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1

Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

2005-01-01

2

Mutation in xyloglucan 6-xylosytransferase results in abnormal root hair development in Oryza sativa  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are important for nutrient uptake, anchorage, and plant–microbe interactions. From a population of rice (Oryza sativa) mutagenized by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), a short root hair2 (srh2) mutant was identified. In hydroponic culture, srh2 seedlings were significantly reduced in root hair length. Bubble-like extrusions and irregular epidermal cells were observed at the tips of srh2 root hairs when grown under acidic conditions, suggesting the possible reduction of the tensile strength of the cell wall in this mutant. Map-based cloning identified a mutation in the gene encoding xyloglucan (XyG) 6-xylosyltransferase (OsXXT1). OsXXT1 displays more than 70% amino acid sequence identity with the previously characterized Arabidopsis thaliana XYG XYLOSYL TRANSFERASE 1 (AtXXT1) and XYG XYLOSYL TRANSFERASE 2 (AtXXT2), which catalyse the transfer of xylose onto ?-1,4-glucan chains. Furthermore, expression of the full-length coding sequence of OsXXT1 could complement the root hair defect, and slow growth and XyG synthesis in the Arabidopsis xxt1 xxt2 double mutant. Transgenic plants expressing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter under the control of the OsXXT1 promoter displayed GUS expression in multiple tissues, most prominently in root epidermal cells. These results demonstrate the importance of OsXXT1 in maintaining cell wall structure and tensile strength in rice, a typical grass species that contains relatively low XyG content in cell walls. PMID:24834920

Wang, Chuang; Li, Shuai; Ng, Sophia; Zhang, Baocai; Zhou, Yihua; Whelan, James; Wu, Ping; Shou, Huixia

2014-01-01

3

MicroRNAs in hair cell development and deafness  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The identification of transcriptional activators and repressors of hair cell fates has recently been augmented by the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) that can function as post-transcriptional repressors in sensory hair cells. Recent findings miRNAs are ~21 nucleotide single-stranded ribonucleic acids that can each repress protein synthesis of many target genes by interacting with messenger RNA transcripts. A triplet of these miRNAs, the miR-183 family, are highly expressed in vertebrate hair cells, as well as a variety of other peripheral neurosensory cells. Point mutations in one member of this family, miR-96, underlie DFNA50 autosomal deafness in humans and lead to abnormal hair cell development and survival in mice. In zebrafish, overexpression of the miR-183 family induces extra and ectopic hair cells, while knockdown reduces hair cell numbers. Genetically-engineered mice with a block in miRNA biosynthesis during early ear development, or during hair cell differentiation, reveal the necessity of miRNAs at these crucial time points. Summary Because miRNAs can simultaneously down-regulate dozens to perhaps hundreds of transcripts, they will soon be explored as potential therapeutic agents to repair or regenerate hair cells in animal models. PMID:20717030

Li, Haiqiong; Fekete, Donna M.

2010-01-01

4

Kinocilia mediate mechanosensitivity in developing zebrafish hair cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mechanosensitive cilia are vital to signaling and development across many species. In sensory hair cells, sound and movement are transduced by apical hair bundles. Each bundle is comprised of a single primary cilium (kinocilium) flanked by multiple rows of actin-filled projections (stereocilia). Extracellular tip links that interconnect stereocilia are thought to gate mechanosensitive channels. In contrast to stereocilia, kinocilia are not critical for hair-cell mechanotransduction. However, by sequentially imaging the structure of hair bundles and mechanosensitivity of individual lateral-line hair cells in vivo, we uncovered a central role for kinocilia in mechanosensation during development. Our data demonstrate that nascent hair cells require kinocilia and kinocilial links for mechanosensitivity. Although nascent hair bundles have correct planar polarity, the polarity of their responses to mechanical stimuli is initially reversed. Later in development, a switch to correctly polarized mechanosensitivity coincides with the formation of tip links and the onset of tip link-dependent mechanotransduction. PMID:22898777

Kindt, Katie S.; Finch, Gabriel; Nicolson, Teresa

2012-01-01

5

A new syndrome of tufting enteropathy and choanal atresia, with ophthalmologic, hematologic and hair abnormalities.  

PubMed

Three siblings are reported with a syndrome of intractable diarrhea of infancy (owing to tufting enteropathy) and choanal atresia/stenosis. Additional components of this condition are a mild shortness of stature, a prominent and broad nasal bridge, micrognathia, single palmar creases, chronic corneal inflammation, episodic cytopenia, and abnormal hair texture. Intelligence is normal, and there is no immunodeficiency distinguishing this syndrome from that reported by Girault et al. (1994). Additional features that might occur in this syndrome include bifid uvula, preauricular pits, and 2/3 toe syndactyly. We compare this syndrome with previously reported intractable diarrhea syndromes and speculate on the developmental mechanisms that could account for many of the features demonstrated by this sibship. PMID:17786112

Bird, Lynne M; Sivagnanam, Mamata; Taylor, Sharon; Newbury, Robert O

2007-10-01

6

The development of root hairs in angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  The study of root hairs and the superficial cells from which they arise has attracted many workers, partly no doubt because\\u000a of their absorptive function and partly because their superficial position and relatively simple structure make them convenient\\u000a for the study of cell enlargement. The object of the present paper has been to review the literature in this field from

R. G. H. Cormack

1949-01-01

7

Development and regeneration of hair cells share common functional features  

PubMed Central

The structural phenotype of neural connections in the auditory brainstem is sculpted by spontaneous and stimulus-induced neural activities during development. However, functional and molecular mechanisms of spontaneous action potentials (SAPs) in the developing cochlea are unknown. Additionally, it is unclear how regenerating hair cells establish their neural ranking in the constellation of neurons in the brainstem. We have demonstrated that a transient Ca2+ current produced by the Cav3.1 channel is expressed early in development to initiate spontaneous Ca2+ spikes. Cav1.3 currents, typical of mature hair cells, appeared later in development. Moreover, there is a surprising disappearance of the Cav3.1 current that coincides with the attenuation of the transient Ca2+ current as the electrical properties of hair cells transition to the mature phenotype. Remarkably, this process is recapitulated during hair-cell regeneration, suggesting that the transient expression of Cav3.1 and the ensuing SAPs are signatures of hair cell development and regeneration. PMID:18025474

Levic, Snezana; Nie, Liping; Tuteja, Dipika; Harvey, Margaret; Sokolowski, Bernd H. A.; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.

2007-01-01

8

Hairy tale of signaling in hair follicle development and cycling  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle is an appendage from the vertebrate skin epithelium, and is critical for environmental sensing, animal appearance, and body heat maintenance. Hair follicles arise from the embryonic ectoderm and regenerate cyclically during adult life. Distinct morphological and functional stages from development through homeostasis have been extensively studied for the past decades to dissect the critical molecular mechanisms. Accumulating work suggests that different signaling cascades, such as Wnt, Bmp, Shh, and Notch, together with specific combinations of transcription factors are at work at different stages. Here we provide a comprehensive review of mouse genetics studies, which include lineage tracing along with knockout and over-expression of core genes from key signaling pathways, to paint an updated view of the molecular regulatory network that govern each stage of hair follicle development and adult cycling. PMID:22939761

Lee, Jayhun; Tumbar, Tudorita

2012-01-01

9

Cutaneous Retinoic Acid Levels Determine Hair Follicle Development and Downgrowth*  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid (RA) is essential during embryogenesis and for tissue homeostasis, whereas excess RA is well known as a teratogen. In humans, excess RA is associated with hair loss. In the present study, we demonstrate that specific levels of RA, regulated by Cyp26b1, one of the RA-degrading enzymes, are required for hair follicle (hf) morphogenesis. Mice with embryonic ablation of Cyp26b1 (Cyp26b1?/?) have excessive endogenous RA, resulting in arrest of hf growth at the hair germ stage. The altered hf development is rescued by grafting the mutant skin on immunodeficient mice. Our results show that normalization of RA levels is associated with reinitiation of hf development. Conditional deficiency of Cyp26b1 in the dermis (En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/?) results in decreased hair follicle density and specific effect on hair type, indicating that RA levels also influence regulators of hair bending. Our results support the model of RA-dependent dermal signals regulating hf downgrowth and bending. To elucidate target gene pathways of RA, we performed microarray and RNA-Seq profiling of genes differentially expressed in Cyp26b1?/? skin and En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/? tissues. We show specific effects on the Wnt-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families, indicating that RA modulates pathways and factors implicated in hf downgrowth and bending. Our results establish that proper RA distribution is essential for morphogenesis, development, and differentiation of hfs. PMID:23007396

Okano, Junko; Levy, Clara; Lichti, Ulrike; Sun, Hong-Wei; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Sakai, Yasuo; Morasso, Maria I.

2012-01-01

10

Signaling Involved in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Development  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on Wnt, Shh, Notch, BMP and other signaling pathways interplay between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The Wnt pathway plays an essential role during hair follicle induction, Shh is involved in morphogenesis and late stage differentiation, Notch signaling determines stem cell fate while BMP is involved in cellular differentiation. The Wnt pathway is considered to be the master regulator during hair follicle morphogenesis. Wnt signaling proceeds through EDA/EDAR/NF-?B signaling. NF-?B regulates the Wnt pathway and acts as a signal mediator by upregulating the expression of Shh ligand. Signal crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal cells takes place mainly through primary cilia. Primary cilia formation is initiated with epithelial laminin-511 interaction with dermal ?-1 integrin, which also upregulates expression of downstream effectors of Shh pathway in dermal lineage. PDGF signal transduction essential for crosstalk is mediated through epithelial PDGF-A and PDGFR? expressed on the primary cilia. Dermal Shh and PDGF signaling up-regulates dermal noggin expression; noggin is a potent inhibitor of BMP signaling which helps in counteracting BMP mediated ?-catenin inhibition. This interplay of signaling between the epithelial and dermal lineage helps in epithelial Shh signal amplification. The dermal Wnt pathway helps in upregulation of epithelial Notch expression. Dysregulation of these pathways leads to certain abnormalities and in some cases even tumor outgrowth. PMID:24451143

Rishikaysh, Pisal; Dev, Kapil; Diaz, Daniel; Qureshi, Wasay Mohiuddin Shaikh; Filip, Stanislav; Mokry, Jaroslav

2014-01-01

11

Absence of plastin 1 causes abnormal maintenance of hair cell stereocilia and a moderate form of hearing loss in mice.  

PubMed

Hearing relies on the mechanosensory inner and outer hair cells (OHCs) of the organ of Corti, which convert mechanical deflections of their actin-rich stereociliary bundles into electrochemical signals. Several actin-associated proteins are essential for stereocilia formation and maintenance, and their absence leads to deafness. One of the most abundant actin-bundling proteins of stereocilia is plastin 1, but its function has never been directly assessed. Here, we found that plastin 1 knock-out (Pls1 KO) mice have a moderate and progressive form of hearing loss across all frequencies. Auditory hair cells developed normally in Pls1 KO, but in young adult animals, the stereocilia of inner hair cells were reduced in width and length. The stereocilia of OHCs were comparatively less affected; however, they also showed signs of degeneration in ageing mice. The hair bundle stiffness and the acquisition of the electrophysiological properties of hair cells were unaffected by the absence of plastin 1, except for a significant change in the adaptation properties, but not the size of the mechanoelectrical transducer currents. These results show that in contrast to other actin-bundling proteins such as espin, harmonin or Eps8, plastin 1 is dispensable for the initial formation of stereocilia. However, the progressive hearing loss and morphological defects of hair cells in adult Pls1 KO mice point at a specific role for plastin 1 in the preservation of adult stereocilia and optimal hearing. Hence, mutations in the human PLS1 gene may be associated with relatively mild and progressive forms of hearing loss. PMID:25124451

Taylor, Ruth; Bullen, Anwen; Johnson, Stuart L; Grimm-Günter, Eva-Maria; Rivero, Francisco; Marcotti, Walter; Forge, Andrew; Daudet, Nicolas

2015-01-01

12

Poorly growing hair in a child.  

PubMed

A healthy 5-year-old Caucasian girl presented to the pediatric dermatology clinic for poor hair growth. The patient's father described slow hair growth and finely textured hair since birth. The patient had her first haircut 1 month before presentation. The family denied bald areas on the scalp, significant hair shedding, and sores on the scalp. The child did not scratch at her scalp or pull her hair. She are a normal diet and had normal growth and development otherwise. She was not taking any medications or over-the-counter supplements. There was no family history of hair disorders. On physical examination, the patient had short, fine, reddish blond hair that was of different lengths (Figure 1). There were no papules, pustules, scale, or crust on her scalp. Lymphadenopathy was absent. She had normal eyelashes and eyebrows. There were no lesions on her oral mucosa. No tooth or nail abnormalities were present. The rest of the physical examination was normal. The hair pull test resulted in 4 easily pulled hairs (3 anagen and 1 telogen). A hair mount was performed (Figure 2). The hair mount analysis revealed anagen hairs with distorted bulbs and ruffled cuticles extending a short distance distally from the bulb, consistent with loose anagen hair (Figure 2). All of the anagen hairs on the pull test demonstrated the above findings. Based on the patient's clinical presentation and the findings seen on light microscopy of the hair mount preparation, the patient was diagnosed with loose anagen syndrome. PMID:21137616

Bolotin, Diana; Ortel, Bernhard; Stein, Sarah L

2010-01-01

13

To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders  

PubMed Central

Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

2014-01-01

14

Development of a reference material using methamphetamine abusers' hair samples for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair.  

PubMed

In the present study, we developed a reference material (RM) using authentic hair samples for the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its main metabolite, amphetamine (AP) in human hair. MA abusers' hair samples were collected, homogenized and finally bottled. The concentration of each bottle was determined using two extraction methods, agitation with 1% HCl in methanol at 38 degrees C and ultrasonication with methanol/5M HCl (20:1), followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Both analytical procedures were fully validated and their extraction efficiency was compared. The homogeneity of analytes was evaluated and their property values were determined with their uncertainties. The two methods were acceptable to analyze MA and AP in human hair through the validation and comparative studies using spiked and authentic hair samples as well as NIST SRM 2379 certified reference material. Satisfying homogeneity was reached for MA and AP in the prepared RM. Finally, a human hair RM containing MA and AP is prepared at the level of 7.64+/-1.24 and 0.54+/-0.07 ng/mg, respectively. This material can be useful in forensic laboratories for internal quality control and external quality assurance. PMID:18282747

Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Yang, Wonkyung; Han, Eunyoung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Lim, Miae; Chung, Heesun

2008-04-01

15

Is There a True Concern Regarding the Use of Hair Dye and Malignancy Development?  

PubMed Central

Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies. PMID:23320124

Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E.; Messina, Jane L.; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C.; Grekin, Steven K.; Holland, Jean

2013-01-01

16

Lornoxicam-induced hair loss: an unusual case.  

PubMed

A patient started on 8 mg lornoxicam twice daily for pain in the hips developed acute-onset scalp hair loss. History and clinical examination revealed no evident abnormalities. Temporal association of the onset of hair loss with the use of lornoxicam, inability to explain hair loss by alternate causes, possibility of hair loss with lornoxicam and resolution on dechallenge placed this reaction as a probable adverse reaction to lornoxicam. PMID:24029201

Keny, M S; Ghodge, R R; Bandekar, S M

2013-01-01

17

A Case of Eruptive Vellus Hair Cysts That Developed on the Labium Major  

PubMed Central

Eruptive vellus hair cysts are asymptomatic, flesh-colored-to-bluish, 1-to-4 mm-sized papules that are usually located on the chest and extremities of children and young adults. Histologically, small cysts are observed in the mid-dermis and these cysts contain multiple hair shafts and keratinous materials. We report here on a case of eruptive vellus hair cysts that developed on a rare site, the labium major. PMID:20523808

Park, Ju Hyuk; Her, Young; Chun, Bo Mi; Kim, Chul Woo

2009-01-01

18

Betacellulin Regulates Hair Follicle Development and Hair Cycle Induction and Enhances Angiogenesis in Wounded Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betacellulin (BTC) belongs to the EGF family, whose members play important roles in skin morphogenesis, homeostasis, and repair. However, the role of BTC in skin biology is still unknown. We employed transgenic mice overexpressing BTC ubiquitously to study its role in skin physiology. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of BTC especially in the hair follicles and in the epidermis of transgenic

Marlon R Schneider; Maria Antsiferova; Laurence Feldmeyer; Maik Dahlhoff; Philippe Bugnon; Sybille Hasse; Ralf Paus; Eckhard Wolf; Sabine Werner

2008-01-01

19

Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women  

PubMed Central

Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E.

2013-01-01

20

MicroRNAs are essential for development and function of inner ear hair cells in vertebrates  

E-print Network

MicroRNAs are essential for development and function of inner ear hair cells in vertebrates Lilach, the 2 inner ear compart- ments. A conditional knock-out mouse for Dicer1 demonstrated that miRNAs are crucial for postnatal survival of functional hair cells of the inner ear. We identified miRNAs that have

Hornstein, Eran

21

Through form to function: root hair development and nutrient uptake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Root hairs project from the surface of the root to aid nutrient and water uptake and to anchor the plant in the soil. Their formation involves the precise control of cell fate and localized cell growth. We are now beginning to unravel the complexities of the molecular interactions that underlie this developmental regulation. In addition, after years of speculation, nutrient transport by root hairs has been demonstrated clearly at the physiological and molecular level, with evidence for root hairs being intense sites of H(+)-ATPase activity and involved in the uptake of Ca(2+), K(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cl(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-).

Gilroy, S.; Jones, D. L.

2000-01-01

22

Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair–defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed membrane dynamics after labeling with RabA4b, a marker for polarized membrane trafficking in root hairs. This revealed stochastic

Julie M. Thole; Joop E. M. Vermeer; Yanling Zhang; Theodorus W. J. Gadella; E. Nielsen

2008-01-01

23

Arabidopsis GLASSY HAIR genes promote trichome papillae development  

PubMed Central

Specialized plant cells form cell walls with distinct composition and properties pertinent to their function. Leaf trichomes in Arabidopsis form thick cell walls that support the upright growth of these large cells and, curiously, have strong light-reflective properties. To understand the process of trichome cell-wall maturation and the molecular origins of this optical property, mutants affected in trichome light reflection were isolated and characterized. It was found that GLASSY HAIR (GLH) genes are required for the formation of surface papillae structures at late stages of trichome development. Trichomes in these mutants appeared transparent due to unobstructed light transmission. Genetic analysis of the isolated mutants revealed seven different gene loci. Two—TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE (TBR) and NOK (Noeck)—have been reported previously to have the glassy trichome mutant phenotype. The other five glh mutants were analysed for cell-wall-related phenotypes. A significant reduction was found in cellulose content in glh2 and glh4 mutant trichomes. In addition to the glassy trichome phenotype, the glh6 mutants showed defects in leaf cuticular wax, and glh6 was found to represent a new allele of the eceriferum 10 (cer10) mutation. Trichomes of the glh1 and glh3 mutants did not show any other phenotypes beside reduced papillae formation. These data suggest that the GLH1 and GLH3 genes may have specific functions in trichome papillae formation, whereas GLH2, GLH4, and GLH6 genes are also involved in deposition of other cell-wall components. PMID:24014871

Kirik, Viktor

2013-01-01

24

Characterization of Wnt gene expression in developing and postnatal hair follicles and identification of Wnt5a as a target of Sonic hedgehog in hair follicle morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Mutations in WNT effector genes perturb hair follicle morphogenesis, suggesting key roles for WNT proteins in this process. We show that expression of Wnts 10b and 10a is upregulated in placodes at the onset of follicle morphogenesis and in postnatal hair follicles beginning a new cycle of hair growth. The expression of additional Wnt genes is observed in follicles at later stages of differentiation. Among these, we find that Wnt5a is expressed in the developing dermal condensate of wild type but not Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-null embryos, indicating that Wnt5a is a target of SHH in hair follicle morphogenesis. These results identify candidates for several key follicular signals and suggest that WNT and SHH signaling pathways interact to regulate hair follicle morphogenesis. PMID:11520664

Reddy, S; Andl, T; Bagasra, A; Lu, M M; Epstein, D J; Morrisey, E E; Millar, S E

2001-09-01

25

Epithelium-Mesenchyme Interactions Control the Activity of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor  \\/  during Hair Follicle Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, which involves epithelium-mesenchyme interactions. We show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta\\/ delta (PPAR\\/) and Akt1 are highly expressed in follicular keratinocytes throughout hair follicle develop- ment. Interestingly, PPAR\\/- and Akt1-deficient mice exhibit similar retardation of postnatal hair follicle morphogenesis, particularly at the hair peg stage, revealing a

N. Di-Poi; Chuan Young Ng; Nguan Soon Tan; Zhongzhou Yang; Brian A. Hemmings; Beatrice Desvergne; Liliane Michalik; Walter Wahli

2005-01-01

26

Sonic hedgehog signaling is essential for hair development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The skin is responsible for forming a variety of epidermal structures that differ amongst vertebrates. In each case the specific structure (for example scale, feather or hair) arises from an epidermal placode as a result of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions with the underlying dermal mesenchyme. Expression of members of the Wnt, Hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein families (Wnt10b, Sonic hedgehog (Shh)

B. St-Jacques; H. R. Dassule; I. Karavanova; V. A. Botchkarev; J. Li; P. S. Danielian; J. A. McMahon; P. M. Lewis; R. Paus; A. P. McMahon

1998-01-01

27

Patterns of hippocampal abnormalities in malformations of cortical development  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether different types of malformation of cortical development (MCD) are associated with specific patterns of hippocampal abnormalities. Methods A total of 122 consecutive patients with MRI diagnosis of MCD (53 males, age range 1–58 years) were included in the study. Hippocampal measurements were made on 1–3?mm coronal T1?weighted MRIs and compared with MRIs of normal controls. Results A total of 39 patients had focal cortical dysplasia, 5 had hemimegalencephaly, 5 had lissencephaly?agyria?pachygyria, 11 had SLH, 11 had PNH, 12 had bilateral contiguous PNH, 5 had schizencephaly, and 34 had polymicrogyria. The frequency of hippocampal abnormalities in these patients with MCD was 29.5%. A small hippocampus was present in all types of MCD. Only patients with lissencephaly and SLH had an enlarged hippocampus. Abnormalities in hippocampal rotation and shape were present in all types of MCD; however, these predominated in PNH. None of the patients with lissencephaly?agyria?pachygyria or SLH had hyperintense signal on T2 or FLAIR images or abnormal hippocampal internal architecture. Conclusion A small hippocampus was present in all types of MCD; however, the classic MRI characteristics of hippocampal sclerosis were often lacking. Abnormal enlargement of the hippocampus was associated with only diffuse MCD due to abnormal neuronal migration (lissencephaly?agyria?pachygyria and SLH). PMID:16484646

Montenegro, M A; Kinay, D; Cendes, F; Bernasconi, A; Bernasconi, N; Coan, A C; Li, L M; Guerreiro, M M; Guerreiro, C A M; Lopes?Cendes, I; Andermann, E; Dubeau, F; Andermann, F

2006-01-01

28

Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

2008-01-01

29

The regulatory mechanism of microRNAs in skin and hair follicle development.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of regulators that control post-transcriptional processes, and could be potential targets for drug in pathology and potential sites of phenotypic regulation. Although some functions of miRNAs have been known, the regulatory mechanism of miRNAs in skin and hair follicle development remains unclear. High throughput sequencing provides more accurate and rapid method for identification of miRNAs. It has been found that some miRNAs affect the cell differentiation and proliferation of skin and hair follicles, and their target genes play important roles in the periodic growth of hair follicles. In this review, we summarize the recent achievements of the regulatory mechanism of miRNAs in the skin follicles and provide useful clues for further study on miRNA regulation in hair follicle growth of cashmere goat. PMID:25076029

Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yanjun; Su, Rui; Wang, Ruijun; Li, Jinquan

2014-07-01

30

Cyclic expression of Lhx2 is involved in secondary hair follicle development in cashmere goat.  

PubMed

Lhx2, a member of LIM homeobox transcription factors, plays a key role in normal tissue development. However, the molecular mechanism of Lhx2 gene in the regulation of the secondary hair follicle cycling in cashmere goat remains largely unknown. In the present study, the Lhx2 gene was cloned and characterized in cashmere goat. The cloned cDNA of Lhx2 was 1233?bp in length, encoding for proteins of 406 amino acids which contained all functionally important domains conserved among vertebrate Lhx2 gene. Tissue distribution analysis showed that Lhx2 mRNA was highly expressed in the skin and low expressed in all other tissues. Immunohistochemical localization revealed that Lhx2 was expressed in secondary hair follicles. Analysis of expression profiles of Lhx2 mRNA during different development stages in secondary hair follicles showed that the highest expression was observed at the anagen stage, while the lowest expression was detected at the telogen stage. The expression tendency during the development stages was that it increased from telogen to anagen, decreased from anagen to catagen, and decreased from catagen to telogen. The expression pattern of Lhx2 protein and mRNA was similar. The mRNA and protein expression of Lhx2 were consistent throughout the development cycle in secondary hair follicles. These findings provided a better understanding of the function of Lhx2 and suggested that the cyclic expression of Lhx2 might play important roles during secondary hair follicle development in cashmere goat. PMID:25128627

Geng, Rongqing; Wang, Lanping; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Yulin

2014-09-01

31

Compound heterozygous desmoplakin mutations result in a phenotype with a combination of myocardial, skin, hair, and enamel abnormalities.  

PubMed

Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses. PMID:19924139

Mahoney, My G; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

2010-04-01

32

Retinoic acid signalling regulates the development of tonotopically patterned hair cells in the chicken cochlea  

PubMed Central

Precise frequency discrimination is a hallmark of auditory function in birds and mammals and is required for distinguishing similar sounding words, like ‘bat,’ ‘cat’ and ‘hat.’ In the cochlea, tuning and spectral separation result from longitudinal differences in basilar membrane stiffness and numerous individual gradations in sensory hair cell phenotypes, but it is unknown what patterns the phenotypes. Here we used RNA-seq to compare transcriptomes from proximal, middle and distal regions of the embryonic chicken cochlea, and found opposing longitudinal gradients of expression for retinoic acid (RA)-synthesizing and degrading enzymes. In vitro experiments showed that RA is necessary and sufficient to induce the development of distal-like hair cell phenotypes and promotes expression of the actin-crosslinking proteins, Espin and Fscn2. These and other findings highlight a role for RA signalling in patterning the development of a longitudinal gradient of frequency-tuned hair cell phenotypes in the cochlea. PMID:24845860

Thiede, Benjamin R.; Mann, Zoë F.; Chang, Weise; Ku, Yuan-Chieh; Son, Yena K.; Lovett, Michael; Kelley, Matthew W.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.

2014-01-01

33

Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2?/? mice  

PubMed Central

Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and ?-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2?/? mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2?/? mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet ?-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet ?-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2?/? platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of ?-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2?/? platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2?/? bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that ?-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal ?-granule formation in Nbeal2?/? mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production. PMID:23861251

Lo, Richard W.; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G.; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L.

2013-01-01

34

Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2(-/-) mice.  

PubMed

Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and ?-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2(-/-) mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2(-/-) mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet ?-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet ?-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2(-/-) platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of ?-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2(-/-) platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2(-/-) bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that ?-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal ?-granule formation in Nbeal2(-/-) mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production. PMID:23861251

Kahr, Walter H A; Lo, Richard W; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Weyrich, Andrew S; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L

2013-11-01

35

Reduced thymic output, cell cycle abnormalities, and increased apoptosis of T lymphocytes in patients with cartilage-hair hypoplasia  

PubMed Central

Background Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is characterized by metaphyseal dysplasia, bone marrow failure, increased risk of malignancies, and a variable degree of immunodeficiency. CHH is caused by mutations in the RNA component of the mitochondrial RNA processing (RMRP) endoribonuclease gene, which is involved in ribosomal assembly, telomere function, and cell cycle control. Objectives We aimed to define thymic output and characterize immune function in a cohort of patients with molecularly defined CHH with and without associated clinical immunodeficiency. Methods We studied the distribution of B and T lymphocytes (including recent thymic emigrants), in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in 18 patients with CHH compared with controls. Results Patients with CHH have a markedly reduced number of recent thymic emigrants, and their peripheral T cells show defects in cell cycle control and display increased apoptosis, resulting in poor proliferation on activation. Conclusion These data confirm that RMRP mutations result in significant defects of cell-mediated immunity and provide a link between the cellular phenotype and the immunodeficiency in CHH. PMID:21570718

Rider, Nicholas L.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Morton, D. Holmes; Adair, Margaret; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Ochs, Hans D.; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Pessach, Itai M.; Walter, Jolan E.; King, Alejandra; Giliani, Silvia; Pai, Sung-Yun; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

2015-01-01

36

Is there a true concern regarding the use of hair dye and malignancy development?: a review of the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair dye use to the risk of malignancy.  

PubMed

Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies. PMID:23320124

Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E; Messina, Jane L; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C; Grekin, Steven K; Holland, Jean

2013-01-01

37

DEVELOPMENT OF THE WALL LABYRINTH IN PAVEMENT EPITHELIUM HAIRS OF SOME UTRICULARIA SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium hypochlorite-digested material and scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of wall ingrowths in pavement epithelium hairs of Utricularia species from the primitive section Pleiochasia (U. volubilis) and the advanced section Utricularia (U. stygia, U. intermedia). Wall ingrowths were reticulate-type in all examined species. Wall ingrowth development started with the formation of small papillae, which later lengthened

BARTOSZ JAN; ANDRZEJ JANKUN; JADWIGA FABER

2005-01-01

38

CLRN1 Is Nonessential in the Mouse Retina but Is Required for Cochlear Hair Cell Development  

E-print Network

CLRN1 Is Nonessential in the Mouse Retina but Is Required for Cochlear Hair Cell Development Scott F. Geller1 *, Karen I. Guerin1,2 , Meike Visel1 , Aaron Pham1 , Edwin S. Lee1 , Amiel A. Dror3 that, when mutated, causes retinal degeneration. Citation: Geller SF, Guerin KI, Visel M, Pham A, Lee

Avraham, Karen

39

Conditional Disruption of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Defines its Critical Role in Hair Development and Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the vertebrate hedgehog family (Sonic, Indian, and Desert) have been shown to be essential for the development of various organ systems, including neural, somite, limb, skeletal, and for male gonad morphogenesis. Sonic hedgehog and its cognate receptor Patched are expressed in the epithelial and\\/or mesenchymal cell components of the hair follicle. Recent studies have demonstrated an essential role

Li Chun Wang; Zhong-Ying Liu; Laure Gambardella; Alexandra Delacour; Renee Shapiro; Jianliang Yang; Irene Sizing; Paul Rayhorn; Ellen A. Garber; Chris D. Benjamin; Kevin P. Williams; Frederick R. Taylor; Yann Barrandon; Leona Ling; Linda C. Burkly

2000-01-01

40

[Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].  

PubMed

Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration. PMID:24066535

Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

2013-06-01

41

The Very Large G-Protein-Coupled Receptor VLGR1: A Component of the Ankle Link Complex Required for the Normal Development of Auditory Hair Bundles  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair bundles in the inner ear are composed of stereocilia that can be interconnected by a variety of different link types, including tip links, horizontal top connectors, shaft connectors, and ankle links. The ankle link antigen is an epitope specifically associated with ankle links and the calycal processes of photoreceptors in chicks. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting were used to identify this antigen as the avian ortholog of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, the product of the Usher syndrome USH2C (Mass1) locus. Like ankle links, Vlgr1 is expressed transiently around the base of developing hair bundles in mice. Ankle links fail to form in the cochleae of mice carrying a targeted mutation in Vlgr1 (Vlgr1/del7TM), and the bundles become disorganized just after birth. FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammonium)propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide] dye loading and whole-cell recordings indicate mechanotransduction is impaired in cochlear, but not vestibular, hair cells of early postnatal Vlgr1/del7TM mutant mice. Auditory brainstem recordings and distortion product measurements indicate that these mice are severely deaf by the third week of life. Hair cells from the basal half of the cochlea are lost in 2-month-old Vlgr1/del7TM mice, and retinal function is mildly abnormal in aged mutants. Our results indicate that Vlgr1 is required for formation of the ankle link complex and the normal development of cochlear hair bundles. PMID:16775142

McGee, JoAnn; Goodyear, Richard J.; McMillan, D. Randy; Stauffer, Eric A.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Locke, Kirsten G.; Birch, David G.; Legan, P. Kevin; White, Perrin C.; Walsh, Edward J.; Richardson, Guy P.

2009-01-01

42

KGF and EGF signalling block hair follicle induction and promote interfollicular epidermal fate in developing mouse skin  

PubMed Central

Summary A key initial event in hair follicle morphogenesis is the localised thickening of the skin epithelium to form a placode, partitioning future hair follicle epithelium from interfollicular epidermis. Although many developmental signalling pathways are implicated in follicle morphogenesis, the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, also known as FGF7) receptors are not defined. EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands have previously been shown to inhibit developing hair follicles; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been characterised. Here we show that receptors for EGF and KGF undergo marked downregulation in hair follicle placodes from multiple body sites, whereas the expression of endogenous ligands persist throughout hair follicle initiation. Using embryonic skin organ culture, we show that when skin from the sites of primary pelage and whisker follicle development is exposed to increased levels of two ectopic EGFR ligands (HBEGF and amphiregulin) and the FGFR2(IIIb) receptor ligand KGF, follicle formation is inhibited in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We then used downstream molecular markers and microarray profiling to provide evidence that, in response to KGF and EGF signalling, epidermal differentiation is promoted at the expense of hair follicle fate. We propose that hair follicle initiation in placodes requires downregulation of the two pathways in question, both of which are crucial for the ongoing development of the interfollicular epidermis. We have also uncovered a previously unrecognised role for KGF signalling in the formation of hair follicles in the mouse. PMID:19474150

Richardson, Gavin D.; Bazzi, Hisham; Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Waters, James M.; Crawford, Heather; Hynd, Phil; Christiano, Angela M.; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

2009-01-01

43

Hair Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

... to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair follicles ... should first be done before considering a hair transplant? Before the procedure, an ASDS doctor will review ...

44

Hair Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... This is because higher hormone levels prevent normal hair loss. During pregnancy: Your hair tends to stay in ... hair. After delivery: The resting phase shortens. Normal hair loss that was delayed by pregnancy tends to take ...

45

Oily hair  

MedlinePLUS

Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

46

Exploring Differentially Expressed Genes by RNA-Seq in Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus) Skin during Hair Follicle Development and Cycling  

PubMed Central

Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-? and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies. PMID:23638136

Geng, Rongqing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yulin

2013-01-01

47

Exploring differentially expressed genes by RNA-Seq in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development and cycling.  

PubMed

Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-? and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies. PMID:23638136

Geng, Rongqing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yulin

2013-01-01

48

Body Hair  

MedlinePLUS

Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you will likely see new hair growing in your pubic area , under your arms, and ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

49

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... Bad Reaction to Cosmetics? Tell FDA Cosmetics Tips Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Español Hair dye is used to ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

50

CHRONIC PERCHLORATE EXPOSURE CAUSES MORPHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN DEVELOPING STICKLEBACK  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined the effects of chronic perchlorate exposure during growth and development, and fewer still have analyzed the effects of perchlorate over multiple generations. We describe morphological and developmental characteristics for threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that were spawned and raised to sexual maturity in perchlorate-treated water (G1,2003) and for their offspring (G2,2004) that were not directly treated with perchlorate. The G1,2003 displayed a variety of abnormalities, including impaired formation of calcified traits, slower growth rates, aberrant sexual development, poor survivorship, and reduced pigmentation that allowed internal organs to be visible. Yet these conditions were absent when the offspring of contaminated fish (G2,2004) were raised in untreated water, suggesting a lack of transgenerational effects and that surviving populations may be able to recover following remediation of perchlorate-contaminated sites PMID:21465539

Bernhardt, Richard R.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; O’Hara, Todd M.

2011-01-01

51

Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin  

SciTech Connect

We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Shiroi, Akira [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)

2006-06-30

52

Improved fetal hair follicle development by maternal supplement of selenium at nano size (Nano-Se)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of maternal and dietary selenium on antioxidant status and hair follicle development in 110-day fetal skin from cashmere goats, eighty selected cashmere goats (n=80) were randomly divided in two groups, C group (fed with the basal diet) and S group (fed with the basal diet with 0.5mg\\/kg Nano-Se). Nano-Se was supplemented from 30days prior to gestation

Xiaoying Wu; Jiguang Yao; Zisheng Yang; Wenbin Yue; Youshe Ren; Chunxiang Zhang; Xiaoni Liu; Huisheng Wang; Xingcai Zhao; Suying Yuan; Qian Wang; Liguang Shi; Lei Shi

2011-01-01

53

Tanning and Increased Nevus Development in Very-Light-Skinned Children Without Red Hair  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between tanning and nevus development in very-light-skinned children. Design Prospective cohort nested within a randomized controlled trial. Skin examinations in 3 consecutive years (2004, 2005, and 2006) included full-body counts of nevi, skin color and tanning measurement using colorimetry, and hair and eye color evaluation by comparison with charts. Telephone interviews of parents provided sun exposure, sun protection, and sunburn history. Setting Large managed-care organization and private pediatric offices in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. Participants A total of 131 very-light-skinned white children without red hair and 444 darker-skinned white children without red hair born in Colorado in 1998. Main Outcome Measures Full-body nevus counts at ages 6 to 8 years. Results Among very-light-skinned white children, geometric mean numbers of nevi for minimally tanned children were 14.8 at age 6 years; 18.8 at age 7 years; and 22.3 at age 8 years. Mean numbers of nevi for tanned children were 21.2 at age 6 years; 27.9 at age 7 years; and 31.9 at age 8 years. Differences in nevus counts between untanned and tanned children were statistically significant at all ages (P < .05 for all comparisons). The relationship between tanning and number of nevi was independent of the child’s hair and eye color, parent-reported sun exposure, and skin phototype. Among darker-skinned white children, there was no relationship between tanning and nevi. Conclusions Very-light-skinned children who tan (based on objective measurement) develop more nevi than children who do not tan. These results suggest that light-skinned children who develop tans may be increasing their risk for developing melanoma later in life. PMID:19770437

Aalborg, Jenny; Morelli, Joseph G.; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Asdigian, Nancy L.; Byers, Tim E.; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Box, Neil F.; Crane, Lori A.

2010-01-01

54

Does Nasal Hair (Vibrissae) Density Affect the Risk of Developing Asthma in Patients with Seasonal Rhinitis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Large particles entering the nose are collected by nasal hair present in the anterior nares. Increased hair density provides an improvement in the filtering efficiency of the nose, while reduced amounts of nasal hair cause a decrease in its efficiency. The amount of nasal hair can vary between individuals, which can make a difference in the filtering efficiency of

A. B. Ozturk; E. Damadoglu; G. Karakaya; A. F. Kalyoncu

2011-01-01

55

Good Hair Care May Head off Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... the scalp) can develop. Do you let the sun color your hair? Excessive exposure to the sun can cause hair to become weak, dry, rough, ... hair and then expose your hair to the sun. The chemicals often cause unsightly yellowing, fading, and ...

56

Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development  

PubMed Central

Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth. PMID:24147251

Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain

2013-01-01

57

Detection and analysis of hair.  

PubMed

We develop computational models for measuring hair appearance for comparing different people. The models and methods developed have applications to person recognition and image indexing. An automatic hair detection algorithm is described and results reported. A multidimensional representation of hair appearance is presented and computational algorithms are described. Results on a data set of 524 subjects are reported. Identification of people using hair attributes is compared to eigenface-based recognition along with a joint, eigenface-hair-based identification. PMID:16792104

Yacoob, Yaser; Davis, Larry S

2006-07-01

58

Hair Follicular Expression and Function of Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Mouse Skin*  

PubMed Central

Although perturbed lipid metabolism can often lead to skin abnormality, the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in skin homeostasis is poorly understood. In the present study we found that group X-secreted PLA2 (sPLA2-X) was expressed in the outermost epithelium of hair follicles in synchrony with the anagen phase of hair cycling. Transgenic mice overexpressing sPLA2-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed alopecia, which was accompanied by hair follicle distortion with reduced expression of genes related to hair development, during a postnatal hair cycle. Additionally, the epidermis and sebaceous glands of PLA2G10-Tg skin were hyperplasic. Proteolytic activation of sPLA2-X in PLA2G10-Tg skin was accompanied by preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine species with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as elevated production of some if not all eicosanoids. Importantly, the skin of Pla2g10-deficient mice had abnormal hair follicles with noticeable reduction in a subset of hair genes, a hypoplasic outer root sheath, a reduced number of melanin granules, and unexpected up-regulation of prostanoid synthesis. Collectively, our study highlights the spatiotemporal expression of sPLA2-X in hair follicles, the presence of skin-specific machinery leading to sPLA2-X activation, a functional link of sPLA2-X with hair follicle homeostasis, and compartmentalization of the prostanoid pathway in hair follicles and epidermis. PMID:21266583

Yamamoto, Kei; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Seiko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Morioka, Kiyokazu; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Fukami, Kiyoko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Makoto

2011-01-01

59

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause hair loss in teen girls as well as adult women. Medicines. Sometimes doctors prescribe medicines that have hair loss ...

