Finney, Glen R; Minagar, Alireza; Heilman, Kenneth M
Assessing the mental status of patients with a neurobehavioral disorder is a critical element in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. This assessment should always be performed after the patient's history it taken and a general physical as well as a neurologic examination is completed. The mental status examination commences with observing the patient's appearance and level of consciousness. The examiner should also pay attention to patient's social behavior, emotional state and mood. There are 3 major means of assessing a patient's mental status. One type attempts to determine if the patient is demented and the severity of the dementia as it pertains to their ability to perform activities of daily living as well as instrumental activities. A second type of assessment utilizes what may be termed as "screening tests" or "omnibus tests". These brief tests are performed independent of the patient's history and examination. The two most frequently used screening tests are the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The third means of assessing a patient's mental status is by using specific neuropsychological tests that focus on specific domains of cognition, such as frontal executive functions, attention, episodic verbal and visuospatial memory, declarative knowledge such as language (speech, reading and writing) and arithmetical, as well as visuospatial and perceptual abilities. These neurobehavioral, neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological assessments of patients with a cognitive decline and behavioral abnormalities should often be accompanied by laboratory tests, and neuroimaging that can help determine the underlying pathologic process so that effective therapeutic and management approaches can be provided. PMID:26613992
Mental status exam; Neurocognitive testing ... A nurse, doctor, physician assistant, or mental health worker will ask a number of questions. The test can be done in the home, in an office, nursing home, or ...
Hier, D. B.; Jao, C. S.; Brint, S. U.
The mental status examination is the most difficult and time-consuming portion of the neurological examination. A complete mental status examination requires the examiner to assess alertness, memory, language, praxis, gnosis, attention, and visual-spatial functions. Findings of the mental status need to be interpreted in terms of severity of deficits, nature of the deficits, likely etiology, and likely area of corresponding brain injury. The performance of an accurate, complete, and detailed mental status examination is a daunting task for the medical student or resident in training. Traditional mental status examinations show considerable inter-examiner variability for items administered and for interpretation of abnormalities. Even in academic settings, mental status examinations have little educational content. PMID:7949891
Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul
Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005). PMID:16965710
Wilber, Scott T; Ondrejka, Jason E
Older patients who present to the emergency department frequently have acute or chronic alterations of their mental status, including their level of consciousness and cognition. Recognizing both acute and chronic changes in cognition are important for emergency physicians. Delirium is an acute change in attention, awareness, and cognition. Numerous life-threatening conditions can cause delirium; therefore, prompt recognition and treatment are critical. The authors discuss an organized approach that can lead to a prompt diagnosis within the time constraints of the emergency department. PMID:27475019
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385
Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni
How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…
Hamer, B A
When assessing a client, avoid abstract questions, instead ask concrete, open-ended questions. All clients should be assessed for risk of suicide, elopement, or a danger to self or others. Be aware of underlying causes or confounding variables that may affect a client's mental status. PMID:9604839
Marazziti, D; Palego, L; Silvestri, S; Presta, S; Balestri, C; Batistini, A; Conti, L
Platelet 3H-imipramine (3H-IMI) binding and platelet sulfotransferase (ST) activity, taken as markers of the serotonin (5-HT) and sulfated neurotransmitters (tyramine, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline), respectively, were evaluated in 14 severely aggressive subjects institutionalized since childhood for mental retardation and in an equal number of healthy controls. The results showed the presence of a lower number of 3H-IMI binding sites and a higher ST activity in the patients as compared with controls. These data provide supporting evidence for the hypothesis of an abnormality of the 5-HT system and suggest possible dysfunctions of dopamine and sulfated amines in aggressive behavior, at least as reflected by platelet markers. PMID:8820176
Khatiwada, Binod; Holbrook, Christopher; Ekeh, Ifeoma Sylvia; Uzoka, Chukwuemeka; Ikwu, Isaac; Upadhyay, Bishwas
Hyperammonemia is a recognized cause of encephalopathy. However, it is commonly seen in patients with liver disease. The clinical entity of noncirrhotic hyperammonemia is now being increasingly recognized. We report a man who presented to our hospital with relapsing altered mental status later diagnosed as noncirrhotic hyperammonemia. PMID:26424945
Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…
Trujillo, Anna C.
Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, the mental workload associated with using this predictive information has not been ascertained. The study described here attempted to measure mental workload. In this simulator experiment, three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and four initial times to a parameter alert range (1 minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and ETA+45 minutes) were tested to determine their effects on subjects mental workload. Subjective workload ratings increased with increasing predictive information (whether a parameter was changing abnormally or the time for a parameter to reach an alert range). Subjective situation awareness decreased with more predictive information but it became greater with increasing initial times to a parameter alert range. Also, subjective focus changed depending on the type of predictive information. Lastly, skin temperature fluctuated less as the initial time to a parameter alert range increased.
Slaughter, J.R.; Hesse, B.W.; Turner, C.W.
To assist in the evaluation of the hundreds of thousands of geriatric veterans that will inundate the VA health care system through the latter part of this century and the early part of the next, the authors are applying a computerized mental status screening instrument. The authors have computerized a cognitive and emotive screening instrument aimed primarily at the early detection of dementia and depression, specially adapted to elderly patients.
When mental health clinicians perform mental status examinations, they examine the language patterns of patients because abnormal language patterns, sometimes referred to as language dysfluency, may indicate a thought disorder. Performing such examinations with deaf patients is a far more complex task, especially with traditionally underserved…
Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Hasselbring, Laura; Yazdi, Kurosch; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Stuppäck, Christoph; Aichhorn, Wolfgang
Children of mentally ill parents are exposed to a variety of stress- and harmful life events. To which extent the mental illness of one or both parents affects their children's mental development is barely studied. Therefore, over a period of 6 months 142 patients with children below the age of 18 (n=237 children), who were admitted to the Dept. for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy 1 of the Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, were questioned for abnormalities in their children's mental development. Additionally all these patients were assessed for their family situation, demographic data and psychiatric disorder. 38.4% (n=91) of the children showed mental abnormalities. The most common one were emotional (n=41), social (n=41) and learning (n=34) disabilities. Parental duration of the illness (p=0.001), age of the children (p=0.044), illness of both parents (p=0.008), longlasting family conflicts (p=0.003) and living with only one parent (p=0.012) were correlated significantly with mental abnormalities in children. The results confirm an increase risk for mental abnormalities in children of psychiatric patients. This risk varies with existing risk and protective factors, which can be partially influenced. Therefore children of mentally ill parents with problems in their mental development should be detected early. Even if genetic risk factors cannot be changed reducing known psychosocial risk factors and promotion protective factors can significantly influence a healthy development of these vulnerable children. PMID:22136941
Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S.; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen
Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status. PMID:25610779
Fleurat, Michelle R; Zaia, Brita E
We report a case of altered mental status in a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department after presumed head trauma. A computed tomography head was conducted and its findings were normal, and the boy was discharged home. He returned the next day with persistent altered mental status and was found to have an abnormal MR brain suggestive of embolic strokes. An echocardiogram revealed a large atrial mass that was later confirmed by pathology to be an atrial myxoma. This is a unique and, to our knowledge, unreported presentation of a known but rare disease process in a pediatric patient. PMID:27253357
Ahmad, Aisyah; Furuta, Michiko; Shinagawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Takeshita, Toru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa
Although an association between periodontal status and liver abnormalities has been reported, it has not been described in relation to metabolic syndrome (MetS), which often coexists with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We examined the association of a combination of liver abnormality and MetS with periodontal condition in Japanese adults, based on the level of alcohol consumption. In 2008, 4,207 males aged 45.4 ± 8.9 years and 1,270 females aged 45.9 ± 9.7 years had annual workplace health check-ups at a company in Japan. Periodontal status was represented as periodontal pocket depth at the mesio-buccal and mid-buccal sites for all teeth. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and metabolic components were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between deep pocket depth and the coexistence of elevated ALT and MetS in males with low alcohol consumption. Females showed no such relationship. In conclusion, the association between periodontal condition and the combination of elevated ALT and MetS was confirmed in males. That is, a clear association between liver abnormalities and periodontal condition was seen in male subjects with no or low alcohol consumption and MetS, providing new insights into the connection between liver function and periodontal health. PMID:26666857
Cora, T; Demirel, S; Acar, A
Etiology of mental retardation is diverse. 120 Students from 11 special training, education, and rehabilitation subclasses were investigated cytogenetically for determining the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to mild mental retardation. 23 of the 120 children (19%) had chromosomal abnormalities: thirteen cases a classical trisomy 21 (the male:female ratio was 9:4), three a balanced autosomal reciprocal translocation, one a pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, and six fragile-X syndrome (The male:female ratio was 5:1). PMID:10756429
Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Howe, Peter R C
Interest in the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, in mental health is increasing. This review investigates whether n-3 PUFA levels are abnormal in people with three prevalent mental health problems - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and dementia. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, and bibliographies of papers published in English that describe PUFA levels in the circulation of individuals who have these mental health conditions. Although abnormal blood PUFA levels were reported in a number of studies, weighted comparisons of PUFA status showed no significant differences overall between people with mental health problems and controls. Whether those with low n-3 PUFA status are likely to be more responsive to n-3 PUFA supplementation is not yet resolved. Further studies assessing PUFA levels and mental status with greater uniformity are required in order to clarify the relationship between LC n-3 PUFA status and mental health. PMID:19785689
Richieri-Costa, A; Garcia da Silva, S M; Frota-Pessoa, O
Four sibs of non-consanguineous parents who had myotonia from late infancy are described. Mild to moderate mental retardation, severe bone abnormalities of the vertebral column (mainly in the thoracolumbar region), and short stature were also observed. Autosomal recessive inheritance is demonstrated. These cases are compared with reported cases of the Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Images PMID:6716408
Behjati, Farkhondeh; Ghasemi Firouzabadi, Saghar; Kahrizi, Kimia; Kariminejad, Roxana; Bagherizadeh, Iman; Ansari, Javad; Fallah, Masoumeh; Mojtahedi, Forough; Darvish, Hossein; Bahrami Monajemi, Gholamreza; Abedini, S. Sedigheh; Jamali, Payman; Mojahedi, Faezeh; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita; Najmabadi, Hossein
