) on both hair types. PMID:24139434

McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

2013-01-01

405

Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

Haines, Richard F.

1992-01-01

406

Notch Signaling Regulates Late-Stage Epidermal Differentiation and Maintains Postnatal Hair Cycle Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNotch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle

Hsien-Yi Lin; Cheng-Heng Kao; Kurt Ming-Chao Lin; Vesa Kaartinen; Liang-Tung Yang; Saverio Bellusci

2011-01-01

407

Abnormal development of NG2+PDGFR?+ neural progenitor cells leads to neonatal hydrocephalus in a ciliopathy mouse model  

PubMed Central

Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder leading to expansion of the cerebral ventricles and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most neonatal cases are of unknown etiology and are likely to display complex inheritance involving multiple genes and environmental factors. Identifying molecular mechanisms for neonatal hydrocephalus and developing non-invasive treatment modalities are high priorities. Here we employ a hydrocephalic mouse model of the human ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) and identify a role for neural progenitors in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus. We found that hydrocephalus in this mouse model is caused by aberrant PDGFR? signaling, resulting in increased apoptosis and impaired proliferation of NG2+PDGFR?+ neural progenitors. Targeting this pathway with lithium treatment rescued NG2+PDGFR?+ progenitor cell proliferation in BBS mutant mice, reducing ventricular volume. Our findings demonstrate that neural progenitors are critical in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus and we identify novel therapeutic targets for this common neurological disorder. PMID:23160237

Carter, Calvin S.; Vogel, Timothy W.; Zhang, Qihong; Seo, Seongjin; Swiderski, Ruth E.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Cassell, Martin D.; Thedens, Daniel R.; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Nishimura, Darryl Y.; Searby, Charles C.; Bugge, Kevin; Sheffield, Val C.

2012-01-01

408

Root hair length and rhizosheath mass depend on soil porosity, strength and water content in barley genotypes.  

PubMed

Selecting plants with improved root hair growth is a key strategy for improving phosphorus-uptake efficiency in agriculture. While significant inter- and intra-specific variation is reported for root hair length, it is not known whether these phenotypic differences are exhibited under conditions that are known to affect root hair elongation. This work investigates the effect of soil strength, soil water content (SWC) and soil particle size (SPS) on the root hair length of different root hair genotypes of barley. The root hair and rhizosheath development of five root hair genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was compared in soils with penetrometer resistances ranging from 0.03 to 4.45 MPa (dry bulk densities 1.2-1.7 g cm(-3)). A "short" (SRH) and "long" root hair (LRH) genotype was selected to further investigate whether differentiation of these genotypes was related to SWC or SPS when grown in washed graded sand. In low-strength soil (<1.43 MPa), root hairs of the LRH genotype were on average 25 % longer than that of the SRH genotype. In high-strength soil, root hair length of the LRH genotype was shorter than that in low-strength soil and did not differ from that of the SRH genotype. Root hairs were shorter in wetter soils or soils with smaller particles, and again SRH and LRH did not differ in hair length. Longer root hairs were generally, but not always, associated with larger rhizosheaths, suggesting that mucilage adhesion was also important. The root hair growth of barley was found to be highly responsive to soil properties and this impacted on the expression of phenotypic differences in root hair length. While root hairs are an important trait for phosphorus acquisition in dense soils, the results highlight the importance of selecting multiple and potentially robust root traits to improve resource acquisition in agricultural systems. PMID:24318401

Haling, Rebecca E; Brown, Lawrie K; Bengough, A Glyn; Valentine, Tracy A; White, Philip J; Young, Iain M; George, Timothy S

2014-03-01

409

Abnormal pituitary development and function in three siblings of a Jamaican family: A new syndrome involving the Pit-1 gene  

SciTech Connect

In 1967 Mckusick et al. reported three siblings in Canada who had combine pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD). Since that report there have been several families with multiple affected members who share the common characteristics of autosomal recessive inheritance and clinical expression of pituitary deficiencies at an early age. We report here a CPHD family of Jamaican origin with three affected and two unaffected siblings. The affected siblings have evidence of severe growth failure, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism and variable prolactin deficiency. Recently, in some families with CPHD a defect has been detected in the Pit-1 gene, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of the pituitary and the production of growth hormone, TSH and prolactin. We are studying the Pit-1 gene in this family as a candidate gene that may explain the family phenotype. The Pit-1 gene has been analyzed in DNA extracted from blood. No gross deletion were detected in exons 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 using exon-specific PCR assay developed in our laboratory. Exon 1 is also currently being analyzed. Single stand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, a screening technique for point mutations within genes, is being used to identify putative base pair changes in the Pit-1 gene. The exon findings will be confirmed using standard DNA sequencing procedures. If a Pit-1 gene is detected, this family would provide a novel presentation, since gonadotropin deficiency appears to be present. Alternatively, this family may represent a mutation on another yet unknown factor involved in normal pituitary development.

Sanchez, J.C.; Schiavi, A. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Parks, J. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

410

Abnormal differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in zebrafish trpm7 mutant larvae impairs development of the motor pattern  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential, melastatin-like 7 (Trpm7) is a combined ion channel and kinase implicated in the differentiation or function of many cell types. Early lethality in mice and frogs depleted of the corresponding gene impedes investigation of the functions of this protein particularly during later stages of development. By contrast, zebrafish trpm7 mutant larvae undergo early morphogenesis normally and thus do not have this limitation. The mutant larvae are characterized by multiple defects including melanocyte cell death, transient paralysis, and an ion imbalance that leads to the development of kidney stones. Here we report a requirement for Trpm7 in differentiation or function of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. First, trpm7 mutant larvae are hypomotile and fail to make a dopamine-dependent developmental transition in swim-bout length. Both of these deficits are partially rescued by the application of levodopa or dopamine. Second, histological analysis reveals that in trpm7 mutants a significant fraction of dopaminergic neurons lack expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. Third, trpm7 mutants are unusually sensitive to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, an oxidative stressor, and their motility is partially rescued by application of the iron chelator deferoxamine, an anti-oxidant. Finally, in SH-SY5Y cells, which model aspects of human dopaminergic neurons, forced expression of a channel-dead variant of TRPM7 causes cell death. In summary, a forward genetic screen in zebrafish has revealed that both melanocytes and dopaminergic neurons depend on the ion channel Trpm7. The mechanistic underpinning of this dependence requires further investigation. PMID:24291744

Decker, Amanda R.; McNeill, Matthew S.; Lambert, Aaron M.; Overton, Jeffrey D.; Chen, Yu-Chia; Lorca, Ramón A.; Johnson, Nicolas A.; Brockerhoff, Susan E.; Mohapatra, Durga P.; MacArthur, Heather; Panula, Pertti; Masino, Mark A.; Runnels, Loren W.; Cornell, Robert A.

2014-01-01