60

Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... person's hair may look greasy. Time for a shampoo! Continue Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow! You have more ... When you wash your hair, use a gentle shampoo and warm water. Lather up using your fingertips, ...

61

Maternal immune activation and abnormal brain development across CNS disorders.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown a clear association between maternal infection and schizophrenia or autism in the progeny. Animal models have revealed maternal immune activation (mIA) to be a profound risk factor for neurochemical and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. Microglial priming has been proposed as a major consequence of mIA, and represents a critical link in a causal chain that leads to the wide spectrum of neuronal dysfunctions and behavioural phenotypes observed in the juvenile, adult or aged offspring. Such diversity of phenotypic outcomes in the mIA model are mirrored by recent clinical evidence suggesting that infectious exposure during pregnancy is also associated with epilepsy and, to a lesser extent, cerebral palsy in children. Preclinical research also suggests that mIA might precipitate the development of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Here, we summarize and critically review the emerging evidence that mIA is a shared environmental risk factor across CNS disorders that varies as a function of interactions between genetic and additional environmental factors. We also review ongoing clinical trials targeting immune pathways affected by mIA that may play a part in disease manifestation. In addition, future directions and outstanding questions are discussed, including potential symptomatic, disease-modifying and preventive treatment strategies. PMID:25311587

Knuesel, Irene; Chicha, Laurie; Britschgi, Markus; Schobel, Scott A; Bodmer, Michael; Hellings, Jessica A; Toovey, Stephen; Prinssen, Eric P

2014-11-01

62

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

63

The role of activins and follistatins in skin and hair follicle development and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of the signalling between epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of skin during hair follicle initiation in utero and hair cycling have revealed the importance of the TGF? superfamily in ectodermal organogenesis and morphogenesis. In particular the activins, their receptors and binding proteins such as follistatin, have been shown to be important regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in hair

M. McDowall; N. M. Edwards; C. A. B. Jahoda; P. I. Hynd

2008-01-01

64

Expression and localization of the vascular endothelial growth factor and changes of microvessel density during hair follicle development of Liaoning cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play important roles in neovascularization, tissue development, and angiogenesis. In this study, changes in VEGF expression patterns and microvessel density (MVD), and their correlations, were investigated during hair follicle development in epidermal appendages of Liaoning cashmere goats. Polyclonal antibodies to VEGF and microvessels were used for monthly immunohistochemical examinations of normal skin specimens from adult female goats for one year. VEGF was expressed in the hair bulb of primary and secondary hair follicles, the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous glands (ductal and secretory portions), eccrine sweat glands (ductal and secretory portions), and the epidermis. Abundant expression of VEGF was observed in the follicular basement membrane zone surrounding the bulb matrix and in ductal and secretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. The change in VEGFs in primary hair follicles showed a bimodal pattern, with the first peak observed from March to May, and the second in August. Maximal expression in secondary hair follicles occurred in May and August. Therefore, VEGF expression in primary and secondary hair follicles is synchronized throughout the year, and is correlated to hair development. In the later telogen and anagen phases, VEGF expression was higher in the secondary, compared to the primary, hair follicle. Changes in MVD also showed a bimodal pattern with peaks in May and August. VEGF expression and MVD showed moderate and strongly positive correlation in the primary and secondary hair follicles, respectively. Therefore, MVD and VEGF are closely related to the processes involved in hair cycle regulation. PMID:24390991

Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Li, Y M; Chang, Q; Chen, Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

2013-01-01

65

Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the

Yosuke Ohnishi; Takehiko Abe; Hidetaka Nambo; Haruhiko Kimura; Yasuhiro Ogoshi

2006-01-01

66

Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

67

Predicting the spatiotemporal dynamics of hair follicle patterns in the developing mouse.  

PubMed

Reaction-diffusion models have been used as a paradigm for describing the de novo emergence of biological patterns such as stripes and spots. In many organisms, these initial patterns are typically refined and elaborated over the subsequent course of development. Here we study the formation of secondary hair follicle patterns in the skin of developing mouse embryos. We used the expression of sex-determining region Y box 2 to identify and distinguish the primary and secondary hair follicles and to infer the spatiotemporal dynamics of the follicle formation process. Quantitative analysis of the specific follicle patterns observed reveals a simple geometrical rule governing the formation of secondary follicles, and motivates an expansion-induction (EI) model in which new follicle formation is driven by the physical growth of the embryo. The EI model requires only one diffusible morphogen and provides quantitative, accurate predictions on the relative positions and timing of secondary follicle formation, using only the observed configuration of primary follicles as input. The same model accurately describes the positions of additional follicles that emerge from skin explants treated with an activator. Thus, the EI model provides a simple and robust mechanism for predicting secondary space-filling patterns in growing embryos. PMID:24550288

Cheng, Chi Wa; Niu, Ben; Warren, Mya; Pevny, Larysa Halyna; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Hwa, Terence; Cheah, Kathryn S E

2014-02-18

68

Intravital imaging of hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Direct videomicroscopic visualization of organ formation and regeneration in toto is a powerful strategy to study cellular processes that often cannot be replicated in vitro. Intravital imaging aims at quantifying changes in tissue architecture or subcellular organization over time during organ development, regeneration or degeneration. A general feature of this approach is its reliance on the optical isolation of defined cell types in the whole animals by transgenic expression of fluorescent markers. Here we describe a simple and robust method to analyze sensory hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line by high-resolution intravital imaging using laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). The main advantage of studying hair-cell regeneration in the lateral line is that it occurs throughout the life of the animal, which allows its study in the most natural context. We detail protocols to achieve continuous videomicroscopy for up to 68 hours, enabling direct observation of cellular behavior, which can provide a sensitive assay for the quantitative classification of cellular phenotypes and cell-lineage reconstruction. Modifications to this protocol should facilitate pharmacogenetic assays to identify or validate otoprotective or reparative drugs for future clinical strategies aimed at preserving aural function in humans. PMID:24130521

Pinto-Teixeira, Filipe; Muzzopappa, Mariana; Swoger, Jim; Mineo, Alessandro; Sharpe, James; López-Schier, Hernán

2013-01-01

69

Predicting the spatiotemporal dynamics of hair follicle patterns in the developing mouse  

PubMed Central

Reaction–diffusion models have been used as a paradigm for describing the de novo emergence of biological patterns such as stripes and spots. In many organisms, these initial patterns are typically refined and elaborated over the subsequent course of development. Here we study the formation of secondary hair follicle patterns in the skin of developing mouse embryos. We used the expression of sex-determining region Y box 2 to identify and distinguish the primary and secondary hair follicles and to infer the spatiotemporal dynamics of the follicle formation process. Quantitative analysis of the specific follicle patterns observed reveals a simple geometrical rule governing the formation of secondary follicles, and motivates an expansion–induction (EI) model in which new follicle formation is driven by the physical growth of the embryo. The EI model requires only one diffusible morphogen and provides quantitative, accurate predictions on the relative positions and timing of secondary follicle formation, using only the observed configuration of primary follicles as input. The same model accurately describes the positions of additional follicles that emerge from skin explants treated with an activator. Thus, the EI model provides a simple and robust mechanism for predicting secondary space-filling patterns in growing embryos. PMID:24550288

Cheng, Chi Wa; Niu, Ben; Warren, Mya; Pevny, Larysa Halyna; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Hwa, Terence; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.

2014-01-01

70

In vivo and in vitro biophysical properties of hair cells from the lateral line and inner ear of developing and adult zebrafish.  

PubMed

Hair cells detect and process sound and movement information, and transmit this with remarkable precision and efficiency to afferent neurons via specialized ribbon synapses. The zebrafish is emerging as a powerful model for genetic analysis of hair cell development and function both in vitro and in vivo. However, the full exploitation of the zebrafish is currently limited by the difficulty in obtaining systematic electrophysiological recordings from hair cells under physiological recording conditions. Thus, the biophysical properties of developing and adult zebrafish hair cells are largely unknown. We investigated potassium and calcium currents, voltage responses and synaptic activity in hair cells from the lateral line and inner ear in vivo and using near-physiological in vitro recordings. We found that the basolateral current profile of hair cells from the lateral line becomes more segregated with age, and that cells positioned in the centre of the neuromast show more mature characteristics and those towards the edge retain a more immature phenotype. The proportion of mature-like hair cells within a given neuromast increased with zebrafish development. Hair cells from the inner ear showed a developmental change in current profile between the juvenile and adult stages. In lateral line hair cells from juvenile zebrafish, exocytosis also became more efficient and required less calcium for vesicle fusion. In hair cells from mature zebrafish, the biophysical characteristics of ion channels and exocytosis resembled those of hair cells from other lower vertebrates and, to some extent, those in the immature mammalian vestibular and auditory systems. We show that although the zebrafish provides a suitable animal model for studies on hair cell physiology, it is advisable to consider that the age at which the majority of hair cells acquire a mature-type configuration is reached only in the juvenile lateral line and in the inner ear from >2 months after hatching. PMID:24566541

Olt, Jennifer; Johnson, Stuart L; Marcotti, Walter

2014-05-15

71

Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.  

PubMed

Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. PMID:25036348

Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

2014-01-01

72

A search for factors specifying tonotopy implicates DNER in hair-cell development in the chick’s cochlea  

PubMed Central

The accurate perception of sound frequency by vertebrates relies upon the tuning of hair cells, which are arranged along auditory organs according to frequency. This arrangement, which is termed a tonotopic gradient, results from the coordination of many cellular and extracellular features. Seeking the mechanisms that orchestrate those features and govern the tonotopic gradient, we used expression microarrays to identify genes differentially expressed between the high- and low-frequency cochlear regions of the chick (Gallus gallus). Of the three signaling systems that were represented extensively in the results, we focused on the notch pathway and particularly on DNER, a putative notch ligand, and PTP?, a receptor phosphatase that controls DNER trafficking. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that both proteins are expressed more strongly in hair cells at the cochlear apex than in those at the base. At the apical surface of each hair cell, the proteins display polarized, mutually exclusive localization patterns. Using morpholinos to decrease the expression of DNER or PTP? as well as a retroviral vector to overexpress DNER, we observed disturbances of hair-bundle morphology and orientation. Our results suggest a role for DNER and PTP? in hair-cell development and possibly in the specification of tonotopy. PMID:21497156

Kowalik, Lukasz; Hudspeth, A. J.

2011-01-01

73

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

74

White Lupin Cluster Root Acclimation to Phosphorus Deficiency and Root Hair Development Involve Unique Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterases1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

White lupin (Lupinus albus) is a legume that is very efficient in accessing unavailable phosphorus (Pi). It develops short, densely clustered tertiary lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) in response to Pi limitation. In this report, we characterize two glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes (GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2) from white lupin and propose a role for these two GPX-PDEs in root hair growth and development and in a Pi stress-induced phospholipid degradation pathway in cluster roots. Both GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are highly expressed in Pi-deficient cluster roots, particularly in root hairs, epidermal cells, and vascular bundles. Expression of both genes is a function of both Pi availability and photosynthate. GPX-PDE1 Pi deficiency-induced expression is attenuated as photosynthate is deprived, while that of GPX-PDE2 is strikingly enhanced. Yeast complementation assays and in vitro enzyme assays revealed that GPX-PDE1 shows catalytic activity with glycerophosphocholine while GPX-PDE2 shows highest activity with glycerophosphoinositol. Cell-free protein extracts from Pi-deficient cluster roots display GPX-PDE enzyme activity for both glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoinositol. Knockdown of expression of GPX-PDE through RNA interference resulted in impaired root hair development and density. We propose that white lupin GPX-PDE1 and GPX-PDE2 are involved in the acclimation to Pi limitation by enhancing glycerophosphodiester degradation and mediating root hair development. PMID:21464471

Cheng, Lingyun; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Zinn, Kelly; Miller, Susan; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Allan, Deborah; Shen, Jianbo; Vance, Carroll P.

2011-01-01

75

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

2013-01-01

76

Fgf signaling regulates development and transdifferentiation of hair cells and supporting cells in the basilar papilla  

PubMed Central

The avian basilar papilla (BP) is a likely homolog of the auditory sensory epithelium of the mammalian cochlea, the organ of Corti. During mammalian development Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (Fgfr3) is known to regulate the differentiation of auditory mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs), both of which are required for sound detection. Fgfr3 is expressed in developing progenitor cells (PCs) and SCs of both the BP and the organ of Corti; however its role in BP development is unknown. Here we utilized an in vitro whole organ embryonic culture system to examine the role of Fgf signaling in the developing avian cochlea. SU5402 (an antagonist of Fgf signaling) was applied to developing BP cultures at different stages to assay the role of Fgf signaling during HC formation. Similar to the observed effects of inhibition of Fgfr3 in the mammalian cochlea, Fgfr inhibition in the developing BP increased the number of HCs that formed. This increase was not associated with increased proliferation, suggesting that inhibition of the Fgf pathway leads to the direct conversion of PCs or supporting cells into HCs, a process known as transdifferentiation. This also implies that Fgf signaling is required to prevent the conversion of PCs and SCs into HCs. The ability of Fgf signaling to inhibit transdifferentiation suggests that its down-regulation may be essential for the initial steps of HC formation, as well as for the maintenance of SC phenotypes. PMID:22575790

Jacques, Bonnie E.; Dabdoub, Alain; Kelley, Matthew W.

2012-01-01

77

Control of Plant Trichome and Root-Hair Development by a Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) R3 MYB Transcription Factor  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis thaliana the CPC-like MYB transcription factors [CAPRICE (CPC), TRIPTYCHON (TRY), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC 1, 2, 3/CPC-LIKE MYB 3 (ETC1, ETC2, ETC3/CPL3), TRICHOMELESS 1, 2/CPC-LIKE MYB 4 (TCL1, TCL2/CPL4)] and the bHLH transcription factors [GLABRA3 (GL3) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3)] are central regulators of trichome and root-hair development. We identified TRY and GL3 homologous genes from the tomato genome and named them SlTRY and SlGL3, respectively. Phylogenic analyses revealed a close relationship between the tomato and Arabidopsis genes. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that SlTRY and SlGL3 were predominantly expressed in aerial parts of developing tomato. After transformation into Arabidopsis, CPC::SlTRY inhibited trichome formation and enhanced root-hair differentiation by strongly repressing GL2 expression. On the other hand, GL3::SlGL3 transformation did not show any obvious effect on trichome or non-hair cell differentiation. These results suggest that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for epidermal cell differentiation, and that a CPC-like R3 MYB may be a key common regulator of plant trichome and root-hair development. PMID:23326563

Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Sato, Shusei; Wada, Takuji

2013-01-01

78

The tricornered Ser/Thr protein kinase is regulated by phosphorylation and interacts with furry during Drosophila wing hair development.  

PubMed

The Trc/Ndr/Sax1/Cbk1 family of ser/thr kinases plays a key role in the morphogenesis of polarized cell structures in flies, worms, and yeast. Tricornered (Trc), the Drosophila nuclear Dbf2-related (Ndr) serine/threonine protein kinase, is required for the normal morphogenesis of epidermal hairs, bristles, laterals, and dendrites. We obtained in vivo evidence that Trc function was regulated by phosphorylation and that mutations in key regulatory sites resulted in dominant negative alleles. We found that wild-type, but not mutant Trc, is found in growing hairs, and we failed to detect Trc in pupal wing nuclei, implying that in this developmental context Trc functions in the cytoplasm. The furry gene and its homologues in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans have previously been implicated as being essential for the function of the Ndr kinase family. We found that Drosophila furry (Fry) also is found in growing hairs, that its subcellular localization is dependent on Trc function, and that it can be coimmunoprecipitated with Trc. Our data suggest a feedback mechanism involving Trc activity regulates the accumulation of Fry in developing hairs. PMID:15591127

He, Ying; Fang, Xiaolan; Emoto, Kazuo; Jan, Yuh-Nung; Adler, Paul N

2005-02-01

79

Actin organization during eucalyptus root hair development and its response to fungal hypaphorine.  

PubMed

The fungus Pisolithus microcarpus establishes an ectomycorrhiza with Eucalyptus globulus. This symbiosis involves a fungal synthesis and secretion of hypaphorine, an indolic compound. Previous studies have shown that hypaphorine induces an alteration in the actin cytoskeleton of elongating root hairs and inhibits hair elongation. Using an alternative approved method, we analyzed the effects of hypaphorine on the E. globulus root hair cyto-architecture and actin configuration in more detail and provide new results. One mM hypaphorine stops root hair elongation within 20 min, and changes the hair cyto-architecture. Semi-quantitative analysis of the actin cytoskeleton before and after treatment with hypaphorine shows that hypaphorine induces a shift from fine F-actin to F-actin bundles in the sub-apex of the hair, which occurs first in the mid-plane of the cell. This creates a sub-apical cell centre free of filamentous actin, an actin configuration that differs from that during developmental growth arrest. The mechanism of action of hypaphorine is discussed. PMID:16547865

Dauphin, A; De Ruijter, N C A; Emons, A M C; Legué, V

2006-03-01

80

CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ABNORMAL REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will determine the critical factors that account for exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals, or EDCs (ER, AR, AhR mediated and inhibitors of steroidogenesis) during development resulting in adverse effects seen later in life in male and female offspring. Such f...

81

Abnormal brain development in newborns with congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease in newborns is associated with global impairment in development. We characterized brain metabolism and microstructure, as measures of brain maturation, in newborns with congenital heart disease before they underwent heart surgery. METHODS: We studied 41 term newborns with congenital heart disease--29 who had transposition of the great arteries and 12 who had single-ventricle physiology--with the use

S Miller; P McQuillen; S Hamrick; D Xu; D Glidden; N Charlton; T Karl; A Azakie; D Ferriero; A Barkovich; D Vigneron

2007-01-01

82

A comparative analysis of proteins that accumulate during the initial stage of root hair development in barley root hair mutants and their parent varieties.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of root hair formation have been studied extensively in Arabidopsis but knowledge about these processes in monocot species is still limited, especially in relation to the proteome level. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins that are involved in the initiation and the early stage of root hair tip growth in barley using two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A comparison of proteins that accumulate differentially in two root hair mutants and their respective parent varieties resulted in the identification of 13 proteins that take part in several processes related to the root hair morphogenesis, such as the control of vesicular trafficking, ROS signalling and homeostasis, signal transduction by phospholipids metabolism and ATP synthesis. Among the identified proteins, two ATP synthases, two ABC transporters, a small GTPase from the SAR1 family, a PDI-like protein, a monodehydroascorbate reductase, a C2 domain-containing protein and a Wali7 domain-containing protein were found. This study is the first report on the proteins identified in the initial stage of root hair formation in barley and gives new insights into the mechanisms of root hair morphogenesis in a monocot species. PMID:22847350

Janiak, Agnieszka; Piórko, Stanis?aw; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter; Kwa?niewski, Miros?aw; Chwia?kowska, Karolina; Chmielewska, Beata; Szarejko, Iwona

2012-11-01

83

A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

Phelps, William R.

84

MicroRNAs are essential for development and function of inner ear hair cells in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) inhibit the translation of target mRNAs and affect, directly or indirectly, the expression of a large portion of the protein-coding genes. This study focuses on miRNAs that are expressed in the mouse cochlea and vestibule, the 2 inner ear compartments. A conditional knock-out mouse for Dicer1 demonstrated that miRNAs are crucial for postnatal survival of functional hair cells of the inner ear. We identified miRNAs that have a role in the vertebrate developing inner ear by combining miRNA transcriptome analysis, spatial and temporal expression patterns, and bioinformatics. Microarrays revealed similar miRNA profiles in newborn-mouse whole cochleae and vestibules, but different temporal and spatial expression patterns of six miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-18a, miR-30b, miR-99a, miR-182, and miR-199a) may reflect their roles. Two of these miRNAs, miR-15a-1 and miR-18a, were also shown to be crucial for zebrafish inner ear development and morphogenesis. To suggest putative target mRNAs whose translation may be inhibited by selected miRNAs, we combined bioinformatics-based predictions and mRNA expression data. Finally, we present indirect evidence that Slc12a2, Cldn12, and Bdnf mRNAs may be targets for miR-15a. Our data support the hypothesis that inner ear tissue differentiation and maintenance are regulated and controlled by conserved sets of cell-specific miRNAs in both mouse and zebrafish. PMID:19416898

Friedman, Lilach M.; Dror, Amiel A.; Mor, Eyal; Tenne, Tamar; Toren, Ginat; Satoh, Takunori; Biesemeier, Deborah J.; Shomron, Noam; Fekete, Donna M.; Hornstein, Eran; Avraham, Karen B.

2009-01-01

85

Progeny of Lgr5-expressing hair follicle stem cell contributes to papillomavirus-induced tumor development in epidermis.  

PubMed

Epidermal keratinocytes and hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) expressing oncogenes are competent at developing squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in epidermis and HFs, respectively. To determine whether bulge and hair germ (HG) SCs from HF contribute to SCC generation at distant epidermis, the most frequent epidermal region where these lesions arise in human skin, we used a skin cancer mouse model expressing E6 and E7 oncoproteins from Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 in SCs and basal keratinocytes. This previously described mouse model recapitulates the human skin papillomavirus-induced SCC pathology. We show that E6 and E7 expression promote the expansion of keratin 15 (K15)-expressing cells. These K15(+) aberrant cells exhibit some HGSC markers and diminished expression of Tcf3 and Sox9 hair SC specification genes, which are accumulated in HFs and mislocalized to interfollicular epidermis. Leucine-rich G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5)-expressing SCs, localized in the bulge and HG, are the origin of the expanded K15(+) cell population. A large subset of the Lgr5(+) SC progeny, expressing K15 and P-cadherin, is aberrantly mobilized to the upper region of HFs and the epidermis, and accumulates at E6/E7-induced pre-neoplastic lesions and epidermal tumors. These findings indicate that aberrant accumulation of altered SCs in HFs and their subsequent migration to the epidermis contribute to HPV-induced tumor development. PMID:22945646

da Silva-Diz, V; Solé-Sánchez, S; Valdés-Gutiérrez, A; Urpí, M; Riba-Artés, D; Penin, R M; Pascual, G; González-Suárez, E; Casanovas, O; Viñals, F; Paramio, J M; Batlle, E; Muñoz, P

2013-08-01

86

MicroRNA-214 controls skin and hair follicle development by modulating the activity of the Wnt pathway.  

PubMed

Skin development is governed by complex programs of gene activation and silencing, including microRNA-dependent modulation of gene expression. Here, we show that miR-214 regulates skin morphogenesis and hair follicle (HF) cycling by targeting ?-catenin, a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway. miR-214 exhibits differential expression patterns in the skin epithelium, and its inducible overexpression in keratinocytes inhibited proliferation, which resulted in formation of fewer HFs with decreased hair bulb size and thinner hair production. The inhibitory effects of miR-214 on HF development and cycling were associated with altered activities of multiple signaling pathways, including decreased expression of key Wnt signaling mediators ?-catenin and Lef-1, and were rescued by treatment with pharmacological Wnt activators. Finally, we identify ?-catenin as one of the conserved miR-214 targets in keratinocytes. These data provide an important foundation for further analyses of miR-214 as a key regulator of Wnt pathway activity and stem cell functions during normal tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and aging. PMID:25422376

Ahmed, Mohammed I; Alam, Majid; Emelianov, Vladimir U; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Patel, Ankit; Sharov, Andrey A; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Botchkareva, Natalia V

2014-11-24

87

The role of disulfide bond formation in the structural transition observed in the intermediate filaments of developing hair.  

PubMed

Hair keratin is a composite structure in which intermediate filaments (IF) are embedded in a protein matrix. During the early stages of development in the hair follicle the redox potential is such that the cysteine residues in the IF are maintained in a reduced form. However, at a late stage of development the redox potential changes to produce an oxidizing environment and the IF undergo a structural transition involving both molecular slippage and radial compaction. In our earlier study the changes in the molecular parameters were estimated from knowledge of the sites of artificially induced crosslinks, and it was noted that the changes in these parameters realigned many of the cysteine residues to positions more favorable to disulfide bond formation. As the energy involved in the formation of disulfide bonds is much greater than that of hydrogen bonds or van der Waals interactions the structural transition is likely to be dominated by the requirement that the bonded cysteine residues occur at closely equivalent axial positions. This criterion was used in the present study to obtain more precise values for the molecular parameters in the oxidized fiber than has hitherto been possible. A comparison of the sequences of hair keratins and epidermal keratins suggests that the slippage observed in trichocyte IF during keratinization does not occur in epidermal IF. PMID:22683767

Bruce Fraser, R D; Parry, David A D

2012-10-01

88

Genetics Home Reference: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder of bone growth characterized by short stature (dwarfism) with other skeletal abnormalities; fine, sparse hair (hypotrichosis); ... cartilage ; cell ; cell cycle ; colon ; constipation ; deficiency ; DNA ; dwarfism ; enzyme ; esophagus ; gastrointestinal ; gene ; gluten ; hypopigmentation ; hypoplasia ; hypotrichosis ; ...

89

Association between an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio and the development of severe pre-eclampsia.  

PubMed

Objective:To study the association between the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and the development of pre-eclampsia.Study Design:Three study groups were determined: Group 1-normal umbilical artery (UA; referent), Group 2-abnormal UA and normal CPR and Group 3-abnormal UA and an abnormal CPR. The primary outcome was the development of severe pre-eclampsia.Results:We included 270 women. Women in Group 3 had significantly elevated rates of severe pre-eclampsia versus those in Group 1 and Group 2, 52.5% versus 5.1% and 15.4%, respectively, (P<0.01), adjusted odds ratio 4.14 (95% confidence interval, 2.59 to 6.61). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed earlier delivery in women with pre-eclampsia in Group 3 versus Group 1, Cox-Mantel hazard ratio 2.39 (1.17 to 4.88), log rank P=0.01.Conclusion:An abnormal CPR is associated with a higher rate severe pre-eclampsia with delivery at earlier gestational ages than with a normal UA or an abnormal UA, but normal CPR.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 4 December 2014; doi:10.1038/jp.2014.210. PMID:25474554

Regan, J; Masters, H; Warshak, C R

2014-12-01

90

The anthocyanin reduced tomato mutant demonstrates the role of flavonols in tomato lateral root and root hair development.  

PubMed

This study utilized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants with altered flavonoid biosynthesis to understand the impact of these metabolites on root development. The mutant anthocyanin reduced (are) has a mutation in the gene encoding FLAVONOID 3-HYDROXYLASE (F3H), the first step in flavonol synthesis, and accumulates higher concentrations of the F3H substrate, naringenin, and lower levels of the downstream products kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and anthocyanins, than the wild type. Complementation of are with the p35S:F3H transgene reduced naringenin and increased flavonols to wild-type levels. The initiation of lateral roots is reduced in are, and p35S:F3H complementation restores wild-type root formation. The flavonoid mutant anthocyanin without has a defect in the gene encoding DIHYDROFLAVONOL REDUCTASE, resulting in elevated flavonols and the absence of anthocyanins and displays increased lateral root formation. These results are consistent with a positive role of flavonols in lateral root formation. The are mutant has increased indole-3-acetic acid transport and greater sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid on lateral root formation. Expression of the auxin-induced reporter (DR5-?-glucuronidase) is reduced in initiating lateral roots and increased in primary root tips of are. Levels of reactive oxygen species are elevated in are root epidermal tissues and root hairs, and are forms more root hairs, consistent with a role of flavonols as antioxidants that modulate root hair formation. Together, these experiments identify positive roles of flavonols in the formation of lateral roots and negative roles in the formation of root hairs through the modulation of auxin transport and reactive oxygen species, respectively. PMID:25006027

Maloney, Gregory S; DiNapoli, Kathleen T; Muday, Gloria K

2014-10-01

91

Notch Signaling Regulates Late-Stage Epidermal Differentiation and Maintains Postnatal Hair Cycle Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Background Notch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. Methodology and Principal Findings We applied Cre/loxP system to generate conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of critical components of Notch signaling pathway in the skin. Rbpj, the core component of all four Notch receptors, and Pofut1, an essential factor for ligand-receptor interactions, were inactivated in hair follicle lineages and suprabasal layer of the epidermis using the Tgfb3-Cre mouse line. Rbpj conditional inactivation resulted in granular parakeratosis and reactive epidermal hyperplasia. Pofut1 conditional inactivation led to ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer and altered filaggrin processing in the epidermis, suggesting a perturbation of the granular layer differentiation. Disruption of Pofut1 in hair follicle lineages resulted in aberrant telogen morphology, a decrease of bulge stem cell markers, and a concomitant increase of K14-positive keratinocytes in the isthmus of mutant hair follicles. Pofut1-deficent hair follicles displayed a delay in anagen re-entry and dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during the hair cycle transition. Moreover, increased DNA double stand breaks were detected in Pofut1-deficent hair follicles, and real time PCR analyses on bulge keratinocytes isolated by FACS revealed an induction of DNA damage response and a paucity of DNA repair machinery in mutant bulge keratinocytes. Significance our data reveal a role for Notch signaling in regulating late-stage epidermal differentiation. Notch signaling is required for postnatal hair cycle homeostasis by maintaining proper proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells. PMID:21267458

Lin, Hsien-Yi; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Lin, Kurt Ming-Chao; Kaartinen, Vesa; Yang, Liang-Tung

2011-01-01

92

17?-estradiol causes abnormal development in embryos of the viviparous eelpout.  

PubMed

Elevated frequencies of malformations among the offspring of Baltic eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) have been observed in aquatic environments receiving high anthropogenic input suggesting that manmade chemicals could be the causative agent. However, causal links between exposure to chemicals and abnormal development have never been confirmed in laboratory experiments. The purpose of this study was to investigate if exposure to 17?-estradiol (E2) causes abnormal development in larvae of the viviparous eelpout. Wild female eelpout were collected immediately after fertilization and exposed to E2 concentrations ranging from 5.7 to 133 ng L(-1) for 6 weeks in a flow through test system. The experiment shows that E2 concentrations of 53.6 and 133 ng L(-1) cause severe abnormal development among eelpout embryos. Reduced amount of ovarian fluid and increased weight of the ovarian sac indicate disturbance of ovarian function. Female plasma concentrations of E2 and vitellogenin increase in a monotonic concentration-response relationship with significant induction in the low concentration range. Our findings support the plausibility that the abnormal development among eelpout embryos encountered in monitoring programs may actually be caused by exposure to chemicals in the environment. PMID:25380199

Morthorst, Jane E; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

2014-12-16

93

ABNORMAL FUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEART, LUNGS, AND KIDNEYS: APPROACHES TO FUNCTIONAL TERATOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentations given at the Conference on Abnormal Functional Development of the Heart, Lungs, and Kidneys are documented in this publication. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and was held in Asheville, NC, May 11-13, 1983. In an attempt to car...

94

GbTCP, a cotton TCP transcription factor, confers fibre elongation and root hair development by a complex regulating system  

PubMed Central

As the most important natural raw material for textile industry, cotton fibres are an excellent model for studying single-cell development. Although expression profiling and functional genomics have provided some data, the mechanism of fibre development is still not well known. A class I TCP transcription factor (designated GbTCP), encoding 344 amino acids, was isolated from the normalized cDNA library of sea-island cotton fibre (from –2 to 25 days post anthesis). GbTCP was preferentially expressed in the elongating cotton fibre from 5 to 15 days post anthesis. Some expression was also observed in stems, apical buds, and petals. RNAi silencing of GbTCP produced shorter fibre, a reduced lint percentage, and a lower fibre quality than the wild-type plants. Overexpression of GbTCP enhanced root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis and regulated branching. Solexa sequencing and Affymetrix GeneChip analysis indicated that GbTCP positively regulates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and, as a result, activates downstream genes (reactive oxygen species, calcium signalling, ethylene biosynthesis and response, and several NAC and WRKY transcription factors) necessary for elongation of fibres and root hairs. JA content analysis in cotton also confirmed that GbTCP has a profound effect on JA biosynthesis. In vitro ovule culture showed that an appropriate concentration of JA promoted fibre elongation. The results suggest that GbTCP is an important transcription factor for fibre and root hair development by regulating JA biosynthesis and response and other pathways, including reactive oxygen species, calcium channel and ethylene signalling. PMID:23105133

Zhang, Xianlong

2012-01-01

95

GbTCP, a cotton TCP transcription factor, confers fibre elongation and root hair development by a complex regulating system.  

PubMed

As the most important natural raw material for textile industry, cotton fibres are an excellent model for studying single-cell development. Although expression profiling and functional genomics have provided some data, the mechanism of fibre development is still not well known. A class I TCP transcription factor (designated GbTCP), encoding 344 amino acids, was isolated from the normalized cDNA library of sea-island cotton fibre (from -2 to 25 days post anthesis). GbTCP was preferentially expressed in the elongating cotton fibre from 5 to 15 days post anthesis. Some expression was also observed in stems, apical buds, and petals. RNAi silencing of GbTCP produced shorter fibre, a reduced lint percentage, and a lower fibre quality than the wild-type plants. Overexpression of GbTCP enhanced root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis and regulated branching. Solexa sequencing and Affymetrix GeneChip analysis indicated that GbTCP positively regulates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and, as a result, activates downstream genes (reactive oxygen species, calcium signalling, ethylene biosynthesis and response, and several NAC and WRKY transcription factors) necessary for elongation of fibres and root hairs. JA content analysis in cotton also confirmed that GbTCP has a profound effect on JA biosynthesis. In vitro ovule culture showed that an appropriate concentration of JA promoted fibre elongation. The results suggest that GbTCP is an important transcription factor for fibre and root hair development by regulating JA biosynthesis and response and other pathways, including reactive oxygen species, calcium channel and ethylene signalling. PMID:23105133

Hao, Juan; Tu, Lili; Hu, Haiyan; Tan, Jiafu; Deng, Fenglin; Tang, Wenxin; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

2012-10-01

96

The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals  

E-print Network

. Since various hair and skin abnormalities are not uncommon in genetically modified or drug of genetically modified laboratory mouse and rat strains with abnormal hair makes the swim tests importantThe role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals

Kalueff, Allan V.

97

Cranial index of children with normal and abnormal brain development in Sokoto, Nigeria: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Abnormal brain development due to neurodevelopmental disorders in children has always been an important concern, but yet has to be considered as a significant public health problem, especially in the low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether abnormal brain development in the form of neurodevelopmental disorders causes any deviation in the cranial index of affected children. Materials and Methods: This is a comparative study on the head length, head width, and cranial index of 112 children (72 males and 40 females) diagnosed with at least one abnormal problem in brain development, in the form of a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), in comparison with that of 218 normal growing children without any form of NDD (121 males and 97 females), aged 0-18 years old seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, over a period of six months, June to December, 2012. The head length and head width of the children was measured using standard anatomical landmarks and cranial index calculated. The data obtained was entered into the Microsoft excel worksheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The mean Cephalic Index for normal growing children with normal brain development was 79.82 ± 3.35 and that of the children with abnormal brain development was 77.78 ± 2.95 and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It can be deduced from this present study that the cranial index does not change in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24966551

Musa, Muhammad Awwal; Zagga, Abdullahi Daudu; Danfulani, Mohammed; Tadros, Aziz Abdo; Ahmed, Hamid

2014-01-01

98

mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development  

PubMed Central

Target of rapamycin (TOR) was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mammalian TOR (mTOR). mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid) synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development. PMID:24795562

Takei, Nobuyuki; Nawa, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

99

An in vitro model for abnormal skeletal development in the lysosomal storage diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal storage diseases such as GM1-gangliosidosis are associated with skeletal abnormalities. Radiological and histological studies, both in human and corresponding animal models, indicate retarded bone formation. Since cartilage maturation leads to bone formation, we developed an in vitro system to study and compare the biological features of cartilage from dogs affected with GM1-gangliosidosis with age-matched controls. Costochondral chondrocytes were grown

Amy Lynn Aulthouse; Joseph Alroy

1995-01-01

100

Human Hair: An Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)

Wells, John

1983-01-01

101

Development of a fiber-less fNIRS system and its application to hair-covered head  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While most commercially available functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) systems employ optical fibers for both the measurement optode and the transmission cable for optical signals, their material inflexibility presents some problems in stable optode fixation to the head surface and adequate cable lining to the main system. In practice, mechanical fluctuations of optical fibers in fNIRS measurement often lead to motion artifacts in the signals. A few fiberless fNIRS systems are available and equipped with light sources and detectors that directly adhere to the scalp surface. However, their shapes and detection sensitivities are not suitable for usage on a hair-covered head. Based on the commercial fiber-less fNIRS system OEG-16 (Spectratech Inc., Japan), we developed a new source-detector unit that was designed with LEDs for enhanced illumination, avalanche photodiodes instead of photodiodes, and a new holder system. The electrical circuits of the system were modified after the design. By simultaneous implementation of multidistance fNIRS measurement and hemodynamic modality separation on conventional fNIRS data at the bilateral parietal area during single-sided motor tasks, significant functional signals were observed only at the position contralateral to the side of movement. This is the first report describing a fiber-less fNIRS system that can detect functional signals on a hair-covered head. We believe this fiber-less system will improve the utility of fNIRS, particularly in less restraining conditions.

Yamada, Toru; Ohashi, Mitsuo; Umeyama, Shinji

2014-03-01

102

A keratin 15 containing stem cell population from the hair follicle contributes to squamous papilloma development in the mouse.  

PubMed

The multistage model of nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis has contributed significantly to our understanding of epithelial cancer in general. We used the Krt1-15CrePR1;R26R transgenic mouse to determine the contribution of keratin 15+ cells from the hair follicle to skin tumor development by following the labeled progeny of the keratin 15 expressing cells into papillomas. We present three novel observations. First, we found that keratin 15 expressing cells contribute to most of the papillomas by 20 weeks of promotion. Second, in contrast to the transient behavior of labeled keratin 15-derived progeny in skin wound healing, keratin 15 progeny persist in papillomas, and some malignancies for many months following transient induction of the reporter gene. Third, papillomas have surprising heterogeneity not only in their cellular composition, but also in their expression of the codon 61 signature Ha-ras mutation with approximately 30% of keratin 15-derived regions expressing the mutation. Together, these results demonstrate that keratin 15 expressing cells of the hair follicle contribute to cutaneous papillomas with long term persistence and a subset of which express the Ha-ras signature mutation characteristic of initiated cells. PMID:22431489

Li, Shulan; Park, Heuijoon; Trempus, Carol S; Gordon, Derek; Liu, Yaping; Cotsarelis, George; Morris, Rebecca J

2013-10-01

103

Abnormalities in embryological development in total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. A case report.  

PubMed

Pulmonary venous system development starts early in embryonic life. Abnormalities in the development of pulmonary venous system occur either by the absence of common pulmonary vein communication to the splanchnic plexus or by the absence of its incorporation into the dorsal wall of the left atrium. We present the case of a 10-day-old male newborn, diagnosed with TAPVC, operated, with long recovery and, who died by pneumonia, heart failure, and obstructive pulmonary disease (one pulmonary vein obstructed and another one with severe stenosis). Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) reflects one of the most severe forms of congenital heart disease, with important clinical consequences. PMID:24068416

B?lgr?dean, Mihaela; Cintez?, Eliza; Cîrstoveanu, C; Enculescu, Augustina; Ple?ca, Doina

2013-01-01

104

Gene expression of Hsps in normal and abnormal embryonic development of mouse hindlimbs.  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins (Hsps), which have important biological functions, are a class of highly conserved genetic molecules with the capacity of protecting and promoting cells to repair themselves from damage caused by various stimuli. Our previous studies found that Hsp25, HspB2, HspB3, HspB7, Hsp20, HspB9, HspB10, and Hsp40 may be related to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-induced phocomelic and other abnormalities, while HspA12B, HspA14, Trap1, and Hsp105 may be forelimb development-related genes; Grp78 may play an important role in forelimb development. In this study, the embryonic phocomelic, oligodactylic model of both forelimbs and hindlimbs was developed by atRA administered per os to the pregnant mice on gestational day 11, and the expression of 36 members of Hsps family in normal and abnormal development of embryonic hindlimbs was measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). It is found that HspA1L, Hsp22, Hsp10, Hsp60, Hsp47, HspB2, HspB10, HspA12A, Apg1, HspB4, Grp78, and HspB9 probably performs a major function in limb development, and HspA13, Grp94 and Hsp110 may be hindlimb development-related genes. PMID:25352652

Yan, Zhengli; Wei, Huimiao; Ren, Chuanlu; Yuan, Shishan; Fu, Hu; Lv, Yuan; Zhu, Yongfei; Zhang, Tianbao

2014-10-28

105

Hair pulling: a review.  