Introduction Mental retardation (MR) has heterogeneous aetiology mostly with genetic causes. Chromosomal aberrations are one of the most common causes of MR. Reports on chromosome abnormality rate among consanguineous families are sparse. In order to identify the chromosome abnormality rate in idiopathic mental retardation from consanguineous marriages, a total of 322 Iranian families with positive family history for MR were investigated in the Genetics Research Center. Material and methods In the majority of families (92%) at least two sibs were affected with MR and none had specific chromosomal syndromes such as Down syndrome. Standard cytogenetic techniques using high resolution GTG banding were carried out on all the patients. Results The overall chromosome abnormality rate contributing to mental retardation was 1.24% (4 cases), which comprised 46,XY,der(18)t(4;18)(q31.1;q23)mat; 45,XY,-21,-22,+der(22)t(21;22)(q21.1;q13.33)mat; 46,XY,rec(2)dup(2p)inv(2)(p25.1q37.3)pat, and 46,XY,der(11)t(10;11)(q25.2;q25)pat. Conclusions Although the most likely genetic cause of mental retardation in patients with consanguineous parents is autosomal recessive, the fact that 1.24% of our patients had chromosomal abnormalities emphasizes the importance of cytogenetic investigation as the first laboratory genetic tests for all MR patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the rate of chromosome abnormality among patients with idiopathic mental retardation from consanguineous marriages. PMID:22291774
Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan
The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care. PMID:12166918
Nakayama, Osamu; Ohkuma, Kazuyuki
Recently in Japan dioxin problem of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) became social issue. The news spread all around Japan and induced fear that workers at incinerators would suffer from cancer or other serious illness induced by the exposure to dioxins. Authors were interested in the effect of this stressful event occurred to the workers and intended to evaluate mental health status of MSWI workers compared with office workers. Subjects were male workers from two MSWI plants and a local government office; 20 government office workers who were engaging in health administration and 55 MSWI workers. Subjects were interviewed about their age, educational carrier, and working schedule. POMS and GHQ30 were used to evaluate mood status of subjects. There were differences in mood state between the two occupational groups. POMS showed that Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, and Fatigue levels were high in the health administration worker group. GHQ30 showed that General Illness, Social Dysfunction, and Anxiety and Dysphoria state were deviated to abnormal in the health administration worker group. General mental health status evaluated by GHQ30 score was also deviated to abnormal in the office worker group. Our results showed that mental health status of health administration workers was less healthy compared with MSWI workers. This meant that the stress of MSWI workers enhanced by the fear that they might have been exposed to dioxin did not exceed the stress the health administration workers usually had suffered from. PMID:17085923
Coid, Jeremy W
Increasing numbers of mentally abnormal offenders are sentenced to prison. The decision to treat or imprison them is influenced by the attitudes of consultant psychiatrists and their staff. The process whereby those decisions were made and the willingness of consultants to offer treatment were investigated. A retrospective survey of all (362) mentally abnormal men remanded to Winchester prison for psychiatric reports over the five years 1979-83 showed that one in five were rejected for treatment by the NHS consultant psychiatrist responsible for their care. Those with mental handicaps, organic brain damage, or a chronic psychotic illness rendering them unable to cope independently in the community were the most likely to be rejected. They posed the least threat to the community in terms of their criminal behaviour yet were more likely to be sentenced to imprisonment. Such subjects were commonly described by consultants as too disturbed or potentially dangerous to be admitted to hospital or as criminals and unsuitable for treatment. Consultants in mental hospitals were most likely and those in district general hospitals and academic units least likely to accept prisoners. The fact that many mentally ill and mentally handicapped patients can receive adequate care and treatment only on reception into prison raises serious questions about the adequacy of current management policies and the range of facilities provided by regional health authorities. PMID:3136837
Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha
Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. Aims and Objectives: A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. Results: None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Conclusion: Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population. PMID:25177632
Winograd, C H
To test the hypothesis that self-care capacity can be predicted by tests of mental functioning, the performances of patients in a long-term care institution on a Self-Care Scale were compared with their scores on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) and a Mental Competence Scale. The Self-Care Scale measures ability to perform activities of daily living; the SPMSQ assesses memory, orientation, and calculation; and the Mental Competence Scale measures ability to respond sensibly to interview questions and to judge the environment. Many people who had poor scores on the SPMSQ were able to perform activities of daily living in the nursing home setting, but none whose scores on the Mental Competence Scale were fair or poor were independent in activities of daily living. Despite the fact that both the Self-Care Scale and the Mental Competence Scale are still in the developmental stages, the author concludes that the SPMSQ is not an adequate predictor of capacity for self-care. Moreover, the ability to respond appropriately to an interview may be more relevant for daily functioning than are tests of mental status. The three methods of assessment used in this study measure distinct yet complementary components of functioning that need to be considered in evaluating a mentally impaired elderly person. PMID:6690576
Young, I D; Macrae, W G; Hughes, H E; Crawford, J S
This paper describes two sibs in each of whom Keratoconus posticus circumscriptus is associated with multiple abnormalities. These include short stature, mental retardation, cleft lip and palate, and vertebral anomalies. The authors have been unable to trace any former reports of an identical condition and suggest that the findings in these children may represent a previously unrecognised malformation syndrome showing probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Images PMID:7143385
Zehtabchi, Shahriar; Abdel Baki, Samah G; Grant, Arthur C
Electroencephalography (EEG) can help narrow the differential diagnosis of altered mental status (AMS) and is necessary to diagnose nonconvulsive seizure (NCS). The objective of this prospective observational study is to identify the prevalence of EEG abnormalities in emergency department patients with AMS. Patients of at least 13 years of age with AMS were enrolled, whereas those with an easily identifiable cause (e.g. hypoglycemia) underlying their AMS were excluded. Easily identifiable cause of AMS (e.g. hypoglycemia). A 30-min EEG with the standard 19 electrodes was performed on each patient. Descriptive statistics (%, 95% confidence interval) are used to report EEG findings of the first 50 enrolled patients. Thirty-five EEGs (70%, 57-81%) were abnormal. The most common abnormality was slowing of background activities (46%, 33-60%), reflecting an underlying encephalopathy. NCS was diagnosed in three (6%, 1-17%), including one patient in nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Nine patients (18%, 10-31%) had interictal epileptiform abnormalities, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous seizure. Patients presenting to the emergency department with AMS have a high prevalence of EEG abnormalities, including NCS. PMID:22644284
Morency, Catherine Reilly
Discusses delirium and how it differs from other types of mental status changes seen in the elderly and what interventions are most appropriate in affected individuals. Presents data from a study regarding nursing assessment of patients with delirium and outlines an educational model. (JOW)
Polanski, Patricia J.; Hinkle, J. Scott
Provides information about professional counselors' use of the mental status examination (MSE) in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning. Includes an overview of the MSE format and explanation of terminology, counseling skills used for the MSE, considerations in using the MSE across cultures and age groups, and guidelines for writing an MSE…
Administered Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), Maudsley Personality Inventory, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) to 177 Japanese adolescents enrolled in foreign exchange student program before departure. Found that parental practices influenced personality features, which in turn contributed to mental health status. No direct significant…
Muscatell, Keely A.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Galinsky, Adam D.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Dapretto, Mirella; Eisenberger, Naomi I.
The current research explored the neural mechanisms linking social status to perceptions of the social world. Two fMRI studies provide converging evidence that individuals lower in social status are more likely to engage neural circuitry often involved in ‘mentalizing’ or thinking about others' thoughts and feelings. Study 1 found that college students' perception of their social status in the university community was related to neural activity in the mentalizing network (e.g., DMPFC, MPFC, precuneus/PCC) while encoding social information, with lower social status predicting greater neural activity in this network. Study 2 demonstrated that socioeconomic status, an objective indicator of global standing, predicted adolescents' neural activity during the processing of threatening faces, with individuals lower in social status displaying greater activity in the DMPFC, previously associated with mentalizing, and the amygdala, previously associated with emotion/salience processing. These studies demonstrate that social status is fundamentally and neurocognitively linked to how people process and navigate their social worlds. PMID:22289808
Wilber, Scott T.
Synopsis Altered mental status is a common chief complaint among older emergency department (ED) patients. Acute changes in mental status are more concerning and are usually secondary to delirium, stupor, and coma. These forms of acute brain dysfunction are commonly precipitated by an underlying medical illness that can be potentially life-threatening and are associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes. Though stupor and coma are easily identifiable, the clinical presentation of delirium can be subtle and is often missed without actively screening for it. For patients with acute brain dysfunction, the ED evaluation should focus on searching for the underlying etiology. Infection is one of the most common precipitants of delirium, but multiple etiologies may exist concurrently. PMID:23177603
Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.; Hough, Richard L.
This study examined youth mental health service (MHS) use as a function of family immigrant status and type of mental health need (internalizing vs. externalizing). A sample of Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander families (youth ages 11-18; N = 457) involved with public sectors of care provided reports of youth mental health need during an initial…
Shapiro, Y A
The Jewish law goes into great detail discussing the status of the mentally ill. There are many aspects to this question over and above the legal aspects of such a person's rights, obligations, doing business, etc. What is the Halachic approach to a mentally ill person in general? Is this person subject to the code of Jewish law the same as the normal Jew? Should we make an effort to help this type of person fulfil the commandments and prevent him or her from transgressing them or perhaps since such a person is incapable of controlling his or her behaviour, there is no purpose in these efforts? Marriage and divorce are other serious issues to which the Jewish law gives special attention in this context. Marriage must be entered into by a rational and judicious person or the act will not be valid. A very serious problem arises when a husband is mentally ill and due to that halachically cannot divorce his wife and she remains an Agunah. The situation is more complicated as the definition of mentally ill encompasses a broader spectrum of cases. Which psychiatric disorders come under the definition of a mentally ill person who is unable to control his or her behaviour? Which symptoms attest the inability of a person to enter into marriage or to grant a divorce? The Talmud discusses these matters in several places and the Halacha bases its rulings on their conclusions. PMID:8231701
Levitt, Jessica Mass; Saka, Noa; Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Hoagwood, Kimberly
When embedded within a continuum of mental health services including both prevention and treatment, school-based mental health identification programs can promote improved academic and mental health functioning among students. This article describes the scientific status of assessment instrumentation that may be used for early mental health…
Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.