PubMed

Hair pulling has been reported in humans, six different non-human primate species, mice, guineapigs, rabbits, sheep and muskox, dogs and cats. This behaviour seems to occur only in subjects who are confined in an artificial environment. It has been classified as a mental disorder in humans, as a behavioural pathology in animals. The hair is not only pulled but also, in most species, ingested. Hair pulling can be both self-directed and partner-directed, contains elements of aggression, manifests more often in females than in males, is associated with psychogenic distress, and resists treatment. Research data collected from affected animals are probably not normative, hence scientifically unreliable. The preemptive correction of husbandry deficiencies causing long-term stress may prevent the development of this bizarre behaviour in healthy subjects. PMID:16197702

Reinhardt, Viktor

2005-10-01

106

Development of a novel diagnostic test for detection of bovine viral diarrhea persistently infected animals using hair  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether manually plucked hairs might serve as an alternative sample for a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing. Twenty three, 1~3 week old, non-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccinated calves, found to be positive for BVDV by immunohistochemical staining, were selected and hairs were manually plucked from the ear. qRT-PCR was performed on samples consisting of more than 30 hairs (30~100) and whole blood. All 23 animals were positive for the virus by qRT-PCR performed on the whole blood and when samples of more than 30 hairs were assayed. Additionally, qRT-PCR was performed on groups of 10 and 20 hairs harvested from 7 out of 23 immunohistochemical staining-positive calves. When groups of 20 and 10 hairs were tested, 6 and 4 animals, respectively, were positive for the virus. PMID:21897105

Miller, Myrna M.; Kohrt, Laura J.; Scherba, Gail; Garrett, Edgar F.; Fredrickson, Richard L.

2011-01-01

107

Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus, up to 1.1% p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 0.04% toluene-2,5-diamine, 0.02% 3-aminophenol and 0.02% resorcinol were found in the hair dye formulation after the required colour was developed. The consumers are thus exposed to precursors and couplers of oxidative hair dyes, both during and after hair dyeing, when the hair is washed. Furthermore, the consumers are also expected to be exposed to intermediates of oxidative hair dyes. The allergenic potential of oxidative hair dyes as well as the intermediates of these remains unknown. PMID:16930234

Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Bossi, Rossana

2006-08-01

108

Thymic Stromal-Cell Abnormalities and Dysregulated T-Cell Development in IL-2-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

The role that interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays in T-cell development is not known. To address this issue, we have investigated the nature of the abnormal thymic development and autoimmune disorders that occurs in IL-2-deficient (IL-2–/–) mice. After 4 to 5 weeks of birth, IL-2–/– mice progressively develop a thymic disorder resulting in the disruption of thymocyte maturation. This disorder is characterized by a dramatic reduction in cellularity, the selective loss of immature CD4-8- (double negative; DN) and CD4+8+ (double positive; DP) thymocytes and defects in the thymic stromal-cell compartment. Immunohistochemical staining of sections of thymuses from specific pathogen-free and germ-free IL-2–/– mice of various ages showed a progressive ,loss of cortical epithelial cells, MHC class II-expressing cells, monocytes, and macrophages. Reduced numbers of macrophages were apparent as early as week after birth. Since IL-2–/– thymocyte progenitor populations could mature normally on transfer into a normal thymus, the thymic defect in IL-2–/– mice appears to be due to abnormalities among thymic stromal cells. These results underscore the role of IL-2 in maintaining functional microenvironments that are necessary to support thymocyte growth, development, and selection. PMID:9814585

Reya, Tannishtha; Bassiri, Hamid; Biancaniello, Renée

1998-01-01

109

A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

2014-07-01

110

INTRODUCTION The mammalian hair follicle is a representative but highly  

E-print Network

and differentiation, together with concealed skin domains, account for the cyclic alopecia phenotype. Key words: Alopecia, Hair cycle, Hair differentiation, Homeobox genes, Msx2, Foxn1, Ha3, Fgf5, Mouse SUMMARY DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE `Cyclic alopecia' in Msx2 mutants: defects in hair cycling and hair shaft

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

111

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

112

Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

113

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair lightener poisoning ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach. ... al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap ...

114

Alström Syndrome protein ALMS1 localizes to basal bodies of cochlear hair cells and regulates cilium-dependent planar cell polarity.  

PubMed

Alström Syndrome is a life-threatening disease characterized primarily by numerous metabolic abnormalities, retinal degeneration, cardiomyopathy, kidney and liver disease, and sensorineural hearing loss. The cellular localization of the affected protein, ALMS1, has suggested roles in ciliary function and/or ciliogenesis. We have investigated the role of ALMS1 in the cochlea and the pathogenesis of hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. In neonatal rat organ of Corti, ALMS1 was localized to the basal bodies of hair cells and supporting cells. ALMS1 was also evident at the basal bodies of differentiating fibrocytes and marginal cells in the lateral wall. Centriolar ALMS1 expression was retained into maturity. In Alms1-disrupted mice, which recapitulate the neurosensory deficits of human Alström Syndrome, cochleae displayed several cyto-architectural defects including abnormalities in the shape and orientation of hair cell stereociliary bundles. Developing hair cells were ciliated, suggesting that ciliogenesis was largely normal. In adult mice, in addition to bundle abnormalities, there was an accelerated loss of outer hair cells and the progressive appearance of large lesions in stria vascularis. Although the mice progressively lost distortion product otoacoustic emissions, suggesting defects in outer hair cell amplification, their endocochlear potentials were normal, indicating the strial atrophy did not affect its function. These results identify previously unrecognized cochlear histopathologies associated with this ciliopathy that (i) implicate ALMS1 in planar cell polarity signaling and (ii) suggest that the loss of outer hair cells causes the majority of the hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. PMID:21071598

Jagger, Daniel; Collin, Gayle; Kelly, John; Towers, Emily; Nevill, Graham; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Benson, Jennifer; Halsey, Karin; Dolan, David; Marshall, Jan; Naggert, Jürgen; Forge, Andrew

2011-02-01

115

Alström Syndrome protein ALMS1 localizes to basal bodies of cochlear hair cells and regulates cilium-dependent planar cell polarity  

PubMed Central

Alström Syndrome is a life-threatening disease characterized primarily by numerous metabolic abnormalities, retinal degeneration, cardiomyopathy, kidney and liver disease, and sensorineural hearing loss. The cellular localization of the affected protein, ALMS1, has suggested roles in ciliary function and/or ciliogenesis. We have investigated the role of ALMS1 in the cochlea and the pathogenesis of hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. In neonatal rat organ of Corti, ALMS1 was localized to the basal bodies of hair cells and supporting cells. ALMS1 was also evident at the basal bodies of differentiating fibrocytes and marginal cells in the lateral wall. Centriolar ALMS1 expression was retained into maturity. In Alms1-disrupted mice, which recapitulate the neurosensory deficits of human Alström Syndrome, cochleae displayed several cyto-architectural defects including abnormalities in the shape and orientation of hair cell stereociliary bundles. Developing hair cells were ciliated, suggesting that ciliogenesis was largely normal. In adult mice, in addition to bundle abnormalities, there was an accelerated loss of outer hair cells and the progressive appearance of large lesions in stria vascularis. Although the mice progressively lost distortion product otoacoustic emissions, suggesting defects in outer hair cell amplification, their endocochlear potentials were normal, indicating the strial atrophy did not affect its function. These results identify previously unrecognized cochlear histopathologies associated with this ciliopathy that (i) implicate ALMS1 in planar cell polarity signaling and (ii) suggest that the loss of outer hair cells causes the majority of the hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. PMID:21071598

Jagger, Daniel; Collin, Gayle; Kelly, John; Towers, Emily; Nevill, Graham; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Benson, Jennifer; Halsey, Karin; Dolan, David; Marshall, Jan; Naggert, Jürgen; Forge, Andrew

2011-01-01

116

Congenital Hydrocephalus and Abnormal Subcommissural Organ Development in Sox3 Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is a life-threatening medical condition in which excessive accumulation of CSF leads to ventricular expansion and increased intracranial pressure. Stenosis (blockage) of the Sylvian aqueduct (Aq; the narrow passageway that connects the third and fourth ventricles) is a common form of CH in humans, although the genetic basis of this condition is unknown. Mouse models of CH indicate that Aq stenosis is associated with abnormal development of the subcommmissural organ (SCO) a small secretory organ located at the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon. Glycoproteins secreted by the SCO generate Reissner's fibre (RF), a thread-like structure that descends into the Aq and is thought to maintain its patency. However, despite the importance of SCO function in CSF homeostasis, the genetic program that controls SCO development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the X-linked transcription factor SOX3 is expressed in the murine SCO throughout its development and in the mature organ. Importantly, overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal diencephalic midline of transgenic mice induces CH via a dose-dependent mechanism. Histological, gene expression and cellular proliferation studies indicate that Sox3 overexpression disrupts the development of the SCO primordium through inhibition of diencephalic roof plate identity without inducing programmed cell death. This study provides further evidence that SCO function is essential for the prevention of hydrocephalus and indicates that overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal midline alters progenitor cell differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22291885

Lee, Kristie; Tan, Jacqueline; Morris, Michael B.; Rizzoti, Karine; Hughes, James; Cheah, Pike See; Felquer, Fernando; Liu, Xuan; Piltz, Sandra; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul Q.

2012-01-01

117

Congenital hydrocephalus and abnormal subcommissural organ development in Sox3 transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is a life-threatening medical condition in which excessive accumulation of CSF leads to ventricular expansion and increased intracranial pressure. Stenosis (blockage) of the Sylvian aqueduct (Aq; the narrow passageway that connects the third and fourth ventricles) is a common form of CH in humans, although the genetic basis of this condition is unknown. Mouse models of CH indicate that Aq stenosis is associated with abnormal development of the subcommmissural organ (SCO) a small secretory organ located at the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon. Glycoproteins secreted by the SCO generate Reissner's fibre (RF), a thread-like structure that descends into the Aq and is thought to maintain its patency. However, despite the importance of SCO function in CSF homeostasis, the genetic program that controls SCO development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the X-linked transcription factor SOX3 is expressed in the murine SCO throughout its development and in the mature organ. Importantly, overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal diencephalic midline of transgenic mice induces CH via a dose-dependent mechanism. Histological, gene expression and cellular proliferation studies indicate that Sox3 overexpression disrupts the development of the SCO primordium through inhibition of diencephalic roof plate identity without inducing programmed cell death. This study provides further evidence that SCO function is essential for the prevention of hydrocephalus and indicates that overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal midline alters progenitor cell differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22291885

Lee, Kristie; Tan, Jacqueline; Morris, Michael B; Rizzoti, Karine; Hughes, James; Cheah, Pike See; Felquer, Fernando; Liu, Xuan; Piltz, Sandra; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul Q

2012-01-01

118

An abnormally developed embryo of the pill millipede Glomeris marginata that lacks dorsal segmental derivatives.  

PubMed

The body of arthropods is subdivided in serially homologous units, the so-called segments. In many arthropods, ventral and dorsal segmental tissue typically is aligned in parallel, but is dependent on different genetic inputs. In the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda), ventral and dorsal segmental patterning is clearly decoupled providing an excellent model for the investigation of ventral versus dorsal segmentation mechanisms. This paper reports on the finding of a single embryo that lacks dorsal segmental and extraembryonic tissue. Ventral derivatives, however, are widely developed normally. This suggests that ventral and dorsal tissue is not only patterned differently, as shown previously, but also that ventral tissue can develop (or at least persist) independently from dorsal tissue. It also suggests a correlation of dorsal segmentation and function of the extraembryonic tissue. This assumed correlation may involve the guidance of the two dorsal hemispheres of the developing embryo dorsally, or that formation and/or maintenance of extraembryonic tissue depends on the input of dorsal segmental tissue. Whether the observed abnormalities are caused by mutation or are the result of otherwise disturbed early development is unclear. PMID:21997711

Janssen, Ralf

2011-12-01

119

Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship between ion channel clustering and synaptic formation in hair cells and afferent neurons. In future studies, we will determine when hair cell precursors acquire electrical tuning, and, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, identify and characterize their L-VGCC and BK currents. We will also use biophysical techniques to determine the number of L-VGCC and BK channels and the size and gating kinetics of their underlying L-VGCC and BK conductances, correlating these variables with the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillations produced by intracellular current steps. We expect these studies to determine how hair cells regulate ion channel expression to achieve specific physiological responses.

Baird, Richard A.

2003-01-01

120

Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for quantification of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), THC, CBN and CBD in hair.  

PubMed

For analysis of hair samples derived from a pilot study ('in vivo' contamination of hair by sidestream marijuana smoke), an LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Hair samples were extracted in methanol for 4 h under occasional shaking at room temperature, after adding THC-D(3), CBN-D(3), CBD-D(3) and THCA-A-D(3) as an in-house synthesized internal standard. The analytes were separated by gradient elution on a Luna C18 column using 0.1% HCOOH and ACN?+?0.1% HCOOH. Data acquisition was performed on a QTrap 4000 in electrospray ionization-multi reaction monitoring mode. Validation was carried out according to the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh). Limit of detection and lower limit of quantification were 2.5 pg/mg for THCA-A and 20 pg/mg for THC, CBN and CBD. A linear calibration model was applicable for all analytes over a range of 2.5 pg/mg or 20 pg/mg to 1000 pg/mg, using a weighting factor 1/x. Selectivity was shown for 12 blank hair samples from different sources. Accuracy and precision data were within the required limits for all analytes (bias between -0.2% and 6.4%, RSD between 3.7% and 11.5%). The dried hair extracts were stable over a time period of one to five days in the dark at room temperature. Processed sample stability (maximum decrease of analyte peak area below 25%) was considerably enhanced by adding 0.25% lecithin (w/v) in ACN?+?0.1% HCOOH for reconstitution. Extraction efficiency for CBD was generally very low using methanol extraction. Hence, for effective extraction of CBD alkaline hydrolysis is recommended. PMID:23378095

Roth, Nadine; Moosmann, Bjoern; Auwärter, Volker

2013-02-01

121

Rice ORMDL Controls Sphingolipid Homeostasis Affecting Fertility Resulting from Abnormal Pollen Development  

PubMed Central

The orosomucoids (ORM) are ER-resisdent polypeptides encoded by ORM and ORMDL (ORM-like) genes. In humans, ORMDL3 was reported as genetic risk factor associated to asthma. In yeast, ORM proteins act as negative regulators of sphingolipid synthesis. Sphingolipids are important molecules regulating several processes including stress responses and apoptosis. However, the function of ORM/ORMDL genes in plants has not yet been reported. Previously, we found that temperature sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) rice lines controlled by tms2 contain a deletion of about 70 kb in chromosome 7. We identified four genes expressed in panicles, including an ORMDL ortholog, as candidates for tms2. In this report, we quantified expression of the only two candidate genes normally expressed in anthers of wild type plants grown in controlled growth rooms for fertile and sterile conditions. We found that only the ORMDL gene (LOC_Os07g26940) showed differential expression under these conditions. To better understand the function of rice ORMDL genes, we generated RNAi transgenic rice plants suppressing either LOC_Os07g26940, or all three ORMDL genes present in rice. We found that the RNAi transgenic plants with low expression of either LOC_Os07g26940 alone or all three ORMDL genes were sterile, having abnormal pollen morphology and staining. In addition, we found that both sphingolipid metabolism and expression of genes involved in sphingolipid synthesis were perturbed in the tms2 mutant, analogous to the role of ORMs in yeast. Our results indicated that plant ORMDL proteins influence sphingolipid homeostasis, and deletion of this gene affected fertility resulting from abnormal pollen development. PMID:25192280

Chueasiri, Chutharat; Chunthong, Ketsuwan; Pitnjam, Keasinee; Chakhonkaen, Sriprapai; Sangarwut, Numphet; Sangsawang, Kanidta; Suksangpanomrung, Malinee; Michaelson, Louise V.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Muangprom, Amorntip

2014-01-01

122

Control of hair cell excitability by vestibular primary sensory neurons Journal: Journal of Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Control of hair cell excitability by vestibular primary sensory neurons Journal: Journal, Neurosciences Keywords: Excitotoxicity, Development, Excitability, Hair Cell, repair, synapse impairement, utricle, voltage-gated sodium channel Themes & Topics: a. Hair celss, endorgans, and nerve

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

A Review of Gene Delivery and Stem Cell Based Therapies for Regenerating Inner Ear Hair Cells  

E-print Network

regenerative capacity of the inner ear hair cells. With recent advances in understanding the developmental biology of mammalian and non-mammalian hair cells a variety of strategies have emerged to restore lost hair cells are being developed. Two predominant...

Devarajan, Keerthana; Staecker, Hinrich; Detamore, Michael S.

2011-09-13

124

Hair follicle Formation of  

E-print Network

Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

125

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ... available for female pattern hair loss. The other hair loss medication, Propecia, just doesn't work in women at all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially ...

126

Defective development of the thymus and immunological abnormalities in the neurological mouse mutation "staggerer".  

PubMed

The autosomal recessive mouse mutation "staggerer" (sg/sg), located on chromosome 9, has been recognized as a neurological mutant because of movement abnormalities and defective cerebellar development. We show here that the sg/sg mutation not only affects the development of the cerebellum, but also causes developmental and regulatory changes of the immune system: We observed, on gross inspection, a marked delay in the development of sg/sg thymus, generally enlarged lymph nodes, and undersized spleens. When immunized with SRBC, the sg/sg mouse generated, in normal proportions, helper T-cells in vivo and antibody-forming B-cells in vitro; however, a delay in terminating the response and a deficiency in generating suppressor cells was noted. This suggests the existence of a defect in regulatory feedback mechanisms. The marked delay in the growth of the thymus gland was associated with the prolonged existence of cell-surface carbohydrate patterns characteristic of immature thymocytes. The prolonged expression of embryonal cell-surface phenotypes was observed on the surface of cerebellum and thymus (and, to some extent, spleen) but not in cells from other organs. PMID:3486948

Trenkner, E; Hoffmann, M K

1986-06-01

127

Hair Growth Defects in Insig-Deficient Mice Caused by Cholesterol Precursor Accumulation and Reversed by Simvastatin  

PubMed Central

Insig-1 and Insig-2, two closely related proteins, are essential for feedback inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis. Here, we characterized a line of epidermal-specific, Insig-double knockout (Epi-Insig-DKO) mice lacking both Insigs in epidermis. At birth, Epi-Insig-DKO mice were indistinguishable from control littermates, but thereafter they failed to thrive and died before 6 weeks of age. By 14 days of age, 100% of Epi-Insig-DKO mice exhibited defects in hair growth along with other skin abnormalities, including hyperkeratosis. Hair follicles in Epi-Insig-DKO mice developed normally through postnatal day 7, but they failed to progress to later stages and thus exhibited defects in postnatal hair cycling. Insig deficiency caused a marked buildup of cholesterol precursors in skin associated with a marked increase in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase protein. Topical treatment of Epi-Insig-DKO mice with simvastatin, an inhibitor of reductase, reduced sterol precursors in skin and corrected the hair and skin defects. We conclude that Insig deficiency in skin causes accumulation of cholesterol precursors, and this impairs normal hair development. These findings have implications for several human genetic diseases in which mutations in cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes lead to accumulation of sterol precursors and multiple cutaneous abnormalities. PMID:20090767

Evers, Bret M.; Farooqi, Midhat S.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Liang, Guosheng

2010-01-01

128

A curious abnormally developed embryo of the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Villers, 1789)  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper reports on an abnormally developed embryo (ADE) of the common pill millipede Glomeris marginata. This ADE represents a modified case of Duplicitas posterior, in which two posterior ends are present, but only one anterior end. While the major posterior germ band of the embryo appears almost normally developed, the minor posterior germ band is heavily malformed, has no clear correlation to the single head, little or no ventral tissue, and a minute amount of yolk. The anterior end of the minor germ band is fused to the ventral side of the major germ band between the first and second trunk segment. At least one appendage of the second trunk segment appears to be shared by the two germ bands. Morphology and position of the minor germ band suggest that the ADE may be the result of an incorrectly established single cumulus [the later posterior segment addition zone (SAZ)]. This differs from earlier reports on Duplicitas posterior type ADEs in Glomeris marginata that are likely the result of the early formation of two separate cumuli. PMID:23794817

Janssen, Ralf

2013-01-01

129

A curious abnormally developed embryo of the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Villers, 1789).  

PubMed

This paper reports on an abnormally developed embryo (ADE) of the common pill millipede Glomeris marginata. This ADE represents a modified case of Duplicitas posterior, in which two posterior ends are present, but only one anterior end. While the major posterior germ band of the embryo appears almost normally developed, the minor posterior germ band is heavily malformed, has no clear correlation to the single head, little or no ventral tissue, and a minute amount of yolk. The anterior end of the minor germ band is fused to the ventral side of the major germ band between the first and second trunk segment. At least one appendage of the second trunk segment appears to be shared by the two germ bands. Morphology and position of the minor germ band suggest that the ADE may be the result of an incorrectly established single cumulus [the later posterior segment addition zone (SAZ)]. This differs from earlier reports on Duplicitas posterior type ADEs in Glomeris marginata that are likely the result of the early formation of two separate cumuli. PMID:23794817

Janssen, Ralf

2013-01-01

130

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth. Antheraea polyphemus, III. Development of olfactory sensilla and the properties of hair-forming cells.  

PubMed

During adult development of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, the anlagen of olfactory sensilla arise within the first 2 days post-apolysis in the antennal epidermis (stage 1-3). Approximately on the second day, the primary dendrites as well as the axons grow out from the sensory neurons (stage 4). The trichogen cells start to grow apical processes approximately on the third day, and these hair-forming 'sprouts' reach their definite length around the ninth day (stages 5-6). Then the secretion of cuticle begins, the cuticulin layer having formed on day 10 (stage 7a). The primary dendrites are shed, the inner dendritic segments as well as the thecogen cells retract from the prospective hair bases, and the inner tormogen cells degenerate around days 10/11 (stage 7b). The hair shafts of the basiconic sensilla are completed around days 12/13 (stage 7c), and those of the trichoid sensilla around days 14/15 (stage 7d). The trichogen sprouts retract from the hairs after having finished cuticle formation, and the outer dendritic segments grow out into the hairs: in the basiconic sensilla directly through, and in the trichoid sensilla alongside, the sprouts. The trichogen sprouts contain numerous parallel-running microtubules. Besides their cytoskeletal function, these are most probably involved in the transport of membrane vesicles. During the phase of cuticle deposition, large numbers of vesicles are transported anterogradely from the cell bodies into the sprouts, where they fuse with the apical cell membrane and release their electron-dense contents (most probably cuticle precursors) to the outside. As the cuticle grows in thickness, the surface area of the sprouts is reduced by endocytosis of coated vesicles. When finally the sprouts retract from the completed hairs, the number of endocytotic vesicles is further increased and numerous membrane cisterns seem to be transported retrogradely along the microtubules to the cell bodies. Here the membrane material will most probably be used again in the formation of the sensillum lymph cavities. Thus, the trichogen cells are characterized by an intensive membrane recycling. The sensillum lymph cavities develop between days 16-20 (stage 8), mainly via apical invaginations of the trichogen cells. The imago emerges on day 21. PMID:18621189

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1991-01-01

131

Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple, specific, accurate, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of Lawsone in Trichup herbal hair powder (coded as a THHP), polyherbal formulation. The chromatographic development was carried out on aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 and good resolution was achieved with Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (8:1:1 v/v/v) as mobile phase. Lawsone detection was carried out densitometrically at 277 nm and obtained retardation factor value was 0.46 ± 0.02. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curve was achieved to be linear over a range of 5-60 ?g/ml and regression coefficient was obtained 0.998. Accuracy of chromatographic method was evaluated by standard addition method; recovery was obtained 99.25 ± 0.61%. The peak purity of Lawsone was achieved 0.999 r. Relative standard deviation for intraday and inter-day precision was 0.37-0.56% and 0.42-0.55%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the Lawsone were found to be 1.08 ?g/m land 3.28 ?g/ml, respectively. This result shows that the method was well validated. In the present study, the Lawsone content was found 0.322 ± 0.014% in THHP. This study reveals that the proposed high performance thin layer chromatography method is accurate, fast and cost- effective for routine estimation of Lawsone in polyherbal formulation. PMID:24083204

Patel, Maunang M; Solanki, Bhavna R; Gurav, Nilesh C; Patel, Prateek H; Verma, Shweta S

2013-07-01

132

CD34 EXPRESSION BY HAIR FOLLICLE STEM CELLS IS REQUIRED FOR SKIN TUMOR DEVELOPMENT IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

We used knockout mice to show that a cell surface protein called CD34 is required for skin tumor formation in mice. Wild type mice treated with 7-12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and a tumor promoter developed papillomas. When we treated CD34 knockout (KO) mice the same way, n...

133

Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its computational and algorithmic  

E-print Network

1 Abstract Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its the complex behavior of long human hair, taking into account the hair-to-hair interactions. For long hair, we propose the thin shell volume (TSV) model for enhancing hair realism by simulating complex hair-hair

Shahabi, Cyrus

134

Correlation of aluminum and manganese concentration in scalp hair samples of patients having neurological disorders.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases are thought to be multifactorial, while metals (aluminum and manganese) can be involved as cofactors in abnormalities or suspected of being risk factors for this disorder. The aim of our study was to assess the aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) concentrations in scalp hair samples of 397 patients having different types of neurological disorder diseases. For comparative purpose, scalp hair samples of 201 control subjects does not have any neuro-disorders of same age group (30-60 years) and were selected as referents. The Al and Mn in scalp hair samples were assessed by the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity of methodology was checked by the certified human hair reference material (NCS ZC81002). The results of this study showed that the mean values of Al and Mn were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of all types of neurological disorder patients as compared to controls (p?=?0.01-0.001). The high levels of Al and Mn may play a role in the development of neurological disorders. However, further work is suggested to examine the precise correlation between trace elemental level and the degree of disorders in neurological patients. PMID:25618568

Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Salma Aslam; Ali, Jamshed

2015-02-01

135

Hair Loss in New Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair loss in new moms Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

136

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of prostaglandin E receptor 2 gene in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development.  

PubMed

As a member of the four subtypes of receptors for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) is in the family of G-protein coupled receptors and has been characterized to be involved in the development and growth of hair follicles. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of PTGER2 gene from cashmere goat skin. The entire open reading frame (ORF) of PTGER2 gene was 1047 bp and encoded 348 amino acid residues. The deduced protein contained one G-protein coupled receptors family 1 signature, seven transmembrane domains, and other potential sites. Tissue expression analysis showed that PTGER2 gene was expressed strongly in the skin. The general expression tendency of PTGER2 gene at different hair follicle developmental stages in the skin was gradually decreased from anagen to catagen to telogen. After comparing with the expression of BMP4 gene and related reports, we further presume that it seems to have a relationship between the hair follicle cycle and the expression level of PTGER2 gene in cashmere goat skin. PMID:24555795

Geng, Rong-Qing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yu-Lin

2014-04-01

137

Development, validation and application to real samples of a multiresidue LC-MS/MS method for determination of ?2 -agonists and anabolic steroids in bovine hair.  

PubMed

?(2) -agonists are often abused in cattle breeding because of their effects on animal growth and meat properties. The use of ?(2) -agonists as growth promoters is forbidden in the European Union (Council Directive 96/23/EC classifies them into group A of Annex I), due to their toxicity and carcinogenic properties, as for anabolic steroids, which are often administered in combination with ?(2) -agonists, to promote the storage of proteins and increase muscle size. A unique confirmatory liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative detection of 13 ?(2) -agonists and anabolic steroids plus the qualitative identification of other three analytes in bovine hair was developed and validated, according to Decision 2002/657/CE. Hair samples were washed with dichloromethane, digested within a NaOH solution and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction. The analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The absence of matrix interferents, together with good repeatability of both retention times and relative abundances of diagnostic transitions, allowed the correct identification of all analytes. The quantitative calibrations obtained from spiked blank hair samples proved linear in the range tested. CC? and CC? ranged from 0.5?ng/g to 30?ng/g. Intralaboratory reproducibility (CV%) ranged between 5.0 and 17.7 and trueness between 96%?±?7% and 105%?±?8%. The applicability of the method to real positive samples was demonstrated for both ?(2) -agonists and anabolic steroids. 17?-boldenone was found in most (70%) hair samples obtained from untreated animals, supporting the hypothesis of endogenous production of this steroid. PMID:25230191

Leporati, M; Bergoglio, M; Capra, P; Bozzetta, E; Abete, M C; Vincenti, M

2014-09-01

138

M-like K+ currents in type I hair cells and calyx afferent endings of the developing rat utricle.  

PubMed

Type I vestibular hair cells have large K+ currents that, like neuronal M currents, activate negative to resting potential and are modulatable. In rodents, these currents are acquired postnatally. In perforated-patch recordings from rat utricular hair cells, immature hair cells [younger than postnatal day 7 (P7)] had a steady-state K+ conductance (g(-30)) with a half-activation voltage (V1/2) of -30 mV. The size and activation range did not change in maturing type II cells, but, by P16, type I cells had added a K conductance that was on average fourfold larger and activated much more negatively. This conductance may comprise two components: g(-60) (V1/2 of -60 mV) and g(-80) (V1/2 of -80 mV). g(-80) washed out during ruptured patch recordings and was blocked by a protein kinase inhibitor. M currents can include contributions from KCNQ and ether-a-go-go-related (erg) channels. KCNQ and erg channel blockers both affected the K+ currents of type I cells, with KCNQ blockers being more potent at younger than P7 and erg blockers more potent at older than P16. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed expression of KCNQ and erg subunits. We propose that KCNQ channels contribute to g(-30) and g(-60) and erg subunits contribute to g(-80). Type I hair cells are contacted by calyceal afferent endings. Recordings from dissociated calyces and afferent endings revealed large K+ conductances, including a KCNQ conductance. Calyx endings were strongly labeled by KCNQ4 and erg1 antisera. Thus, both hair cells and calyx endings have large M-like K+ conductances with the potential to control the gain of transmission. PMID:17021181

Hurley, Karen M; Gaboyard, Sophie; Zhong, Meng; Price, Steven D; Wooltorton, Julian R A; Lysakowski, Anna; Eatock, Ruth Anne

2006-10-01

139

Abnormal development of placenta in HtrA1-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Abnormal levels of High temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) protein have been repeatedly observed in sera and placentas of preeclampsia patients. To understand the functions of HtrA1 in placentation and in the etiology of preeclampsia, we established HtrA1(-/-) mice. HtrA1(-/-) mice show intrauterine growth retardation, and their placentas are small due to a reduced size of the junctional zone and aberrant vascularization in the labyrinth at the mid-gestation stage. HtrA1 is expressed by Tpbpa-positive trophoblast precursors in the outer ectoplacental cone and junctional zone from embryonic day 7.5 to 10.5. In the HtrA1(-/-) placenta, Tpbpa-positive cell precursors are decreased in the early stage. Spongiotrophoblasts and glycogen trophoblast cells, both of which differentiate from Tpbpa-positive precursors, are consequently decreased in the junctional zone. Fewer spiral artery-associated trophoblast giant cells, another cell type derived from Tpbpa-positive precursors, invade the decidua and associate with maternal arteries in the HtrA1(-/-) placenta than in the wild type placenta. Maternal arteries in the HtrA1(-/-) decidua have narrower lumens, thicker arterial walls, and more vascular smooth muscle cells remaining in the walls than those in the wild type decidua, indicating impaired remodeling of maternal arteries. These results indicate that HtrA1 plays important roles in the differentiation of trophoblasts from Tpbpa-positive precursors in the ectoplacental cone. Insufficient levels of HtrA1 cause poor placental development and intrauterine growth retardation, due to aberrant trophoblast differentiation and consequent defects in maternal artery remodeling, and may contribute to the onset of preeclampsia. PMID:25446274

Hasan, Md Zobaer; Ikawati, Muthi; Tocharus, Jiraporn; Kawaichi, Masashi; Oka, Chio

2015-01-01

140

Hair Restoration (Cosmetic Procedures)  

MedlinePLUS

... stretch hair-bearing areas, which reduces balding. Scalp flaps – A hair-bearing section of the scalp is ... of age. Scalp reduction, scalp expansion, and scalp flaps tend to be limited to treating men who ...

141

Hair transplantation surgery  

PubMed Central

Techniques in hair transplantation have evolved recently which make results look more natural. Hair restoration is one of the most exciting and innovative surgical fields in aesthetic surgery today. A precise appreciation of anatomy has allowed the use of follicular unit grafts. With better methods of harvesting and implantation, hair transplantation results represent a blend of art and science. PMID:20174544

Khanna, Manoj

2008-01-01

142

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

143

Development and experimental validation of computational methods to simulate abnormal thermal and structural environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: a purely regulatory approach, or by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches.

Moya, J. L.; Skocypec, R. D.; Thomas, R. K.

1993-09-01

144

Development and experimental validation of computational methods to simulate abnormal thermal and structural environments  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: (1) a purely regulatory approach, or (2) by a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches.

Moya, J.L.; Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.

1993-10-01

145

The structure of people’s hair  

PubMed Central

Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

2014-01-01

146

A Survey of the Awareness, Knowledge and Behavior of Hair Dye Use in a Korean Population with Gray Hair  

PubMed Central

Background Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Objective The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey for adult males and females aged over 20 who had gray hair. A total of 500 subjects were included in this study and statistical analysis was performed. Results Large numbers of the people who had experience with hair dye (233 out of 319 people, 73.0%) did not know about the exact brand name of the hair dye product that they were using. Of 319 hair dye users, 23.8% (76 out of 319) people stated that they experienced side effects. Despite the occurrence of side effects from hair dyeing products, it seems they did not realize the seriousness of the side effects or the need for treatment. Conclusion It is advisable to introduce a system that enables users to become aware of the ingredients and side effects of hair coloring products and give opportunities for users to become aware of the side effects of hair coloring through education, publicity and publication of an informational booklet. PMID:22879710

Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam

2012-01-01

147

Activated Hair Follicle Stem Cells and Wnt/?-catenin Signaling Involve in Pathnogenesis of Sebaceous Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Sebaceous glands (SGs) undergo cyclic renewal independent of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) activation while HFSCs have the potential to differentiate into sebaceous gland cells, hair follicle and epidermal keratinocytes. Abnormalities of sebaceous gland progenitor cells contribute to the development of sebaceous neoplasms, but little is known about the role of HFSCs during sebaceous neoplasm development. Here, using dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) plus 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment developing sebaceous neoplasms (SNs) were identified with H&E and Oil red O staining. And then the molecular expression and activation of HFSCs and was characterized by immunostaining. Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling molecular which is important for activation of HFSCs were detected by immunostaining. We found hair follicle and epidermal cell markers were expressed in sebaceous neoplasms. Furthermore, SOX-9 and CD34-positive HFSCs were located in the basal layer of sebaceous lobules within the sebaceous neoplasms. Many appear to be in an active state. Finally, Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling was activated within the basal cells of sebaceous lobules in the sebaceous neoplasms. Collectively, our findings suggest that the abnormal activation of both HFSCs and Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling involves in the development of sebaceous neoplasms. PMID:25076848

Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Li, Jin; Wang, Ning; Lian, Xiaohua

2014-01-01

148

Presynaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia and rats with abnormal prefrontal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia may be associated with abnormalities in synaptic structure and\\/or function and reflected in altered concentrations of proteins in presynaptic terminals and involved in synaptic plasticity (synaptobrevin\\/ vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25), syntaxin, synaptophysin and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43)). We examined the immunoreactivity of these synapse-associated proteins via quantitative immunoblotting in the prefrontal

N D Halim; C S Weickert; B W McClintock; T M Hyde; D R Weinberger; J E Kleinman; B K Lipska

2003-01-01

149

ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL  

E-print Network

415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

Jülicher, Frank

150

Developing Software to “Track and Catch” Missed Follow-up of Abnormal Test Results in a Complex Sociotechnical Environment  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed test results, we developed a software prototype to account for technical, usability, organizational, and workflow needs. Our evaluation has shown the feasibility of the prototype as a means of facilitating better follow-up for cancer-related abnormal test results. PMID:24155789

Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.

2013-01-01

151

An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.  

PubMed

Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. PMID:24102549

Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

2013-09-19

152

Hair Loss and Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenocortical Axis Activity in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Hair loss is a common problem in captive macaque colonies. A potential factor is the possible influence of stressful environments in the development of hair loss. We examined the relationship between hair loss and chronic hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity by measuring cortisol in hair. Adult male and female rhesus macaques housed at 3 primate facilities in the United States were screened for degree of hair loss and observed for evidence of hair-plucking behavior. Hair samples and photographic data were obtained from 99 subjects, none of which were hair-pluckers. Macaques with greater than 30% hair loss (alopecia group) showed higher concentrations of hair cortisol than did those with less than 5% hair loss (control group), a finding that was unrelated to age, body weight, or the month in which the sample was collected. Hair loss scores were positively correlated with hair cortisol levels across all monkeys and within the alopecic group alone. In addition, the strong relationship between hair cortisol and alopecia was noted in 2 but not the third facility. Friction with cage surfaces appeared to contribute to hair loss in 18 monkeys. These findings suggest that stress may be one of several factors related to hair loss in some captive nonhuman primates, although whether this relationship is causal or merely correlational is unclear. Moreover, the source of the additional cortisol in the hair of alopecic monkeys (that is, from the circulation or from local synthesis in the skin) remains to be determined. PMID:24827567

Novak, Melinda A; Hamel, Amanda F; Coleman, Kris; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Menard, Mark; Ryan, Amy; Rosenberg, Kendra; Meyer, Jerrold S

2014-01-01

153

The cell cycle regulator protein 14-3-3? is essential for hair follicle integrity and epidermal homeostasis.  

PubMed

The 14-3-3? (Stratifin; Sfn) is a cell cycle regulator intimately involved in the program of epithelial keratinization. 14-3-3? is unique in that it is expressed primarily in epithelial cells and is frequently silenced in epithelial cancers. Despite its well-documented role as a cell cycle regulator and as a tumor suppressor, the function of 14-3-3? in the intricate balance of proliferation and differentiation in epithelial development is poorly understood. A mutation in 14-3-3? was found to be responsible for the repeated epilation (Er) phenotype. It has previously been shown that Sfn(+/Er) mice are characterized by repeated hair loss and regrowth, whereas Sfn(Er/Er) mice die at birth displaying severe oral fusions and limb abnormalities as a result of defects in keratinizing epithelia. Here we show that mice heterozygous for the 14-3-3? mutation have severe defects in hair shaft differentiation, resulting in destruction of the hair shaft during morphogenesis. Furthermore, we report that the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands are hyperproliferative, coincident with expanded nuclear Yap1 (Yes-associated protein 1)--a critical modulator of epidermal stem cell proliferation. We also report that hair follicle stem cells in the bulge cycle abnormally, raising important questions as to the role of 14-3-3? in the bulge. PMID:22377760

Hammond, Nigel L; Headon, Denis J; Dixon, Michael J

2012-06-01

154

Hair Cell Generator Potentials  

PubMed Central

A technique is introduced using a piezoelectric device to stimulate hair cells of a molluscan statocyst while recording their responses intracellularly. Statocyst displacements produced with the technique are calibrated with stroboscopic photography. Properties of the hair cells' response to currents and mechanical stimulation are studied. The hair cell generator potential arises from a conductance increase and, for a certain range, is a logarithmic function of the amplitude of the displacement stimulus. PMID:4705640

Alkon, Daniel L.; Bak, Anthony

1973-01-01

155

Hair cell ribbon synapses  

PubMed Central

Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the apical compartment. Transmitter release occurs at several active zones along the basolateral membrane. The astonishing capability of the hair cell ribbon synapse for temporally precise and reliable sensory coding has been the subject of intense investigation over the past few years. This research has been facilitated by the excellent experimental accessibility of the hair cell. For the same reason, the hair cell serves as an important model for studying presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition to common principles, hair cell synapses differ in their anatomical and functional properties among species, among the auditory and vestibular organs, and among hair cell positions within the organ. Here, we briefly review synaptic morphology and connectivity and then focus on stimulus-secretion coupling at hair cell synapses. PMID:16944206

Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

2010-01-01

156

Female hair restoration.  

PubMed

Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

Unger, Robin H

2013-08-01

157

Tarantula hair keratitis.  

PubMed

We describe a 12-year-old boy in England with keratitis secondary to tarantula hairs embedded within the stroma of his cornea. Every attempt must be made to isolate these hairs at the first visit as they have a barbed nature and have a propensity to propagate through ocular tissues. A chronic keratitis requiring long-term steroid use may result if hairs persist in the cornea. Children who keep tarantulas as pets should be instructed on safe handling to prevent the tarantula from adopting defence mechanisms and shedding their hairs. PMID:23242405

Mangat, Simran Singh; Newman, Bill

2012-10-26

158

Modeling abnormal early development with induced pluripotent stem cells from aneuploid syndromes.  

PubMed

Many human diseases share a developmental origin that manifests during childhood or maturity. Aneuploid syndromes are caused by supernumerary or reduced number of chromosomes and represent an extreme example of developmental disease, as they have devastating consequences before and after birth. Investigating how alterations in gene dosage drive these conditions is relevant because it might help treat some clinical aspects. It may also provide explanations as to how quantitative differences in gene expression determine phenotypic diversity and disease susceptibility among natural populations. Here, we aimed to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that can be used to improve our understanding of aneuploid syndromes. We have generated iPSCs from monosomy X [Turner syndrome (TS)], trisomy 8 (Warkany syndrome 2), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and partial trisomy 11;22 (Emanuel syndrome), using either skin fibroblasts from affected individuals or amniocytes from antenatal diagnostic tests. These cell lines stably maintain the karyotype of the donors and behave like embryonic stem cells in all tested assays. TS iPSCs were used for further studies including global gene expression analysis and tissue-specific directed differentiation. Multiple clones displayed lower levels of the pseudoautosomal genes ASMTL and PPP2R3B than the controls. Moreover, they could be transformed into neural-like, hepatocyte-like and heart-like cells, but displayed insufficient up-regulation of the pseudoautosomal placental gene CSF2RA during embryoid body formation. These data support that abnormal organogenesis and early lethality in TS are not caused by a tissue-specific differentiation blockade, but rather involves other abnormalities including impaired placentation. PMID:21949351

Li, Wen; Wang, Xianming; Fan, Wenxia; Zhao, Ping; Chan, Yau-Chi; Chen, Shen; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Ya; Li, Yanhua; Cai, Jinglei; Qin, Dajiang; Li, Xingyan; Yang, Jiayin; Peng, Tianran; Zychlinski, Daniela; Hoffmann, Dirk; Zhang, Ruosi; Deng, Kang; Ng, Kwong-Man; Menten, Bjorn; Zhong, Mei; Wu, Jiayan; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yonglong; Schambach, Axel; Tse, Hung-Fat; Pei, Duanqing; Esteban, Miguel A

2012-01-01

159

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

160

Abnormal P-selectin localization during megakaryocyte development determines thrombosis in the gata1low model of myelofibrosis  

PubMed Central

Patients with primary myelofibrosis have increased risk for bleeding and thrombosis. It is debated whether propensity to thrombosis is due to increased numbers of platelet microparticles and/or to pathological platelet-neutrophil interactions. Platelet neutrophil interactions are mediated by P-selectin and even though the megakaryocytes of myelofibrosis patients express normal levels of P-selectin, it remains abnormally localized to the demarcation membrane system rather than being assembled into the ?-granules in platelets. Mice carrying the hypomorphic Gata1low mutation express the same megakaryocyte abnormalities presented by primary myelofibrosis patients, including abnormal P-selectin localization to the DMS and develop with age myelofibrosis, a disease that closely resembles human primary myelofibrosis. Whether these mice would also develop thrombosis has not been investigated as yet. The aim of this study was to determine whether Gata1low mice would develop thrombosis with age and, in this case, the role played by P-selectin in the development of the trait. To this aim, Gata1low mice were crossed with P-selnull mice according to standard genetic protocols and Gata1lowP-selwt, Gata1lowP-selnull and Gata1WTP-selnull or Gata1wtP-selwt (as controls) littermates obtained. It was shown that platelet counts, but not hematocrit, are reduced in Gata1low mice. Moreover, platelet microparticles are reduced in Gata1low mice and P-selectin positive platelet microparticles were not found. To determine the phenotypic implications of the different mutations, bleeding time was estimated by a tail cut procedure. Mutant mice were sacrificed and presence of thrombosis was determined by immunohistological staining of organs. Gata1low mice with or without the P-selectin null trait had a prolonged bleeding time compared to wild type mice. However, in Gata1low mice significantly higher frequency of thrombotic events was seen in adult and old Gata1low mice compared to Gata1lowP-selnull mice. Thus, presence of the P-selectin null trait rescued Gata1low mice from the thrombotic phenotype, but did not change the level of platelet microparticles. Taken together these data indicate that abnormal localization of P-selectin, induced by the Gata1low mutation, and thus, increased pathological interactions with leucocytes, is responsible for the increased presence of thrombosis seen in these mice. PMID:24176039

Zetterberg, Eva; Verrucci, Maria; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zingariello, Maria; Sancillo, Laura; D’Amore, Emanuela; Rana, Rosa Alba; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

2014-01-01

161

Mice lacking FABP9/PERF15 develop sperm head abnormalities but are fertile.  

PubMed

The male germ cell-specific fatty acid-binding protein 9 (FABP9/PERF15) is the major component of the murine sperm perforatorium and perinuclear theca. Based on its cytoskeletal association and sequence homology to myelin P2 (FABP8), it has been suggested that FABP9 tethers sperm membranes to the underlying cytoskeleton. Furthermore, its upregulation in apoptotic testicular germ cells and its increased phosphorylation status during capacitation suggested multiple important functions for FABP9. Therefore, we investigated specific functions for FABP9 by means of targeted gene disruption in mice. FABP9(-/-) mice were viable and fertile. Phenotypic analysis showed that FABP9(-/-) mice had significant increases in sperm head abnormalities (~8% greater than their WT cohorts); in particular, we observed the reduction or absence of the characteristic structural element known as the "ventral spur" in ~10% of FABP9(-/-) sperm. However, deficiency of FABP9 affected neither membrane tethering to the perinuclear theca nor the fatty acid composition of sperm. Moreover, epididymal sperm numbers were not affected in FABP9(-/-) mice. Therefore, we conclude that FABP9 plays only a minor role in providing the murine sperm head its characteristic shape and is not absolutely required for spermatogenesis or sperm function. PMID:20920498

Selvaraj, Vimal; Asano, Atsushi; Page, Jennifer L; Nelson, Jacquelyn L; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Foster, James A; Brenna, J Thomas; Weiss, Robert S; Travis, Alexander J

2010-12-15

162

Abnormal gene expression in cerebellum of Npc1-/- mice during postnatal development  

PubMed Central

Niemann-Pick Type C disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with abnormal lipid storage as the major cellular pathologic hallmark. Genetic analyses have identified mutations in NPC1 gene in the great majority of cases, while mutations in NPC2 account for the remainders. Yet, little is known regarding the cellular mechanisms responsible for NPC pathogenesis, especially for neurodegeneration, which is the usual cause of death. To identify critical steps that could account for the pathological manifestations of the disease in one of the most affected brain structures, we performed global gene expression analysis in the cerebellum from three-week old Npc1+/+ and Npc1-/- mice with two different microarray platforms (Agilent and Illumina). Differentially-expressed genes identified by both microarray platforms were then subjected to KEGG pathway analysis. Expression of genes in six pathways was significantly altered in Npc1-/- mice; functionally, these signaling pathways belong to the following three categories: 1) steroid and terpenoid biosynthesis, 2) immune response, and 3) cell adhesion/motility. In addition, the expression of several proteins involved in lipid transport was significantly altered in Npc1-/- mice. Our results provide novel molecular insight regarding the mechanisms of pathogenesis in NPC disease and reveal potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:20153740

Liao, Guanghong; Wen, Zhining; Irizarry, Kristopher; Huang, Ying; Mitsouras, Katherine; Darmani, Mariam; Leon, Terry; Shi, Leming; Bi, Xiaoning

2010-01-01

163

Ponatinib suppresses the development of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities are characterized by constitutive activated FGFR1 kinase and rapid transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Molecular targeted therapies have not been widely used for SCLL. Ponatinib (AP24534), that potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL, also targets the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. Using murine BaF3 cells stably transformed with six different FGFR1 fusion genes, as well as human KG1 cells expressing activated chimeric FGFR1 and five newly established murine SCLL cell lines, we show that Ponatinib (< 50 nM) can effectively inhibit phosphoactivation of the fusion kinases and their downstream effectors, such as PLC?, Stat5 and Src. Ponatinib also significantly extended survival of mice transplanted with different SCLL cell lines. Ponatinib administered at 30 mg/kg daily also significantly delayed, or even prevented, tumorigenesis of KG1 cells in xenotransplanted mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ponatinib specifically inhibits cell growth and clonogenicity of normal human CD34+ progenitor cells transformed by chimeric FGFR1 fusion kinases. Overall, our data provide convincing evidence to suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR1 fusion kinases with Ponatinib is likely to be beneficial for patients with SCLL and perhaps for other human disorders associated with dysregulated FGFR1 activity. PMID:22781593

Ren, Mingqiang; Qin, Haiyan; Ren, Ruizhe; Cowell, John K.

2012-01-01

164

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Ask your pediatrician for a referral to a genetic counseling service . These services have expertise with a variety ... Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for ...

165

Automated Digital Image Analysis (TrichoScan®) for Human Hair Growth Analysis: Ease versus Errors  

PubMed Central

Background: TrichoScan® is considered to be time-saving, easy to perform and consistent for quantifying hair loss/growth. Conflicting results of our study lead us to closely observe the image analysis, and certain repeated errors in the detection of hair were highlighted. Aims: To assess the utility of TrichoScan in quantification of diffuse hair loss in males with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and females with diffuse telogen hair loss, with regard to total hair density (THD), telogen and vellus hair percentages. Materials and Methods: TrichoScan procedure was performed on 77 cases and 20 controls. Results and Discussion: In the cases, THD decreased with increasing severity of alopecia. Surprisingly, more than 85% of the healthy volunteers had an unexplained abnormal telogen hair percentage of more than 20. Also, the telogen hair percentages were not significantly different between cases and controls. Also, 65% of the patients with advanced thinning of hair did not have the expected elevation of vellus hair percentages on TrichoScan evaluation. Multiple errors were highlighted in hair detection by the software. Errors were noted at the exit points of follicular ostia, at places where hair strand thickness was not uniform throughout its length, where there was crossing, overlapping of the neighboring strands, and when more than one hair emerged from a single ostium. Conclusion: TrichoScan is promoted as a validated and precise tool for measurement of hair growth parameters. Under certain conditions, it may seem suitable for clinical trials evaluating treatment response. We provide evidence that this is an overstatement. This study concludes that TrichoScan-analyzed anagen/telogen hair detection is not optimal; moreover, there is overestimation of THD and the vellus hair percentage does not correlate with clinical severity of alopecia. The current form of TrichoScan, though easy to use, is error-prone and awaits refinement. PMID:21188016

Saraogi, Punit P; Dhurat, Rachita S

2010-01-01

166

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C.E.

1995-01-01

167

Dynamic Hair Capture Princeton University  

E-print Network

Dynamic Hair Capture Linjie Luo Princeton University Sylvain Paris Adobe Systems Inc. Hao Li University Figure 1: Our system reconstructs a temporally coherent set of hair fibers for real-world dynamic hair. It accommodates a variety of hair types and styles, as well as nontrivial motion (top: input

168

dusky-like is required to maintain the integrity and planar cell polarity of hairs during the development of the Drosophila wing  

PubMed Central

The cuticular hairs and sensory bristles that decorate the adult Drosophila epidermis and the denticles found on the embryo have been used in studies on planar cell polarity and as models for the cytoskeletal mediated morphogenesis of cellular extensions. ZP domain proteins have recently been found to be important for the morphogenesis of both denticles and bristles. Here we show that the ZP domain protein Dusky-Like is a key player in hair morphogenesis. As is the case in bristles, in hairs dyl mutants display a dramatic phenotype that is the consequence of a failure to maintain the integrity of the extension after outgrowth. Hairs lacking dyl function are split, thinned, multipled and often very short. dyl is required for normal chitin deposition in hairs, but chitin is not required for the normal accumulation of Dyl, hence dyl acts upstream of chitin. A lack of chitin however, does not mimic the dyl hair phenotype, thus Dyl must have other targets in hair morphogenesis. One of these appears to be the actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, dyl mutants also display a unique planar cell polarity phenotype that is distinct from that seen with mutations in frizzled/starry night or dachsous/fat pathway genes. Rab11 was previously found to be essential for Dyl plasma membrane localization in bristles. Here we found that the expression of a dominant negative Rab11 can mimic the dyl hair morphology phenotype consistent with Rab11 also being required for Dyl function in hairs. We carried out a small directed screen to identify genes that might function with dyl and identified Chitinase 6 (Cht6) as a strong candidate, as knocking down Cht6 function led to weak versions of all of the dyl hair phenotypes. PMID:23623898

Sobala, Lukasz F.; Thom, DeSean; Nagaraj, Ranganayaki

2013-01-01

169

Overlapping and divergent signaling pathways for ARK1 and AGD1 in the control of root hair polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

We previously showed that seedlings harboring mutations in genes encoding ARK1, an armadillo repeat-containing kinesin, or AGD1, a class 1 ARF-GAP, have root hairs that exhibit wavy/spiral growth and two tips originating from one initiation site. These root hair defects were accompanied by bundling of endoplasmic microtubules and filamentous actin (F-actin) that extended to the extreme root hair apex. The similar phenotypes of ark1 and agd1 mutants suggest a tight coordination between the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in the control of root hair polarity. Indeed, cell biological and genetic studies of the agd1 mutant provided evidence that AGD1's involvement in root hair development involves cross-talk among phosphoinositides (PIs), the actin cytoskeleton and other small GTPases such as ROP2 and RABA4b. Here we show that ark1 root hairs mirror those of agd1 with regard to altered targeting of ROP2 and RABA4b, as well as abnormal tonoplast organization. Furthermore, like agd1, enhanced root hair defects in double mutants in ARK1 and genes encoding a type B phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 (PIP5K3), a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI-4P) phosphatase (RHD4), a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (COW1), and a vegetative actin isoform (ACT2), were observed. However, root hair shape of some ark1 double mutant combinations, particularly those with act2, pip5k3 and rhd4 (ark1 act2, ark1 pip5k3, ark1 rhd4), differed in some respects from agd1 act2, agd1 pip5k3, and agd1 rhd4. Taken together our results continue to point to commonalities between ARK1 and AGD1 in specifying root hair polarity, but that these two modulators of tip-growth can also regulate root hair development through divergent signaling routes with AGD1 acting predominantly during root hair initiation and ARK1 functioning primarily in sustained tip growth. PMID:24400013

Yoo, Cheol-Min; Blancaflor, Elison B.

2013-01-01

170

Chromosomal abnormalities in women with breast cancer after autologous stem cell transplantation are infrequent and may not predict development of therapy-related leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined prospectively the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with high-risk breast cancer (HRBC) after high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), and correlated the cytogenetic abnormalities with the development of post-transplant myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (MDS\\/AML). From 1990 to 1999, 229 women with HRBC underwent ASCT. Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow (BM) cells was

JA Martínez-Climent; AM Comes; E Vizcarra; I Benet; C Arbona; F Prósper; C Solano; B García Clavel; I Marugán; A Lluch; J García-Conde

2000-01-01

171

Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning  

PubMed Central

Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention. PMID:25360097

Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G.; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

2014-01-01

172

Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract induces hair growth by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of hair matrix.  

PubMed

Chrysanthemum zawadskii has been proven to possess hair growth activity and has been used as treatment for hair loss. The aim of this study was to provide a novel explanation of the mechanism by which Chrysanthemum zawadskii extracts (CZe) promote hair growth and to characterize the affected hair follicle (HF) regions and the progression of growth. The n-butanol and water fractions of CZe were used for hair growth induction by topical application to the backs of C57BL/6 mice for up to 30 days. To investigate cell development during HF morphogenesis, bromodeoxyuridine-labeled skin sections were detected using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the water fraction of CZe promoted hair shaft production and induced premature entry of telogen HFs into the anagen. Subsequently, immunohistochemical studies indicated that the water fraction of CZe stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of pluripotent epidermal matrix cells in the matrix region and epithelial stem cells in the basal layer of the epidermis. Additionally, flavonoids were identified as effective constituents. Therefore, the findings of this study suggested that the water fraction of CZe may be developed as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of hair loss. PMID:24807783

Li, Zheng; Li, Jingjie; Gu, Lijuan; Begum, Shahnaz; Wang, Yunbo; Sun, Baishen; Lee, Mira; Sung, Changkeun

2014-07-01

173

Development of monoclonal antibodies against the abnormal prion protein isoform (PrPres) associated with chronic wasting disease (CWD)  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the abnormal prion protein isoform (PrPres) are indispensable for diagnosing chronic wasting disease (CWD). In this study, eight mAbs were developed by immunizing PrP knockout mice with recombinant elk PrP and an immunogenic PrP peptide. The reactivity of the mAbs to recombinant PrP and the PrP peptide was measured, and their isotypes were subsequently determined. Among them, four mAbs (B85-05, B85-08, B85-12, and B77-75) were shown by Western blotting to recognize proteinase K-treated brain homogenate derived from an elk suffering from CWD. PMID:23271186

Jeong, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Dong-Woon; Kim, Yong-Sun

2012-01-01

174

Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair  

PubMed Central

The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

2014-01-01

175

Tips for Healthy Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... less oil, so you may not need to shampoo as often. But if you see flakes in ... lead to dandruff and other scalp diseases. Concentrate shampoo on the scalp. When washing your hair, concentrate ...

176

Changing Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... on your own. Back Continue From Curly to Straight Different chemical treatments and styling techniques are used ... you don't burn yourself. Back Continue From Straight to Curly If you have straight hair and ...

177

Hair Treatments and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... of five oxidative hair dyes in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 78:163-166. Gallicchio L ... 396-401. Koren G (ed.) 1994. Maternal-Fetal Toxicology: A Clinician’s Guide. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. ...

178

Content of heavy metals in the hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of our investigation was to determine of HM content in the hair of people and animals. Two of the main essential elements-Zn and Cu and two of the supertoxical heavy metals- Pb and Cd were chosen. The investigations were conducted in Russian Federation and Belarus Republic in 2001-2002. About 500 hair samples of people, dogs, cats, cattle, horses, yaks, pigs, sheep goats and rabbits were studied by the stripping voltammetric analysis (SVA) method with TA- 2 analyzer to determine Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations. The hair samples were prepared according to the methods developed in Tomsk University (Russia) and improved by the authors. The essence of the methods is the multiconsecutive burning of hair samples to ashes and boiling them in concentrated acids to dissolve chemical combinations and transform their metals into ion forms. The zinc concentration was the highest in all hair samples (58.65 ... 195.15 mg/kg). The copper content was several times less (5.49 ... 22.63 mg/kg). Lead and cadmium were detected in relatively low amounts (0.32 ... 2.42 mg/kg and 0.04 ... 0.92 mg/kg respectively). The highest Pb and Cd levels were detected in cats and people hair.

Patrashkov, S. A.; Petukhov, V. L.; Korotkevich, O. S.; Petukhov, I. V.

2003-05-01

179

Auditory Processing in Infancy: Do Early Abnormalities Predict Disorders of Language and Cognitive Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing attention has been devoted to the maturation of sensory processing in the first year of life. While the development of cortical visual function has been thoroughly studied, much less information is available on auditory processing and its early disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the assessment techniques for…

Guzzetta, Francesco; Conti, Guido; Mercuri, Eugenio

2011-01-01

180

Laser hair removal.  

PubMed

Laser hair removal is a rapidly growing aesthetic procedure requested predominantly by women. At a time of falling reimbursement by payers, gynecologists have an opportunity to improve the fiscal health of their practices while delivering a service valued by their patients. As a result, practicing gynecologists should become acquainted with aesthetic lasers and should know how to incorporate them into their practices. This article introduces the practicing gynecologist to aesthetic lasers and the procedure of laser hair removal. PMID:21093743

Kulkin, Jay M; Flash, Shayna

2010-12-01

181

Abnormal Cerebellar Development and Foliation in BDNF ?\\/? Mice Reveals a Role for Neurotrophins in CNS Patterning  

Microsoft Academic Search

While target-derived neurotrophins are required for the survival of developing neurons in the PNS, the functions of neurotrophins in the CNS are unclear. Mice with a targeted gene deletion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exhibit a wide-based gait. Consistent with this behavioral evidence of cerebellar dysfunction, there is increased death of granule cells, stunted growth of Purkinje cell dendrites, impaired

Phillip M Schwartz; Paul R Borghesani; Richard L Levy; Scott L Pomeroy; Rosalind A Segal

1997-01-01

182

Abnormal development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in mice lacking the CXCR4 chemokine receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor in development of the mouse hippocampus. CXCR4 mRNA is expressed at sites of neuronal and progenitor cell migration in the hippocampus at late embryonic and early postnatal ages. mRNA for stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), the only known ligand for the CXCR4 receptor, is expressed close to these migration sites, in

Meiling Lu; Elizabeth A. Grove; Richard J. Miller

2002-01-01

183

Baseline sacroiliac joint magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and male sex predict the development of radiographic sacroiliitis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the relationship between the baseline sacroiliac joint (SIJ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the development of radiographic sacroiliitis and tested their prognostic significance in cases of ankylosing spondylitis. Patients who had undergone an SIJ MRI at the rheumatology department were identified. Individuals for whom pelvic X-rays were available after at least 1 year of MRI were included in the analysis. All radiographs and MRI examinations were scored by two independent readers. Medical records of the patients were reviewed to obtain potentially relevant demographic and clinical data. We identified 1,069 SIJ MRIs, and 328 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Reliability analysis revealed moderate to good inter- and intra-observer agreement. On presentation data, 14 cases were excluded because they had unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis at baseline. After a mean of 34.8 months of follow-up, 24 patients developed radiographic sacroiliitis. The presence of active sacroiliitis (odds ratio (OR) 15.1) and structural lesions on MRI (OR 8.3), male sex (OR 4.7), fulfillment of Calin's inflammatory back pain criteria (P = 0.001), and total MRI activity score (P < 0.001) were found to be related to the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. By regression modeling, the presence of both active inflammatory and structural damage lesions on MRI and male sex were found to be predictive factors for the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. Our present results suggest that the occurrence of both active inflammatory and structural lesions in SIJs revealed by MRI is a significant risk factor for radiographic sacroiliitis, especially in male patients with early inflammatory back pain. PMID:23765093

Akar, Servet; Isik, Sibel; Birlik, Bilge; Solmaz, Dilek; Sari, Ismail; Onen, Fatos; Akkoc, Nurullah

2013-10-01

184

Auditory hair cell precursors immortalized from the mammalian inner ear.  

PubMed Central

Mammalian auditory hair cells are few in number, experimentally inaccessible, and do not proliferate postnatally or in vitro. Immortal cell lines with the potential to differentiate into auditory hair cells would substantially facilitate auditory research, drug development, and the isolation of critical molecules involved in hair cell biology. We have established two conditionally immortal cell lines that express at least five characteristic hair cell markers. These markers are the transcription factor Brn3.1, the alpha 9 subunit of the acetylcholine receptor, the stereociliary protein fimbrin and the myosins VI and VIIA. These hair cell precursors permit functional studies of cochlear genes and in the longer term they will provide the means to explore therapeutic methods of stimulating auditory hair cell regeneration. PMID:9753783

Rivolta, M N; Grix, N; Lawlor, P; Ashmore, J F; Jagger, D J; Holley, M C

1998-01-01

185

Elevated Id2 expression results in precocious neural stem cell depletion and abnormal brain development  

PubMed Central

Id2 is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor essential for normal development and its expression is dysregulated in many human neurological conditions. Although it is speculated that elevated Id2 levels contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders, it is unknown whether dysregulated Id2 expression is sufficient to perturb normal brain development or function. Here, we show that mice with elevated Id2 expression during embryonic stages develop microcephaly, and that females in particular are prone to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Analyses of Id2 transgenic brains indicate that Id2 activity is highly cell context specific: elevated Id2 expression in naive NSCs in early neuroepithelium induces apoptosis and loss of NSCs and intermediate progenitors. Activation of Id2 in maturing neuroepithelium results in less severe phenotypes and is accompanied by elevation of G1 Cyclin expression and p53 target gene expression. In contrast, activation of Id2 in committed intermediate progenitors has no significant phenotype. Functional analysis with Id2 over-expressing and Id2-null NSCs shows that Id2 negatively regulates NSC self-renewal in vivo, in contrast to previous cell culture experiments. Deletion of p53 function from Id2-transgenic brains rescues apoptosis and results in increased incidence of brain tumors. Furthermore, Id2 over-expression normalizes the increased self-renewal of p53-null NSCs, suggesting that Id2 activates and modulates the p53 pathway in NSCs. Together, these data suggest that elevated Id2 expression in embryonic brains can cause deregulated NSC self-renewal, differentiation and survival that manifest in multiple neurological outcomes in mature brains, including microcephaly, seizures, and brain tumors. PMID:23390122

Park, H.J.; Hong, M.; Bronson, R.T.; Israel, M.A.; Frankel, W. N.; Yun, K.

2013-01-01

186

Abnormal Leydig cell development at puberty in the androgen-resistant Tfm mouse.  

PubMed

Leydig cells are the major source of androgens in the male, and it is likely that these cells are also targets for androgen action. The role of androgen action in regulating the development of Leydig cell function has been determined using the testicular feminized (Tfm/Y) mouse, which lacks androgen receptors. In Tfm mice, the testes fail to descend at the normal time (25 days), and testicular descent was, therefore, surgically prevented in control (+/Y) animals. The activity of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased during development from 5-40 days in control and Tfm mice, with no significant difference between the groups. In control animals, 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity was low from 5-25 days, at which time there was a 26-fold increase up to 40 days. In the Tfm group, 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity was 4-fold higher than that in controls on day 5, but showed no change in activity after 25 days and remained at neonatal levels up to 40 days. The activity of 17-ketosteroid reductase in the control animals showed a developmental pattern similar to that of 17 alpha-hydroxylase, with a marked increase in activity after 25 days. In the Tfm group, 17-ketosteroid reductase was normal on day 5, but failed to show any significant change thereafter and remained at neonatal levels on day 40. Serum LH levels in control animals increased from 5 days to a peak at 30 days. In Tfm mice, LH levels were significantly increased on days 20 and 40, but did not differ from controls on days 5, 25, and 30. In control +/Y animals, in which normal testicular descent was allowed to proceed at 25 days, the pattern of development was similar to that in the cryptorchid +/Y animals, although the increase in 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity at 30 and 40 days was significantly greater. The results show 1) that fetal Leydig cell steroidogenesis is enhanced in the absence of androgen receptors, but 2) that adult Leydig cells require receptor-mediated androgen activity around day 25 for normal functional development. In addition, 3) the lack of testicular descent at 25 days reduces the pubertal rise in 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity. PMID:7925099

Murphy, L; Jeffcoate, I A; O'Shaughnessy, P J

1994-10-01

187

Normal and abnormal cerebrovascular development: gene-environment interactions during early life with later life consequences.  

PubMed

A greater understanding of cerebrovascular health and disease requires the consideration of recent neuroscience advances concerning neuroplasticity in the context of classical developmental neurology principles. Consideration of the ontogenetic interplay of nature and nurture influencing brain development during prenatal and early postnatal time periods should consider the concept of the developmental origins of neurological health and disease. Adaptive and maladaptive effects of neuroplasticity require a systems biology approach integrating molecular, receptor, cellular, neural network, and behavioral perspectives, culminating in the structural and functional cerebrovascular phenotypes that express health or disease across the lifespan. Cognizance of the interrelationships among maternal, placental, fetal, and neonatal factors requires an interdisciplinary appreciation of genetic/epigenetic forces of neuroplasticity during early life that incrementally influence cerebrovascular health or disease throughout childhood and adulthood. Knowledge of the systemic effects of multiorgan function on cerebrovascular development further broadens the systems biology approach to general plasticity of the individual as a whole organism. Short- and long-term consequences of the positive and negative effects of neuroplasticity must consider ongoing gene-environment interactions with maturation and aging, superimposed on earlier fetal/neonatal experiences that sustain neurological health or contribute to disease during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23622309

Scher, Mark S

2013-01-01

188

R6/2 Huntington’s disease Mice Develop Early and Progressive Abnormal Brain Metabolism and Seizures  

PubMed Central

A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several HD mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI-signals (relative cerebral blood volumes-rCBV) and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions- thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [14C] deoxyglucose (2DG) maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice, and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models. PMID:22573668

Cepeda-Prado, E; Popp, S; Khan, U; Stefanov, D; Rodriguez, J; Menalled, L; Dow-Edwards, D; Small, SA; Moreno, H

2012-01-01

189

Abnormal development of monoaminergic neurons is implicated in mood fluctuations and bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Subtle mood fluctuations are normal emotional experiences, whereas drastic mood swings can be a manifestation of bipolar disorder (BPD). Despite their importance for normal and pathological behavior, the mechanisms underlying endogenous mood instability are largely unknown. During embryogenesis, the transcription factor Otx2 orchestrates the genetic networks directing the specification of dopaminergic (DA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. Here we behaviorally phenotyped mouse mutants overexpressing Otx2 in the hindbrain, resulting in an increased number of DA neurons and a decreased number of 5-HT neurons in both developing and mature animals. Over the course of 1 month, control animals exhibited stable locomotor activity in their home cages, whereas mutants showed extended periods of elevated or decreased activity relative to their individual average. Additional behavioral paradigms, testing for manic- and depressive-like behavior, demonstrated that mutants showed an increase in intra-individual fluctuations in locomotor activity, habituation, risk-taking behavioral parameters, social interaction, and hedonic-like behavior. Olanzapine, lithium, and carbamazepine ameliorated the behavioral alterations of the mutants, as did the mixed serotonin receptor agonist quipazine and the specific 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809101. Testing the relevance of the genetic networks specifying monoaminergic neurons for BPD in humans, we applied an interval-based enrichment analysis tool for genome-wide association studies. We observed that the genes specifying DA and 5-HT neurons exhibit a significant level of aggregated association with BPD but not with schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The results of our translational study suggest that aberrant development of monoaminergic neurons leads to mood fluctuations and may be associated with BPD. PMID:25241801

Jukic, Marin M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Bar, Michal; Becker, Gal; Jovanovic, Vukasin M; Zega, Ksenija; Binder, Elisabeth B; Brodski, Claude

2015-03-01

190

Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and the stabilization of p53 protein of American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after pupariation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with increasing doses of electron beam irradiation (six levels between 30 and 200 Gy). At 150 Gy, the number of adults that developed from irradiated eggs, larvae and puparia was lower than in the untreated control. Fecundity and egg hatchability decreased depending on the doses applied. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated flies demonstrated that males were more radiotolerant than females. Adult longevity was not affected in all stages. The levels of DNA damage in L. trifolii adults were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay. Our results indicate that electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low doses of electron beam irradiation led to the rapid appearance of p53 protein within 6 h; however, it decreased after exposure to high doses (150 Gy and 200 Gy). These results suggest that electron beam irradiation induced not only abnormal development and reproduction but also p53 stability caused by DNA damage in L. trifolii. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for female sterilization of L. trifolii.

Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Changmann; Kim, Gil-Hah

2012-01-01

191

Silencing Abnormal Wing Disc Gene of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Disrupts Adult Wing Development and Increases Nymph Mortality  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5th) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP. PMID:23734251

El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

2013-01-01

192

Developing and testing a multi-probe resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for detecting breast abnormalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our clinical breast imaging facility. We are conducting a prospective study to assess performance when using this REIS system under an approved IRB protocol. Over 200 examinations have been conducted to date. Our experience showed that this new REIS system was easy to operate and the REIS examination was fast and considered "comfortable" by examinees since the women presses her breast into the cup herself without any need for forced breast compression, and all but a few highly sensitive women have any sensation of an electrical current during the measurement.

Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita

2009-02-01

193

Serum levels of minerals and vitamins in two categories of female alopecia subjects using hair relaxer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn an earlier study, we identified an association between hair relaxer-induced alopecia and decreased zinc levels. This study hopes to identify if age at first exposure to hair relaxer plays a role in the development of alopecia in the small percentage of women of African descent who use hair-relaxing products for hair-straightening purposes and develop lingering, nonresolving alopecia.

A. A. Iyanda; J. I. Anetor; D. P. Oparinde

194

How to Stop Damaging Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... damage your hair Washing your hair by rubbing shampoo into the length of your hair Changes that can help prevent hair damage: Gently massage shampoo into your scalp. When you rinse the shampoo ...

195

Transgenic mice overexpressing the mouse homoeobox-containing gene Hox-1.4 exhibit abnormal gut development.  

PubMed

The mouse homoeobox-containing genes exhibit temporally and spatially specific patterns of expression in embryonic and adult tissues and are thought to be important in regulation of development and cellular differentiation, perhaps by mechanisms analogous to homoeotic genes in Drosophila melanogaster. There has been no direct demonstration that expression of these mammalian genes can affect developmental processes, however. Hox-1.4, like other mouse homoeobox-containing genes, has been shown to be expressed in specific regions of the mid-gestation embryo, but is unique in that its highest level of expression in the adult animal is restricted to developing male germ cells. We have introduced a construct carrying the mouse Hox-1.4 gene into the germ line of mice to begin to identify the cis-acting elements required for proper expression and to assess the consequences of increasing Hox-1.4 gene expression. The construct was designed to produce normal Hox-1.4 protein from transcripts that are distinguishable from the products of the endogenous gene. The integrated transgene seemed to exhibit the appropriate tissue specificity of expression, but transcript levels were elevated in certain tissues, particularly the embryonic gut. This overexpression correlated with changes in the normal developmental program of the gut, resulting in an inherited abnormal phenotype known as megacolon. PMID:2563568

Wolgemuth, D J; Behringer, R R; Mostoller, M P; Brinster, R L; Palmiter, R D

1989-02-01

196

Determination of GHB in human hair by HPLC-MS/MS: Development and validation of a method and application to a study group and three possible single exposure cases.  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) over the last two decades has generated increased notoriety as a euphoric and disinhibiting drug of abuse in cases of drug-related sexual assault and for this reason it is considered a 'date rape' drug. The first aim of this paper was to develop and fully validate a method for the detection of GHB in human hair by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The second aim was the application of the method to hair samples of 30 GHB-free users in order to determine the basal level. The results obtained showed no significant differences in endogenous concentrations (p?=?0.556) between hair samples of the three groups (black, blonde, and dyed hair) and the age and sex of the subjects did not affect the endogenous levels. Another 12 healthy volunteers, with no previous history of GHB use, were selected and a single dose (25?mg/Kg) was orally administered to all of them and hair samples were collected before the administration of the single dose and other two samples were collected one month and two months later, respectively. The segmental analysis of the latter two samples allowed us to calculate two ratios: 4.45:1 (95% C.I. 3.52-5.63) and 3.35:1 (95% C.I. 2.14-5.18), respectively, which can be recommended as reasonable values for a positive identification of GHB intake. Finally the method was applied to three real cases where a GHB single exposure probably occurred. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24947196

Bertol, Elisabetta; Mari, Francesco; Vaiano, Fabio; Romano, Guido; Zaami, Simona; Baglìo, Giovanni; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

2014-06-19

197

Serum Androgens: Associations With Prostate Cancer Risk and Hair Patterning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer of the prostate is the leading cancer among American men, yet few risk factors have been established. Hair growth and development are influenced by androgens, and it has long been suspected that prostate cancer also is responsive to these hormones. A blinded, case-control study was undertaken to deter- mine if hair patterning is associated with risk of prostate cancer,

WENDY DEMARKWAHNEFRIED; SAMUEL M. LESKO; MARK R. CONAWAY; CARY N. ROBERTSON; RICHARD V. CLARK; BRUCE LOBAUGH; BARBARA J. MATHIAS; TARA SMITH STRIGO; DAVID F PAULSON

198

Characterization of the Skeletal Fusion with Sterility (sks) Mouse Showing Axial Skeleton Abnormalities Caused by Defects of Embryonic Skeletal Development  

PubMed Central

The development of the axial skeleton is a complex process, consisting of segmentation and differentiation of somites and ossification of the vertebrae. The autosomal recessive skeletal fusion with sterility (sks) mutation of the mouse causes skeletal malformations due to fusion of the vertebrae and ribs, but the underlying defects of vertebral formation during embryonic development have not yet been elucidated. For the present study, we examined the skeletal phenotypes of sks/sks mice during embryonic development and the chromosomal localization of the sks locus. Multiple defects of the axial skeleton, including fusion of vertebrae and fusion and bifurcation of ribs, were observed in adult and neonatal sks/sks mice. In addition, we also found polydactyly and delayed skull ossification in the sks/sks mice. Morphological defects, including disorganized vertebral arches and fusions and bifurcations of the axial skeletal elements, were observed during embryonic development at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E14.5. However, no morphological abnormality was observed at E11.5, indicating that defects of the axial skeleton are caused by malformation of the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs at an early developmental stage after formation and segmentation of the somites. By linkage analysis, the sks locus was mapped to an 8-Mb region of chromosome 4 between D4Mit331 and D4Mit199. Since no gene has already been identified as a cause of malformation of the vertebra and ribs in this region, the gene responsible for sks is suggested to be a novel gene essential for the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs. PMID:24521859

Akiyama, Kouyou; Katayama, Kentaro; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

199

Controlling Hair Follicle Signaling Pathways through Polyubiquitination  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle development and maintenance require precise reciprocal signaling interactions between the epithelium and underlying dermis. Three major developmental signaling pathways, Wnt, Sonic hedgehog, and NF-?B/Edar, are indispensable for this process and, when aberrantly activated, can lead to skin and appendage neoplasms. Recent data point to protein polyubiquitination as playing a central role in regulating the timing, duration, and location of signaling. Here we review how polyubiquitination regulates the stability and interaction of key signaling components that control hair follicle development and regeneration. PMID:18408747

Huntzicker, Erik G.; Oro, Anthony E.

2009-01-01

200

Taking Care of Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... it may be better to choose a mild shampoo instead of a shampoo designed for oily hair. For some people — especially ... at the crown but dry on the ends) — shampoos for oily hair can be too harsh. If ...

201

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... hair dye ingredients is available from the National Toxicology Program (NTP), an interagency program of the U.S. ... permanent hair dyes: new insights. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2007; 37(6):521–536. [PubMed Abstract] de ...

202

Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.  

PubMed

An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age. PMID:20628443

Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Pawe?

2010-01-01

203

Protein Kinase C?, Which Is Linked to Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Development of Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Stimulates Rapid Turnover of Adult Hair Follicle Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

To find clues about the mechanism by which kinase C epsilon (PKC?) may impart susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), we compared PKC? transgenic (TG) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates for (1) the effects of UVR exposures on percent of putative hair follicle stem cells (HSCs) and (2) HSCs proliferation. The percent of double HSCs (CD34+ and ?6-integrin or CD34+/CD49f+) in the isolated keratinocytes were determined by flow cytometric analysis. Both single and chronic UVR treatments (1.8?kJ/m2) resulted in an increase in the frequency of double positive HSCs in PKC? TG mice as compared to their WT littermates. To determine the rate of proliferation of bulge region stem cells, a 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine labeling (BrdU) experiment was performed. In the WT mice, the percent of double positive HSCs retaining BrdU label was 28.4 ± 0.6% compared to 4.0 ± 0.06% for the TG mice, an approximately 7-fold decrease. A comparison of gene expression profiles of FACS sorted double positive HSCs showed increased expression of Pes1, Rad21, Tfdp1 and Cks1b genes in TG mice compared to WT mice. Also, PKC? over expression in mice increased the clonogenicity of isolated keratinocytes, a property commonly ascribed to stem cells. PMID:23738074

Singh, Ashok; Singh, Anupama; Sand, Jordan M.; Heninger, Erika; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Verma, Ajit K.