Introduction: Burnout can create problems in every aspect of individual’s’ human life. It may have an adverse effect on interpersonal and family relations and can lead to a general negative attitude towards life. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether burnout is associated with the mental health status of health care providers. Material and Methods: The sample in this study consisted of 240 health care employees. The Greek version of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used for measuring burnout levels and the Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) questionnaire was used to evaluate health care providers’ mental health status. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. Normality was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and data was processed with parametric tests. General linear models with MBI dimensions as independent variables and SRSDA subscales as dependent variables were used to determine the relation between burnout and mental health status. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was set at p=0.05. Results: The average age of the sample is 40.00±7.95 years. Regarding gender the percentage of men is 21.40% (N=49) and of women is 78.60% (N=180). Overall the professional burnout of health care workers is moderate. The mean score for emotional exhaustion is 26.41, for personal accomplishment 36.70 and for depersonalization 9.81. The mean for each subscale of SRSDA is 8.23±6.79 for Depression Beck-21, 3.96±4.26 for Depression Beck-13, 4.91±4.44 for Melancholia, 6.32±4.35 for Asthenia and 6.36±4.72 for Anxiety. The results of general linear models with the MBI dimensions as independent variables and the SRSDA subscales as dependent variables are shown that emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are statistically correlated with all subscales of SRSDA, while depersonalization is not correlated
Frank, R G; Kamlet, M S
This article specifies and estimates a model of provider choice for mental health services. Three types of providers are identified: specialty mental health providers, general medical providers, and informal providers. Specific attention is paid to the role of health and mental health status in determining provider choice. The model is estimated using a multinomial logit approach applied to a sample of 2,800 respondents to the Baltimore Epidemiological Catchment Area Survey. The results are largely consistent with the previous work of Wells et al. (1982), suggesting that health and mental health status play an important role in the decision to seek care but have little effect on the type of provider chosen. The results also reveal that 22 percent of individuals obtaining mental health care did so through the informal care sector. One exemplary benefit design simulation is performed using the estimation results. PMID:2714994
Wilkie, A O
Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here I describe and analyze a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, approximately 50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomeres should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. PMID:8352277
This study focuses on social relations in school classes and their importance for mental well-being in middle childhood in a Scottish city. The aspect of social relations under study is peer status and both the individual's own status position and the status distribution of the school class as a whole was considered. The number of children analysed was 13,932 and the number of school classes 524. The results show a clear association at individual level: the higher the status position the more uncommon is malaise. This is true both when malaise is reported by the teacher and by a parent, for both boys and girls and irrespective of the number of friends. The association was also generally present within school. It exists regardless of grade, type of school and class size. Furthermore, a minority of the classes had a more compressed status distribution and here malaise was less common in all status positions. This was especially the case when the school class did not contain marginalized children. Consequently, that some children are marginalized in the group indicates problematic conditions for the persons in question but also for the other group members. PMID:12435548
Li, Jing; Zhen, Xiantong; Liu, Xianzeng
Based on video recordings of the movement of the patients with epilepsy, this paper proposed a human action recognition scheme to detect distinct motion patterns and to distinguish the normal status from the abnormal status of epileptic patients. The scheme first extracts local features and holistic features, which are complementary to each other. Afterwards, a support vector machine is applied to classification. Based on the experimental results, this scheme obtains a satisfactory classification result and provides a fundamental analysis towards the human-robot interaction with socially assistive robots in caring the patients with epilepsy (or other patients with brain disorders) in order to protect them from injury. PMID:24977196
Banyra, Oleg; Ivanenko, Olha; Nikitin, Oleg
Introduction Chronic prostatitis is a widespread urological disease with a lengthy course and a propensity to frequent recurrences. Adequate response to anti–inflammatory therapy is lacking in a high percentage of patients, which causes them to seek medical advice from different doctors. Thus, the physicians are challenged to look for other reasons causing the pathological symptoms. Material and methods We have reviewed the patients with treatment–resistant chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) from the perspective of psychosomatic medicine. For the evaluation of primary mental status and treatment control we used standard approved questionnaires. All 337 CBP patients initially underwent therapy aimed at pathogen eradication. If psychopathological symptoms were evident and dominated over urological ones, the patients were referred to psychiatric evaluation and treatment. Results The frequency of concomitant psychosomatic disorders (PSD) in patients with CBP was 28.2% and neurotic disorders – 26.4%. Adequate multimodal anti–inflammatory therapy followed by a few sessions of psychotherapy decreased the manifestations of PSD in 30.5%, neurotic disorders in 51.7%, and premature ejaculation in 60.5% of patients with CBP. The addition of pharmacotherapy to psychotherapy is effective in treatment–resistant cases. However, after multimodal treatment, 31.5% of pts. with PSD and 13.5% of pts. with neurotic disorders still remain treatment–resistant and required in–depth long–term psychiatric care. Conclusions A significant portion of CBP patients were diagnosed with neurotic, psychosomatic, and/or depressive disorders. Antibacterial and anti–inflammatory therapy, when followed by appropriate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, significantly decrease the manifestations of mental disorders in CBP patients. PMID:24579003
Luciano, Alison; Meara, Ellen
Objective The aim of this study was to describe employment by mental illness severity in the U.S. during 2009-2010. Methods The sample included all working-age participants (age 18 to 64) from the 2009 and 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 77,326). Two well-established scales of mental health distinguished participants with none, mild, moderate, and serious mental illness. Analyses compared employment rate and income by mental illness severity and estimated logistic regression models of employment status controlling for demographic characteristics and substance use disorders. In secondary analyses, we assessed how the relationship between mental illness and employment varied by age and education status. Results Employment rates decreased with increasing mental illness severity (none = 75.9%, mild = 68.8%, moderate = 62.7%, serious = 54.5%, p<0.001). Over a third of people with serious mental illness, 39%, had incomes below $10,000 (compared to 23% among people without mental illness p<0.001). The gap in adjusted employment rates comparing serious to no mental illness was 1% among people 18-25 years old versus 21% among people 50-64 (p < .001). Conclusions More severe mental illness was associated with lower employment rates in 2009-2010. People with serious mental illness are less likely to be employed after age 49 than people with no, mild, or moderate mental illness. PMID:24933361
Sharma, Namita; Dua, Radha
Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself satisfactorily to the various strains of life. Mental health and Education are closely related to each other. Sound mental is prerequisite for the learner. In this era of severe competition to excel or to be on the top is pressurizing today's adolescents to the utmost. Besides a number of factors like…
Hedlund, James L.
This paper reviews the development and current status of computer-supported mental health information systems. It describes and provides principal references both for general and for specialized information systems in a wide variety of application areas. It also comments on some of the special problems and emerging directions of computer applications in the mental health field.
Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory
The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…
Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hosein; Aminian, Amir Hossein; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Abdoli, Ali Mohammad; Seighal Ardakani, Najmeh; Fallahzadeh, Hosein
Background: Infertility is accompanied by numerous psychological and social problems. Infertile couples are more anxious and emotionally distressed than other fertile people. Previous studies suggested that infertility is more stressful for women than men. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the status of general health of infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated general health of 150 infertile couples attending to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility that were selected consequently. The data were gathered by the researchers, based on face to face interview before and after three months of treatment by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire had questions on demographic information and the second one was the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). This questionnaire has four sub- scales areas. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 15 and analyzed. Results: The mean age of women was 28.3 and men were 32.4 years. The scores for all sub- scales of GHQ in women were more than men. There was significant difference between age and general health at physical symptoms scales (p=0.002), anxiety and sleep disorders (p=0.003). The age group 25-29 years had higher scores (more than 7) than other age groups. There was significant difference between the scale of social dysfunction and results of treatment. Conclusion: Our results, similar to the previous studies have revealed negetive social and mental effects of infertility on women is more than men, so there is need that they be educated specially. PMID:24639785
Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here the author describes and analyzes a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, [approximately]50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomers should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. 73 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.
Williams, Robert J.; Zolner, Theresa; Bertrand, Lorne D.; Davis, R. Meghan
Frequent substance use has a strong association with poor mental health. The relationship between infrequent substance use and mental health is less clear. The present study investigated this relationship in a large group (n = 2118) of 12-19-year-olds from Alberta, Canada. Results indicated that adolescents who used tobacco or alcohol once a month…
Egan, Katie G; Koff, Rosalind N; Moreno, Megan A
Facebook is widely used by the college population, and previous research has shown that mental health references on Facebook are common. Focus groups of college students were held to determine their views of mental health references seen in their peers' Facebook profiles. Students' views of mental health references varied from being serious calls for help, to being jokes or attention-seeking behavior. Responses to mental health references depended on the participants' offline relationship with the poster. Students would contact close friends through a phone call or in-person conversation, but would not approach acquaintances. The prevalence of mental health references on Facebook, and the awareness of these references by college students, may present opportunities for future peer intervention efforts. PMID:23301569
Oosthuizen, H; Fick, G; Els, C
Mental illness or insanity has a dramatic influence on a person's legal status. A person's status determines his or her competencies such as legal capacity, capacity to act, accountability and capacity to litigate. A mentally ill person is incapable of performing juristic acts; he or she is not capable of becoming a party to legal proceedings; is virtually incapable of committing a crime or being liable for a delict; etc. However, not all mentally ill persons are precluded from performing legal acts or, for that matter, giving valid consent to medical treatment. The reason being that status is factually determined according to the degree to which the mental illness is present at the time when the mentally ill person participates in the legal traffic. The measure of capability depends on the patient's intellectual and volitional capacities that will decide whether the patient can validly contract, litigate or consent to medical treatment. More specifically medical research of a non-therapeutic nature can only be carried out on mental patients who are capable of consenting thereto. This article endeavours to touch upon the different aspects of the mentally ill person's legal status. PMID:8668008
Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck
Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…
Mao, Rong; Pevsner, Jonathan
Mental retardation affects 2 to 3% of the US population. It is defined by broad criteria, including significantly subaverage intelligence, onset by age 18, and impaired function in a group of adaptive skills. A myriad of genetic and environmental causes have been described, but for approximately half of individuals diagnosed with mental…
Curtis, L J; Georgiades, I B; White, S; Bird, C C; Harrison, D J; Wyllie, A H
Current opinion of the genetic events driving colorectal tumourigenesis focuses on genomic instability. At least two apparently independent mechanisms are recognized, microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability. The genetic defects underlying each type of instability are only partially understood and controversy remains as to the role of p53 in the generation of chromosomal defects in colorectal cancer. This study sought to clarify the relationships between chromosomal abnormalities and defects of both p53 and mismatch repair. Extensive chromosomal analysis was undertaken, using flow cytometry and comparative genomic hybridization, of a series of sporadic colorectal cancers which had been grown to early passage as subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice. Overall levels of chromosomal defects were observed to be low in RER+ cancers compared with RER- and distinctive patterns of chromosomal anomalies were found to be associated with both the RER+ and RER- phenotype. No particular level or pattern of chromosomal anomalies appeared to be associated with p53 status, supporting recent observations that abnormal p53 function is not sufficient to cause chromosomal anomalies in colorectal tumours. PMID:11113860
Hassan, Bruna Kulik; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Hasselmann, Maria Helena
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026). We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010). Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months. PMID:27007683
Ireton, Harold; And Others
The relationship of infant mental development (Bayley Mental Scale, eight months) to four year Binet IQ was explored in the context of the study sample's neurological and socioeconomic characteristics for a sample of 536 full-term children. The Minnesota sample was approximately normal or average in terms of infant mental scores, infant…
DOUGLASS, JOSEPH H.