2013-01-01

204

[Developmental abnormalities and nevi of the scalp].  

PubMed

Unusual congenital or early-onset skin lesions on the scalp often pose a diagnostic challenge particularly as the clinical evaluation may be hampered by dense hair growth. Thus, this paper provides a concise review on developmental abnormalities and nevi with exclusive or predominant scalp localization. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated finding, in association with genetic syndromes, nevi and anomalies or as a consequence of intrauterine trauma and teratogens. A hairless area with a narrow surrounding rim of hypertrichosis (hair collar sign) may point to occult cranial dysraphism, especially if accompanied by further suggestive signs as port-wine stains, large hemangiomas, dimples, congenital dermoid cysts, and sinuses. Many diverse entities may hide behind cutis verticis gyrata with the primary essential form being rare and representing a diagnosis of exclusion. In contrast to former belief, benign adnexal tumors arise in a nevus sebaceus considerably more often than basal cell carcinomas and other malignant epithelial tumors. Provided that tumor development is not suspected, excision of a nevus sebaceus nevus is indicated primarily for aesthetic-psychosocial reasons. However, surgical treatment is considerably easier in small children. Nevus sebaceus may be a cutaneous marker for several complex syndromes whereas nevus psiloliparus presents almost always in connection with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. Congenital melanocytic nevi of the scalp tend toward clinical regression, so that surgical intervention in large lesions should be carefully considered. In contrast, the threshold for excision of blue nevi and other conspicuous melanocytic nevi on the scalp should be low, especially since they are difficult to monitor. PMID:25298254

Behle, V; Hamm, H

2014-12-01

205

Polycystin-1 is required for stereocilia structure but not for mechanotransduction in inner ear hair cells  

PubMed Central

The polycystic kidney disease-1 (Pkd1) gene encodes a large transmembrane protein (polycystin-1 or PC-1) that is reported to function as a fluid flow-sensor in the kidney. As a member of the transient receptor potential family, PC-1 has also been hypothesized to play a role in the elusive mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channel in inner ear hair cells. Here, we analyzed two independent mouse models of PC-1, a knockin (KI) mutant line and a hair cell specific inducible Cre mediated knockout line. Both models exhibit normal MET channel function at neonatal ages despite hearing loss and ultra-structural abnormalities of stereocilia that remain properly polarized at adult ages. These findings demonstrate that PC-1 plays an essential role in stereocilia structure and maintenance but not directly in MET channel function or planar cell polarity. We also demonstrate that PC-1 is co-localized with F-actin in hair cell stereocilia in vivo, using a haemagglutinin (HA)-tagged PC-1KI mouse model, and in renal epithelial cell microvilli in vitro. These results not only demonstrate a novel role for PC-1 in the cochlea, but also suggest insight into the development of polycystic kidney disease. PMID:21865467

Steigelman, Katherine A.; Lelli, Andrea; Wu, XuDong; Gao, Jiangang; Lin, Susan; Piontek, Klaus; Wodarczyk, Claas; Boletta, Alessandra; Kim, Hyunko; Qian, Feng; Germino, Gregory; Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S.G.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Zuo, Jian

2011-01-01

206

Inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptors by SU6668 promotes abnormal stromal development at the periphery of carcinomas.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (albumin-Gd-DTPA) magnetic resonance imaging, performed during 2 weeks of daily administration of an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase receptors (SU6668) in an HT-29 colon carcinoma model, revealed the onset of a hyper-enhancing rim, not observed in untreated tumours. To account for tissue heterogeneity in the quantitative analysis, we segmented tumours into three subunits automatically identified by cluster analysis of the enhancement curves using a k-means algorithm. Transendothelial permeability (Kps) and fractional plasma volume (fPV) were calculated in each subunit. An avascular and necrotic region, an intermediate zone and a well-vascularised periphery were reliably identified. During untreated tumour growth, the identified sub-regions did not substantially change their enhancement pattern. Treatment with SU6668 induced major changes at tumour periphery where a significant increase of Kps and fPV was observed with respect to control tumours. Histology revealed a sub-capsular layer composed of hyper-dense viable tumour cells in the periphery of untreated tumours. The rim of viable neoplastic cells was reduced in treated tumours, and replaced by loose connective tissue characterised by numerous vessels, which explains the observed hyper-enhancement. The present data show a peripheral abnormal development of cancer-associated stroma, indicative of an adaptive response to anti-angiogenic treatment. PMID:19384298

Farace, P; Galiè, M; Merigo, F; Daducci, A; Calderan, L; Nicolato, E; Degrassi, A; Pesenti, E; Sbarbati, A; Marzola, P

2009-05-19

207

Studies on Rat Hair Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of two different quantification techniques the Authors were able to show that the addition of increasing concentrations of testosterone to the medium of hair-cultures simultaneously provokes an increased volume of epidermis as well as of hair-follicles and a better differentiation of hair follicles. The addition of dihydrotestosterone, on the contrary, does not induce any change.

Marcella Guarrera; P. Cardo; G. Moretti; E. Rampini; Carla Divano

1976-01-01

208

Future horizons in hair restoration.  

PubMed

This article reviews the history of hair follicle regeneration from follicular fragments and dissociated cells. The challenges of trichogenic in vitro culture and subsequent delivery into the patient are discussed, as well as cosmetic acceptance, recent achievements on regeneration of human hair follicles, and new potential cell sources for hair regeneration. PMID:24017993

Marshall, Bryan T; Ingraham, Chris A; Wu, Xunwei; Washenik, Ken

2013-08-01

209

The Growth of Human Hair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

Jones, Helen J.

1984-01-01

210

Identification of Modulators of Hair Cell Regeneratin in the Zebrafish Lateral Line  

PubMed Central

The external location of the zebrafish lateral line makes it a powerful model for studying mechanosensory hair cell regeneration. We have developed a chemical screen to identify FDA-approved drugs and biologically active compounds that modulate hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Of the 1,680 compounds evaluated, we identified 2 enhancers and 6 inhibitors of regeneration. The two enhancers, dexamethasone and prednisolone, are synthetic glucocorticoids that potentiated hair cell numbers during regeneration and also induced hair cell addition in the absence of damage. BrdU analysis confirmed that the extra hair cells arose from mitotic activity. We found that dexamethasone and prednisolone, like other glucocorticoids, suppress zebrafish caudal fin regeneration, indicating that hair cell regeneration occurs by a distinctly different process. Further analyses of the regeneration inhibitors revealed that two of the six, flubendazole and topotecan, significantly suppress hair cell regeneration by preventing proliferation of hair cell precursors. Flubendazole halted support cell division in M-phase, possibly by interfering with normal microtubule activity. Topotecan, a topoisomerase inhibitor, killed both hair cells and proliferating hair cell precursors. A third inhibitor, fulvestrant, moderately delays hair cell regeneration by reducing support cell proliferation. Our observation that hair cells do not regenerate when support cell proliferation is impeded confirms previous observations that cell division is the primary route for hair cell regeneration after neomycin treatment in zebrafish. PMID:22399774

Namdaran, Parhum; Reinhart, Katherine E.; Owens, Kelly N.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

2012-01-01

211

New source of evidence: explosive traces in hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the sorption of explosives [TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP] to hair during exposure to their vapors. In each test, three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Washing, extracting, and gas chromatographic quantification protocols were developed, and replication of quantitative data was confirmed. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is significantly greater than to blond, brown or bleached hair. Furthermore, the rate of sorption is directly related to the vapor density of the explosive: TATP >>> TNT >> PETN > RDX. Using TNT as the prototype, persistence of the explosive upon standing in air and upon repeated washing with sodium dodecyl sulfate was demonstrated. This study indicates that hair can be a useful indicator of explosive exposure/handling. Work is in progress to develop this technique into an effective forensic tool.

Oxley, Jimmie C.; Smith, James L.; Kirschenbaum, Louis; Shinde, Kajal P.; Marimganti, Suvarnakishore

2004-09-01

212

Red hair may increase melanoma risk  

Cancer.gov

A person’s skin pigment, which determines hair color and skin tone, is influenced by the melanocortin-1 (MC1R) gene receptor. For the population’s 1 to 2 percent of redheads, a mutation in MC1R accounts for their red hair color and typical light skin. Now researchers from Harvard Medical School (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) have discovered that the same MC1R mutation responsible for the red-hair phenotype also promotes an important cancer-causing pathway. The new findings, reported online August 22 in the journal Molecular Cell, help to explain the molecular mechanisms that underlie redheads’ well-known risk of developing melanoma, providing new insights for treating and preventing this dangerous type of skin cancer.

213

The Hair Colour Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class activity is designed to introduce young learners to the concept of tree diagrams. This class activity requires learners to organize data about the individual student's physical characteristics(gender, hair and eye color) utilizing connecting cubes. The activity includes a follow up activity, questions, tips on getting started, a teacher resource page, and a printable version of the problem.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

214

Fabrication of a Microneedle Using Human Hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we developed a novel microneedle design to inject medication into the skin and to remove blood from a blood vessel. A drilling machine and chemicals were used to drill a hollow needle bore into the center of a strand of human hair. Our results demonstrate that a pen-shaped microneedle has been fabricated at a length of 1.1 mm, a base diameter of 80 µm, and a tip diameter of 40 µm. The hair microneedle was sufficiently strong to insert into the meat of a chicken leg.

Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Takei, Tamotsu

2009-09-01

215

Black Hole's 1/N Hair  

E-print Network

According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

2012-03-29

216

Role of biomarkers in reproductive and development toxicology  

SciTech Connect

A massive outbreak of methylmercury poisoning took place in the winter of 1971-1972 due to the consumption of homemade bread contaminated with a methylmercury fungicide. The longitudinal analysis of the mother's head hair, collected after delivery of the baby, provided a means of recapitulating exposure to methylmercury during pregnancy. Methylmercury is incorporated into newly formed hair at a concentration that is proportional to the simultaneous concentration in blood. Since hair grows at a rate of approximately 1 cm/month, longitudinal analysis of the hair strand, centimeter by centimeter, will give a month by month recapitulation of blood levels. Depending on the length of the hair strand, it is possible to recapitulate several years of exposure. Using longitudinal hair analysis, it was possible to compare the methylmercury levels in the mother during pregnancy with the severity and frequency of effects in her offspring. As in the previous incidents, high levels of prenatal exposure led to severe brain damage. However, it was also possible to identify milder effects of methylmercury as manifested by delayed development. It was possible do demonstrate a dose-effect and dose-response relationship between the maximum concentration of methylmercury in maternal hair during pregnancy and evidence of delayed development and mild neurological abnormalities in the offspring. These relationships provided quantitative evidence that the developing nervous system is more susceptible to damage than the mature brain.

Clarkson, T.W.

1987-10-01

217

The evolution of root hairs and rhizoids  

PubMed Central

Background Almost all land plants develop tip-growing filamentous cells at the interface between the plant and substrate (the soil). Root hairs form on the surface of roots of sporophytes (the multicellular diploid phase of the life cycle) in vascular plants. Rhizoids develop on the free-living gametophytes of vascular and non-vascular plants and on both gametophytes and sporophytes of the extinct rhyniophytes. Extant lycophytes (clubmosses and quillworts) and monilophytes (ferns and horsetails) develop both free-living gametophytes and free-living sporophytes. These gametophytes and sporophytes grow in close contact with the soil and develop rhizoids and root hairs, respectively. Scope Here we review the development and function of rhizoids and root hairs in extant groups of land plants. Root hairs are important for the uptake of nutrients with limited mobility in the soil such as phosphate. Rhizoids have a variety of functions including water transport and adhesion to surfaces in some mosses and liverworts. Conclusions A similar gene regulatory network controls the development of rhizoids in moss gametophytes and root hairs on the roots of vascular plant sporophytes. It is likely that this gene regulatory network first operated in the gametophyte of the earliest land plants. We propose that later it functioned in sporophytes as the diploid phase evolved a free-living habit and developed an interface with the soil. This transference of gene function from gametophyte to sporophyte could provide a mechanism that, at least in part, explains the increase in morphological diversity of sporophytes that occurred during the radiation of land plants in the Devonian Period. PMID:22730024

Jones, Victor A.S.; Dolan, Liam

2012-01-01

218

A molecular basis for classic blond hair color in Europeans.  

PubMed

Hair color differences are among the most obvious examples of phenotypic variation in humans. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated multiple loci in human pigment variation, the causative base-pair changes are still largely unknown. Here we dissect a regulatory region of the KITLG gene (encoding KIT ligand) that is significantly associated with common blond hair color in northern Europeans. Functional tests demonstrate that the region contains a regulatory enhancer that drives expression in developing hair follicles. This enhancer contains a common SNP (rs12821256) that alters a binding site for the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) transcription factor, reducing LEF1 responsiveness and enhancer activity in cultured human keratinocytes. Mice carrying ancestral or derived variants of the human KITLG enhancer exhibit significant differences in hair pigmentation, confirming that altered regulation of an essential growth factor contributes to the classic blond hair phenotype found in northern Europeans. PMID:24880339

Guenther, Catherine A; Tasic, Bosiljka; Luo, Liqun; Bedell, Mary A; Kingsley, David M

2014-07-01

219

A root hair assay to expedite cell death research.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death can be defined as an organized cellular destruction and can be activated throughout plant development, as a defense response against invading pathogens or during environmental stress. The root hair assay presented herein enables in vivo quantitative measurements of programmed cell death based on the morphological changes of dying root hairs. Application of this novel, simple technique eliminates the need for establishing cell suspension cultures, resulting in a significant reduction in time, cost, and labor input. Here, we present a detailed root hair assay protocol for the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where results from germination to scoring of cell death can be obtained within 7 days. We also suggest and present a panel of cell death inducing treatments which can be used to study abiotic stress- and mycotoxin-induced programmed cell death in the root hair system in Arabidopsis. A root hair assay protocol for the monocotyledonous model species Brachypodium distachyon is also included. PMID:25408445

Kacprzyk, Joanna; McCabe, Paul F

2015-01-01

220

The female pattern hair loss: review of etiopathogenesis and diagnosis.  

PubMed

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women. Initial signs may develop during teenage years leading to a progressive hair loss with a characteristic pattern distribution. The condition is characterized by progressive replacement of terminal hair follicles over the frontal and vertex regions by miniaturized follicles, that leads progressively to a visible reduction in hair density. Women diagnosed with FPHL may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. FPHL diagnosis is mostly clinical. Depending on patient history and clinical evaluation, further diagnostic testing may be useful. The purpose of the paper is to review the current knowledge about epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of FPHL. PMID:24812631

Vujovic, Anja; Del Marmol, Véronique

2014-01-01

221

Endovascular Treatment of AVF after Hair Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the scalp is a very rare complication of hair transplantation. Only 9 cases have been reported in nearly half a century. The diagnosis is clinical but angiography is necessary for defining the angioarchitecture of the lesion. Due to technical developments, endovascular embolization has become the primary treatment for AVF of the scalp.

Dogan, Sozen; Cinar, Celal; Demirpolat, Gulen; Memis, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmemis@yahoo.co [Ege University, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-07-15

222

Hair as a Biomarker of Environmental Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

The absence of well-validated biomarkers of manganese (Mn) exposure in children remains a major obstacle for studies of Mn toxicity. We developed a hair cleaning methodology to establish the utility of hair as an exposure biomarker for Mn and other metals (Pb, Cr, Cu), using ICP-MS, scanning electron microscopy, and laser ablation ICP-MS to evaluate cleaning efficacy. Exogenous metal contamination on hair that was untreated or intentionally contaminated with dust or Mn-contaminated water was effectively removed using a cleaning method of 0.5% Triton X-100 sonication plus 1N nitric acid sonication. This cleaning method was then used on hair samples from children (n=121) in an ongoing study of environmental Mn exposure and related health effects. Mean hair Mn levels were 0.121 ?g/g (median = 0.073 ?g/g, range = 0.011 – 0.736 ?g/g), which are ~4 to 70-fold lower than levels reported in other pediatric Mn studies. Hair Mn levels were also significantly higher in children living in the vicinity of active, but not historic, ferroalloy plant emissions compared to controls (P<0.001). These data show that exogenous metal contamination on hair can be effectively cleaned of exogenous metal contamination, and they substantiate the use of hair Mn levels as a biomarker of environmental Mn exposure in children. PMID:23259818

Eastman, Rachel R.; Jursa, Tom P.; Benedetti, Chiara; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Smith, Donald R.

2013-01-01

223

Chemotherapy-induced alopecia: advice and support for hair loss.  

PubMed

This article provides insight into the growth cycle of a hair follicle and the potential impact chemotherapy agents can have on this process, which often results in hair loss (alopecia). It explores the psychological consequences of chemotherapy-induced alopecia for an individual as a result of the perceptions of others as well as an individual's perception of his or her self-image. Despite the development of various forms of scalp cooling, chemotherapy-induced alopecia remains a major side effect for patients receiving chemotherapy; however, there have been improvements in wig provision and changing public opinion relating to baldness. Although chemotherapy-induced alopecia affects both males and females and all age groups, this article focuses on the potential impact for patients receiving chemotherapy as a form of treatment for breast cancer. As professionals we need to understand the social significance of hair in relation to a person's outward presentation and social interactions, along with the possible psychological implications of a person losing his or her bodily hair, and not just the head hair. We must aim to minimize the distress alopecia can cause by: ensuring we provide patients with up-to-date verbal and written information to enable them to prepare for losing their hair; helping them to preserve their self-image and minimize the psychological consequences of hair loss while receiving chemotherapy; and preparing them for their hair re-growth following completion of chemotherapy. PMID:21647004

Roe, Helen

224

Pseudofolliculitis Cutis: A Vexing Disorder of Hair Growth.  

PubMed

Pseudofolliculitis cutis (PFC) is a troublesome and potentially disfiguring cutaneous disorder characterized by a chronic inflammatory response to ingrown hair. Despite a simple precipitating stimulus, ingrown hair, PFC has a relatively complex etiology that can involve grooming practices, hair-type, genetic predisposition, and medication history. Curly hair and a single nucleotide substitution in the gene encoding keratin 75 may act synergistically to increase the risk for developing this condition. PFC is most common in men of Sub-Saharan African lineage, but can occur in men and women of many different ethnicities particularly in body areas where hair is coarse, abundant, and subject to traumatic removal. Treatment options for PFC can be divided into three main categories: modifying hair removal practices, managing symptoms with medication, and long term hair removal with laser therapy. Laser hair removal is safe and effective in most skin types and has become increasingly popular among dermatologists in the treatment of PFC. However, it is imperative that the laser system and parameters are specifically matched to the patient's skin type. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25255890

Jasterzbski, T J; Schwartz, R A

2014-09-25

225

EGFR-Ras-Raf Signaling in Epidermal Stem Cells: Roles in Hair Follicle Development, Regeneration, Tissue Remodeling and Epidermal Cancers  

PubMed Central

The mammalian skin is the largest organ of the body and its outermost layer, the epidermis, undergoes dynamic lifetime renewal through the activity of somatic stem cell populations. The EGFR-Ras-Raf pathway has a well-described role in skin development and tumor formation. While research mainly focuses on its role in cutaneous tumor initiation and maintenance, much less is known about Ras signaling in the epidermal stem cells, which are the main targets of skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we briefly discuss the properties of the epidermal stem cells and review the role of EGFR-Ras-Raf signaling in keratinocyte stem cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions. PMID:24071938

Doma, Eszter; Rupp, Christian; Baccarini, Manuela

2013-01-01

226

Lichen planopilaris following hair transplantation and face-lift surgery.  

PubMed

Cosmetic surgical procedures, including hair transplantation and face-lift surgery, are becoming increasingly popular. However, there is very little information regarding the associated development of dermatological conditions following these procedures. Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an uncommon inflammatory hair disorder of unknown aetiology that results in permanent alopecia and replacement of hair follicles with scar-like fibrous tissue. Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), a variant of LPP, involves the frontal hairline and shares similar histological findings with those of LPP. We report 10 patients who developed LPP/FFA following cosmetic scalp surgery. Seven patients developed LPP following hair transplantation, and three patients developed FFA following face-lift surgery. In all cases there was no previous history of LPP or FFA. There is currently a lack of evidence to link the procedures of hair transplantation and cosmetic face-lift surgery to LPP and FFA, respectively. This is the first case series to describe this connection and to postulate the possible pathological processes underlying the clinical observation. Explanations include Koebner phenomenon induced by surgical trauma, an autoimmune process targeting an (as yet, unknown) hair follicle antigen liberated during surgery or perhaps a postsurgery proinflammatory milieu inducing hair follicle immune privilege collapse and follicular damage in susceptible individuals. PMID:21985326

Chiang, Y Z; Tosti, A; Chaudhry, I H; Lyne, L; Farjo, B; Farjo, N; Cadore de Farias, D; Griffiths, C E M; Paus, R; Harries, M J

2012-03-01

227

A Tale of Two Tissues: AtGH9C1 Is an Endo-?-1,4-Glucanase Involved in Root Hair and Endosperm Development in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis AtGH9C1 is an endo-?-1,4-glucanase possessing a carbohydrate-binding domain (CBM49). Analysis of AtGH9C1 expression by promoter-reporter GUS, RT-PCR, public transcriptome databases and GFP protein tagging demonstrated a high and selective expression of AtGH9C1 in root hairs and in the endosperm. Expression in root hair cells started prior to bulge formation and continued during hair elongation. AtGH9C1 expression increased with treatments that increase density (ACC) or length (sucrose) of root hairs. Expression in the endosperm extended sequentially to the micropylar, peripheral and chalazal compartments. A mutant with reduced AtGH9C1 expression had a delay in germination and a marked reduction in root hair presence. Complementation of the mutant partially improved both germination and root hair density. Experiments with ectopically expressed AtGH9C1-GFP with and without the CBM49, demonstrated that both forms of the protein are secreted and that CBM49 targets the protein to specific regions of the cell wall, but what makes these regions special is still unknown. The amino acid alignment of angiosperm GH9 genes with C-terminal extensions illustrate that AtGH9C1 belongs to a different clade than its tomato homolog, S1GH9C1. The latter has a CBM49 that was shown to bind crystalline cellulose. We suggest that AtGH9C1 is associated with the weakening of the cell wall during formation and growth of the root hair as well as with the sequential anterior-posterior breakdown of the endosperm cell wall that provides space for the growing embryo. Thus, is likely that the CBM49 of AtGH9C1 recognizes a form of cellulose or glucan polymer that is prevalent in the wall of these specialized tissues and that is different than the one recognized by S1GH9C1. PMID:23173056

del Campillo, Elena; Gaddam, Sivacharan; Mettle-Amuah, Dorinne; Heneks, Jean

2012-01-01

228

Prevalence of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in a Middle-Aged, Biracial Population: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies to date have described the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in a biracial middle-aged cohort. Methods and Results Participants underwent measurement of traditional risk factors and 12-lead ECGs coded using both Minnesota Code (MC) and Novacode (NC) criteria. Among 2585 participants, of whom 57% were women and 44% were black (mean age 45 years), the prevalence of major and minor abnormalities were significantly higher (all P<0.001) among black men and women compared to whites. These differences were primarily due to higher QRS voltage and ST/T wave abnormalities among blacks. There was also a higher prevalence of Q waves (MC 1-1, 1-2, 1-3) than described by previous studies. These racial differences remained after multivariate adjustment for traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Conclusions Black men and women have a significantly higher prevalence of ECG abnormalities, independent of traditional CV risk factors, than whites in a contemporary cohort middle-aged participants. PMID:20374967

Walsh, Joseph A; Prineas, Ronald; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Lewis, Cora E.; Sidney, Steven; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Iribarren, Carlos; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

2013-01-01

229

Identifying abnormalities in symbiotic development between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii leading to sub-optimal and ineffective nodule phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Legumes overcome nitrogen limitations by entering into a mutualistic symbiosis with N2-fixing bacteria (rhizobia). Fully compatible associations (effective) between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii result from successful recognition of symbiotic partners in the rhizosphere, root hair infection and the formation of nodules where N2-fixing bacteroids reside. Poorly compatible associations can result in root nodule formation with minimal (sub-optimal) or no (ineffective) N2-fixation. Despite the abundance and persistence of strains in agricultural soils which are poorly compatible with the commercially grown clover species, little is known of how and why they fail symbiotically. The aims of this research were to determine the morphological aberrations occurring in sub-optimal and ineffective clover nodules and to determine whether reduced bacteroid numbers or reduced N2-fixing activity is the main cause for the Sub-optimal phenotype. Methods Symbiotic effectiveness of four Trifolium hosts with each of four R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strains was assessed by analysis of plant yields and nitrogen content; nodule yields, abundance, morphology and internal structure; and bacteroid cytology, quantity and activity. Key Results Effective nodules (Nodule Function 83–100 %) contained four developmental zones and N2-fixing bacteroids. In contrast, Sub-optimal nodules of the same age (Nodule Function 24–57 %) carried prematurely senescing bacteroids and a small bacteroid pool resulting in reduced shoot N. Ineffective-differentiated nodules carried bacteroids aborted at stage 2 or 3 in differentiation. In contrast, bacteroids were not observed in Ineffective-vegetative nodules despite the presence of bacteria within infection threads. Conclusions Three major responses to N2-fixation incompatibility between Trifolium spp. and R. l. trifolii strains were found: failed bacterial endocytosis from infection threads into plant cortical cells, bacteroid differentiation aborted prematurely, and a reduced pool of functional bacteroids which underwent premature senescence. We discuss possible underlying genetic causes of these developmental abnormalities and consider impacts on N2-fixation of clovers. PMID:22989463

Melino, V. J.; Drew, E. A.; Ballard, R. A.; Reeve, W. G.; Thomson, G.; White, R. G.; O'Hara, G. W.

2012-01-01

230

No-hair theorems for black holes in the Abelian Higgs model  

E-print Network

Motivated by the study of holographic superconductors, we generalize no-hair theorems for minimally coupled scalar fields charged under an Abelian gauge field, in arbitrary dimensions and with arbitrary horizon topology. We first present a straightforward generalization of no-hair theorems for neutral scalar hair. We then consider the existence of extremal black holes with scalar hair, and in the case of horizons with zero or positive curvature, provide a bound on the mass and charge of the scalar field that are necessary for the scalar hair to develop.

Juan Fernandez-Gracia; Bartomeu Fiol

2009-06-12

231

Hair Cell Overexpression of Islet1 Reduces Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Isl1 is a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor that is critical in the development and differentiation of multiple tissues. In the mouse inner ear, Isl1 is expressed in the prosensory region of otocyst, in young hair cells and supporting cells, and is no longer expressed in postnatal auditory hair cells. To evaluate how continuous Isl1 expression in postnatal hair cells affects hair cell development and cochlear function, we created a transgenic mouse model in which the Pou4f3 promoter drives Isl1 overexpression specifically in hair cells. Isl1 overexpressing hair cells develop normally, as seen by morphology and cochlear functions (auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emissions). As the mice aged to 17 months, wild-type (WT) controls showed the progressive threshold elevation and outer hair cell loss characteristic of the age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in the background strain (C57BL/6J). In contrast, the Isl1 transgenic mice showed significantly less threshold elevation with survival of hair cells. Further, the Isl1 overexpression protected the ear from noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL): both ABR threshold shifts and hair cell death were significantly reduced when compared with WT littermates. Our model suggests a common mechanism underlying ARHL and NIHL, and provides evidence that hair cell-specific Isl1 expression can promote hair cell survival and therefore minimize the hearing impairment that normally occurs with aging and/or acoustic overexposure. PMID:24048839

Huang, Mingqian; Kantardzhieva, Albena; Scheffer, Deborah; Liberman, M. Charles

2013-01-01

232

Hair cell overexpression of Islet1 reduces age-related and noise-induced hearing loss.  

PubMed

Isl1 is a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor that is critical in the development and differentiation of multiple tissues. In the mouse inner ear, Isl1 is expressed in the prosensory region of otocyst, in young hair cells and supporting cells, and is no longer expressed in postnatal auditory hair cells. To evaluate how continuous Isl1 expression in postnatal hair cells affects hair cell development and cochlear function, we created a transgenic mouse model in which the Pou4f3 promoter drives Isl1 overexpression specifically in hair cells. Isl1 overexpressing hair cells develop normally, as seen by morphology and cochlear functions (auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emissions). As the mice aged to 17 months, wild-type (WT) controls showed the progressive threshold elevation and outer hair cell loss characteristic of the age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in the background strain (C57BL/6J). In contrast, the Isl1 transgenic mice showed significantly less threshold elevation with survival of hair cells. Further, the Isl1 overexpression protected the ear from noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL): both ABR threshold shifts and hair cell death were significantly reduced when compared with WT littermates. Our model suggests a common mechanism underlying ARHL and NIHL, and provides evidence that hair cell-specific Isl1 expression can promote hair cell survival and therefore minimize the hearing impairment that normally occurs with aging and/or acoustic overexposure. PMID:24048839

Huang, Mingqian; Kantardzhieva, Albena; Scheffer, Deborah; Liberman, M Charles; Chen, Zheng-Yi

2013-09-18

233

Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction  

PubMed Central

Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

2015-01-01

234

Oral abnormalities in the Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.  

PubMed

Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, mainly affecting the ectodermal components such as, enamel, nail, and hair. The gene for EvC syndrome is located on chromosome 4p16. Patients with EvC syndrome characteristically presents with congenitally missing teeth, abnormal frenal attachment, microdontia, and hexadactyly. PMID:20427928

Babaji, Prashant

2010-01-01

235

Longitudinal Follow-up of a Cohort of Patients with Incidental Abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings at Presentation and Their Risk of Developing Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in clinical practice, and “abnormal brain MRI” findings often prompt assessment for multiple sclerosis (MS), even when there are no symptoms suggestive of the disease. Despite several studies involving individuals with “radiologically isolated syndrome” (RIS), little is known about what factors might predict future development of MS. The objective of this study was to longitudinally evaluate clinical and MRI characteristics of people who presented to an MS clinic because of incidental abnormal MRI findings but did not have typical symptoms of MS, in order to assess risk factors for developing MS. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients presenting to an MS clinic for evaluation of abnormal MRI findings were enrolled in the study. Clinical and paraclinical data, including MRI results, were reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of T2 hyperintensities measuring more than 3 mm in diameter and fulfilling at least three out of four Barkhof criteria, with or without gadolinium-enhancing lesions, were considered to be suggestive of MS. Results: The median follow-up time was 5.5 years. No participants without MRI findings suggestive of MS were diagnosed with MS (P = .005). Fifteen participants had MRI findings suggestive of MS. Seven of the 15 (47%) were diagnosed with MS on follow-up. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing results were available for 15 participants. Abnormal results were found in six participants, of whom five (83%) also had MRI findings suggestive of MS. Only two of the nine (22%) participants with normal CSF results (P = .04) had MRI findings suggestive of MS. Conclusions: In our cohort, none of the participants without MRI findings suggestive of MS developed MS. The participants with MRI findings suggestive of MS were more likely to develop symptoms and MRI changes typical of MS on follow-up. PMID:25337052

Nakamura, Mio; Morris, Mark; Schultz, Lonni; Elias, Stanton

2014-01-01

236

MicroRNA-122 Influences the Development of Sperm Abnormalities from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Regulating TNP2 Expression  

PubMed Central

Sperm abnormalities are one of the main factors responsible for male infertility; however, their pathogenesis remains unclear. The role of microRNAs in the development of sperm abnormalities in infertile men has not yet been investigated. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate the influence of miR-122 expression on the differentiation of these cells into spermatozoa-like cells in vitro. After induction, mutant miR-122-transfected cells formed spermatozoa-like cells. Flow cytometry of DNA content revealed a significant increase in the haploid cell population in spermatozoa-like cells derived from mutant miR-122-transfected cells as compared to those derived from miR-122-transfected cells. During induction, TNP2 and protamine mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in mutant miR-122-transfected cells than in miR-122-transfected cells. High-throughput isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification were used to identify and quantify the different protein expression levels in miR-122- and mutant miR-122-transfected cells. Among all the proteins analyzed, the expression of lipoproteins, for example, APOB and APOA1, showed the most significant difference between the two groups. This study illustrates that miR-122 expression is associated with abnormal sperm development. MiR-122 may influence spermatozoa-like cells by suppressing TNP2 expression and inhibiting the expression of proteins associated with sperm development. PMID:23327642

Huang, Yongyi; Liu, Jianjun; Zhao, Yanhui; Jiang, Lizhen; Huang, Qin

2013-01-01

237

The ovo gene required for cuticle formation and oogenesis in flies is involved in hair formation and spermatogenesis in mice  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila svb/ovo gene gives rise to differentially expressed transcripts encoding a zinc finger protein. svb/ovo has two distinct genetic functions: shavenbaby (svb) is required for proper formation of extracellular projections that are produced by certain epidermal cells in late-stage differentiation; ovo is required for survival and differentiation of female germ cells. We cloned a mouse gene, movo1 encoding a nuclear transcription factor that is highly similar to its fly counterpart in its zinc-finger sequences. In mice, the gene is expressed in skin, where it localizes to the differentiating cells of epidermis and hair follicles, and in testes, where it is present in spermatocytes and spermatids. Using gene targeting, we show that movo1 is required for proper development of both hair and sperm. movo1?/? mice are small, produce aberrant hairs, and display hypogenitalism, with a reduced ability to reproduce. These mice also develop abnormalities in kidney, where movo1 is also expressed. Our findings reveal remarkable parallels between mice and flies in epidermal appendage formation and in germ-cell maturation. Furthermore, they uncover a phenotype similar to that of Bardet–Biedl syndrome, a human disorder that maps to the same locus as human ovo1. PMID:9808631

Dai, Xing; Schonbaum, Christopher; Degenstein, Linda; Bai, Wenyu; Mahowald, Anthony; Fuchs, Elaine

1998-01-01

238

Forensic Science: Hair Sample Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into how hairs from a crime scene are matched to suspects. Learners each take a single hair from their own head, then put it directly into the beam of a laser pointer. This projects the unique pattern of each hair onto a piece of paper to be traced, measured, identified and compared with the others. Learners can conclude this activity by setting up a mystery exercise with prepared samples of hair already in frames. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forensics.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

239

Transgenic labeling of hair cells in the zebrafish acousticolateralis system.  

PubMed

The zebrafish provides a useful experimental system for investigations of aural development. To permit the controlled expression of transgenes in developing hair cells, we isolated the genomic control regions of the parvalbumin 3a (pvalb3a) and parvalbumin 3b (pvalb3b) genes. Deletion analysis and somatic-cell transgenesis restricted the cis-acting control regions for hair cells to as little as 484base pairs for pvalb3a and 650base pairs for pvalb3b. Using both meganuclease-mediated and standard methods, we produced transgenic animals that transmit transgenes through their germ lines. These fish express GFP in hair cells in the inner ear and lateral line. Two stable transgenic lines express GFP prior to hair-bundle formation, so the associated promoter constructs are suitable for manipulating gene expression during bundle development. We additionally identified a transgenic line that offers variable labeling of supporting cells. PMID:20085825

McDermott, Brian M; Asai, Yukako; Baucom, Jessica M; Jani, Shraddha D; Castellanos, Yaneth; Gomez, Gustavo; McClintock, James M; Starr, Catherine J; Hudspeth, A J

2010-01-01

240

The Tricornered Ser\\/Thr Protein Kinase Is Regulated by Phosphorylation and Interacts with Furry during Drosophila Wing Hair Development? D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trc\\/Ndr\\/Sax1\\/Cbk1 family of ser\\/thr kinases plays a key role in the morphogenesis of polarized cell structures in flies, worms, and yeast. Tricornered (Trc), the Drosophila nuclear Dbf2-related (Ndr) serine\\/threonine protein kinase, is required for the normal morphogenesis of epidermal hairs, bristles, laterals, and dendrites. We obtained in vivo evidence that Trc function was regulated by phosphorylation and that mutations

Ying He; Xiaolan Fang; Kazuo Emoto; Yuh-Nung Jan; Paul N. Adler

2005-01-01

241

Beyond generalized hair cells: Molecular cues for hair cell types  

PubMed Central

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti (OC) from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral, LOC and medial, MOC olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the OC. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

2012-01-01

242

Interrelated striated elements in vestibular hair cells of the rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of interrelated striated organelles in types I and II vestibular hair cells of the rat which appear to be less developed in cochlear hair cells have been revealed by unusual fixation procedures, suggesting that contractile elements may play a role in sensory transduction in the inner ear, especially in the vestibular system. Included in the series of interrelated striated elements are the cuticular plate and its basal attachments to the hair cell margins, the connections of the strut array of the kinociliary basal body to the cuticular plate, and striated organelles associated with the plasma membrane and extending below the apical junctional complexes.

Ross, M. D.; Bourne, C.

1983-01-01

243

Immunochemical studies on blood group A substance from human hair.  

PubMed

Blood group A-active substance was extracted from urea-treated human hair uith methanol-ethyl ether 1:1, v/v) or chloroform-methanol (1:1, v/v). The serological activity of blood group A substance in the hair was destroyed by A-decomposing enzyme from Clostridium tertium with concomitant development of blood group H activity. It is concluded therefore that the extract from the hair of group A contained blood group A-active glycolipid with N-acetylgalactosamine as the non-reducing sugar. PMID:602448

Kishi, K; Iseki, S

1977-11-18

244

COLLAPSED ABNORMAL POLLEN1 Gene Encoding the Arabinokinase-Like Protein Is Involved in Pollen Development in Rice1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

We isolated a pollen-defective mutant, collapsed abnormal pollen1 (cap1), from Tos17 insertional mutant lines of rice (Oryza sativa). The cap1 heterozygous plant produced equal numbers of normal and collapsed abnormal grains. The abnormal pollen grains lacked almost all cytoplasmic materials, nuclei, and intine cell walls and did not germinate. Genetic analysis of crosses revealed that the cap1 mutation did not affect female reproduction or vegetative growth. CAP1 encodes a protein consisting of 996 amino acids that showed high similarity to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) l-arabinokinase, which catalyzes the conversion of l-arabinose to l-arabinose 1-phosphate. A wild-type genomic DNA segment containing CAP1 restored mutants to normal pollen grains. During rice pollen development, CAP1 was preferentially expressed in anthers at the bicellular pollen stage, and the effects of the cap1 mutation were mainly detected at this stage. Based on the metabolic pathway of l-arabinose, cap1 pollen phenotype may have been caused by toxic accumulation of l-arabinose or by inhibition of cell wall metabolism due to the lack of UDP-l-arabinose derived from l-arabinose 1-phosphate. The expression pattern of CAP1 was very similar to that of another Arabidopsis homolog that showed 71% amino acid identity with CAP1. Our results suggested that CAP1 and related genes are critical for pollen development in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. PMID:23629836

Ueda, Kenji; Yoshimura, Fumiaki; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Wabiko, Hiroetsu

2013-01-01

245

Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope.  

E-print Network

Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope. *Pull 50 hairs from the tail or mane (do not use hairs shed on brush) #Hairs must be pulled, not cut #Hairs must contain hair root *Align the "roots" of the hairs and trim

Keinan, Alon

246

Hair Analysis Provides a Historical Record of Cortisol Levels in Cushing’s Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The severity of Cushing’s Syndrome (CS) depends on the duration and extent of the exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Current measurements of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine reflect systemic cortisol levels at the time of sample collection, but cannot assess past cortisol levels. Hair cortisol levels may be increased in patients with CS, and, as hair grows about 1 cm/month, measurement of hair cortisol may provide historical information on the development of hypercortisolism. We attempted to measure cortisol in hair in relation to clinical course in six female patients with CS and in 32 healthy volunteers in 1 cm hair sections. Hair cortisol content was measured using a commercially available salivary cortisol immune assay with a protocol modified for use with hair. Hair cortisol levels were higher in patients with CS than in controls, the medians (ranges) were 679 (279–2500) and 116 (26–204) ng/g respectively (P <0.001). Segmental hair analysis provided information for up to 18 months before time of sampling. Hair cortisol concentrations appeared to vary in accordance with the clinical course. Based on these data, we suggest that hair cortisol measurement is a novel method for assessing dynamic systemic cortisol exposure and provides unique historical information on variation in cortisol, and that more research is required to fully understand the utility and limits of this technique. PMID:19609841

Thomson, S.; Koren, G.; Fraser, L.-A.; Rieder, M.; Friedman, T. C.; Van Uum, S. H. M.