ON A NATIONAL BASIS THE MENTAL HEALTH NEEDS OF THE TOTAL POPULATION ARE NOT BEING ADEQUATELY MET, AND THE RURAL SEGMENT (ESPECIALLY RURAL YOUTH) OF THE POPULATION FARES EVEN WORSE THAN ITS URBAN COUNTERPART. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THIS INADEQUACY INCLUDE--(1) LOWER INCOME, (2) SPARSITY OF POPULATION, (3) LOWER EDUCATIONAL LEVELS, AND (4) THE…
Telvi, L; Ion, A; Carel, J C; Desguerre, I; Piraud, M; Boutin, A M; Feingold, J; Ponsot, G; Fellous, M; McElreavey, K
An unusual familial case of three sibs with a partial duplication of distal Xp sequences is described. The proband, an 18 year old boy, showed mental retardation, severe dysmorphic features, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HHG), and hypoplastic external genitalia. His karyotype was 46,Y,inv dup(X) (p22.11-->p 22.32). The proband has two sisters each with the same inv dup(Xp) chromosome. Both sisters presented with short stature but were otherwise phenotypically normal. The abnormal X chromosome was inactive in the majority of cells examined. Southern blot dosage analysis indicated a duplication of distal Xp sequences. The proximal breakpoint is located between DXS28 and DXS41, and is therefore at least 2 Mb distal to the DSS locus. The relationship between the phenotype and the Xp duplication is discussed. Images PMID:8880579
Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim
Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment. PMID:21262057
MacKenzie, D M; Copp, P; Shaw, R J; Goodwin, G M
One hundred and fifty unselected elderly community subjects were assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and Mental Status Questionnaire (MSQ). The effects on cognitive test scores of potential confounding (non-cognitive) variables were evaluated. Sensitivities and specificities were: MMSE 80% and 98%; AMT 77% and 90%; and MSQ 70% and 89%. The MMSE identified significantly fewer false positives than the AMT and MSQ. The major effect of intelligence on cognitive test scores has previously been underestimated. Age, social class, sensitivity of hearing and history of stroke were also significantly correlated with cognitive test scores. Years of full time education and depression only affected the longer MMSE and CAMCOG. The MMSE (cut-off 20/21) can be recommended for routine screening. However, as scores are affected by variables other than cognitive function, particularly intelligence, further assessment of identified cases may fail to reveal significant functional impairment. PMID:8685299
Kulkybaev, G A; Ismailova, A A
The use of psychological-and-diagnostic techniques ant tests designed to study the mental condition and to evaluate the efficiency of psychological adaptation will ensure an early detection of different disorders in the mental status of miners and a differentiation of the population according to their prevalence, which is of a great prognostication importance. The choice of the most informative indices of the miners' psychological status will make it possible to use them in evaluating the professional adaptability of young experts mastering the mining skills, which would maintain a high standard of health and labor longevity. PMID:12852036
Objective: To remind pediatric care providers that an altered mental status can be the only presenting symptom for intussusception, a life-threatening diagnosis. Method: A case report that presents a unique presentation of intussusception: a 4-month old boy with neurological findings after a reported head injury. Conclusion: Diagnosis of intussusception in the pediatric population is highly dependent on its classical presenting signs and symptoms: sudden severe colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, and an abdominal mass in children between 3 months and 6 years of age. Consider that an altered mental status can be the only presenting symptom. PMID:27489664
Gijsbers, Antoinet CJ; Lew, Janet YK; Bosch, Cathy AJ; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke HM; van Haeringen, Arie; den Hollander, Nicolette S; Kant, Sarina G; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Breuning, Martijn H; Bakker, Egbert; Ruivenkamp, Claudia AL
High-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technology enables extensive genotyping as well as the detection of increasingly smaller chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we assess molecular karyotyping as first-round analysis of patients with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital abnormalities (MR/MCA). We used different commercially available SNP array platforms, the Affymetrix GeneChip 262K NspI, the Genechip 238K StyI, the Illumina HumanHap 300 and HumanCNV 370 BeadChip, to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in 318 patients with unexplained MR/MCA. We found abnormalities in 22.6% of the patients, including six CNVs that overlap known microdeletion/duplication syndromes, eight CNVs that overlap recently described syndromes, 63 potentially pathogenic CNVs (in 52 patients), four large segments of homozygosity and two mosaic trisomies for an entire chromosome. This study shows that high-density SNP array analysis reveals a much higher diagnostic yield as that of conventional karyotyping. SNP arrays have the potential to detect CNVs, mosaics, uniparental disomies and loss of heterozygosity in one experiment. We, therefore, propose a novel diagnostic approach to all MR/MCA patients by first analyzing every patient with an SNP array instead of conventional karyotyping. PMID:19436329
Rachidi, M; Lopes, C; Delezoide, A-L; Delabar, J M
Mental retardation represents the more invalidating pathological aspect of trisomy 21 and has a hard impact on public health. The dosage imbalance of chromosome 21 genes could be the cause of neurological alterations and mental retardation seen in Down syndrome. We studied C21orf5 that we have demonstrated to be overexpressed in Down syndrome tissues, as a candidate gene for trisomy 21. A new optical technology (Rachidi et al., 2000) was used to compare signal intensity and cell density in presumptive embryonic brain compartments, at their boundaries and in higher specialized brain centres during fetal lifespan. We showed a developmentally regulated transcriptional activity of C21orf5 and a regional and cellular specific distribution of gene transcripts during human embryonic and fetal development. A wide but differential expression was detected in the nervous system during embryogenesis with a relatively lower level in the forebrain than in the midbrain and hindbrain and the highest transcription intensity in the future cerebellum. This developmentally regulated expression is maintained during post-embryogenesis and evolves selectively in fetal cerebral, hippocampal and cerebellar areas. Differential and cellular specificity were detected in hippocampus with higher C21orf5 mRNA level in the pyramidal cells compared to granular cells of the dentate gyrus. The expression pattern detected in cortical and cerebellar structures correlates well to the altered cortical lamination and to the lower size of the cerebellum observed in Down syndrome patients. In addition, the patterned differential expression detected in the medial temporal-lobe system, including hippocampal formation and perirhinal cortex, working as control centres of the memory circuits and involved in cognitive processes and memory storage, also corresponds to abnormal brain regions seen in Down syndrome patients. The C21orf5 selective expression in the key brain structures for learning and memory
Knecht, G; Morawitz, I; Schanda, H
Based on the data of 66 male patients not guilty for reason of insanity, who were treated in Justizanstalt Göllersdorf, Austria's central institution for mentally ill offenders, we examined the influence of age, duration of detention, diagnosis, and offence on discharge. Law provides a yearly, compulsory examination of the necessity of further inpatient-treatment. We also tried to describe a concept of further dangerousness (considered to be the essential basis for the decision of possible discharge) in a four-factor-model including the criteria psychopathology, insight, conflict behaviour, and social competence. Concerning the various levels of decision finding (institution, expert, court) different interpretations of these criteria could be demonstrated. Independent of diagnostic and prognostic considerations the court stressed mainly kind of offence as the most important factor for the possibility of discharge. PMID:8248443
Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N
Yoga (derived from 'yuj' which means to yoke together or unite) has been used for millennia as a tool for self-improvement, with the ultimate goal of uniting the individual consciousness with the universal. The physical elements of yoga, although seen as necessary in the path to achieve the goal, they were not considered as the endpoint for a practitioner. Sage Patanjali, who codified the practices into an eight-limbed model (Ashtanga yoga) in the Patanjali Yoga Sutras, makes it clear that the target of yoga is primarily the mind. However, in the modern world, yoga practices have become immensely popular as aids to improve health. Yoga-based practices are being extensively used as therapeutic ingredients, alone or as adjuncts to other therapies in a variety of disorders, both physical and mental. There is now strong evidence to suggest that yoga-based interventions are beneficial in several lifestyle disorders. Recent research has also shown significant benefits in mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis. This paper discusses the place of yoga as one of the therapeutic strategies in the holistic approach to mental disorders, and the challenges inherent to research in this area. PMID:27067548
Mathur, Manju; Bhargava, Rachna; Benipal, Ramandeep; Luthra, Neena; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.