2010-01-01

247

Guidelines for laser hair removal.  

PubMed

Requests for removal of unwanted body hair are common in dermatologic and surgical practices. Technology continues to improve the achievement of a more permanent reduction through the use of lasers. Despite the increased use of lasers, to date, few guidelines exist in terms of how to approach laser hair removal. Specifically, one must understand the mechanism of hair growth and how lasers work to target the hair follicle. There is significant variation among practitioners in pre-and post-laser recommendations to patients as well as intervals between treatment sessions. We performed a thorough review of the literature in order to determine evidence for the ideal interval between treatment sessions and the ideal number of sessions. We also sought to establish, based on published reports, the recommendations for shaving, plucking, waxing or other hair removal methods prior to laser hair removal and the guidelines for sun exposure before and after laser treatments. Finally, we searched the literature to find out whether there are areas that should not be treated with laser hair removal. The evidence and recommendations in this article aim to help guide practitioners in their approach to laser hair removal. PMID:18330795

Casey, Angela S; Goldberg, David

2008-03-01

248

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

249

Metabolic abnormalities associated with second generation antipsychotics: fact or fiction? Development of guidelines for screening and monitoring.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a relevant increased risk of diabetes in schizophrenic patients who are treated with many atypical antipsychotics, irrespective of concomitant weight gain. Numerous case reports and some large retrospective cohort studies have documented an increased risk of diabetes with some second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), leading different authors to identify patients on SGA as another high-risk group for diabetes in their review articles. An American consensus conference dealing with this problem has proposed much awaited guidelines for the monitoring of patients on SGA and recommended acquiring additional data, especially from large-scale prospective studies. A more recent Belgian consensus on the screening and management of antipsychotic-related metabolic disturbances has proposed a more stringent approach. Here, we will cover the current diagnosis of metabolic problems, and provide a review of antipsychotic-related metabolic problems (diabetes, lipid abnormalities and the metabolic syndrome), as well as guidelines for the screening and management of metabolic abnormalities in people treated with antipsychotic medication. PMID:16601508

De Hert, Marc; van Eyck, Dominique; De Nayer, Andre

2006-03-01

250

mTOR-dependent abnormalities in autophagy characterize human malformations of cortical development: evidence from focal cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis.  

PubMed

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a localized malformation of cortical development and is the commonest cause of severe childhood epilepsy in surgical practice. Children with FCD are severely disabled by their epilepsy, presenting with frequent seizures early in life. The commonest form of FCD in children is characterized by the presence of an abnormal population of cells, known as balloon cells. Similar pathological changes are seen in the cortical malformations that characterize patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the malformations of FCD and TSC are not well understood. We provide evidence for a defect in autophagy in FCD and TSC. We have found that balloon cells contain vacuoles that include components of the autophagy pathway. Specifically, we show that balloon cells contain prominent lysosomes by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry for LAMP1 and LAMP2, LysoTracker labelling and enzyme histochemistry for acid phosphatase. Furthermore, we found that balloon cells contain components of the ATG pathway and that there is cytoplasmic accumulation of the regulator of autophagy, DOR. Most importantly we found that there is abnormal accumulation of the autophagy cargo protein, p62. We show that this defect in autophagy can be, in part, reversed in vitro by inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) suggesting that abnormal activation of mTOR may contribute directly to a defect in autophagy in FCD and TSC. PMID:23728790

Yasin, Shireena A; Ali, Abu M; Tata, Mathew; Picker, Simon R; Anderson, Glenn W; Latimer-Bowman, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Sarah L; Harkness, William; Cross, J Helen; Paine, Simon M L; Jacques, Thomas S

2013-08-01

251

A review of the embryological development and associated developmental abnormalities of the sternum in the light of a rare palaeopathological case of sternal clefting.  

PubMed

A sternal cleft or bifid sternum is a rare anterior chest wall abnormality. Although several cases have been reported in clinical literature, very little reference has been made to this anomaly in palaeopathological texts. This paper presents a case of superior sternal clefting observed in a middle-aged female with concurrent Paget's disease and congenital hyperkyphosis excavated from a 19th century Dutch psychiatric asylum cemetery in Bloemendaal, The Netherlands. The embryological development of the sternum and associated developmental abnormalities are reviewed and a differential diagnosis is performed on the suite of observed skeletal anomalies. Goltz syndrome, congenital hypothyroidism, disruption of the Hoxb-4 gene, acute excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, Coffin-Lowry syndrome and PHACES syndrome were considered as possible causative agents, with the latter two conditions determined to be the most likely. The psychiatric asylum context, from which the individual came, supports the differential diagnosis as neurological abnormalities are common in these two syndromes. This article demonstrates that the integration of embryology, modern clinical literature and palaeopathological principles is vital in the interpretation of developmental anomalies from an archaeological context. PMID:23473075

van der Merwe, A E; Weston, D A; Oostra, R J; Maat, G J R

2013-04-01

252

High resolution imaging to assess oilseed species’ root hair responses to soil water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging method was developed to evaluate crop species differences in root hair morphology using high resolution scanners,\\u000a and to determine if the method could also detect root hair responses to soil water availability. High resolution (1890 picture\\u000a elements (pixels) cm?1) desktop scanners were buried in containers filled with soil to characterize root hair development under two water availability\\u000a levels

W. Ashley Hammac; William L. Pan; Ron P. Bolton; Rich T. Koenig

2011-01-01

253

Notch Signaling Limits Supporting Cell Plasticity in the Hair Cell-Damaged Early Postnatal Murine Cochlea  

PubMed Central

In mammals, auditory hair cells are generated only during embryonic development and loss or damage to hair cells is permanent. However, in non-mammalian vertebrate species, such as birds, neighboring glia-like supporting cells regenerate auditory hair cells by both mitotic and non-mitotic mechanisms. Based on work in intact cochlear tissue, it is thought that Notch signaling might restrict supporting cell plasticity in the mammalian cochlea. However, it is unresolved how Notch signaling functions in the hair cell-damaged cochlea and the molecular and cellular changes induced in supporting cells in response to hair cell trauma are poorly understood. Here we show that gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in early postnatal mouse cochlear tissue induces rapid morphological changes in supporting cells, which facilitate the sealing of gaps left by dying hair cells. Moreover, we provide evidence that Notch signaling is active in the hair cell damaged cochlea and identify Hes1, Hey1, Hey2, HeyL, and Sox2 as targets and potential Notch effectors of this hair cell-independent mechanism of Notch signaling. Using Cre/loxP based labeling system we demonstrate that inhibition of Notch signaling with a ?- secretase inhibitor (GSI) results in the trans-differentiation of supporting cells into hair cell-like cells. Moreover, we show that these hair cell-like cells, generated by supporting cells have molecular, cellular, and basic electrophysiological properties similar to immature hair cells rather than supporting cells. Lastly, we show that the vast majority of these newly generated hair cell-like cells express the outer hair cell specific motor protein prestin. PMID:24023676

Korrapati, Soumya; Roux, Isabelle; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

2013-01-01

254

The novel mouse mutant, chuzhoi, has disruption of Ptk7 protein and exhibits defects in neural tube, heart and lung development and abnormal planar cell polarity in the ear  

PubMed Central

Background The planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling pathway is fundamental to a number of key developmental events, including initiation of neural tube closure. Disruption of the PCP pathway causes the severe neural tube defect of craniorachischisis, in which almost the entire brain and spinal cord fails to close. Identification of mouse mutants with craniorachischisis has proven a powerful way of identifying molecules that are components or regulators of the PCP pathway. In addition, identification of an allelic series of mutants, including hypomorphs and neomorphs in addition to complete nulls, can provide novel genetic tools to help elucidate the function of the PCP proteins. Results We report the identification of a new N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutant with craniorachischisis, which we have named chuzhoi (chz). We demonstrate that chuzhoi mutant embryos fail to undergo initiation of neural tube closure, and have characteristics consistent with defective convergent extension. These characteristics include a broadened midline and reduced rate of increase of their length-to-width ratio. In addition, we demonstrate disruption in the orientation of outer hair cells in the inner ear, and defects in heart and lung development in chuzhoi mutants. We demonstrate a genetic interaction between chuzhoi mutants and both Vangl2Lp and Celsr1Crsh mutants, strengthening the hypothesis that chuzhoi is involved in regulating the PCP pathway. We demonstrate that chuzhoi maps to Chromosome 17 and carries a splice site mutation in Ptk7. This mutation results in the insertion of three amino acids into the Ptk7 protein and causes disruption of Ptk7 protein expression in chuzhoi mutants. Conclusions The chuzhoi mutant provides an additional genetic resource to help investigate the developmental basis of several congenital abnormalities including neural tube, heart and lung defects and their relationship to disruption of PCP. The chuzhoi mutation differentially affects the expression levels of the two Ptk7 protein isoforms and, while some Ptk7 protein can still be detected at the membrane, chuzhoi mutants demonstrate a significant reduction in membrane localization of Ptk7 protein. This mutant provides a useful tool to allow future studies aimed at understanding the molecular function of Ptk7. PMID:20704721

2010-01-01

255

Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

2005-06-01

256

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING  

E-print Network

#12;STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes May 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 #12;2 Hair Interactions

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

257

Quantum hair on black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A black hole may carry quantum numbers that are not associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the ``no-hair'' theorems. We describe in detail two different types of black-hole hair that decay exponentially at long range. The first type is associated with discrete gauge charge and the screening is due to the Higgs mechanism. The second type is associated with color magnetic charge, and the screening is due to color confinement. In both cases, we perform semiclassical calculations of the effect of the hair on local observables outside the horizon, and on black-hole thermodynamics. These effects are generated by virtual cosmic strings, or virtual electric flux tubes, that sweep around the event horizon. The effects of discrete gauge charge are nonperturbative in h, but the effects of color magnetic charge become h-independent in a suitable limit. We present an alternative treatment of discrete gauge charge using dual variables, and examine the possibility of black-hole hair associated with discrete global symmetry. We draw the distinction between primary hair, which endows a black hole with new quantum numbers, and secondary hair, which does not, and we point out some varieties of secondary hair that occur in the standard model of particle physics. Reserch supported in part by DOE grant DE-FG02-90ER40542.

Coleman, Sidney; Preskill, John; Wilczek, Frank

1992-07-01

258

tmie Is Required for Gentamicin Uptake by the Hair Cells of Mice  

PubMed Central

The circling (cir/cir) mouse is a spontaneous model of deafness due to deletion of a 40-kb genomic region that includes the transmembrane inner ear (tmie) gene. In addition to being deaf, cir/cir mice exhibit abnormal behaviors including circling and hyperactivity. Here we investigated differences between 3-d-old (that is, before hair-cell degeneration) cir/cir and phenotypically normal (+/cir) mice and the reason underlying the degeneration of the inner ear structure of cir/cir mice. To this end, we used gentamicin, gentamicin–Texas red conjugate, and FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransducer channel activity in the hair cells of cir/cir mice; these compounds are presumed to enter hair cells through the mechanotransducer channel. Although the structure of the inner ear of +/cir mice was equivalent to that of cir/cir mice, the hair cells of cir/cir mice (unlike +/cir) did not take up gentamicin, gentamicin–Texas red conjugate, or FM1-43. These findings suggest that hair cells in cir/cir mice demonstrate abnormal maturation and mechanotransduction. In addition, our current results indicate that tmie is required for maturation and maintenance of hair cells. PMID:23582420

Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong-Han; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyu-yup; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yun, Byung-Wook; Ryoo, ZaeYoung

2013-01-01

259

[Hormonal interaction and hair growth].  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. This continuous process results in a form of alopecia that follows a definite pattern in those individuals who are genetically predisposed. Although clinically different, the pathogenetic pathways leading to this type of hair loss are thought to be similar in both sexes. A genetic predisposition is a feature of AGA, but the predisposing genes are still unknown. Our understanding, however, of the hormonal effects on hair growth is far more advanced. AGA can be defined as a dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-dependent process with continuous miniaturization of sensitive hair follicles. So far, we do not understand the molecular steps involved in androgen-dependent beard growth versus androgen-dependent hair loss. However, the local androgen metabolism plays a central role in the intrafollicular conversion of weak androgens, such as DHEAS, to more potent androgens such as T or DHT within the hair follicle. The dermal papilla plays a central role by exhibiting an array of important steroidogenic isoenzymes. Provided that the dermal papilla (DP) cell triggers and regulates the growth of hair follicles, this physiological role may be reflected by metabolic differences, which could account for differences in androgen sensitivity as observed in hair follicles from different body sites, and in conditions such as male pattern baldness. The observation of STS, 17beta-HSD, 3beta-HSD, 3alpha-HSD and type 2 5alpha-R-activity within the DP could be a clue to understanding the regulation of androgen action in the human hair follicle by local androgen modification on target cell level. Hence, some of the intrafollicular steroidogenic enzymes would be potential pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of AGA or hirsutism. PMID:12223960

Hoffmann, R

2002-05-01

260

No hair theorems for positive ?  

E-print Network

We extend all known black hole no-hair theorems to space-times endowed with a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda.$ Specifically, we prove that static spherical black holes with $\\Lambda>0$ cannot support scalar fields in convex potentials and Proca-massive vector fields in the region between black hole and cosmic horizons. We also demonstrate the existence of at least one type of quantum hair, and of exactly one charged solution for the Abelian Higgs model. Our method of proof can be applied to investigate other types of quantum or topological hair on black holes in the presence of a positive $\\Lambda.$

Sourav Bhattacharya; Amitabha Lahiri

2007-02-01

261

How Thick is Your Hair?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 13 of the PDF, learners use a laser pointer (with known wavelength of light) to measure the thickness of a human hair. By shining the laser on a hair, analyzing the patterns created, and completing some calculations, learners the thickness of a hair in nanometers. Learners can calibrate the laser to find its wavelength by completing the first activity in the manual entitled, "Spots, Lines and Lasers." This manual contains 4 activities related to the Spectra: The Original Laser Superhero Force comic book published by the American Physical Society.

Thompson-Flagg, Rebecca; Johnson, Kerry G.

2010-01-01

262

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing.  

PubMed

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

263

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing  

PubMed Central

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

264

Streptomycin ototoxicity and hair cell regeneration in the adult pigeon utricle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to investigate the regeneration of utricular hair cells in the adult pigeon (Columba livia) following complete hair cell loss through administration of streptomycin. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups. Group 1 received 10 to 15 days of systemic streptomycin injections. Animals in Groups 2 and 3 received a single direct placement of a 1-, 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose into the perilymphatic space. Animals in Groups 1 and 2 were analyzed within 1 week from injection to investigate hair cell destruction, whereas Group 3 was investigated at later dates to study hair cell recovery. Group 4 animals received a control injection of saline into the perilymphatic space. Damage and recovery were quantified by counting hair cells in isolated utricles using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Although systemic injections failed to reliably achieve complete utricular hair cell destruction, a single direct placement of a 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose caused complete destruction within the first week. Incomplete hair cell loss was observed with the 1-mg dose. Over the long term, regeneration of the hair cells was seen with the 2-mg dose but not the 8-mg dose. Control injections of saline into the perilymphatic space caused no measurable hair cell loss. CONCLUSIONS: Direct placement of streptomycin into the perilymph is an effective, reliable method for complete destruction of utricular hair cells while preserving the regenerative potential of the neuroepithelium.

Frank, T. C.; Dye, B. J.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

1999-01-01

265

Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

Haines, Richard F.

1992-01-01

266

Root hair length and rhizosheath mass depend on soil porosity, strength and water content in barley genotypes.  

PubMed

Selecting plants with improved root hair growth is a key strategy for improving phosphorus-uptake efficiency in agriculture. While significant inter- and intra-specific variation is reported for root hair length, it is not known whether these phenotypic differences are exhibited under conditions that are known to affect root hair elongation. This work investigates the effect of soil strength, soil water content (SWC) and soil particle size (SPS) on the root hair length of different root hair genotypes of barley. The root hair and rhizosheath development of five root hair genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was compared in soils with penetrometer resistances ranging from 0.03 to 4.45 MPa (dry bulk densities 1.2-1.7 g cm(-3)). A "short" (SRH) and "long" root hair (LRH) genotype was selected to further investigate whether differentiation of these genotypes was related to SWC or SPS when grown in washed graded sand. In low-strength soil (<1.43 MPa), root hairs of the LRH genotype were on average 25 % longer than that of the SRH genotype. In high-strength soil, root hair length of the LRH genotype was shorter than that in low-strength soil and did not differ from that of the SRH genotype. Root hairs were shorter in wetter soils or soils with smaller particles, and again SRH and LRH did not differ in hair length. Longer root hairs were generally, but not always, associated with larger rhizosheaths, suggesting that mucilage adhesion was also important. The root hair growth of barley was found to be highly responsive to soil properties and this impacted on the expression of phenotypic differences in root hair length. While root hairs are an important trait for phosphorus acquisition in dense soils, the results highlight the importance of selecting multiple and potentially robust root traits to improve resource acquisition in agricultural systems. PMID:24318401

Haling, Rebecca E; Brown, Lawrie K; Bengough, A Glyn; Valentine, Tracy A; White, Philip J; Young, Iain M; George, Timothy S

2014-03-01

267

Simplified Representations for Modeling Hair Abstract: We present a novel framework for modeling hair  

E-print Network

Simplified Representations for Modeling Hair Abstract: We present a novel framework for modeling hair using simplified representations. The set of representations, in- cluding individual strands rendering of hair, and offers flexibility to balance between performance and quality. Furthermore

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

268

Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.  

PubMed

Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. PMID:24817049

Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

2014-06-01

269

Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 Induces Hyper-?-Glutamyl Transpeptidasemia without Abnormal Head Development and Schizophrenia-Relevant Behaviors in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as “the Japan Mouse Clinic”. No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-?-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-?-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia. PMID:22242126

Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Ohba, Hisako; Sakaguchi, Toru; Honma, Yota; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Motoko; Watanabe, Kazutada; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yoshikawa, Takeo

2011-01-01

270

Hair Enhancement in Dermoscopic Images using Dual-Channel Quaternion Tubularness Filters and MRF-based Multi-Label Optimization.  

PubMed

Hair occlusion is one of the main challenges facing automatic lesion segmentation and feature extraction for skin cancer applications. We propose a novel method for simultaneously enhancing both light and dark hairs with variable widths, from dermoscopic images, without the prior knowledge of the hair color. We measure hair tubularness using a quaternion color curvature filter. We extract optimal hair features (tubularness, scale, and orientation) using Markov random field theory and multi-label optimization. We also develop a novel dual channel matched filter to enhance hair pixels in the dermoscopic images while suppressing irrelevant skin pixels. We evaluate the hair enhancement capabilities of our method on hair-occluded images generated via our new hair simulation algorithm. Since hair enhancement is an intermediate step in a computer aided diagnosis system for analyzing dermoscopic images, we validate our method and compare it to other methods by studying its effect on: (i) hair segmentation accuracy, (ii) image inpainting quality, and (iii) image classification accuracy. The validation results on 40 real clinical dermoscopic images and 94 synthetic data demonstrate that our approach outperforms competing hair enhancement methods. PMID:25312927

Mirzaalian, Hengameh; Lee, Tim; Hamarneh, Ghassan

2014-10-01

271

Testing human hair for cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To validate information on cannabis use, we investigated human hair and pubic hair for cannabinoids (THC and THC-COOH) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Samples (100 mg approximately) were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 °C in the presence of 200 ng of deuterated standards. After cooling, samples were

V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

272

Micronutrients for Hair and Nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the appearance of hair and nails is a major concern for woman worldwide, we have tried to collect the most reliable therapeutic\\u000a sources with a particular interest for micronutrients. The latter is a term used to include trace elements found in minerals,\\u000a vitamins, amino acids, and herbs. Some of them may be used in both hair and nails, for

E. Haneke; Robert Baran

273

Protection against chemotherapy-induced alopecia: targeting ATP-binding cassette transporters in the hair follicle?  

PubMed

Currently, efficacious treatments for chemotherapy-induced alopecia (hair loss) are lacking, and incidences of permanent hair loss following high-dose chemotherapy are on the increase. In this article, we describe mechanisms by which the pharmacological defense status of the hair follicle might be enhanced, thereby reducing the accumulation of cytotoxic cancer drugs and preventing or reducing hair loss and damage. We believe this could be achieved via the selective increase in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression within the hair follicle epithelium, following application of topical agonists for regulatory nuclear receptors. Clinical application would require the development of hair follicle-targeted formulations, potentially utilizing nanoparticle technology. This novel approach has the potential to yield entirely new therapeutic options for the treatment and management of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, providing significant psychological and physical benefit to cancer patients. PMID:24100054

Haslam, Iain S; Pitre, Aaron; Schuetz, John D; Paus, Ralf

2013-11-01

274

Intelligent Image Analysis for Image-Guided Laser Hair Removal and Skin Therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the development of advanced automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for the hair follicles identification in digital skin images to accurately direct the laser beam to remove the hair. The ATR system first performs a wavelet filtering to enhance the contrast of the hair features in the image. The system then extracts the unique features of the targets and sends the features to an Adaboost based classifier for training and recognition operations. The ATR system automatically classifies the hair, moles, or other skin lesion and provides the accurate coordinates of the intended hair follicle locations. The coordinates can be used to guide a scanning laser to focus energy only on the hair follicles. The intended benefit would be to protect the skin from unwanted laser exposure and to provide more effective skin therapy.

Walker, Brian; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

2012-01-01

275

Approach to the Girl with Early Onset of Pubic Hair  

PubMed Central

Premature pubarche, or the development of pubic hair before the age of 8 in girls or 9 in boys, is most commonly caused by premature adrenarche. Adrenarche is the maturation of the adrenal zona reticularis in both boys and girls, resulting in the development of pubic hair, axillary hair, and adult apocrine body odor. Although originally thought to be a benign variant of normal development, premature adrenarche has been associated with insulin resistance and the later development of metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome. Although further studies are needed to confirm these relationships, the case presented herein argues for periodic assessment of children at risk. Indeed, recognition of these associations may allow for early preventive measures. PMID:21602454

Sopher, Aviva B.; Gerken, Adrienne T.

2011-01-01

276

Accelerated bone formation and increased osteoblast number contribute to the abnormal tooth germ development in parathyroid hormone-related protein knockout mice.  

PubMed

Our previous study showed that tooth germs at late embryonic stage [later than embryonic day 17.5 (E17.5)] and neonatal homozygous parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)-knockout mice are compressed or penetrated by the surrounding alveolar bone tissue. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the development of the tooth germ proper is not disturbed, but insufficient alveolar bone resorption, due to the decreased number and hypofunction of osteoclasts, is the main cause of this abnormality. In addition to the insufficient alveolar bone resorption, progressive bone formation toward tooth germs was observed in homozygous mice, suggesting that accelerated bone formation also contributes to this abnormality. To further investigate this, homozygous mice at E14.0 and E15.5, when alveolar bone is forming, were used for histochemical and bone histomorphometric analyses. In contrast to the late embryonic stage, the alveolar bone did not yet compress developing tooth germs in homozygous mice on E14.0, but a larger amount of bone tissue was seen compared to wild-type littermates. Histomorphometric analysis of bone at E14.0 revealed that the osteoblast numbers and surfaces in the mandibles and in the bone collar of femora of homozygous mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. However, unlike our previous study showing the osteoclast surface on E18.5 in homozygous mice to be significantly lower than that of wild-type mice, this study at E14.0 showed no significant difference between the two genotypes. To evaluate the amount of calcification around tooth germs, 3D images of mandibles were reconstructed from the calcein-labeled sections of the wild-type and mutant mice. Labeling was performed at E14.0, and the mice were sacrificed 1 h after the calcein injection to minimize the effect of bone resorption. Comparison of the 3D images revealed that the labeled surface was larger around developing tooth germs in homozygous mouse than in wild-type mouse. On day E15.5, osteoblasts approached the enamel organ of homozygous mice but this was not observed in wild-type mice. In this study, we report a systemic increase in osteoblast number and accelerated bone formation in homozygous PTHrP-knockout mice, both of which contribute to the abnormal tooth development. PMID:15542035

Kitahara, Y; Suda, N; Terashima, T; Baba, O; Mekaapiruk, K; Hammond, V E; Takano, Y; Ohyama, K

2004-11-01

277

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

278

6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

279

6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice  

PubMed Central

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

280

Integral lipid in human hair follicle.  

PubMed

On the hair surface, cells are covered with a thin lipid layer (LL) covalently bonded to hair proteins. This integral hair lipid is different from sebaceus lipid. We conducted this study to examine the lipid distribution in human hair follicle. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe the ultrastructure of the LL. Hair follicles were cut and observed longitudinally along the hair axis. For transmission electron microscopy, new fixative (Lee's fixative: composed of OsO4 and RuO4) was designed as the conventional fixatives such as OsO4 or RuO4 alone were not appropriate for staining for hair follicle lipid. In addition, we measured the chemical composition of integral hair lipid by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. From the above experimental procedure, it was discovered that the lipid in the hair follicle was mainly distributed in hair cuticle and keratinized inner root sheath. A multitude of lamellar granule is observed in the vicinity of the above LL. The chemical composition of integral hair lipid was different from those of epidermal or sebaceous lipids. It is assumed that the LL in the hair follicle is similar to the epidermal LL playing an important role as a skin barrier in the stratum corneum. We proposed here the new terminology "hair barrier" from this point of view. PMID:16382672

Lee, Won-Soo; Oh, Tak Heon; Chun, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Soo Young; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Sanghoon; Park, Won-Seok; Hwang, Sungjoo

2005-12-01

281

Scanning LDV for vibration measurement of filiform hairs in crickets in response to induced airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cercal hairs represent in cricket a wind sensitive escape system, able to detect the airflow generated from predating species. These sensors have been studied as a biomimetic concept to allow the development of MEMS for biomedical use. In particular, the behaviour of the hairs, including airflow response, resonant frequency and damping, has been investigated up to a frequency of 20 kHz. The microscopic nature of the hairs, the complex vibrations of excited hairs and the high damping of the system suggested that the use of Laser Doppler vibrometry could possibly improve the test performance. Two types of tests were performed: in the first case the hairs were indirectly excited using the signal obtained from a vibrating aluminium plate, whilst in the second case the hairs were directly excited using a white noise chirp. The results from the first experiment indicated that the hairs move in-phase with the exciting signal up to frequencies in the order of 10 kHz, responding to the vibration modes of the plate with a signal attenuation of 12 to 20 dB. The chirp experiment revealed the presence of rotational resonant modes at 6850 and 11300 Hz. No clear effect of hair length was perceivable on the vibration response of the filiform sensors. The obtained results proved promising to support the mechanical and vibration characterisation of the hairs and suggest that scanning Laser vibrometry can be used extensively on highly dampened biological materials.

Santulli, C.; Finn, T. J.; Seidel, R.; Jeronimidis, G.

2006-06-01

282

Autonomous functions of murine thyroid hormone receptor TR? and TR? in cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone acts on gene transcription by binding to its nuclear receptors TR?1 and TR?. Whereas global deletion of TR? causes deafness, global TR?-deficient mice have normal hearing thresholds. Since the individual roles of the two receptors in cochlear hair cells are still unclear, we generated mice with a hair cell-specific mutation of TR?1 or deletion of TR? using the Cre-loxP system. Hair cell-specific TR? mutant mice showed normal hearing thresholds but delayed BK channel expression in inner hair cells, slightly stronger outer hair cell function, and slightly reduced amplitudes of auditory brainstem responses. In contrast, hair cell-specific TR? mutant mice showed normal timing of BK channel expression, slightly reduced outer hair cell function, and slightly enhanced amplitudes of auditory brainstem responses. Our data demonstrate that TR?-related deafness originates outside of hair cells and that TR? and TR? play opposing, non-redundant roles in hair cells. A role for thyroid hormone receptors in controlling key regulators that shape signal transduction during development is discussed. Thyroid hormone may act through different thyroid hormone receptor activities to permanently alter the sensitivity of auditory neurotransmission. PMID:24012852

Dettling, Juliane; Franz, Christoph; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Lee, Sze Chim; Bress, Andreas; Brandt, Niels; Feil, Robert; Pfister, Markus; Engel, Jutta; Flamant, Frédéric; Rüttiger, Lukas; Knipper, Marlies

2014-01-25

283

Somatic motility and hair bundle mechanics, are both necessary for cochlear amplification?  

PubMed Central

Hearing organs have evolved to detect sounds across several orders of magnitude of both intensity and frequency. Detection limits are at the atomic level despite the energy associated with sound being limited thermodynamically. Several mechanisms have evolved to account for the remarkable frequency selectivity, dynamic range, and sensitivity of these various hearing organs, together termed the active process or cochlear amplifier. Similarities between hearing organs of disparate species provides insight into the factors driving the development of the cochlear amplifier. These properties include: a tonotopic map, the emergence of a two hair cell system, the separation of efferent and afferent innervations, the role of the tectorial membrane, and the shift from intrinsic tuning and amplification to a more end organ driven process. Two major contributors to the active process are hair bundle mechanics and outer hair cell electromotility, the former present in all hair cell organs tested, the latter only present in mammalian cochlear outer hair cells. Both of these processes have advantages and disadvantages, and how these processes interact to generate the active process in the mammalian system is highly disputed. A hypothesis is put forth suggesting that hair bundle mechanics provides amplification and filtering in most hair cells, while in mammalian cochlea, outer hair cell motility provides the amplification on a cycle by cycle basis driven by the hair bundle that provides frequency selectivity (in concert with the tectorial membrane) and compressive nonlinearity. Separating components of the active process may provide additional sites for regulation of this process. PMID:20430075

Peng, Anthony W.; Ricci, Anthony J.

2010-01-01

284

Effect of voltage dynamics on response properties in a model of sensory hair cell  

E-print Network

Sensory hair cells in auditory and vestibular organs rely on active mechanisms to achieve high sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Recent experimental studies have documented self-sustained oscillations in hair cells of lower vertebrates on two distinct levels. First, the hair bundle can undergo spontaneous mechanical oscillations. Second, somatic electric voltage oscillations across the baso-lateral membrane of the hair cell have been observed. We develop a biophysical model of the bullfrog's saccular hair cell consisting of two compartments, mechanical and electrical, to study how the mechanical and the voltage oscillations interact to produce coherent self-sustained oscillations and how this interaction contributes to the overall sensitivity and selectivity of the hair cell. The model incorporates nonlinear mechanical stochastic hair bundle system coupled bi-directionally to a Hodgkin-Huxley type system describing somatic ionic currents. We isolate regions of coherent spontaneous oscillations in the parameter space of the model and then study how coupling between compartments affect sensitivity of the hair cell to external mechanical perturbations. We show that spontaneous electrical oscillations may enhance significantly the sensitivity and selectivity of the hair cell.

Rami Amro; Alexander B. Neiman

2012-09-27

285

Derivation of Hair-Inducing Cell from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Dermal Papillae (DP) is a unique population of mesenchymal cells that was shown to regulate hair follicle formation and growth cycle. During development most DP cells are derived from mesoderm, however, functionally equivalent DP cells of cephalic hairs originate from Neural Crest (NC). Here we directed human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to generate first NC cells and then hair-inducing DP-like cells in culture. We showed that hESC-derived DP-like cells (hESC-DPs) express markers typically found in adult human DP cells (e.g. p-75, nestin, versican, SMA, alkaline phosphatase) and are able to induce hair follicle formation when transplanted under the skin of immunodeficient NUDE mice. Engineered to express GFP, hESC-derived DP-like cells incorporate into DP of newly formed hair follicles and express appropriate markers. We demonstrated that BMP signaling is critical for hESC-DP derivation since BMP inhibitor dorsomorphin completely eliminated hair-inducing activity from hESC-DP cultures. DP cells were proposed as the cell-based treatment for hair loss diseases. Unfortunately human DP cells are not suitable for this purpose because they cannot be obtained in necessary amounts and rapidly loose their ability to induce hair follicle formation when cultured. In this context derivation of functional hESC-DP cells capable of inducing a robust hair growth for the first time shown here can become an important finding for the biomedical science. PMID:25607935

Gnedeva, Ksenia; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina; Cimadamore, Flavio; Cattarossi, Giulio; Giusto, Elena; Terskikh, Vasiliy V.; Terskikh, Alexey V.

2015-01-01

286

Mice Lacking the Metalloprotease-Disintegrin MDC9 (ADAM9) Have No Evident Major Abnormalities during Development or Adult Life  

PubMed Central

MDC9 (ADAM9/meltrin ?) is a widely expressed and catalytically active metalloprotease-disintegrin protein that has been implicated in the ectodomain cleavage of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and as an ? secretase for the amyloid precursor protein. In this study, we evaluated the expression of MDC9 during development and generated mice lacking MDC9 (mdc9?/? mice) to learn more about the function of this protein during development and in adults. During mouse development, MDC9 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed, with particularly high expression levels in the developing mesenchyme, heart and brain. Despite the ubiquitous expression of MDC9, mdc9?/? mice appear to develop normally, are viable and fertile, and do not have any major pathological phenotypes compared to wild-type mice. Constitutive and stimulated ectodomain shedding of HB-EGF is comparable in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from mdc9?/? and wild-type mice, arguing against an essential role of MDC9 in HB-EGF shedding in these cells. Furthermore, there were no differences in the production of the APP ? and ? secretase cleavage product (p3) and of ?- and ?-secretase cleavage product (A?) in cultured hippocampal neurons from mdc9?/? or wild-type mice, arguing against an essential major role of MDC9 as an ?-secretase in mice. Further studies, including functional challenges and an evaluation of potential compensation by, or redundancy with, other members of the ADAM family or perhaps even with other molecules will be necessary to uncover physiologically relevant functions for MDC9 in mice. PMID:11839819

Weskamp, Gisela; Cai, Hui; Brodie, Thomas A.; Higashyama, Shigeki; Manova, Katia; Ludwig, Thomas; Blobel, Carl P.

2002-01-01

287

Association of Hair Manganese Level with Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective The study examined the association between hair manganese level and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean children. Methods Forty clinic-referred children with ADHD and 43 normal control children participated in this study. The participants were 6-15 years old and were mainly from the urban area of Seoul, Korea. ADHD was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition and Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version-Korean Version. The severity and symptoms of ADHD was evaluated according to the ADHD Diagnostic System, and parent's Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS). All participants completed intelligence test and hair mineral analysis. We divided the data of hair Mn into two groups to determine whether a deficit or excess of Mn are associated with ADHD. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify hair manganese levels associated with ADHD, controlling for age, sex, and full scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Results The proportion of abnormal range Mn group was significantly high in ADHD compared to controls. However, after statistical control for covariates including age and sex, abnormal range Mn group was significantly associated with ADHD (OR=6.40, 95% CI=1.39-29.41, p=0.017). Conclusion The result of this study suggests that excess exposure or deficiency of Mn were associated with ADHD among children in Korea. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the effects of hair manganese levels on symptoms in ADHD.

Shin, Dong-Won; Kim, Eun-Ji; Lim, Se-Won; Shin, Young-Chul; Oh, Kang-Seob

2015-01-01

288

Physiological concentrations of anabolic steroids in human hair.  

PubMed

Doping with endogenous anabolic steroids is one of the most serious issues in sports today. The measurement of anabolic steroid levels in human hair is necessary in order to distinguish between pharmaceutical steroids and natural steroids. This is the first investigation into the physiological concentrations of anabolic steroids in human hair in Chinese subjects. A gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of five endogenous anabolic steroids (testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone) in hair. After basic hydrolysis, hair samples were extracted with diethyl ether, derivatized and then detected using GC/MS/MS in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode (MRM). The one precursor/two product ion transitions for each anabolic steroid were monitored. The limits of detection for the five endogenous anabolic steroids were in the 0.1-0.2 pg/mg range. All analytes showed good linearity and the extraction recoveries were 74.6-104.5%. Within-day and between-day precisions were less than 20%. This method was applied to the analysis of testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, and dehydroepiandrosterone in human hair. Full-length hair samples were taken at the skin surface from the vertex of 39 males, 30 females and 11 children from China. None of the subjects were professional athletes. Testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone were detected in all the hair segments. The physiological concentrations of testosterone were in the range 0.8-24.2 pg/mg, 0.1-16.8 pg/mg and 0.2-11.5 pg/mg in males, females and children, respectively, however, the mean values of dehydroepiandrosterone were much higher than the concentrations of testosterone. These data are suitable reference values and are the basis for the interpretation of results from investigations into the abuse of endogenous anabolic steroids. PMID:19131197

Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Baohua; Bu, Jun; Wang, Mengye

2009-01-30

289

Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)  

MedlinePLUS

... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

290

Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)  

MedlinePLUS

... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

291

Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus  

E-print Network

Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus Michael E. Benser Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021 Hair bundles, the mechanically sensitive organelles of hair cells in the auditory and vestibular systems, are elastic structures that are deflected

Hudspeth, A. James

292

Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli  

E-print Network

Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli, 1999 To enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity, hair cells amplify the mechanical stimuli to which they respond. Although cell-body contractions of outer hair cells are thought

Hudspeth, A. James

293

Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells in the sacculus  

E-print Network

Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells transduction by the inner ear. We present evidence for a single-cell correlate of this phenomenon, hair motion that incorporates the negative stiffness of the hair bundle as well as its two mechanisms

Hudspeth, A. James

294

Short anagen hair with persistent synchronized pattern of scalp hair growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike other mammals that molt hair seasonally, human beings have scalp hair follicles that exhibit an asynchronized pattern of cycling, with the growth and subsequent shedding of each hair being independent of others around it. This mosaic cycling behavior is established early and continues throughout life. We describe a boy who continues to have a synchronized pattern of hair growth

Keng-Ee Thai; Rodney D Sinclair

2003-01-01

295

Seasonality of Hair Shedding in Healthy Women Complaining of Hair Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A number of otherwise healthy women with or without clinical alopecia complain of recurrent hair loss, presumably reflecting seasonality in the growth and shedding of hair. Objective: To test the hypothesis that periodicity in hair shedding reflects seasonal changes in human hair growth. Methods: Retrospective case study over a period of 6 years of apparently healthy women with the

Michael Kunz; Burkhardt Seifert; Ralph M. Trüeb

2009-01-01

296

Abnormalities of caudal pharyngeal pouch development in Pbx1 knockout mice mimic loss of Hox3 paralogs.  

PubMed

Pbx1 is a TALE-class homeodomain protein that functions in part as a cofactor for Hox class homeodomain proteins. Previous analysis of the in vivo functions of Pbx1 by targeted mutagenesis in mice has revealed roles for this gene in skeletal patterning and development and in the organogenesis of multiple systems. Both RNA expression and protein localization studies have suggested a possible role for Pbx1 in pharyngeal region development. As several Hox mutants have distinct phenotypes in this region, we investigated the potential requirement for Pbx1 in the development of the pharyngeal arches and pouches and their organ derivatives. Pbx1 homozygous mutants exhibited delayed or absent formation of the caudal pharyngeal pouches, and disorganized patterning of the third pharyngeal pouch. Formation of the third pouch-derived thymus/parathyroid primordia was also affected, with absent or hypoplastic primordia, delayed expression of organ-specific differentiation markers, and reduced proliferation of thymic epithelium. The fourth pouch and the fourth pouch-derived ultimobranchial bodies were usually absent. These phenotypes are similar to those previously reported in Hoxa3(-/-) single mutants and Hoxa1(-/-);Hoxb1(-/-) or Hoxa3(+/-);Hoxb3(-/-);Hoxd3(-/-) compound mutants, suggesting that Pbx1 acts together with multiple Hox proteins in the development of the caudal pharyngeal region. However, some aspects of the Pbx1 mutant phenotype included specific defects that were less severe than those found in known Hox mutant mice, suggesting that some functions of Hox proteins in this region are Pbx1-independent. PMID:15581866

Manley, Nancy R; Selleri, Licia; Brendolan, Andrea; Gordon, Julie; Cleary, Michael L

2004-12-15

297

Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain\\/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have

Joan Villarroya; Beatriz Dorado; Maya R. Vilà; Elena Garcia-Arumí; Pere Domingo; Marta Giralt; Michio Hirano; Francesc Villarroya

2011-01-01

298

From genetic abnormality to metastases: murine models of breast cancer and their use in the development of anticancer therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Numerous mouse models of mammary cancer have been developed that mimic selective aspects of human disease. The use of these\\u000a models has enabled preclinical chemotherapeutic, chemoprevention, and genetic therapy studies in vivo, the testing of gene delivery systems, and the identification of tumour and metastasis suppressor and inducer genes. This\\u000a review has discussed the most abundantly used murine models of

P. D. Ottewell; R. E. Coleman; I. Holen

2006-01-01

299

COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE  

E-print Network

using MS3110, which eliminate pressure effect on sensor, showed higher sensitivities for the hair showed a bulged sensor membrane under flow due to flow pressure. Differential capacitance measurements sensors than sensors without hairs. The measured single hair sensor sensitivity is 17 0 74 10. Farad / Pa

White, Robert D.