Objective: To compare the dietary habits and nutritional status of mentally retarded (MR) and normal (NG) subjects and to examine the relationship between the dietary habits and nutritional status and the level of mental retardation in the MR group. Method: A case control design was utilized: 117 MR (random sampling) and 100 NG (quota sampling)…
Background Rett syndrome (RTT), a common cause of mental retardation in girls, is associated with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Most human cases of MECP2 mutation in girls result in classical or variant forms of RTT. When these same mutations occur in males, they often present as severe neonatal encephalopathy. However, some MECP2 mutations can also lead to diseases characterized as mental retardation syndromes, particularly in boys. One of these mutations, A140V, is a common, recurring missense mutation accounting for about 0.6% of all MeCP2 mutations and ranking 21st by frequency. It has been described in familial X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), PPM- X syndrome (Parkinsonism, Pyramidal signs, Macroorchidism, X-linked mental retardation) and in other neuropsychiatric syndromes. Interestingly, this mutation has been reported to preserve the methyl-CpG binding function of the MeCP2 protein while compromising its ability to bind to the mental retardation associated protein ATRX. Results We report the construction and initial characterization of a mouse model expressing the A140V MeCP2 mutation. These initial descriptive studies in male hemizygous mice have revealed brain abnormalities seen in both RTT and mental retardation. The abnormalities found include increases in cell packing density in the brain and a significant reduction in the complexity of neuronal dendritic branching. In contrast to some MeCP2 mutation mouse models, the A140V mouse has an apparently normal lifespan and normal weight gain patterns with no obvious seizures, tremors, breathing difficulties or kyphosis. Conclusion We have identified various neurological abnormalities in this mouse model of Rett syndrome/X-linked mental retardation which may help to elucidate the manner in which MECP2 mutations cause neuronal changes resulting in mental retardation without the confounding effects of seizures, chronic hypoventilation, or other Rett syndrome associated symptoms. PMID:20163734
Panigrahi, Ansuman; Padhy, Aditya Prasad; Panigrahi, Madhulita
Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem. PMID:24800258
Aiba, K; Yokochi, K; Ishikawa, T
A three-year-old boy who had ataxic diplegia, mental retardation, horizontal pendular nystagmus with head nodding and abnormal auditory brain stem responses showing only waves I and II was presented. His clinical features coincided with recent reports in the Japanese literature of cases of a new syndrome that is congenital in origin and seen only in boys. PMID:3826555
Segal, Steven P.; Gomory, Tomi; Silverman, Carol J.
Investigates the health status of 310 homeless and marginally housed people to determine the usefulness of mental health self-help agencies (SHAs) in addressing their physical health needs. Findings indicated that frequencies of health problems among respondents were similar to those of other homeless or marginally housed groups and that the study…
Krezmien, Michael P.; Mulcahy, Candace A.; Leone, Peter E.
Currently, there is limited research about the relationship between academic, mental health needs, and special education status among populations of incarcerated youth. Additionally, little is known about differences between special education and general education students, or about differences between detained and committed populations. This…
Haut, Sheryl R.; Katz, Mindy; Masur, Jonathan; Lipton, Richard B.
Co-morbidities of epilepsy have not been well explored in the elderly. Herein, we examined mental status, mood, and sleep in elderly patients with epilepsy, compared to age and gender matched community controls without epilepsy from the Einstein Aging Study. Testing included a mental status test, the Blessed Information Memory and Concentration (BIMC) test; Prime-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Depression and Anxiety Modules; and Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Persons with epilepsy (n=31) had higher mean BIMC scores than controls (n=31, BIMC 6.3 vs.1.2; p<0.0001). Mean PHQ Depression scores were higher for cases than controls indicating more depressive symptoms (4.2 vs. 0.8; p=0.006); six cases (18%) and no controls met screening criteria for depression. Mean PHQ Anxiety scores were also higher for cases than controls (3.7 vs. 0.0; p=0.001). Cases demonstrated poorer sleep scores in the categories of somnolence (p=0.009) and shortness of breath/headache (p=0.021). Thus, co-morbidities of epilepsy in this elderly population included decreased mental status, a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety, and poorer sleep health when compared to age mates without epilepsy. Mental status impairment was not related to anti-epileptic medication or mood disturbance. Further investigation will explore these associations prospectively. PMID:19189862
Levine, Jan Martin, Ed.
Brief reports on the status of approximately 75 ongoing or recently decided court cases in states of relevance to the mentally retarded are provided. Cases cover the following issues: commitment, community living and services, criminal law, discrimination, guardianship, institutions and deinstitutionalization, medical/legal issues, parental rights…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.; Duku, Eric
Data from a nationally representative sample of 13,470 children aged 4-11 years were used to study contextual influences on children's mental health and school performance, the moderating effects of family immigrant status and underlying family processes that might explain these relationships. Despite greater socioeconomic disadvantage, children…
Farkas, Marianne; And Others
Many studies have followed the living and work situations of discharged mental patients in the community. To add to this knowledge base, a study of 52 chronic inpatients was conducted over a 3 1/2 year period to examine the effects of deinstitutionalization on the living situations and vocational status of long-hospitalized patients. The patients…
Lee, Serge; Chang, Jenny
This article provides a comprehensive overview of the Hmong in America and encompasses their mental health status for the past 35 years. Since their mass arrival to the United States in 1975, limited research has been compiled to track the specific mental health issues that affect this collective community alone. Major chronological research findings were compiled for this article and specific findings concerning the Hmong and their mental health issues were compared to findings for other Southeast Asian groups. In conclusion, the findings of this article indicate that the Hmong still have higher rates of being diagnosed with depression, the lowest help-seeking behaviors in utilizing Western medicine, and the lowest arithmetic average of "happiness" scaled on an assessment tool. The purpose of this article is to better steer future research projects that entail tracking and differentiating the specific mental health domains of the Hmong. PMID:22409638
Nadler, J D; Relkin, N R; Cohen, M S; Hodder, R A; Reingold, J; Plum, F
The clinical utility of selected brief cognitive screening instruments in detecting dementia in an elderly nursing home population was examined. One hundred twenty nursing home residents (mean age 87.9) were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam (3MS). The majority of the subjects (75%) were also administered the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). Both clinically diagnosed demented (n = 57) and non-demented (n = 63) subjects participated in the study. Dementia was diagnosed in accordance with DSM-III-R criteria by physicians specializing in geriatric medicine. Using standard cutoffs for impairment, the 3MS, MMSE, and DRS achieved high sensitivity (82% to 100%) but low specificity (33% to 52%) in the detection of dementia among nursing home residents. Positive predictive values ranged from 52% to 61%, and negative predictive values from 77% to 100%. Higher age, lower education, and history of depression were significantly associated with misclassification of non-demented elderly subjects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses revealed optimal classification of dementia with cutoff values of 74 for the 3MS, 22 for the MMSE, and 110 for the DRS. The results suggest that the 3MS, MMSE, and DRS do not differ significantly with respect to classification accuracy of dementia in a nursing home population. Elderly individuals of advanced age (i.e., the oldest-old) with lower education and a history of depression appear at particular risk for dementia misclassification with these instruments. Revised cutoff values for impairment should be employed when these instruments are applied to elderly residents of nursing homes and the oldest-old. PMID:7576043
Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M
Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers. PMID:2310704
Brunnauer, Alexander; Buschert, Verena; Segmiller, Felix; Zwick, Sarah; Bufler, Johannes; Schmauss, Max; Messer, Thomas; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Frommberger, Ulrich; Bartl, Helga; Steinberg, Reinhard; Laux, Gerd
Background Driving is an important activity of daily life and an integral part of mobility. However, impact of mental illness on road mobility is widely unexplored. Method Driving status in 1497 psychiatric inpatients (PPs) and a clinical control group of 313 neurological inpatients (NPs) was investigated using a brief questionnaire. Results 67% of PPs (89% NPs) reported to have a valid driver's licence and 77% of them (92% NPs) reported to regularly use their cars. Within driver's license holders, patients with organic mental disorder (32%), substance dependence (37%) and psychotic disorder (40%) had the lowest proportion of current drivers. Higher educational qualification (odds ratio [OR] from 2.978 to 17.036) and being married/partnered (OR 3.049) or divorced (OR 4.840) significantly advanced the probability of possession of a driving license. Predictive factors for driving cessation were being female, an older age, drawing a pension and having an organic mental disease or schizophrenic disorder. Conclusion Mental disease has a negative impact on driving status and this is especially true for illnesses frequently being accompanied by distinct cognitive impairments. Factors predicting road mobility elucidate the strong relationship with psychosocial status indicating that recovery of driving competence should be an integral goal of treatment strategies. PMID:26442635
Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A
A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event. PMID:24558696
Champine, Robey B.; Petry, Nancy M.
Data consistently demonstrate comorbidity between pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders. This study compares severity of gambling and psychosocial problems and gambling treatment outcomes in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (N = 231) based on their self-reported mental health treatment utilization. As expected, participants currently receiving mental health treatment demonstrated the most psychiatric problems, and those with no mental health treatment the least. Although preferred gambling activity differed according to mental health treatment status, severity of gambling problems and gambling treatment outcomes did not. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy was efficacious in reducing gambling problems irrespective of mental health treatment utilization. PMID:20958852
Consolacion, Theodora B; Russell, Stephen T; Sue, Stanley
This study examined the association between multiple minority statuses and reports of suicidal thoughts, depression, and self-esteem among adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine mental health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups for same-sex-attracted youths and female youths. Hispanic/Latino, African American, and White female adolescents reported more suicidal thoughts, higher depression, and lower self-esteem compared with male adolescents in their racial/ethnic group. Same-sex-attracted youths did not consistently demonstrate compromised mental health across racial/ethnic groups. Follow-up analyses show that White same-sex-attracted female adolescents reported the most compromised mental health compared with other White adolescents. However, similar trends were not found for racial/ethnic minority female youths with same-sex attractions. PMID:15311974
Nguyen, Muoi T.; Chan, Winnie Y.; Keeler, Courtney
Abstract Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data. This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ2 tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively). Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics. Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899
Mathew, Jacob; Koo, Matthew; Crook, Irina R; Jahanmir, Jay
A 73-year-old man presented to the emergency room for acute onset altered mental status. The initial work-up yielded no definitive cause. An MRI demonstrated lesions in the bilateral posterior occipital lobes (not noted on an earlier MRI obtained from an outside institution) that were suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). He had a history of Parkinson's disease complicated by autonomic instability (wide blood pressure fluctuations) that was medically controlled in the outpatient setting. During the early course of his hospitalisation, he again displayed wide blood pressure fluctuations. After his blood pressure stabilised, his mental status eventually improved to baseline. A repeat MRI obtained demonstrated near-complete resolution of the previously noted lesions and confirmed the diagnosis of PRES. PMID:25096651
Drabkin, Anya S.; Stashko, Allison L.; Broverman, Sherryl A.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.
Objective To examine orphan status, mental health, social support, and HIV risk among adolescents in rural Kenya. Methods Randomly selected adolescents aged 10–18 years completed surveys assessing sexual activity, sex-related beliefs and self-efficacy, mental health, social support, caregiver–child communication, time since parental death, and economic resources. Analysis of covariance and regression analyses compared orphans and nonorphans; orphan status was tested as a moderator between well-being and HIV risk. Results Orphans reported poorer mental health, less social support, and fewer material resources. They did not differ from nonorphans on HIV risk indicators. Longer time since parental death was associated with poorer outcomes. In moderator analyses, emotional problems and poorer caregiver–youth communication were more strongly associated with lower sex-related self-efficacy for orphans. Conclusions Orphans are at higher risk for psychosocial problems. These problems may affect orphans’ self-efficacy for safer sex practices more than nonorphans. Decreased HIV risk could be one benefit of psychosocial interventions for orphans. PMID:22728899
Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Esmaeili, Alirez; Dortaj, Fariborz; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status. PMID:26316753
Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Dortaj, Fariborz; Esmaeili, Alireza; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally, driver behavior rather than technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In a previous study, we showed that among young Iranian male traffic offenders, poor mental health status, along with aggression, predicted poor driving behavior. The aims of the present study were twofold, to determine whether this pattern could be replicated among non-traffic offenders, and to compare the mental health status, aggression, and driving behavior of male traffic offenders and non-offenders. Methods A total of 850 male drivers (mean age =34.25 years, standard deviation =10.44) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Of these, 443 were offenders (52.1%) and 407 (47.9%) were non-offenders with lowest driving penalty scores applying for attaining an international driving license. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering socio-demographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer mental health status, and worse driving behavior. Among non-offenders, multiple regression indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer health status and driving behavior. Further, the predictive power of poorer mental health status, but not aggression, for driving behavior was replicated for male non-offenders. PMID:26300646
Boutros, Nash N.; Arfken, Cynthia; Galderisi, Silvana; Warrick, Joshua; Pratt, Garrett; Iacono, William
Objective A literature review was conducted to ascertain whether or not EEG spectral abnormalities are consistent enough to warrant additional effort towards developing them into a clinical diagnostic test for schizophrenia. Methods Fifty three papers met criteria for inclusion into the review and 15 were included in a meta-analysis of the degree of significance of EEG deviations as compared to healthy controls. Studies were classified based on a 4-step approach based on guidelines for evaluating the clinical usefulness of a diagnostic test. Results Our review and meta-analysis revealed that most of the abnormalities are replicated in the expected directions with the most consistent results related to the increased preponderance of slow rhythms in schizophrenia patients. This effect remained consistent in un-medicated patients. Only a small number of studies provided data on the sensitivity and specificity of the findings in differentiating among the psychiatric disorders that frequently appear on the same differential diagnostic list as schizophrenia (step 3 studies). No multicenter studies using standardized assessment criteria were found (step 4 studies). Conclusions Additional Step 3 and Step 4 studies are needed to draw conclusions on the usefulness of EEG spectral abnormalities as a diagnostic test for schizophrenia PMID:18160260
González, Maynor G; Swanson, Dena P; Lynch, Martin; Williams, Geoffrey C
This research applied self-determination theory to examine the degree to which satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence explained the association between socioeconomic status and physical and mental health outcomes, while controlling for age, exercise, and smoking status. This was a survey research study with 513 full-time employees in professions representative of a hierarchal organization. The results of the structural equation model verify that psychological need satisfaction mediates the inverse association between socioeconomic status and physical and mental health. Self-determination theory contributes to understanding the psychosocial roots of the uneven distribution of health across the socioeconomic gradient. PMID:25104782
Oudghiri, Dia Eddine; Ruiz-Cabello, Pilar; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Fernández, María Del Mar; Aranda, Pilar; Aparicio, Virginia Ariadna
Introduction There is a lack of information about fitness and other health indicators in women from countries such as Morocco. This study aims to explore the association of weight status with physical and mental health in Moroccan perimenopausal women. Methods 151 women (45-65 years) from the North of Morocco were analyzed by standardized field-based fitness tests to assess cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, agility and balance. Quality of life was assessed by means of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey. Resting heart rate, blood pressure and plasma fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were also measured. Results Blood pressure (P=0.001), plasma triglycerides (P=0.041) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.001) increased as weight status increased. Levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body flexibility (both, P<0.001), static balance (P<0.05) and dynamic balance (P<0.01) decreased as weight status increased. Pairwise comparisons showed differences mainly between normal-weight and overweight vs. obese groups. No differences between groups were observed on quality of life. Conclusion Cardiovascular and lipid profile and fitness, important indicators of cardiovascular disease risk, worsened as weight status increased, whereas quality of life appears to be independent of weight status. Exercise and nutritional programs focus on weight management may be advisable in this under studied population. PMID:27303571
Hawley, Lisa D.; MacDonald, Michael G.; Wallace, Erica H.; Smith, Julia; Wummel, Brian; Wren, Patricia A.
Objective: A campus-wide assessment examined the physical and mental health status of a midsize midwestern public university. Participants: Two thousand and forty-nine students, faculty, and staff on a single college campus were assessed in March-April 2013. Methods: Participants completed an online survey with sections devoted to demographics,…
Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Lalitha, K; Thennarasu, K; Nagarajaiah; Ramachandra
Computer-based multimedia can improve learning and retention of learnt material A video recorded DVD module on role play of mental status examination was visualised by 226 nursing students and 133 nursing teachers. Their opinion of the DVD on various parameters such as audibility, visibility, clarity, methodical, organisation of content, following the principles of psychiatric interview, symptom elicitation, therapist behaviour, therapist communication skill and ease in understanding revealed that the DVD module was of high quality and could be used as a teaching tool PMID:24683759
Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and examined the association of these abuse subtypes with BMI status. Methods In total, data of 51,856 secondary school students aged 13–16 who had completed a questionnaire on health, well-being and lifestyle were used. BMI was classified into four categories, underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Adolescents reported if they had ever been physically, sexually or mentally abused. Crude and adjusted General Estimation Equation (GEE) analyses were performed to investigate the association between abuse subtypes and BMI status. Analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and parental communication, and stratified for gender and educational level. Results Eighteen percent of the adolescents reported mental abuse, 7% reported sexual abuse, and 6% reported physical abuse. For underweight, overweight and obese adolescents these percentages were 17%, 25%, and 44%; 7%, 8%, and 16%; and 6%, 8%, 18% respectively. For the entire population, all these subtypes of abuse were associated with being overweight and obese (OR=3.67, 1.79 and 1.50) and all but sexual abuse were associated with underweight (OR=1.21 and 1.12). Stratified analyses showed that physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with obesity among boys (OR=1.77 and 2.49) and among vocational school students (OR=1.60 and 1.69), and with underweight among girls (OR=1.26 and 0.83). Conclusion Mental abuse was reported by almost half of the obese adolescents and associated with underweight, overweight and obesity. Longitudinal
Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz
The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113
Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor
Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Sleijpen, Marieke; Mooren, Trudy; ter Heide, F. Jackie June; van der Aa, Niels
Aims and method This study aimed to identify predictors of symptom severity for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in asylum seekers and refugees referred to a specialised mental health centre. Trauma exposure (number and domain of event), refugee status and severity of PTSD and depression were assessed in 688 refugees. Results Symptom severity of PTSD and depression was significantly associated with lack of refugee status and accumulation of traumatic events. Four domains of traumatic events (human rights abuse, lack of necessities, traumatic loss, and separation from others) were not uniquely associated with symptom severity. All factors taken together explained 11% of variance in PTSD and depression. Clinical implications To account for multiple predictors of symptom severity including multiple traumatic events, treatment for traumatised refugees may need to be multimodal and enable the processing of multiple traumatic memories within a reasonable time-frame. PMID:26755950
Behjati, Farkhondeh; Ghasemi Firouzabadi, Saghar; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Kahrizi, Kimia; Najafi, Mostafa; Ebrahimizade Ghasemlou, Behruz; Shafeghati, Yousef; Behnia, Fatemeh; Mohammadi Arya, Ali Reza; Karimi, Hossein; Hadipour, Fatemeh; Hadipour, Zahra; Jamali, Peyman; Kariminejad, Roxana; Darvish, Hossein; Bahman, Ideh; Bagherizadeh, Eiman; Najmabadi, Hossein; Vameghi, Roshanak
Background Mental retardation/Developmental delay (MR/DD) is present in 1 - 3% of the general population (1, 2). MR is defined as a significant impairment of both cognitive (IQ < 70) and social adaptive functions, with onset before 18 years of age. Objectives The purpose was to determine the results of subtelomeric screening by the Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) Technique in 100 selected patients with idiopathic mental retardation (IMR) in Iran. Materials and Methods A number of 100 patients with IMR, normal karyotypes and negative fragile-X and metabolic tests were screened for subtelomeric abnormalities using MLPA technique. Results Nine of 100 patients showed subtelomeric abnormalities with at least one of the two MLPA kits. Deletion in a single region was found in 3 patients, and in two different subtelomeric regions in 1 patient. Duplication was only single and was present in 2 patients. Three patients were found to have both a deletion and duplication.MLPA testing in the parental samples of 7 patients which was accessible showed that 4 patients were de novo, 2 patients had inherited from a clinically normal mother, and one had inherited from a clinically normal father. Screening with the two MLPA kits (SALSA P036 and SALSA P070) proved abnormality in only five of the 9 patients. Conclusions So, the prevalence rate of abnormal subtelomeres using MLPA technique in patients with idiopathic MR in our study was 5 - 9%, the higher limit referring to the positive results of one of the two MLPA kits, and the lower limit representing the results of positive double-checking with the two MLPA kits. PMID:24693374
Taylor, Eboni; Yanni, Emad; Guterbock, Michael; Pezzi, Clelia; Rothney, Erin; Harton, Elizabeth; Montour, Jessica; Elias, Collin; Burke, Heather
Background We conducted a survey among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States to assess their physical and mental health status and healthcare access and utilization following the initial eight month, post-arrival period. Methods We randomly selected Iraqi refugees: ≥18 years of age; living in the United States for 8 to 36 months; and residents of Michigan, California, Texas and Idaho. Participants completed a household questionnaire and mental health assessment. Results We distributed 366 surveys. Seventy-five percent of participants had health insurance at the time of the survey; 43% reported delaying or not seeking care for a medical problem in the past year. Sixty percent of participants reported one chronic condition; 37% reported ≥2 conditions. The prevalence of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression was approximately 50% of participants; 31% were at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusions Iraqi refugees in this evaluation reported a high prevalence of chronic conditions and mental health symptoms despite relatively high access to healthcare. It is important for resettlement partners to be aware of the distinctive health concerns of this population to best address needs within this community. PMID:23959695