300

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING  

E-print Network

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes, (Course #33) May 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 inria-00520193,version1

Boyer, Edmond

301

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2014-07-01

302

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2013-07-01

303

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2012-07-01

304

On Hair Color in France Ellen Gilkerson  

E-print Network

On Hair Color in France Ellen Gilkerson Genentech, Inc. Leslie Lamport Microsoft Research 22 May coloration of the male in many species of birds [2]. Instances of sex-linking of hair color in mammals is found almost exclusively in the female [4]. We report here our discovery of sex-linking of hair

Lamport ,Leslie

305

Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells  

E-print Network

Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells ELIZABETH C. OESTERLE,* DIANA I. LURIE avian inner ear by using immunocytochemical techniques. NF-M was detected in auditory hair cells and VIIIth cranial nerve neurons. NF-M-positive hair cells are first detected at embryonic day 11 (E11

Rubel, Edwin

306

Hair dye poisoning: An unusual encounter  

PubMed Central

A 19-year-old female patient presented with alleged history of hair dye “Super Vasmol 33” intake. She presented with cervicofacial edema with upper airway obstruction. Although patient was being managed for airway obstruction, she developed cardiac arrest. Cardiac resuscitation could not be started at that point of time because managing airway was the priority in a patient who in hypoxic cardiac arrest. As soon as the airway was secured by emergency tracheostomy, cardiac resuscitation was initiated and the patient was successfully revived. PMID:24987242

Garg, Sunil Kumar; Tiwari, Rajjan; Ahlawat, Alok

2014-01-01

307

Abnormal development of NG2+PDGFR?+ neural progenitor cells leads to neonatal hydrocephalus in a ciliopathy mouse model  

PubMed Central

Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder leading to expansion of the cerebral ventricles and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most neonatal cases are of unknown etiology and are likely to display complex inheritance involving multiple genes and environmental factors. Identifying molecular mechanisms for neonatal hydrocephalus and developing non-invasive treatment modalities are high priorities. Here we employ a hydrocephalic mouse model of the human ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) and identify a role for neural progenitors in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus. We found that hydrocephalus in this mouse model is caused by aberrant PDGFR? signaling, resulting in increased apoptosis and impaired proliferation of NG2+PDGFR?+ neural progenitors. Targeting this pathway with lithium treatment rescued NG2+PDGFR?+ progenitor cell proliferation in BBS mutant mice, reducing ventricular volume. Our findings demonstrate that neural progenitors are critical in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus and we identify novel therapeutic targets for this common neurological disorder. PMID:23160237

Carter, Calvin S.; Vogel, Timothy W.; Zhang, Qihong; Seo, Seongjin; Swiderski, Ruth E.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Cassell, Martin D.; Thedens, Daniel R.; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Nishimura, Darryl Y.; Searby, Charles C.; Bugge, Kevin; Sheffield, Val C.

2012-01-01

308

Abnormal pituitary development and function in three siblings of a Jamaican family: A new syndrome involving the Pit-1 gene  

SciTech Connect

In 1967 Mckusick et al. reported three siblings in Canada who had combine pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD). Since that report there have been several families with multiple affected members who share the common characteristics of autosomal recessive inheritance and clinical expression of pituitary deficiencies at an early age. We report here a CPHD family of Jamaican origin with three affected and two unaffected siblings. The affected siblings have evidence of severe growth failure, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism and variable prolactin deficiency. Recently, in some families with CPHD a defect has been detected in the Pit-1 gene, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of the pituitary and the production of growth hormone, TSH and prolactin. We are studying the Pit-1 gene in this family as a candidate gene that may explain the family phenotype. The Pit-1 gene has been analyzed in DNA extracted from blood. No gross deletion were detected in exons 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 using exon-specific PCR assay developed in our laboratory. Exon 1 is also currently being analyzed. Single stand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, a screening technique for point mutations within genes, is being used to identify putative base pair changes in the Pit-1 gene. The exon findings will be confirmed using standard DNA sequencing procedures. If a Pit-1 gene is detected, this family would provide a novel presentation, since gonadotropin deficiency appears to be present. Alternatively, this family may represent a mutation on another yet unknown factor involved in normal pituitary development.

Sanchez, J.C.; Schiavi, A. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Parks, J. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

309

No-hair theorems and black holes with hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical steps leading to the uniqueness theorem for the Kerr-Newman metric are examined in the light of the new black hole solutions with Yang-Mills and scalar hair. Various methods - including scaling techniques, arguments based on energy conditions, conformal transformations and divergence identities - are reviewed, and their range of application to selfgravitating scalar and non-Abelian gauge fields is

Markus Heusler

1996-01-01

310

Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer  

PubMed Central

Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

2011-01-01

311

NEW FRONTIER IN UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent advancements in molecular developmental biology afford an opportunity to apply newly developed tools for understanding the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal development. lthough a number of agents have been identified as causing developmental abnormalities, knowledge ...

312

Ectopic expression of an apple apomixis-related gene MhFIE induces co-suppression and results in abnormal vegetative and reproductive development in tomato.  

PubMed

It has been well documented that FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) plays important regulatory roles in diverse developmental processes in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is largely unknown how FIE genes function in economically important crops. In this study, MhFIE gene, which was previously isolated from apomictic tea crabapple (Malus hupehensis Redh. var. pingyiensis), was introduced into tomato. The hemizygous transgenic tomato lines produced curly leaves and decreased in seed germination. In addition, the co-suppression of the transgenic MhFIE and endogenous (SlFIE) genes occurred in homozygous transgenic tomatoes. As a result, FIE silencing brought about abnormal phenotypes during reproductive development in tomato, such as increased sepal and petal numbers in flower, a fused ovule and pistil and parthenocarpic fruit formation. A yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that MhFIE interacted with a tomato protein, EZ2 (SlEZ2). Its ectopic expression and SlFIE co-suppression notably influenced the expression of genes associated with leaf, flower, and fruit development. Therefore, together with other PcG proteins, FIE was involved in the regulation of vegetative and reproductive development by modulating the expression of related genes in plants. PMID:23000466

Liu, Dan-Dan; Dong, Qing-Long; Fang, Mou-Jing; Chen, Ke-Qin; Hao, Yu-Jin

2012-12-15

313

[A boy with nail abnormalities].  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

2013-01-01

314

Abnormal development of the intercostal muscles and the rib cage in Myf5-/- embryos leads to pulmonary hypoplasia.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to investigate the importance of pulmonary distension and fetal breathing-like movements executed by the contractile activity of the intercostal respiratory muscles for proper lung growth and maturation. Lung development in Myf5-/- embryos, lacking the rib cage and functional intercostal musculature, was compared with wild-type controls at embryonic days 14.5, 16.5, and 18.5. Our data revealed that Myf5-/- embryos suffered from pulmonary hypoplasia in part due to the decreased number of proliferating lung cells and in part due to the increased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) -positive cells. In addition, the proximal-to-distal expression gradient of thyroid transcription factor-1 observed in wild-type embryos was not maintained in Myf5-/- embryos. The number of lung cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor-BB, its receptor and insulin growth factor-I was significantly decreased in the hypoplastic lung. By contrast, no difference in the expression pattern of surfactant associated proteins or Clara cells marker was detected between wild-type and Myf5-/- embryos. Collectively, our data suggest that the mechanochemical signal transduction pathway used in vitro is also effective in vivo influencing lung growth but not lung cell maturation and resulting in lung hypoplasia. These data affirm the role of fetal breathing-like movements in lung organogenesis. PMID:15580568

Inanlou, Mohammad Reza; Kablar, Boris

2005-01-01

315

Assessment of electron beam-induced abnormal development and DNA damage in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) is a polyphagous and important agricultural pest worldwide. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages, reproduction, and DNA damage of S. litura. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (3rd instar), pupae (3 days old after pupation), and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with electron beam irradiation of six levels between 30 and 250 Gy. When eggs were irradiated with 100 Gy, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When the larvae were irradiated, the larval period was significantly delayed, depending on the doses applied. At 150 Gy, the fecundity of adults that developed from irradiated pupae was entirely inhibited. However, electron beam irradiation did not induce the instantaneous death of S. litura adults. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males. We also conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over the following 5 days period. Severe DNA fragmentation in S. litura cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. However, at more than 100 Gy, DNA damage was not fully recovered.

Yun, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

2014-03-01

316

Deafness in occludin-deficient mice with dislocation of tricellulin and progressive apoptosis of the hair cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Occludin is the first identified protein in the tight junction (TJ), but its function has remained for the most part obscure. TJs have been demonstrated to play important roles in the inner ear function, and occludin is expressed in all the epithelial TJs in the inner ear. Thus, we examined the inner ears of occludin-deficient (Occ?/?) mice. Although inner ears initially developed normally in Occ?/? mice, apoptosis occurs in hair cells in the organ of Corti around day 12 after birth, and deafness develops. Since hair cell degeneration was not observed in cochlear explant cultures of Occ?/? mice, environmental changes were considered to be the trigger of cell death. As for the vestibular system, both the morphologies and functions are normal in Occ?/? mice. These phenotypes of Occ?/? mice are very similar with those of claudin-14 or claudin-9 deficient mice, leading us to speculate on the existence of imbalance induced by TJ abnormalities, such as localized ionic components. Moreover, the occludin deficiency led to dislocalization of tricellulin, a gene responsible for human deafness DFNB49. The deafness in Occ?/? mice may be due to this dislocalization of tricellulin. PMID:25063198

Kitajiri, Shin-ichiro; Katsuno, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Juichi; Furuse, Mikio; Tsukita, Shoichiro

2014-01-01

317

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

318

Biomonitoring of hair samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical method for determining essential elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) and toxic elements (Cr, Pb and U) on single hair strands by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-SFMS) using a double focusing sector field mass spectrometer was developed. Results obtained directly using LA-ICP-SFMS of hair were compared with those measured by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) of solutions of digested hair samples and the analytical methods were found to agree well. Different quantification strategies for trace element determination in hair samples such as external calibration, standard addition and isotope dilution were compared and demonstrated for uranium. For uranium determination in powdered hair by LA-ICP-MS solution-based calibration was applied by coupling the laser ablation chamber to an ultrasonic nebulizer. The significance of single hair analysis by LA-ICP-SFMS was demonstrated by a case study of a person who changed living environment. Differences in the uranium content observed along the single hair strand correlated with the changes in the level of uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in a single hair decreased from 212 to 18 ng g-1 with a change in the uranium concentration in drinking water from 2000 to 30 ng l-1. In addition, measurements of uranium isotope ratios showed a natural isotopic composition throughout the whole period in the drinking water, as well as in the hair samples. This paper demonstrates the potential use of laser ablation ICP-MS to provide measurements on a single hair strand and its potential to become a very powerful tool in hair analysis for biological monitoring.

Sela, H.; Karpas, Z.; Zoriy, M.; Pickhardt, C.; Becker, J. S.

2007-03-01

319

A biomimetic accelerometer inspired by the cricket's clavate hair.  

PubMed

Crickets use so-called clavate hairs to sense (gravitational) acceleration to obtain information on their orientation. Inspired by this clavate hair system, a one-axis biomimetic accelerometer has been developed and fabricated using surface micromachining and SU-8 lithography. An analytical model is presented for the design of the accelerometer, and guidelines are derived to reduce responsivity due to flow-induced contributions to the accelerometer's output. Measurements show that this microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) hair-based accelerometer has a resonance frequency of 320 Hz, a detection threshold of 0.10 ms(-2) and a dynamic range of more than 35 dB. The accelerometer exhibits a clear directional response to external accelerations and a low responsivity to airflow. Further, the accelerometer's physical limits with respect to noise levels are addressed and the possibility for short-term adaptation of the sensor to the environment is discussed. PMID:24920115

Droogendijk, H; de Boer, M J; Sanders, R G P; Krijnen, G J M

2014-08-01

320

Roles of MED1 in quiescence of hair follicle stem cells and maintenance of normal hair cycling.  

PubMed

MED1 (mediator complex subunit 1) is expressed by human epidermal keratinocytes and functions as a coactivator of several transcription factors. To elucidate the role of MED1 in keratinocytes, we established keratinocyte-specific Med1-null (Med1(epi-/-)) mice using the K5Cre/LoxP system. Development of the epidermis and appendages of Med1(epi-/-) mice were macroscopically and microscopically normal until the second catagen of the hair cycle. However, the hair cycle of Med1(epi-/-) mice was spontaneously repeated after the second telogen, which does not occur in wild-type (WT) mice. Hair follicles of Med1(epi-/-) mice could not enter anagen after 6 months of age, resulting in sparse pelage hair in older Med1(epi-/-) mice. Interfollicular epidermis (IFE) of Med1(epi-/-) mice was acanthotic and more proliferative than that of WT mice, whereas these findings were less evident in older Med1(epi-/-) mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the numbers of hair follicle bulge stem cells were reduced in Med1(epi-/-) mice from a few months after birth. These results suggest that MED1 has roles in maintaining quiescence of keratinocytes and preventing depletion of the follicular stem cells. PMID:22931914

Nakajima, Takeshi; Inui, Shigeki; Fushimi, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Fumihito; Kitagawa, Yutaka; Reddy, Janardan K; Itami, Satoshi

2013-02-01

321

Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

2012-07-01

322

Modulation of hair cell efferents  

PubMed Central

Outer hair cells (OHCs) amplify the sound-evoked motion of the basilar membrane to enhance acoustic sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents inhibit OHCs to reduce the sound-evoked response of cochlear afferent neurons. OHC inhibition occurs through the activation of postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors tightly coupled to calcium-dependent SK2 channels that hyperpolarize the hair cell. MOC neurons are cholinergic but a number of other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been proposed to participate in efferent transmission, with emerging evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Cochlear inhibition in vivo is maximized by repetitive activation of the efferents, reflecting facilitation and summation of transmitter release onto outer hair cells. This review summarizes recent studies on cellular and molecular mechanisms of cholinergic inhibition and the regulation of those molecular components, in particular the involvement of intracellular calcium. Facilitation at the efferent synapse is compared in a variety of animals, as well as other possible mechanisms of modulation of ACh release. These results suggest that short-term plasticity contributes to effective cholinergic inhibition of hair cells. PMID:21187136

Wersinger, Eric; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2011-01-01

323

Live imaging of root hairs.  

PubMed

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients. Growing root hairs requires intensive cell wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip growth. The cell wall of plants is a very rigid structure comprised largely of polysaccharides and hydroxyproline-rich O-glycoproteins. The importance of root hairs stems from their capacity to expand the surface of interaction between the root and the environment, in search for the necessary nutrients and water to allow plant growth. Therefore, it becomes crucial to deepen our knowledge of them, particularly in the light of the applicability in agriculture by allowing the expansion of croplands. Root hair growth is an extremely fast process, reaching growth rates of up to 1 ?m/min and it also is a dynamic process; there can be situations in which the final length might not be affected but the growth rate is. Consequently, in this chapter we focus on a method for studying growth dynamics and rates during a time course. This method is versatile allowing for it to be used in other plant organs such as lateral root, hypocotyl, etc., and also in various conditions. PMID:25408443

Velasquez, Silvia M; Dinneny, Jose R; Estevez, José M

2015-01-01

324

A correlation of breast cancer and calcium levels in hair analyzed by X-ray fluorescence.  

PubMed

Time variations of elemental concentrations and their abnormalities due to breast cancer have been observed along single hair strands by X-ray fluorescence excited by synchrotron radiation. The renal-controlled elements Ca, Sr, S, K, Cl, Br and P have upper and lower levels associated with gating and closing of ion channels in the hair-making cells. The Ca lower level is normal. In cases of Ca deficiency, with a decrease from the normal, store-operated Ca channel gating occurs so as to keep the hair Ca at the normal, and paradoxically high Ca levels near or at the upper level are produced by PTH-operated channel gating of the cells. Chronic Ca deficiency shows a temporal pattern along the hair consisting of a long-term duration of the upper [Ca] level, 10-month long decay to the lower level and abrupt increase to the upper level. The observation for hair from breast-cancer patients also shows the upper Ca level for the time period well before detection, and suggests that cancer is always generated at the long-lasting [Ca] upper level and the hair [Ca] decreases gradually toward the lower level with the cancer growth. This decay of [Ca] is accompanied by those of [Sr] and [K]. Their different decay forms can be explained by parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) in serum secreted from the cancer having 150 times longer dwell time on the PTH receptors than that of PTH. Patient hair has a memory for the entire cancer process from the state before cancer generation, and the pattern can be distinguished from concentration variation due to the chronic Ca deficiency without cancer, leading to a criterion for cancer detection by the ratio of [Sr]/[Ca]. The hair analysis is useful for early detection of cancer. PMID:25265920

Chikawa, Jun-ichi; Mouri, Yoshitaka; Shima, Hiroki; Yamada, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo

2014-01-01

325

Note: Wearable near-infrared spectroscopy imager for haired region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wearable optical topography system was developed that is based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for observing brain activity noninvasively including in regions covered by hair. An avalanche photo diode, high voltage dc-dc converter, and preamplifier were placed in an electrically shielded case to be safely mounted on the head. Rubber teeth and a glass rod were prepared to clear away hair and reach the scalp. These devices realized for the first time a wearable NIRS imager for any region of the cortex. The activity in the motor cortex during finger tapping was successfully observed.

Kiguchi, M.; Atsumori, H.; Fukasaku, I.; Kumagai, Y.; Funane, T.; Maki, A.; Kasai, Y.; Ninomiya, A.

2012-05-01

326

AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-Binding Domain Deficient Mice Develop Normally but Have an Abnormal Response to ?-Adrenergic-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

Background A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA) and D (PKD) and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction. Conclusions These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23658642

Spindler, Matthew J.; Burmeister, Brian T.; Huang, Yu; Hsiao, Edward C.; Salomonis, Nathan; Scott, Mark J.; Srivastava, Deepak; Carnegie, Graeme K.; Conklin, Bruce R.

2013-01-01

327

Gene targeting of Desrt, a novel ARID class DNA-binding protein, causes growth retardation and abnormal development of reproductive organs.  

PubMed

We have cloned and characterized a novel murine DNA-binding protein Desrt, with a motif characteristic of the ARID (A-T rich interaction domain) family of transcription factors. The Desrt gene encodes an 83-kD protein that is shown to bind DNA and is widely expressed in adult tissues. To examine the in vivo function of Desrt, we have generated mice with a targeted mutation in the ARID domain of Desrt. Homozygous mutants have reduced viability, pronounced growth retardation, and a high incidence of abnormalities of the female and male reproductive organs including cryptorchidism. This may thus serve as a model to dissect the mechanisms involved in the development of the reproductive tract including testicular descent. Gene-targeted mice also display a reduction in the thickness of the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland and transient aberrations of the T and B cell compartments of primary lymphoid organs. These data show that this novel DNA-binding protein, Desrt, has a nonredundant function during growth and in the development of the reproductive system. PMID:11483573

Lahoud, M H; Ristevski, S; Venter, D J; Jermiin, L S; Bertoncello, I; Zavarsek, S; Hasthorpe, S; Drago, J; de Kretser, D; Hertzog, P J; Kola, I

2001-08-01

328

Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

2014-02-01

329

Black hole?s 1/N hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

2013-02-01

330

Correction of the cornrow hair transplant and other common problems in surgical hair restoration.  

PubMed

Hair on a man's head is an important emblem of health, youth, and vitality. As in all areas of cosmetic surgery, the refinements of surgical technique and instrumentation have improved the results of hair transplantation. The state of the art in hair grafting today produces a result that is undetectable as being a surgical hair transplant. Many earlier techniques of plug hair transplantation are not aesthetically acceptable by today's standards. This is especially true in the face of progressive hair loss, which can unmask previously camouflaged cornrow plugs. A technique to reduce the plugs and recycle the grafts into smaller grafts is described. The recycled hair grafts can be combined with scalp lifting, scalp reductions, and occipital harvesting of grafts to improve the results of cornrow appearing hair transplants and other problems of surgical hair restoration. PMID:10744248

Vogel, J E

2000-04-01

331

Mortality from congenital abnormality in Malaysia 1991-1997: the effect of economic development on death due to congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

An analysis was done of available data from the Department of Statistics Malaysia, on the type of congenital abnormality contributing to death, to determine whether progress in health care over recent years was associated with any decline in mortality from congenital abnormality. A significant decline in death due to congenital abnormality was observed between 1991 and 1996. This was attributable to a decline in deaths due to congenital heart disease occurring because of improvements in cardiac surgical services for infants. In 1997 death due to congenital heart disease increased significantly. This could be attributed to improvements in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in the neonate. PMID:11771084

Ho, J J

2001-06-01

332

Structurally abnormal human autosomes  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

333

Epidermal Wnt controls hair follicle induction by orchestrating dynamic signaling crosstalk between the epidermis and dermis  

PubMed Central

A signal first arising in the dermis to initiate the development of hair follicles has been described for many decades. Wnt is the earliest signal known to be intimately involved in hair follicle induction. However, it is not clear whether the inductive signal of Wnt arises intradermally or intraepidermally. Whether Wnt acts as the first dermal signal to initiate hair follicle development also remains unclear. Here, we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177, the mouse Wls orthologue encoding a Wnt trafficking regulator, is essential for hair follicle induction. Cell-type specific abrogation of the signal reveals that only epidermal, but not dermal, production of Wnt is required. An intra-epidermal Wnt signal is necessary and sufficient for hair follicle initiation. But, the subsequent development depends on reciprocal signaling crosstalk of epidermal and dermal cells. Wnt signals within the epidermis and dermis, and crossing between the epidermis and dermis, have distinct roles and specific functions in skin development. This study not only defines the cell type responsible for Wnt production, but also reveals a highly dynamic regulation of Wnt signaling at different steps of hair follicle morphogenesis. Our findings uncover a mechanism underlying hair follicle development orchestrated by the Wnt pathway. PMID:23190887

Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

2012-01-01

334

Common Variants in the Trichohyalin Gene Are Associated with Straight Hair in Europeans  

PubMed Central

Hair morphology is highly differentiated between populations and among people of European ancestry. Whereas hair morphology in East Asian populations has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about the genetics of this trait in Europeans. We performed a genome-wide association scan for hair morphology (straight, wavy, curly) in three Australian samples of European descent. All three samples showed evidence of association implicating the Trichohyalin gene (TCHH), which is expressed in the developing inner root sheath of the hair follicle, and explaining ?6% of variance (p = 1.5 × 10?31). These variants are at their highest frequency in Northern Europeans, paralleling the distribution of the straight-hair EDAR variant in Asian populations. PMID:19896111

Medland, Sarah E.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Painter, Jodie N.; McEvoy, Brian P.; McRae, Allan F.; Zhu, Gu; Gordon, Scott D.; Ferreira, Manuel A.R.; Wright, Margaret J.; Henders, Anjali K.; Campbell, Megan J.; Duffy, David L.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Macgregor, Stuart; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2009-01-01

335

Structural, Nanomechanical and Nanotribological Characterization of Human Hair Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Healthy, soft hair with good feel, shine, color and overall aesthetics is generally highly desirable. It is important to study hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners as well as damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments because they affect the maintenance and grooming process and therefore alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, the mechanical properties, as well as the morphological, frictional and adhesive properties (tribological properties) of hair is essential if we wish to evaluate and develop better cosmetic products, and crucial to advancing the understanding of biological and cosmetic science. The atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM) and nanoindenter have recently become important tools for studying the micro/nanoscale properties of human hair. In this chapter, we present a comprehensive review of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of various hair and skin as a function of ethnicity, damage, conditioning treatment, and various environments. Various cellular structures of human hair and fine sublamellar structures of the cuticle are identified and studied. Nanomechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, creep and scratch resistance are discussed. Nanotribological properties such as roughness, friction, and adhesion are presented, as well as investigations of conditioner distribution, thickness and binding interactions.

Bhushan, Bharat; Latorre, Carmen; Wei, Guohua

336

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

337

Hair analysis for ? 9THC, ? 9THC-COOH, CBN and CBD, by GC\\/MS-EI  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive analytical method was developed for quantitative analysis of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), 11-nor-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (?9-THC-COOH), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in human hair. The identification of ?9-THC-COOH in hair would document Cannabis use more effectively than the detection of parent drug (?9-THC) which might have come from environmental exposure.Ketamine was added to hair samples as internal standard for CBN and

Maria João Baptista; Paula Venâncio Monsanto; Estela Gouveia Pinho Marques; Ana Bermejo; Sofia Ávila; Alice Martelo Castanheira; Cláudia Margalho; Mário Barroso; Duarte Nuno Vieira

2002-01-01

338

Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts  

PubMed Central

In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA) increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line. PMID:25431550

He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

2014-01-01

339

Characterization of hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes provides insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans  

PubMed Central

Background Hair is one of the main distinguishing characteristics of mammals and it has many important biological functions. Cetaceans originated from terrestrial mammals and they have evolved a series of adaptations to aquatic environments, which are of evolutionary significance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their aquatic adaptations have not been well explored. This study provided insights into the evolution of hair loss during the transition from land to water by investigating and comparing two essential regulators of hair follicle development and hair follicle cycling, i.e., the Hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes, in representative cetaceans and their terrestrial relatives. Results The full open reading frame sequences of the Hr and FGF5 genes were characterized in seven cetaceans. The sequence characteristics and evolutionary analyses suggested the functional loss of the Hr gene in cetaceans, which supports the loss of hair during their full adaptation to aquatic habitats. By contrast, positive selection for the FGF5 gene was found in cetaceans where a series of positively selected amino acid residues were identified. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the molecular basis of the hair loss in cetaceans. Our investigation of Hr and FGF5, two indispensable regulators of the hair cycle, provide some new insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans. The results suggest that positive selection for the FGF5 gene might have promoted the termination of hair growth and early entry into the catagen stage of hair follicle cycling. Consequently, the hair follicle cycle was disrupted and the hair was lost completely due to the loss of the Hr gene function in cetaceans. This suggests that cetaceans have evolved an effective and complex mechanism for hair loss. PMID:23394579

2013-01-01

340

Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Objective In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. Methods We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Results Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen® and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (UK, Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the USA, Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. Conclusion These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen® and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. Résumé Objectif Chez l'homme, le processus de perte de cheveux, désigné comme exogène, est censé se produire indépendamment des autres phases du cycle de cheveux. Bien que les mécanismes réels impliqués dans la perte de cheveux ne soient pas entièrement connus, il a été émis l'hypothèse que les processus conduisant à l'étape finale de la perte de cheveux peuvent être modulés par des protéases et/ou l'activité d'inhibiteurs de protéase. Dans cette étude, nous avons étudié la présence de protéases et de l'activité des protéases dans les cheveux humains perdus naturellement et évalué l'activité inhibitrice d'enzyme de différents matériaux. Méthodes Nous avons mesuré l'activité enzymatique en utilisant un dosage basé sur la fluorescence et la localisation des protéines par immunohistochimie indirecte (IHC). Nous avons également développé un modèle de peau ex vivo pour mesurer la force nécessaire pour extraire les fibres capillaires de la peau. Résultats Nos données démontrent la présence d'une activité de la protéase dans le matériau de tissu entourant les racines du bulbe. Nous avons également démontré la localisation de l'expression des protéines de la sérine protéase spécifique du follicule pileux humain par IHC. Ces données fournissent des éléments de preuve démontrant la présence de protéases autour des racines du bulbe de cheveux qui peuvent jouer un rôle durant la phase exogène. Nous avons également testé l'hypothèse selon laquelle un nouveau système inhibiteur de protéase (combinaison de Trichogen ® et climbazole) pouvait inhiber l'activité de la protéase dans les extraits des bulbes de la racine des cheveux, recueillies à partir d'un éventail de groupes ethniques (Royaume-Uni, Brésil, Chine, 1ère génération Mexicains aux États-Unis, Tha&#x

Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

2014-01-01

341

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs  

PubMed Central

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-01-01

342

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

343

Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.  

PubMed

Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. PMID:23305149

Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

2013-06-01

344

SRXRF determination of the multielement composition of the hair and blood of the children of Tundra Nenetz population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SRXRF has been used to determine the multielement composition of the hair and blood of Tundra Nenetz children. The method allows one to simultaneously determine 21 elements in the blood and 22 elements in the hair. Individual differences have been revealed in the element composition of the hair and blood. Sexual and age changes have been revealed in the content of some elements in the hair. A technique has been developed to prepare blood and hair samples for measuring the element composition by the SRXRF method. The blood samples were prepared by spreading 20 ?l over the 1 cm 2 Whatman filter. The hair samples were obtained by pressing in the form of tablets of 1 cm in diameter and a mass of 10-40 mg.

Chankina, O. V.; Kovalskaya, G. A.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Osipova, L. P.; Savchenko, T. I.

2001-09-01

345

Serum androgens: associations with prostate cancer risk and hair patterning.  

PubMed

Cancer of the prostate is the leading cancer among American men, yet few risk factors have been established. Hair growth and development are influenced by androgens, and it has long been suspected that prostate cancer also is responsive to these hormones. A blinded, case-control study was undertaken to determine if hair patterning is associated with risk of prostate cancer, as well as specific hormonal profiles. The study accrued 315 male subjects who were stratified with regard to age, race, and case-control status (159 prostate cancer cases/156 controls). Hair-patterning classification and serum levels of total and free testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were performed. Data indicate that hair patterning did not differ between prostate cancer cases and controls; however, significant hormonal differences were detected between the two groups. Free T was greater among cases than in controls (16.4 +/- 6.1 vs. 14.9 +/- 4.8 pg/ml, P = 0.02). Conversely, DHT-related ratios were greater among controls (P = 0.03 for DHT/T and P = 0.01 for DHT/free T). Several strong associations also were found between hormone levels and hair patterning. Men with vertex and frontal baldness had higher levels of free T (16.5 +/- 5.5 and 16.2 +/- 8.0 pg/ml, respectively) when compared to men with either little or no hair loss (14.8 +/- 4.7 pg/ml) (P = 0.01). Data suggest that increased levels of free T may be a risk factor for prostatic carcinoma. In addition, although no differences in hair patterning were detected between cases and controls within this older population, further research (i.e., prospective trials or case-control studies among younger men) may be necessary to determine if hair patterning serves as a viable biomarker for this disease, especially given the strong association between free T levels and baldness. PMID:9349747

Demark-Wahnefried, W; Lesko, S M; Conaway, M R; Robertson, C N; Clark, R V; Lobaugh, B; Mathias, B J; Strigo, T S; Paulson, D F

1997-01-01

346

Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1  

E-print Network

Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1 Eyal Ofek2 Long Quan1 Heung-Yeung Shum2 1 The Hong; the recovered hair rendered with the recovered diffuse color; a fraction of the longest recovered hair fibers rendered with the recovered diffuse color to show the hair threads; the recovered hair rendered

Quan, Long

347

Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato

1995-01-01

348

Functional Features of Trans-differentiated Hair Cells Mediated by Atoh1 Reveals a Primordial Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Evolution has transformed a simple ear with few vestibular maculae into a complex 3-dimensional structure consisting of nine distinct endorgans. It is debatable whether the sensory epithelia underwent progressive segregation or emerged from distinct sensory patches. To address these uncertainties we examined the morphological and functional phenotype of trans-differentiated rat hair cells to reveal their primitive or endorgan-specific origins. Additionally, it is uncertain how Atoh1-mediated trans-differentiated hair cells trigger the processes that establish their neural ranking from the vestibulocochlear ganglia. We have demonstrated that the morphology and functional expression of ionic currents in trans-differentiated hair cells resemble those of “ancestral” hair cells, even at the lesser epithelia ridge aspects of the cochlea. The structures of stereociliary bundles of trans-differentiated hair cells were in keeping with cells in the vestibule. Functionally, the transient expression of Na+ and Ih currents initiates and promotes evoked spikes. Additionally, Ca2+ current was expressed and underwent developmental changes. These events correlate well with the innervation of ectopic hair cells. New “born” hair cells at the abneural aspects of the cochlea are innervated by spiral ganglion neurons, presumably under the tropic influence of chemoattractants. The disappearance of inward currents coincides well with the attenuation of evoked electrical activity, remarkably recapitulating the development of hair cells. Ectopic hair cells underwent stepwise changes in the magnitude and kinetics of transducer currents. We propose that Atoh1 mediates trans-differentiation of morphological and functional “ancestral” hair cells that are likely to undergo diversification in an endorgan-specific manner. PMID:22423092

Yang, Juanmei; Bouvron, Sonia; Lv, Ping; Chi, Fanglu; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.

2012-01-01

349

Hair straightener poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Collapse Low blood pressure that develops rapidly Severe change in blood acid levels -- leads to organ damage Lungs: Breathing difficulty Throat swelling (may cause breathing difficulty) Skin: Burn Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues underneath Irritation

350

Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)  

MedlinePLUS

... 20090. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) represents over 8,700 child and adolescent ... school in general (adult) and child and adolescent psychiatry. Facts for Families © information sheets are developed, owned ...

351

Analysis of apoptosis during hair follicle regression (catagen)  

PubMed Central

Keratinocyte apoptosis is a central element in the regulation of hair follicle regression (catagen), yet the exact location and the control of follicular keratinocyte apoptosis remain obscure. To generate an "apoptomap" of the hair follicle, we have studied selected apoptosis-associated parameters in the C57BL/6 mouse model for hair research during normal and pharmacologically manipulated, pathological catagen development. As assessed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP fluorescein nick end-labeling (TUNEL) stain, apoptotic cells not only appeared in the regressing proximal follicle epithelium but, surprisingly, were also seen in the central inner root sheath, in the bulge/isthmus region, and in the secondary germ, but never in the dermal papilla. These apoptosis hot spots during catagen development correlated largely with a down-regulation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio but only poorly with the expression patterns of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme, p55TNFR, and Fas/Apo-1 immunoreactivity. Instead, a higher correlation was found with p75NTR expression. During cyclophosphamide-induced follicle dystrophy and alopecia, massive keratinocyte apoptosis occurred in the entire proximal hair bulb, except in the dermal papilla, despite a strong up-regulation of Bax and p75NTR immunoreactivity. Selected receptors of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor family and members of the Bcl-2 family may also play a key role in the control of follicular keratinocyte apoptosis in situ. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5. a Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9403711

Lindner, G.; Botchkarev, V. A.; Botchkareva, N. V.; Ling, G.; van der Veen, C.; Paus, R.

1997-01-01

352

Incidence of acneform reactions after laser hair removal.  

PubMed

There have been several studies published on the side effects of laser hair removal, but none specifically looked at acneform reactions. The aim of this study is to obtain an accurate assessment of the incidence of acneform reactions after laser hair removal in relation to skin type, laser type, site of treatment, polycystic ovarian syndrome history (PCOS), age, and sex of the patient. This is a multi-centre prospective study of patients presenting for laser hair removal. Data were gathered using a questionnaire completed by the staff who performed the treatment. The incidence of acneform reactions was 6%. The following variables showed a statistically significant effect on the percentage of patients with reactions: age, with younger patients more likely to develop lesions; those treated with the Nd:YAG laser type were more likely to develop lesions than those treated with the alexandrite; and the Fitzpatrick skin type V showed the highest incidence of acneform lesions, followed by skin types II and IV. History of PCOS, number of prior treatments, use of aloe vera cooling gel, and the sex of the patient had no apparent effect on the incidence of acneform lesions. Acneform reactions are relatively common after laser hair removal; however, in the majority of cases, the severity of the reaction was mild and lasted for a short duration. PMID:16612673

Carter, J J; Lanigan, S W

2006-07-01

353

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

354

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

355

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... age when teeth are forming Poor oral care Porphyria Severe neonatal jaundice Too much fluoride from environmental ... abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history ...

356

The Challenge of Hair Cell Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair cells of the inner ear are responsible for translating auditory or vestibular stimuli into electrical energy that can be perceived by the nervous system. Although hair cells are exquisitely mechanically sensitive, they can be easily damaged by excessive stimulation, by ototoxic drugs and by the effects of aging. In mammals, auditory hair cells are never replaced, such that cumulative damage to the ear causes progressive and permanent deafness. In contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of replacing lost hair cells, which has led to efforts to understand the molecular and cellular basis of regenerative responses in different vertebrate species. In this review, we describe recent progress in understanding the limits to hair cell regeneration in mammals and discuss the obstacles that currently exist for therapeutic approaches to hair cell replacement. PMID:20407075

Groves, Andrew K.

2013-01-01

357

Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts. PMID:16197431

Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

2005-11-01

358

Keratin 79 identifies a novel population of migratory epithelial cells that initiates hair canal morphogenesis and regeneration.  

PubMed

The formation of epithelial tubes underlies the development of diverse organs. In the skin, hair follicles resemble tube-like structures with lumens that are generated through poorly understood cellular rearrangements. Here, we show that creation of the hair follicle lumen is mediated by early outward movement of keratinocytes from within the cores of developing hair buds. These migratory keratinocytes express keratin 79 (K79) and stream out of the hair germ and into the epidermis prior to lumen formation in the embryo. Remarkably, this process is recapitulated during hair regeneration in the adult mouse, when K79(+) cells migrate out of the reactivated secondary hair germ prior to formation of a new hair canal. During homeostasis, K79(+) cells line the hair follicle infundibulum, a domain we show to be multilayered, biochemically distinct and maintained by Lrig1(+) stem cell-derived progeny. Upward movement of these cells sustains the infundibulum, while perturbation of this domain during acne progression is often accompanied by loss of K79. Our findings uncover previously unappreciated long-distance cell movements throughout the life cycle of the hair follicle, and suggest a novel mechanism by which the follicle generates its hollow core through outward cell migration. PMID:24198274

Veniaminova, Natalia A; Vagnozzi, Alicia N; Kopinke, Daniel; Do, Thy Thy; Murtaugh, L Charles; Maillard, Ivan; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Reiter, Jeremy F; Wong, Sunny Y

2013-12-01

359

Expression of Mineralized Tissue Associated Proteins: Dentin Sialoprotein and Phosphophoryn in Rodent Hair Follicles  

PubMed Central

Background Mammalian hair development and tooth development are controlled by a series of reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Similar growth factors and transcription factors, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), sonic hedgehog homolog (SHH), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt10a, were reported to be involved in both of these interactions. Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and phosphophoryn (PP) are the two major non-collagenous proteins secreted by odontoblasts that participate in dentin mineralization during tooth development. Because of striking similarities between tooth development and hair follicle development, we investigated whether DSP and/or PP proteins may also play a role in hair follicle development. Objective In this study, we examined the presence and location of DSP/PP proteins during hair follicle development. Methods Rat PP proteins were detected using immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent staining. DSP-PP mRNAs were detected by in situ hybridization with riboprobes. LacZ expression was detected in mouse tissues using a DSP-PP promoter-driven LUC in transgenic mice. Results We found that PP proteins and DSP-PP mRNAs are present in rat hair follicles. We also demonstrate that an 8 kb DSP-PP promoter is able to drive lacZ expression in hair follicles. Conclusion We have firmly established the presence of DSP/PP in mouse and rat hair follicles by immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent staining, in situ hybridization with riboprobes and transgenic mice studies. The expression of DSP/PP in hair follicles is the first demonstration that major mineralization proteins likely may also contribute to soft tissue development. This finding opens a new avenue for future investigations into the molecular-genetic management of soft tissue development. PMID:21908176

Tang, Xu-na; Zhu, Ya-qin; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Ritchie, Helena H.