Jaruvongvanich, Veeravich; Spanuchart, Ittikorn; O-Charoen, Pichaya; Kitamura, Christian; Sumida, Lauren; Roytman, Marina
Multiple myeloma typically presents as lytic bony lesions, hypercalcemia, anemia, and renal failure. Extraosseous manifestations are rare. We report on a patient who was recently diagnosed with multiple myeloma and completed the first cycle of bortezomib, dexamethasone, and palliative radiation therapy with good response. Two weeks after discharge, she became confused and was re-admitted. Despite treatment with lactulose and rifaximin, altered mental status worsened. Computer tomographic scan of abdomen showed hepatomegaly and numerous ill-defined small hyperdense nodules scattered throughout the liver. Liver biopsy demonstrated aggregation of plasma cell myeloma. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed dural thickening. Patient's altered mental status was likely from leptomeningeal myelomatosis and hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Although extraosseous manifestations in multiple myeloma including liver and leptomeningeal involvement are rare, its incidence has increased. This condition portends a poor prognosis. The non-specific manifestations of extraosseous myeloma can be confused with complications of multiple sclerosis and lead to incorrect management, thus clinicians should be aware of these pathologies and perform proper diagnostic tests including imaging and tissue pathology. The most effective treatment is unknown, however bortezomib and thalidomide show promise. PMID:27099806
Matlabi, Hossein; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Amiri, Shahriar
Background: Sufficient level of physical activity may promote overall and mental health of old people. This study was carried out to investigate the practicability of a physical activity promotion initiative amongst institutionalized older people in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: Purposive sampling method was used in this semi-experimental study to recruit 31 older people living in a selected residential care in Tabriz. Moderate-intensity aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity was planned for those who had not severe baseline cognitive impairment or were not too frail to undertake the survey. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to measure mental health status before and after intervention through a face-to-face interview. Descriptive statistics, Wilkcoxon rank-sum, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests were employed to analyses the data. Results: The applied intervention was significantly improved status of physical health, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression. Conclusion: Incorporation of physical activity promotion programs into routines of older people residential care homes in Iran is feasible but may need training of physical activity specialists to work with older people based on their physical endurance and limitations. PMID:25097839
Spanuchart, Ittikorn; O-charoen, Pichaya; Kitamura, Christian; Sumida, Lauren; Roytman, Marina
Multiple myeloma typically presents as lytic bony lesions, hypercalcemia, anemia, and renal failure. Extraosseous manifestations are rare. We report on a patient who was recently diagnosed with multiple myeloma and completed the first cycle of bortezomib, dexamethasone, and palliative radiation therapy with good response. Two weeks after discharge, she became confused and was re-admitted. Despite treatment with lactulose and rifaximin, altered mental status worsened. Computer tomographic scan of abdomen showed hepatomegaly and numerous ill-defined small hyperdense nodules scattered throughout the liver. Liver biopsy demonstrated aggregation of plasma cell myeloma. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed dural thickening. Patient's altered mental status was likely from leptomeningeal myelomatosis and hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Although extraosseous manifestations in multiple myeloma including liver and leptomeningeal involvement are rare, its incidence has increased. This condition portends a poor prognosis. The non-specific manifestations of extraosseous myeloma can be confused with complications of multiple sclerosis and lead to incorrect management, thus clinicians should be aware of these pathologies and perform proper diagnostic tests including imaging and tissue pathology. The most effective treatment is unknown, however bortezomib and thalidomide show promise. PMID:27099806
Jarl, Johan; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Larsson, Charlotte A
Background Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia. Method A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18–60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression. Results No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure. PMID:26301591
Haddouche, Mustapha; Aribi, Mourad; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Smahi, Mohammed Chems-Eddine Ismet; Lammani, Mohammed; Benyoucef, Mohammed
Summary Background This study aimed to investigate whether the anomalies affecting the antioxidant and humoral immune defenses could start at birth and to check whether the decrease in antioxidant defenses may precede the immune abnormalities in macrosomic newborns. Material/Methods Thirty macrosomic and 30 sex-matched control newborns were recruited for a retrospective case-control study at the Maghnia Maternity Hospital of Tlemcen Department (Algeria). Results The serum IgG levels were similar in both groups. However, plasma ORAC, albumin, vitamin E, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic as compared to control newborns, yet no difference was observed after adjustment for weight. Additionally, serum concentrations of complement C3, MDA and XO were significantly higher in macrosomic as compared to controls before adjustment for weight. Moreover, macrosomia was significantly associated with high levels of complement C3 (OR=8, p=0.002); whereas no association with those of IgG was observed (OR<1, p>0.05). Furthermore, macrosomia was significantly associated with low levels of ORAC (OR=4.96, p=0.027), vitamin E (OR=4.5, p=0.018), SOD (OR=6.88, p=0.020) and CAT (OR=5.67, p=0.017), and with high levels of MDA (OR=10.29, p=0.005). Conclusions Abnormalities of the humoral defense system in excessive weight could be preceded by alterations of the anti-oxidative defense and by inflammatory response and activation of innate immunity at birth. Additionally, excessive weight could be a potential factor contributing to decreased anti-oxidative capacity and increased oxidative stress. PMID:22037745
Jung, Kyoung In; Park, Chan Kee
Abstract Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Mental health and quality of life (QoL) are important issues for patients with glaucoma because visual impairment can be related to those. Analysis of mental health status or QoL in undiagnosed glaucoma patients can be free of the bias caused by awareness of the disease itself. In this study, the association between mental health status or QoL and undiagnosed glaucoma, along with the effects of visual acuity or visual field damage was investigated. Among individuals in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V (2010–2012), subjects 40 years or older were included. KNHANES is a cross-sectional study using a stratified, multistage, probability sampling survey. The KNHANES includes questionnaires to assess psychological health, including depression, sleep duration, psychological stress, and suicidal ideations. To evaluate QoL, the KNHANES includes the EuroQoL, which is composed of a health-status descriptive system (EuroQol 5-dimension, EQ-5D) and the EQ visual analog scale (EQ-VAS). The proportion of people reporting symptoms of “some or severe problems” in all 5 dimensions of the EuroQoL-5 instrument, including anxiety/depression, was higher in the glaucoma group than in the nonglaucoma group. The subjective health status reported by the EQ-VAS was lower in the subjects with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma. Suicidal ideation was greater in subjects with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (P = 0.005). After adjustment for demographic factors, glaucoma subjects were more likely than those without glaucoma to have some or severe problems with anxiety/depression (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–2.49). Worse best corrected visual acuity was associated with more problems with a lower EQ-5D score in glaucoma subjects. Individuals who had undiagnosed glaucoma were more depressed than those without glaucoma. QoL can be affected by glaucoma
Mishra, Vikas; Shuai, Bing; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shetty, Geetha A.; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Xiaolan; Shetty, Ashok K.
Antiepileptic drug therapy, though beneficial for restraining seizures, cannot thwart status epilepticus (SE) induced neurodegeneration or down-stream detrimental changes. We investigated the efficacy of resveratrol (RESV) for preventing SE-induced neurodegeneration, abnormal neurogenesis, oxidative stress and inflammation in the hippocampus. We induced SE in young rats and treated with either vehicle or RESV, commencing an hour after SE induction and continuing every hour for three-hours on SE day and twice daily thereafter for 3 days. Seizures were terminated in both groups two-hours after SE with a diazepam injection. In contrast to the vehicle-treated group, the hippocampus of animals receiving RESV during and after SE presented no loss of glutamatergic neurons in hippocampal cell layers, diminished loss of inhibitory interneurons expressing parvalbumin, somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in the dentate gyrus, reduced aberrant neurogenesis with preservation of reelin + interneurons, lowered concentration of oxidative stress byproduct malondialdehyde and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, normalized expression of oxidative stress responsive genes and diminished numbers of activated microglia. Thus, 4 days of RESV treatment after SE is efficacious for thwarting glutamatergic neuron degeneration, alleviating interneuron loss and abnormal neurogenesis, and suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation. These results have implications for restraining SE-induced chronic temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26639668
Rao, Rashmi; Platt, Lawrence D
Aneuploidy is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and can have a significant impact on expecting parents and their families. With early screening and diagnosis it is important to be able to educate parents regarding the potential impact of the diagnosis. This knowledge allows parents the opportunity to consider management options early in the pregnancy, permitting more time to mentally and emotionally prepare both for the course of the pregnancy, and after the birth of the child should the pregnancy continue. Prenatal screening provides pregnant women a non-invasive risk assessment for the most common aneuploidies. Those who are considered "high-risk" then have the option for additional diagnostic (invasive) testing. Prior to the 1980s, prenatal screening consisted of risk assessment through maternal age; however, with the advent of maternal serum biochemical analysis and ultrasound, the field of prenatal screening developed significantly. As biochemical and sonographic advances continued into the 1990s, the emphasis shifted to risk assessment in the first trimester, with the combination of maternal serum analytes and sonographic evaluation of the nuchal translucency.(1) Within the last decade, the introduction of non-invasive screening (NIPT/S) has shown great impact on the expansion and evolving practice of prenatal screening. Although in many places the standard for prenatal testing continues to include maternal serum analytes and sonographic evaluation, the role of each marker alone and in combination remains important. In the era of increasingly available screening tests, especially with NIPT/(NIPS), this article attempts to review the current role of ultrasound in prenatal care and elucidate the role of ultrasound markers in prenatal screening. PMID:26777687
Kang, In-Woong; Beom, In-Gyu; Cho, Ji-Yeon
Background The Korean-Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) is a dementia-screening test that can be easily applied in both community and clinical settings. However, in 20% to 30% of cases, the K-MMSE produces a false negative response. This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of K-MMSE as a screening test for dementia, which can be achieved through comparison of K-MMSE and Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB)-II results. Methods The study included 713 subjects (male 534, female 179; mean age, 69.3±6.9 years). All subjects were assessed using K-MMSE and SNSB-II tests, the results of which were divided into normal and abnormal in 15 percentile standards. Results The sensitivity of the K-MMSE was 48.7%, with a specificity of 89.9%. The incidence of false positive and negative results totaled 10.1% and 51.2%, respectively. In addition, the positive predictive value of the K-MMSE was 87.1%, while the negative predictive value was 55.6%. The false-negative group showed cognitive impairments in regions of memory and executive function. Subsequently, in the false-positive group, subjects demonstrated reduced performance in memory recall, time orientation, attention, and calculation of K-MMSE items. Conclusion The results obtained in the study suggest that cognitive function might still be impaired even if an individual obtained a normal score on the K-MMSE. If the K-MMSE is combined with tests of memory or executive function, the accuracy of dementia diagnosis could be greatly improved. PMID:27274389