2012-01-01

360

Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

2005-07-01

361

Long-term recovery from hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical abnormalities induced by noise exposure during brain development. Evaluation of auditory pathway integrity.  

PubMed

Sound is an important part of man's contact with the environment and has served as critical means for survival throughout his evolution. As a result of exposure to noise, physiological functions such as those involving structures of the auditory and non-auditory systems might be damaged. We have previously reported that noise-exposed developing rats elicited hippocampal-related histological, biochemical and behavioral changes. However, no data about the time lapse of these changes were reported. Moreover, measurements of auditory pathway function were not performed in exposed animals. Therefore, with the present work, we aim to test the onset and the persistence of the different extra-auditory abnormalities observed in noise-exposed rats and to evaluate auditory pathway integrity. Male Wistar rats of 15 days were exposed to moderate noise levels (95-97 dB SPL, 2 h a day) during one day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or during 15 days (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal biochemical determinations as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) behavioral assessments were performed. In addition, histological and functional evaluations of the auditory pathway were carried out in exposed animals. Our results show that hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical changes (impairments in habituation, recognition and associative memories as well as distortion of anxiety-related behavior, decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increases in antioxidant enzymes activities) induced by noise exposure were almost completely restored by PND 90. In addition, auditory evaluation shows that increased cochlear thresholds observed in exposed rats were re-established at PND 90, although with a remarkable supra-threshold amplitude reduction. These data suggest that noise-induced hippocampal and auditory-related alterations are mostly transient and that the effects of noise on the hippocampus might be, at least in part, mediated by the damage on the auditory pathway. However, we cannot exclude that a different mechanism might be responsible for the observed hippocampal-related changes. PMID:24911434

Uran, S L; Gómez-Casati, M E; Guelman, L R

2014-10-01

362

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

...polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are surgically removed from one location on the person's...

2014-04-01

363

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2013-01-01

364

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2012-01-01

365

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2013-04-01

366

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2014-01-01

367

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2012-04-01

368

Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells  

E-print Network

Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

Bramhall, Naomi F

2012-01-01

369

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants,...

2011-04-01

370

Familial keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans associated with woolly hair.  

PubMed

Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is a rare inherited disorder of keratinization clinically characterized by diffuse follicular hyperkeratosis, progressive scarring alopecia of scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes, corneal dystrophy and photophobia. Woolly hair is a hereditary condition, transmitted as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait, usually seen in Caucasians at birth or shortly after, in which there are curly, thick, often heavily pigmented hairs. We report two cases, a son and his mother, in whom KFSD occurred in association with woolly hair. In addition, various dental anomalies, including agenesis, inclusions and teeth malformations, were present in the child. Interestingly, both patients simultaneously developed an inflammatory tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis. To our knowledge, the association of KFSD with woolly hair has not been described. The dental anomalies found in the child are intriguing, as they have never been reported previously in patients with KFSD. Finally, the concomitant onset of inflammatory tinea capitis in both patients may be explained by the enhanced susceptibility to fungal infection in keratinizing disorders. PMID:17651168

Lacarrubba, Francesco; Dall'Oglio, Federica; Rossi, Alfredo; Schwartz, Robert A; Micali, Giuseppe

2007-08-01

371

Discovery of syn-/anti-cocaine-N-oxide diastereomers in unwashed postmortem hair via LC-MS-MS.  

PubMed

The discovery of two cocaine-N-oxide (CNO) diastereomers, syn- and anti-CNO, is reported for the first time. Prior to this study, only one structural form of CNO was known to exist and has not been analyzed in hair before. CNO is a metabolite of cocaine (COC) and may be considered as an additional biomarker of COC use, along with other known COC metabolites. The analysis of COC in hair for forensic applications is under scrutiny due to the possibility of external contamination. A qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, validated and applied to unwashed postmortem hair samples from drug users. The limit of detection in hair was 8 pg/mg (using 10 mg of unwashed hair) for each CNO diastereomer. The presence of both syn- and anti-forms of CNO was verified in vivo using hair samples collected from known COC-using individuals. Due to the low levels of CNO, it will not always be detectable in COC user hair. In the hair samples analyzed, syn-CNO was detected in more samples than anti-CNO. The stereoselective N-oxidation of COC which favors syn-CNO could have a diagnostic value for COC ingestion determination in hair analysis. PMID:24782141

Marsh, Christine M; Crawley, Lindsey R; Himes, Sarah K; Aranda, Roman; Miller, Mark L

2014-01-01

372

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of ?-Expansin Gene Related to Root Hair Formation in Barley1  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are specialized epidermal cells that play a role in the uptake of water and nutrients from the rhizosphere and serve as a site of interaction with soil microorganisms. The process of root hair formation is well characterized in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana); however, there is a very little information about the genetic and molecular basis of root hair development in monocots. Here, we report on isolation and cloning of the ?-expansin (EXPB) gene HvEXPB1, tightly related to root hair initiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Using root transcriptome differentiation in the wild-type/root-hairless mutant system, a cDNA fragment present in roots of wild-type plants only was identified. After cloning of full-length cDNA and genomic sequences flanking the identified fragment, the subsequent bioinformatics analyses revealed homology of the protein coded by the identified gene to the EXPB family. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that expression of HvEXPB1 cosegregated with the root hair phenotype in F2 progeny of the cross between the hairless mutant rhl1.a and the wild-type Karat parent variety. Expression of the HvEXPB1 gene was root specific; it was expressed in roots of wild-type forms, but not in coleoptiles, leaves, tillers, and spikes. The identified gene was active in roots of two other analyzed root hair mutants: rhp1.a developing root hair primordia only and rhs1.a with very short root hairs. Contrary to this, a complete lack of HvEXPB1 expression was observed in roots of the spontaneous root-hairless mutant bald root barley. All these observations suggest a role of the HvEXPB1 gene in the process of root hair formation in barley. PMID:16679418

Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

2006-01-01

373

Relational development in children with cleft lip and palate: influence of the waiting period prior to the first surgical intervention and parental psychological perceptions of the abnormality  

PubMed Central

Background The birth of a child with a cleft lip, whether or not in association with a cleft palate, is a traumatic event for parents. This prospective, multidisciplinary and multi-centre study aims to explore the perceptions and feelings of parents in the year following the birth of their child, and to analyse parent–child relationships. Four inclusion centres have been selected, differing as to the date of the first surgical intervention, between birth and six months. The aim is to compare results, also distinguishing the subgroups of parents who were given the diagnosis in utero and those who were not. Methods/Design The main hypothesis is that the longer the time-lapse before the first surgical intervention, the more likely are the psychological perceptions of the parents to affect the harmonious development of their child. Parents and children are seen twice, when the child is 4 months (T0) and when the child is one year old (T1). At these two times, the psychological state of the child and his/her relational abilities are assessed by a specially trained professional, and self-administered questionnaires measuring factors liable to affect child–parent relationships are issued to the parents. The Alarme Détresse BéBé score for the child and the Parenting Stress Index score for the parents, measured when the child reaches one year, will be used as the main criteria to compare children with early surgery to children with late surgery, and those where the diagnosis was obtained prior to birth with those receiving it at birth. Discussion The mental and psychological dimensions relating to the abnormality and its correction will be analysed for the parents (the importance of prenatal diagnosis, relational development with the child, self-image, quality of life) and also, for the first time, for the child (distress, withdrawal). In an ethical perspective, the different time lapses until surgery in the different protocols and their effects will be analysed, so as to serve as a reference for improving the quality of information during the waiting period, and the quality of support provided for parents and children by the healthcare team before the first surgical intervention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00993993. PMID:22682069

2012-01-01

374

Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

2007-01-01

375

The use of human hair as biodosimeter.  

PubMed

The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5-50Gy) and high doses (75-750Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021-2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (?Hpp: 0.522-0.744mT). In all samples, the linear dose-response curves at low doses saturated after ~300Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44h in black hair, 41h in blonde and brown hairs, 35h in dyed black hair and in 17h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. PMID:25255305

Tepe Çam, S; Polat, M; Seyhan, N

2014-12-01

376

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

377

Fgf9 from dermal ?? T cells induces hair follicle neogenesis after wounding  

PubMed Central

Understanding molecular mechanisms for regeneration of hair follicles provides new opportunities for developing treatments for hair loss and other skin disorders. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor 9 (Fgf9), initially secreted by ?? T cells, modulates hair follicle regeneration after wounding the skin of adult mice. Reducing Fgf9 expression decreases this wound-induced hair neogenesis (WIHN). Conversely, overexpression of Fgf9 results in a two- to threefold increase in the number of neogenic hair follicles. We found that Fgf9 from ?? T cells triggers Wnt expression and subsequent Wnt activation in wound fibroblasts. Through a unique feedback mechanism, activated fibroblasts then express Fgf9, thus amplifying Wnt activity throughout the wound dermis during a crucial phase of skin regeneration. Notably, humans lack a robust population of resident dermal ?? T cells, potentially explaining their inability to regenerate hair after wounding. These findings highlight the essential relationship between the immune system and tissue regeneration. The importance of Fgf9 in hair follicle regeneration suggests that it could be used therapeutically in humans. PMID:23727932

Gay, Denise; Kwon, Ohsang; Zhang, Zhikun; Spata, Michelle; Plikus, Maksim V; Holler, Phillip D; Ito, Mayumi; Yang, Zaixin; Treffeisen, Elsa; Kim, Chang D; Nace, Arben; Zhang, Xiaohong; Baratono, Sheena; Wang, Fen; Ornitz, David M; Millar, Sarah E; Cotsarelis, George

2014-01-01

378

Relationships of hair mineral concentrations with insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Mineral deficiencies can cause impaired insulin release and insulin resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between hair mineral concentrations and insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). A total of 456 subjects (161 patients with MS and 295 subjects without MS) were reviewed, and fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, homeostasis assessment model-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and hair mineral concentrations were analyzed. While hair sodium and potassium concentrations were significantly higher, the hair calcium, magnesium, and zinc concentrations were lower in the MS group than in the control group. Regarding toxic element measurements, the hair arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) concentrations were higher in the MS group than in the control group. The results of multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for age, showed significant relationships between the Na/Mg and Ca/P ratios and HOMA-IR (R (2)?=?0.109, p?hair Na concentration was significantly associated with MS, even after adjusting for age, visceral adipose tissue, and HOMA-IR (OR 1.020; 95 % CI 1.001-1.040; p?=?0.036). Our findings suggest that hair mineral concentrations, such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, sodium, and potassium concentrations, may play a role in the development of insulin resistance. PMID:24671621

Choi, Whan-Seok; Kim, Se-Hong; Chung, Ju-Hye

2014-06-01

379

Utility of hair shafts from study skins for mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The condition of mtDNA in hair shafts preserved in a museum was examined using 30 study skins of masked palm civets, Paguma larvata (Viverridae), collected between 1924 and 2011. Comparisons of extracts from fresh and burnt alum-fixed hair shafts showed that burnt alum, which is commonly used in taxidermy, had no harmful effect on the amount of total DNA and lengths of the mtDNA fragments. Burnt alum-fixed hair shafts had a tendency to develop a small degree of melanin hindering PCR amplification compared with fresh hair shafts, although that observation was not supported statistically (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Z = -0.183, P = 0.855). However, the amount of total DNA decreased after preparation of specimen in an exponential relation (regression of log DNA amount with year, regression analysis, F = 7.065, P = 0.013). Nevertheless, the oldest specimen, collected in 1924, yielded 1341.5 ng of DNA per 100 hair shafts, which was sufficient for PCR amplification. In addition, the mtDNA fragment length and amount of melanin in the hair shaft were not significantly correlated with the passage of time after preparation (F = 0.244, P = 0.625 for mtDNA fragment length; F = 0.039, P = 0.845 for the amount of melanin). Therefore, hair shafts prepared and preserved by chemical treatment in museums are good sources of mtDNA and useful for genetic analysis. PMID:24301912

Kurihara, N

2013-01-01

380

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity in Bengalese nches  

E-print Network

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity Birds regenerate auditory hair cells when original hair cells are lost. Regenerated hair cells become innervated and restore hearing function. Functional recovery during hair cell regeneration is particularly

Rubel, Edwin

381

Inflationary Universe with Anisotropic Hair  

E-print Network

We study an inflationary scenario with a vector field coupled with an inflaton field and show that the inflationary universe is endowed with anisotropy for a wide range of coupling functions. This anisotropic inflation is a tracking solution where the energy density of the vector field follows that of the inflaton field irrespective of initial conditions. We find a universal relation between the anisotropy and a slow-roll parameter of inflation. Our finding has observational implications and gives a counter example to the cosmic no-hair conjecture.

Masa-aki Watanabe; Sugumi Kanno; Jiro Soda

2009-02-17

382

Hair braiding method to prevent hair from entering the operating field on the scalp.  

PubMed

In scalp and cranial surgeries, it had been conventional to shave hair for surgical manipulations and prevention of infection. In recent years, it has been conventional to perform surgeries with minimal hair shaving. Such a method has been found to have a low risk of infection, and it takes into account esthetic considerations for patients. However, since long hair can become a hindrance to surgery, it is essential to preoperatively manage such hair and maintain a clear operating field. In this study, we braided patients' long hair to obtain a good operating field during scalp or cranial surgery. The advantages of our method are that it can be performed easily in a short period of time, does not require special instruments, and does not damage hair because rubber bands are used minimally. It is a useful method that minimizes shaving of long-haired patients for surgeries of the head and reduces cumbersome steps. PMID:23714960

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Kaneshige

2013-05-01

383

Identification of human hair stained with oxidation hair dyes by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GCMS) analysis of oxidation hair dyes from human hair. Diamines from the dyes were directly extracted from the hair in basic solution and aminophenols were extracted after neutralization. Both extracts were derivatised with trifluoroacetic anhydride and analysed by GCMS. Five components of oxidation hair dyes namely, p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine, o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol were clearly identified, whilst no other compounds originating from the hair dyes were detected. The presence and relative amounts of these dye components from hair extracts may assist in the discrimination of human hair especially in cases involving forensic science. PMID:1783337

Tanada, N; Kageura, M; Hara, K; Hieda, Y; Takamoto, M; Kashimura, S

1991-12-01

384

Hair testing and doping control in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard in drug testing for doping control is gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry conducted on a urine sample. For the past 20 years, hair analysis has been proposed for identifying drug abusers in forensic science. Specimens can be collected under close supervision without embarrassment and are not subject to evasive maneuvers. In contrast with urine, hair analysis has a wide window

Pascal Kintz

1998-01-01

385

The nail and hair in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

2004-01-01

386

Interpreting hair mercury levels in individual patients.  

PubMed

Evaluation of mercury exposure in an individual patient ideally includes the presenting history, physical examination, consideration of the differential diagnosis, and mercury analysis of blood and urine specimens. Analysis of mercury in hair specimens may supply useful supplemental information about exposure to organic compounds such as methylmercury, particularly to help reconstruct the pattern of prior exposure. The most appropriate specimen is generally terminal-type hair from the occipital-neck junction, clamped to maintain strand alignment, and oriented to the scalp. Hair from the initial 0.5 cm adjacent to the scalp represents on average 1-3 wk before collection, and consideration of the time frame represented by the specimen is an important part of the evaluation. Literature reports describe hair mercury levels as high as 2400 microg/g. Hair mercury level is usually <1 microg/g in individuals who do not eat fish but may be >30 microg/g in those who frequently consume fish with high mercury content. Hair mercury level is often not correlated with blood mercury concentration or symptoms of mercury toxicity, and reports of hair contamination by exogenous mercury are not uncommon. Hair mercury level is notoriously prone to misinterpretation and should be used with an understanding of its limitations. PMID:16951265

Nuttall, Kern L

2006-01-01

387

Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and\\/or

A. K. Geim; S. V. Dubonos; I. V. Grigorieva; K. S. Novoselov; A. A. Zhukov; S. Yu. Shapoval

2003-01-01

388

Species Identification Key of Korean Mammal Hair  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

LEE, Eunok; CHOI, Tae-Young; WOO, Donggul; MIN, Mi-Sook; SUGITA, Shoei; LEE, Hang

2014-01-01

389

Atoh1 induces auditory hair cell recovery in mice after ototoxic injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the ability of the Ad28.gfap.atoh1 to promote hair cell regeneration and hearing recovery in cochlea injured with kanamycin and furosemide. Study Design In vivo model of hair cell ablation and subsequent treatment with Atoh1 Methods The hair cells of C57BL/6 mice were ablated with systemic administration of kanamycin and furosemide. The left ears were treated with Ad28.gfap.atoh1. Right ears were not treated. Pre-ablation audiograms and DPOAEs were compared to one or two month post-ablation studies. Harvested cochleae were examined for histologic evidence of hair cell regeneration and spiral ganglion cell survival. Results Delivery of Ad28.gfap.atoh1 results in development of auditory hair cells. There was no recovery of DPOAEs at one or two months post-treatment. Two months after delivery of Ad28.gfap.atoh1, the left ear exhibited a moderate recovery of hearing at 4 and 8 kHz (p<0.01). There was no significant difference at 16 or 32 kHz. One month after treatment, Myosin VII positive immunohistochemical staining can be seen in both the inner and outer hair cells of the treated ear. In the untreated ear, minimal myosin VII positive debris is seen, with no indication of normal hair cells. Two months after ablation, there is evidence of hair cell recovery on the treated side, while the untreated cochlea demonstrates a flattened epithelium. Untreated ears showed decreased spiral ganglion cell density at the basal turn compared to treated ears. Conclusions Ad28.gfap.atoh1 promotes hair cell regeneration in cochlea ablated with kanamycin and furosemide resulting in moderate hearing recovery. PMID:23483451

Kraft, Shannon; Hsu, Chi; Brough, Douglas E.; Staecker, Hinrich

2011-01-01

390

Demonstration of oxidation dyes on human hair.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method of selected ion monitoring (SIM) analysis which can demonstrate the staining of human hair with oxidation hair dyes. Hair samples were decomposed with NaOH-Na2S2O4 solution by heating (100 degrees C, 30 min) in a stream of nitrogen. Basic and neutral ether extracts from the reaction mixture were trifluoroacetylated with trifluoroacetic anhydride in ethyl acetate and were then analyzed by SIM. The minimum lengths of a single hair for the detection of the 5 components of oxidation hair dyes acting as indicators were 1 mm for toluene-2,5-diamine, 2 mm for p-phenylenediamine, 20 mm for p-aminophenol, 50 mm for m-aminophenol and 100 mm for o-aminophenol. This method was applied to practical cases and the results were good. PMID:8157226

Tanada, N; Kageura, M; Hara, K; Hieda, Y; Takamoto, M; Kashimura, S

1994-01-01

391

What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?  

PubMed Central

The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

2012-01-01

392

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

Liu, Taosheng

393

New Perspectives in the Studies on Endocannabinoid and Cannabis: Abnormal Behaviors Associate With CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor and Development of Therapeutic Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC), the major psychoactive component of mari- juana, induces catalepsy-like immobilization and impairment of spatial memory in rats. 9-THC also induces aggressive behavior in isolated housing stress. These abnormal behaviors could be counteracted by SR141716A, a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist. Also 9-THC inhibited release of glutamate in the dorsal hippocampus, but this inhibition could be antagonized by SR141716A in

Michihiro Fujiwara; Nobuaki Egashira

2004-01-01

394

Oligodontia and curly hair occur with ectodysplasin-a mutations.  

PubMed

Oligodontia is the developmental absence of more than 5 permanent teeth except for the third molar. Familial oligodontia can occur as an isolated form or as part of a genetic syndrome. Mutations in the MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, and WNT10A genes have been identified in familial non-syndromic oligodontia. Ectodermal dysplasia is a group of syndromes involving abnormalities of the ectodermal structures and is comprised of more than 150 different forms. Mutations in the ectodysplasin-A (EDA) gene have been associated with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and partial disruption of the EDA signaling pathway has been shown to cause an isolated form of oligodontia. We identified 2 X-linked oligodontia families and performed mutational analysis of the EDA gene. The mutational analysis revealed 2 novel EDA mutations: c.866G>T, p.Arg289Leu and c.1135T>G, p.Phe379Val (reference sequence NM_001399.4). These mutations were perfectly segregated with oligodontia and curly hair within each family and were not found in the 150 control X-chromosomes with the same ethnic background and in the exome variant server. This study broadens the mutational spectrum of the EDA gene and the understanding of X-linked oligodontia with curly hair. PMID:24487376

Lee, K E; Ko, J; Shin, T J; Hyun, H K; Lee, S H; Kim, J W

2014-04-01

395

Electrophysiological abnormalities in the transplanted human heart.  

PubMed Central

Fourteen relatively long term survivors of cardiac transplantation underwent systematic electrophysiological evaluation and ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Six patients had prolonged conduction intervals during sinus rhythm. Sinus node function could be assessed in all donor atria and in 10 recipient atria. Sinus node recovery times were prolonged in four of the donor atria and in six recipient atria. In the donor atria abnormalities of sinus node automaticity were invariably associated with abnormalities of sinoatrial conduction. Four patients showed functional duality of atrioventricular nodal conduction during programmed extrastimulation, but no patient developed re-entrant arrhythmia. During ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring no pronounced tachyarrhythmias were recorded. Three patients showed abnormalities of sinus node impulse formation. All three patients had abnormal sinus node recovery times during their electrophysiological study. Long term survivors of cardiac transplantation have a high incidence of electrophysiological abnormalities. Abnormalities of donor sinus node function are probably of clinical significance. The clinical significance of abnormalities detected within the atrioventricular conduction system of the denervated heart remains to be elucidated. PMID:6360191

Bexton, R S; Nathan, A W; Hellestrand, K J; Cory-Pearce, R; Spurrell, R A; English, T A; Camm, A J

1983-01-01

396

The HIrisPlex system for simultaneous prediction of hair and eye colour from DNA.  

PubMed

Recently, the field of predicting phenotypes of externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from DNA genotypes with the final aim of concentrating police investigations to find persons completely unknown to investigating authorities, also referred to as Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), has started to become established in forensic biology. We previously developed and forensically validated the IrisPlex system for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour from DNA, and recently showed that all major hair colour categories are predictable from carefully selected DNA markers. Here, we introduce the newly developed HIrisPlex system, which is capable of simultaneously predicting both hair and eye colour from DNA. HIrisPlex consists of a single multiplex assay targeting 24 eye and hair colour predictive DNA variants including all 6 IrisPlex SNPs, as well as two prediction models, a newly developed model for hair colour categories and shade, and the previously developed IrisPlex model for eye colour. The HIrisPlex assay was designed to cope with low amounts of template DNA, as well as degraded DNA, and preliminary sensitivity testing revealed full DNA profiles down to 63pg input DNA. The power of the HIrisPlex system to predict hair colour was assessed in 1551 individuals from three different parts of Europe showing different hair colour frequencies. Using a 20% subset of individuals, while 80% were used for model building, the individual-based prediction accuracies employing a prediction-guided approach were 69.5% for blond, 78.5% for brown, 80% for red and 87.5% for black hair colour on average. Results from HIrisPlex analysis on worldwide DNA samples imply that HIrisPlex hair colour prediction is reliable independent of bio-geographic ancestry (similar to previous IrisPlex findings for eye colour). We furthermore demonstrate that it is possible to infer with a prediction accuracy of >86% if a brown-eyed, black-haired individual is of non-European (excluding regions nearby Europe) versus European (including nearby regions) bio-geographic origin solely from the strength of HIrisPlex eye and hair colour probabilities, which can provide extra intelligence for future forensic applications. The HIrisPlex system introduced here, including a single multiplex test assay, an interactive tool and prediction guide, and recommendations for reporting final outcomes, represents the first tool for simultaneously establishing categorical eye and hair colour of a person from DNA. The practical forensic application of the HIrisPlex system is expected to benefit cases where other avenues of investigation, including STR profiling, provide no leads on who the unknown crime scene sample donor or the unknown missing person might be. PMID:22917817

Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Wollstein, Andreas; Kovatsi, Leda; Ralf, Arwin; Kosiniak-Kamysz, Agnieszka; Branicki, Wojciech; Kayser, Manfred

2013-01-01

397

Polyclonal origin and hair induction ability of dermal papillae in neonatal and adult mouse back skin  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle development and growth are regulated by Wnt signalling and depend on interactions between epidermal cells and a population of fibroblasts at the base of the follicle, known as the dermal papilla (DP). DP cells have a distinct gene expression signature from non-DP dermal fibroblasts. However, their origins are largely unknown. By generating chimeric mice and performing skin reconstitution assays we show that, irrespective of whether DP form during development, are induced by epidermal Wnt activation in adult skin or assemble from disaggregated cells, they are polyclonal in origin. While fibroblast proliferation is necessary for hair follicle formation in skin reconstitution assays, mitotically inhibited cells readily contribute to DP. Although new hair follicles do not usually develop in adult skin, adult dermal fibroblasts are competent to contribute to DP during hair follicle neogenesis, irrespective of whether they originate from skin in the resting or growth phase of the hair cycle or skin with ?-catenin-induced ectopic follicles. We propose that during skin reconstitution fibroblasts may be induced to become DP cells by interactions with hair follicle epidermal cells, rather than being derived from a distinct subpopulation of cells. PMID:22537489

Collins, Charlotte A.; Jensen, Kim B.; MacRae, Elizabeth J.; Mansfield, William; Watt, Fiona M.

2012-01-01

398

Trps1 deficiency inhibits the morphogenesis of secondary hair follicles via decreased Noggin expression.  

PubMed

A representative phenotype of patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is sparse hair. To understand the developmental defects of these patient's hair follicles, we analyzed the development of hair follicles histologically and biochemically using Trps1 deficient (KO) mice. First, we compared the numbers of primary hair follicles in wild-type (WT) and KO embryos at different developmental stages. No differences were observed in the E14.5 skins of WT and KO mice. However, at later time points, KO fetal skin failed to properly develop secondary hair follicles, and the number of secondary hair follicles present in E18.5 KO skin was approximately half compared to that of WT skin. Sonic hedgehog expression was significantly decreased in E17.5 KO skin, whereas no changes were observed in Eda/Edar expression in E14.5 or E17.5 skins. In addition, Noggin expression was significantly decreased in E14.5 and E17.5 KO skin compared to WT skin. In parallel with the suppression of Noggin expression, BMP signaling was promoted in the epidermal cells of KO skins compared to WT skins as determined by immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated Smad1/5/8. The reduced number of secondary hair follicles was restored in skin graft cultures treated with a Noggin and BMP inhibitor. Furthermore, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis in KO skin was rescued by Noggin treatment. Taken together, we conclude that hair follicle development in Trps1 KO embryos is impaired directly or indirectly by decreased Noggin expression. PMID:25514040

Sun, Yujing; Nakanishi, Masako; Sato, Fuyuki; Oikawa, Kosuke; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Zhou, Gengyin

2015-01-16

399

Isolation and characterization of mammalian eumelanins from hair and irides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new enzymatic procedure was developed for isolation of eumelanin from black human hair which might provide a substantially intact pigment for structural characterization. Sequential digestion with protease, proteinase K and papaine in the presence of dithiothreitol afforded a pigment with a 6% w\\/w protein content. HPLC analysis of pyrrole acids resulting from alkaline H2O2 degradation, carboxyl content determination, and

Luisa Novellino; Alessandra Napolitano; Giuseppe Prota

2000-01-01

400

The Shape of a Ponytail and the Statistical Physics of Hair Fiber Bundles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From Leonardo to the Brothers Grimm our fascination with hair has endured in art and science. Yet, a quantitative understanding of the shapes of a hair bundles has been lacking. Here we combine experiment and theory to propose an answer to the most basic question: What is the shape of a ponytail? A model for the shape of hair bundles is developed from the perspective of statistical physics, treating individual fibers as elastic filaments with random intrinsic curvatures. The combined effects of bending elasticity, gravity, and bundle compressibility are recast as a differential equation for the envelope of a bundle, in which the compressibility enters through an ``equation of state.'' From this, we identify the balance of forces in various regions of the ponytail, extract the equation of state from analysis of ponytail shapes, and relate the observed pressure to the measured random curvatures of individual hairs.

Goldstein, Raymond E.; Warren, Patrick B.; Ball, Robin C.

2012-02-01

401

Bio-inspired flow sensor from printed PEDOT:PSS micro-hairs.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the creation of a low-cost, disposable sensor for low flow velocities, constructed from extruded micro-sized 'hair' of conducting polymer PEDOT. These microstructures are inspired by hair strands found in many arthropods and chordates, which play a prime role in sensing air flows. The paper describes the fabrication techniques and the initial prototype testing results toward employing this sensing mechanism in applications requiring sensing of low flow rates such as a flow sensor in neonatal resuscitators. The fabricated 1000 ?m long, 6 ?m diameter micro-hairs mimic the bending movement of tactile hair strands to sense the velocity of air flow. The prototype sensor developed is a four-level direct digital-output sensor and is capable of detecting flow velocities of up to 0.97 m s(-1). PMID:25650357

Devaraj, Harish; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Sharma, Rajnish; Aydemir, Nihan; Williams, David; Haemmerle, Enrico; Aw, Kean C

2015-01-01

402

Liquid chromatographic method for the determination of enantiomeric composition of amphetamine and methamphetamine in hair samples.  

PubMed

Interest in hair analysis as an alternative or complementary approach to urinalysis for drug abuse detection has grown in recent years. Hair analysis can be particularly advantageous for drugs such as amphetamine and methamphetamine that are rapidly excreted. Confirmation of abuse of these stimulants is complicated by the fact that some forms are found in legitimate medications. Examination of the enantiomeric composition of amphetamine and methamphetamine in hair samples can provide valuable assistance in interpreting drug testing results. In this work, we developed a liquid chromatographic method for the separation of amphetamine and methamphetamine enantiomers isolated from human hair samples. The drug enantiomers were separated on a chiral stationary phase after derivatization with an achiral fluorescent agent. The methodology was evaluated with a Standard Reference Material that contained several drugs of abuse including amphetamine and methamphetamine. PMID:14614590

Phinney, Karen W; Sander, Lane C

2004-01-01

403

A trigonal prism-based method for hair image generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulties involved in modeling and rendering hair in computer graphics are described. An efficient method using a trigonal prism model to render individual human hairs is presented. A wisp model easily controls hair shape with a few parameters. The method also proves effective for rendering eyebrows, eyelashes, beards, moustaches, clothes and personal ornaments such as earrings and hair accessories.

Yasuhiko Watanabe; Yasuhito Suenaga

1992-01-01

404

Factors Affecting Zinc Content of Bovine Hair1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten experiments were conducted to study the effects of potentially important factors on the zinc content of cattle hair. In Holsteins the order of descending amounts of zinc in hair were white tail, black body, and white body. Jersey fawn had slightly more zinc than black Holstein hair. The distal and proxinml ends of the hair contained the same amounts.

W. J. Miller; G. W. Powell; W. J. Pitts; H. F. Perkins

1965-01-01

405

AJ Hudspeth amplification of stimuli by hair cells  

E-print Network

400 Mechanical AJ Hudspeth amplification of stimuli by hair cells Unlike any other known sensory receptor, the hair cell uses positive feedback to augment the stimulus to which it responds. In the internal ears of many vertebrates, hair cells amplify the inputs to their mechanosensitive hair bundles

Hudspeth, A. James

406

To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Hair Meshes  

E-print Network

To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Hair Meshes Cem Yuksel Cyber Radiance Scott Schaefer Texas A&M University John Keyser Texas A&M University Figure 1: An example hair mesh model and the final hair model generated using this hair mesh and procedural styling operations. Abstract Despite

Schaefer, Scott

407

A Layered Wisps Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair  

E-print Network

A Layered Wisps Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair Eric Plante Taarna Studios Inc@iro.umontreal.ca Abstract. This paper presents a method for animating long hair while mod­ elling both interactions between the hair and the character's body and between different hair wisps. Our method relies on a layered models

Montréal, Université de

408

Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis Tsinghua University  

E-print Network

Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis Lvdi Wang1 1 Tsinghua University Yizhou Yu2 2 University) (b) (c) (f) (d) (e) (g) (h) Figure 1: Example-based hair geometry synthesis pipeline. (a) input hair) level-2 geometry reconstructed from (e); (g) level-1 of the output hierarchy; (h) final output hair

Zhou, Kun

409

Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Colloquium Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells Jeffrey R. Holt and Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman 414, Boston, MA 02114 Deflection of the hair bundle atop a sensory hair deflections, hair cells adapt. Two fundamentally distinct models have been proposed to explain transducer

Corey, David P.

410

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make

Kelly Ward; Florence Bertalis; Tae Yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

2007-01-01

411

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans,in computer,graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it

Kelly Ward; Florence Bertails; Tae-yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

2007-01-01

412

Cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the ear of the goldfish, Carassius auratus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cell proliferation and hair cell addition have not been studied in the ears of otophysan fish, a group of species who have specialized hearing capabilities. In this study we used the mitotic S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify proliferating cells in the ear of one otophysan species, Carassius auratus (the goldfish). Animals were sacrificed at 3 h or 5 days postinjection with BrdU and processed for immunocytochemistry. The results of the study show that cell proliferation occurs in all of the otic endorgans and results in the addition of new hair cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout all epithelia, including the primary auditory endorgan (saccule), where hair cell phenotypes vary considerably along the rostrocaudal axis. This study lays the groundwork for our transmission electron microscopy study of proliferative cells in the goldfish ear (Presson et al., Hearing Research 100 (1996) 10-20) as well as future studies of hair cell development in this species. The ability to predict, based on epithelial location, the future phenotype of developing hair cells in the saccule of the goldfish make that endorgan a particularly powerful model system for the investigation of early hair cell differentiation.

Lanford, P. J.; Presson, J. C.; Popper, A. N.

1996-01-01

413

?-Catenin Is Required for Hair-Cell Differentiation in the Cochlea  

PubMed Central

The development of hair cells in the auditory system can be separated into steps; first, the establishment of progenitors for the sensory epithelium, and second, the differentiation of hair cells. Although the differentiation of hair cells is known to require the expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Atoh1, the control of cell proliferation in the region of the developing cochlea that will ultimately become the sensory epithelium and the cues that initiate Atoh1 expression remain obscure. We assessed the role of Wnt/?-catenin in both steps in gain- and loss-of-function models in mice. The canonical Wnt pathway mediator, ?-catenin, controls the expression of Atoh1. Knock-out of ?-catenin inhibited hair-cell, as well as pillar-cell, differentiation from sensory progenitors but was not required to maintain a hair-cell fate once specified. Constitutive activation of ?-catenin expanded sensory progenitors by inducing additional cell division and resulted in the differentiation of extra hair cells. Our data demonstrate that ?-catenin plays a role in cell division and differentiation in the cochlear sensory epithelium. PMID:24806673

Hu, Lingxiang; Jacques, Bonnie E.; Mulvaney, Joanna F.; Dabdoub, Alain

2014-01-01

414

Determination of zolpidem in human hair by micropulverized extraction based on the evaluation of relative extraction efficiency of seven psychoactive drugs from an incurred human hair specimen.  

PubMed

A micropulverization method for rapid extraction of psychoactive drugs from hair was developed. A hair sample (10mg) was micropulverized for 10min at 42Hz with 0.2mL of 45% (w/v) aqueous ammonium phosphate (pH 8.4). Liquid-liquid extraction was carried out in the same tube using acetonitrile, and the organic layer was removed and filtered. Conventional methods, including solid-liquid extraction with an ammonium phosphate solution or methanol, were also employed, and the relative extraction efficiencies of amitriptyline, nortriptyline, norfludiazepam, flunitrazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, mianserin and zolpidem with these methods from an incurred human hair specimen were compared using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The highest extraction efficiencies for all the analytes were achieved using the method developed here, even though the extraction time (10min) was short. Overnight methanol extraction has frequently been used for hair analysis; however, the extraction efficiency was not sufficient for amines. The method was successfully applied to the quantification of zolpidem in human hair. The range of quantification was 1-25,000pg/mg, and interday accuracy and precision (n=5) at three concentrations were 1.8-8.8% and 3.3-8.1%, respectively. The developed method was applied to three actual (incurred) samples, for which the concentrations of zolpidem were determined to be 78.9-18,300 (pg/mg). PMID:23623358

Miyaguchi, Hajime

2013-06-01

415

Screening method for the detection of methamphetamine in hair using fluorescence polarization immunoassay.  

PubMed

A hair screening method has been developed for the detection of methamphetamine using an immunoassay analyzer (AxSYM) with a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) technique. The method consisted of washing, cutting and digesting a hair sample (5 mg) with an enzymatic digestion solution. The digested hair sample was centrifuged, and then an aliquot of the supernatant was used to conduct the screening. The results obtained from FPIA, in most cases, showed concentrations above 70.0 ng/mL of methamphetamine for hair samples that contained 0.5 ng/mg of methamphetamine, determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percent sensitivity, defined as the true positive rate of screened and confirmed results, and the percent specificity, defined as the true negative rate of screened and confirmed results, of the FPIA screening method were 100.0 and 96.7% (false positive rate of 3.3%), respectively, when the threshold level for FPIA analysis was set at 70.0 ng/mL (n = 60).The correlation coefficient (r) for the linear relationship between FPIA and GC-MS results was 0.91 in real hair samples. The recommended amount of hair sample was found to be 5.0 mg for FPIA screening analysis when the concentration of methamphetamine in hair samples determined by GC-MS was found to be more than 0.5 ng/mg. The method developed in this study was reliable and effective for the screening of methamphetamine in routine hair analysis. PMID:23467260

Cheong, Jae Chul; Suh, SungIll; Ko, Beom Jun; Lee, Jae Il; Kim, Jin Young; Suh, Yong Jun; In, Moon Kyo

2013-05-01

416

A teenage girl with green hair.  

PubMed

An adolescent girl with blond hair, her family, and classmates noted that her hair was progressively turning green. Initially the green color was thought to be secondary to chlorine from the local swimming pool. This was not the real cause. The chlorotrichosis was actually caused by an excessive amount of dissolved copper from copper pipes in the home plumbing system. Copper had leached from the plumbing and accumulated in the pipes because the rented house had been vacant for many months. Risk factors for chlorotrichosis include light-colored hair, copper plumbing, long periods when the water was not thoroughly flushed out of the copper pipes, and frequent shampooing. PMID:25039704

Schwartz, Richard H; Yasin, Shima K; Yoo, Jinny K

2014-01-01

417

Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.  

PubMed

The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair. PMID:3581794

Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

1987-01-01

418

Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

1995-01-01

419

Hair today, gone tomorrow: a comparison of body hair removal practices in gay and heterosexual men.  

PubMed

Although hairlessness is rapidly becoming a component of the ideal male body, little research has examined men's concerns about their body hair or their hair removal practices. Samples of gay and heterosexual men completed questionnaires that assessed whether they had ever removed their back, buttock or pubic hair, the frequency with which they did so, the methods used and their self-reported reasons for removing this hair, as well as their level of appearance investment. Results indicated that many gay and heterosexual men remove their back, buttock and pubic hair regularly and that their primary reason for doing so is to maintain or improve their appearance. The frequency of hair removal was also associated with the motivational salience component of appearance investment. The findings offer further support to the premise that gay and heterosexual men exhibit similar body image concerns. PMID:18586585

Martins, Yolanda; Tiggemann, Marika; Churchett, Libby

2008-09-01

420

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins are common genetic disorders in Asia. Thalassemia is not only an important public health\\u000a problem but also a socio-economic problem of many countries in the region. The approach to deal with the thalassemic problem\\u000a is to prevent and control birth of new cases. This requires an accurate identification of the couple at high risk for thalassemia.

Suthat Fucharoen; Pranee Winichagoon

2002-01-01

421

Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?  

PubMed

Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (?1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

2014-10-14

422

A Review of Surgical Methods (Excluding Hair Transplantation) and Their Role in Hair Loss Management Today  

PubMed Central

There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today. PMID:21976899

Sattur, Sandeep S

2011-01-01

423

Identification of Breast Cancer-Associated Lipids in Scalp Hair  

PubMed Central

A correlation between the presence of breast cancer and a change in the synchrotron-generated X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of hair has been reported in several publications by different groups, and on average XRD-based assays detect around 75% of breast cancer patients in blinded studies. To date, the molecular mechanisms leading to this alteration are largely unknown. We have determined that the alteration is like