McClain, Shannon; Beasley, Samuel T.; Jones, Bianca; Awosogba, Olufunke; Jackson, Stacey; Cokley, Kevin
This study examined ethnic identity, racial centrality, minority status stress, and impostor feelings as predictors of mental health in a sample of 218 Black college students. Ethnic identity was found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health, whereas minority status stress and impostor feelings were significant negative predictors.…
Mooney, M; Hannon, F; Barry, M; Friel, S; Kelleher, C
Mental health status and quality of life of female prisoners, the majority of whom are drug-users, was examined as part of a larger, cross-sectional, general healthcare study of the Irish prisoner population. Comparisons were made with drug using and non-drug using male prisoners and females from the general population. Instruments include the GHQ-12 and the WHOQOL-BREF. While their quality of life profile was closer to drug-using male prisoners than other comparison groups, female prisoners still had significantly poorer physical and psychological Quality of Life scores. While poorer quality of life scores may be associated with the more severe drug use patterns of female prisoners it is likely that other factors also contribute. Before resorting to drugs/crime women may have already experienced adversity. There may also be gender differences in response to the combined dimensions of environmental distress. If women are to be imprisoned appropriate comprehensive mental health promotion approaches must address their specific needs. PMID:12405501
Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stéphanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre
Objectives The association between workplace bullying and psychotropic drug use is not well established. This study was aimed at exploring the association between workplace bullying, and its characteristics, and psychotropic drug use, and studying the mediating role of physical and mental health. Methods The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the South-East of France. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument elaborated by Leymann, and psychotropic drug use, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physico-chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis, and was carried out separately for men and women. Results Workplace bullying was strongly associated with psychotropic drug use. Past exposure to bullying increased the risk for this use. The more frequent and the longer the exposure to bullying, the stronger the association with psychotropic drug use. Observing bullying on someone else at the workplace was associated with psychotropic drug use. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms reduced the magnitude of the associations, especially for men. Conclusion The association between bullying and psychotropic drug use was found to be significant and strong, and was partially mediated by physical and mental health. PMID:21177264
Background In Tak province of Thailand, a number of adolescent students who migrated from Burma have resided in the boarding houses of migrant schools. This study investigated mental health status and its relationship with perceived social support among such students. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed 428 students, aged 12–18 years, who lived in boarding houses. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)-37 A, Stressful Life Events (SLE) and Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaires were used to assess participants’ mental health status and experience of traumatic events. The Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey Scale was used to measure their perceived level of social support. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine the distribution of sociodemographic characteristics, trauma experiences, and mental health status. Further, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between such characteristics and participants’ mental health status. Results In total, 771 students were invited to participate in the study and 428 students chose to take part. Of these students, 304 completed the questionnaire. A large proportion (62.8%) indicated that both of their parents lived in Myanmar, while only 11.8% answered that both of their parents lived in Thailand. The mean total number of traumatic events experienced was 5.7 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9), mean total score on the HSCL-37A was 63.1 (SD 11.4), and mean total score on the RATS was 41.4 (SD 9.9). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher number of traumatic events was associated with more mental health problems. Conclusions Many students residing in boarding houses suffered from poor mental health in Thailand’s Tak province. The number of traumatic experiences reported was higher than expected. Furthermore, these traumatic experiences were associated with poorer mental health status. Rather than making a generalized
Nguyen, Quynh C.; Schmidt, Nicole; Glymour, M. Maria; Rehkopf, David H.; Osypuk, Theresa L.
Moving to Opportunity (MTO) was a social experiment to test how relocation to lower poverty neighborhoods influences low-income families. Using adolescent data from 4–7 year evaluations (aged 12–19, n=2829), we applied gender-stratified intent-to-treat and adherence-adjusted linear regression models, to test effect modification of MTO intervention effects on adolescent mental health. Low parental education, welfare receipt, unemployment and never-married status were not significant effect modifiers. Tailoring mobility interventions by these characteristics may not be necessary to alter impact on adolescent mental health. Because parental enrollment in school and teen parent status adversely modified MTO intervention effects on youth mental health, post-move services that increase guidance and supervision of adolescents may help support post-move adjustment. PMID:23792412
Nguyen, Quynh C; Schmidt, Nicole M; Glymour, M Maria; Rehkopf, David H; Osypuk, Theresa L
Moving to Opportunity (MTO) was a social experiment to test how relocation to lower poverty neighborhoods influences low-income families. Using adolescent data from 4 to 7 year evaluations (aged 12-19, n=2829), we applied gender-stratified intent-to-treat and adherence-adjusted linear regression models, to test effect modification of MTO intervention effects on adolescent mental health. Low parental education, welfare receipt, unemployment and never-married status were not significant effect modifiers. Tailoring mobility interventions by these characteristics may not be necessary to alter impact on adolescent mental health. Because parental enrollment in school and teen parent status adversely modified MTO intervention effects on youth mental health, post-move services that increase guidance and supervision of adolescents may help support post-move adjustment. PMID:23792412
... HME or TWIC who has a disqualifying criminal offense described in 49 CFR 1572.103(a)(5) through (a)(12... temporary protected status as described in 49 CFR 1572.105 and who requests a waiver. (iii) An applicant applying for an HME or TWIC who lacks mental capacity as described in 49 CFR 1572.109 and who requests...
... HME or TWIC who has a disqualifying criminal offense described in 49 CFR 1572.103(a)(5) through (a)(12... temporary protected status as described in 49 CFR 1572.105 and who requests a waiver. (iii) An applicant applying for an HME or TWIC who lacks mental capacity as described in 49 CFR 1572.109 and who requests...
... HME or TWIC who has a disqualifying criminal offense described in 49 CFR 1572.103(a)(5) through (a)(12... temporary protected status as described in 49 CFR 1572.105 and who requests a waiver. (iii) An applicant applying for an HME or TWIC who lacks mental capacity as described in 49 CFR 1572.109 and who requests...
Olthof, Tjeert; Rieffe, Carolien; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Lalay-Cederburg, Cindy; Reijntjes, Albert; Hagenaar, Janneke
This study examined children's and young adults' use of three mental capacity criteria for treating an entity as one to which moral subjects have moral obligations, that is, as having moral status. In line with philosophical theorizing, these criteria were the capacity to (1) perceive; (2) suffer; and (3) think. In this study, 116 respondents aged…
Grodberg, David; Weinger, Paige M.; Halpern, Danielle; Parides, Michael; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.
The phenotypic heterogeneity of adults suspected of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a standardized diagnostic approach that is feasible in all clinical settings. The autism mental status exam (AMSE) is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the observation and documentation of social, communicative and behavioral signs and…
Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.
Aggressive victims--children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression--experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim…
Chen, Y Y Brandon; Li, Alan Tai; Fung, Kenneth Po; Wong, Josephine Pui
The demographic characteristics of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) in Canada are increasingly diverse. Despite literature suggesting a potentially heightened mental health burden borne by racialized immigrant, refugee, and non-status PHAs (IRN-PHAs), researchers have hitherto paid insufficient attention to whether existing services adequately address this need and how services might be improved. Employing community-based research methodology involving PHAs from five ethnoracial groups in Toronto, Ontario, this study explored IRN-PHAs' mental health service-seeking behaviors, service utilization experiences, and suggestions for service improvements. Results showed that while most IRN-PHAs were proactive in improving their mental health, their attempts to obtain support were commonly undermined by service provider mistreatment, unavailability of appropriate services, and multiple access barriers. A three-pronged approach involving IRN-PHA empowerment, anti-stigma and cultural competence promotion, and greater service integration is proposed for improving IRN-PHAs' mental health service experience. PMID:25913347
Deb, Sibnath; McGirr, Kevin; Sun, Jiandong
The present study aimed to understand spirituality and its relationships with socioeconomic status (SES), religious background, social support, and mental health among Indian university students. It was hypothesized that (1) female university students will be more spiritual than male university students, (2) four domains of spirituality will differ significantly across socioeconomic and religious background of the university students in addition to social support, and (3) there will be a positive relationship between spirituality and mental health of university students, irrespective of gender. A group of 475 postgraduate students aged 20-27 years, 241 males and 234 females, from various disciplines of Pondicherry University, India, participated in the study. Students' background was collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall spirituality and its four dimensions were measured using the Spirituality Attitude Inventory, while mental health status was estimated based on scores of the psychological subscale of the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Female students were significantly more spiritual than male students, particularly in spiritual practice and sense of purpose/connection. Hindu religion and lower family income were associated with lower spirituality. Higher spirituality was associated with congenial family environment and more support from teachers and classmates. There was a strong association between overall spirituality and two spirituality domains (spiritual belief and sense of purpose/connection) with better mental health. Findings suggest an opportunity for open dialogue on spirituality for university students as part of their mental health and support services that fosters a positive mind set and enhancement of resilience. PMID:26920414
Williams, Kelly A; Chapman, Mimi V
Using a representative national sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) survey (N = 18,924), this article explores sexual minority status (SMS) and child-parent connectedness in relation to the unmet needs for health or mental health care among adolescents. Through the use of logistic regression models, data were analyzed to determine whether SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. In addition, models tested whether child-parent connectedness, sex or gender, and race or ethnicity interact with SMS to predict unmet need. Results show that both SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. Being a sexual minority youth (SMY) significantly increases the odds of having an unmet need for health or mental health care; female SMY have the highest odds of an unmet mental health need. Child-parent connectedness is a predictor of unmet need regardless of SMS. Youth with lower levels of child-parent connectedness have significantly higher odds of an unmet health or mental health need. Findings call for service providers to address the unmet needs of SMY both in terms of outreach to youth and parents and to communicate the importance of the parental role in helping teens access care. PMID:23039345
Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes
This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…
Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan
Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.) PMID:25367534
Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E.
Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient’s diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.1 PMID:25367534
Callan, Mitchell J.; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J.
Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4–6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures. PMID:26441786
Matamura, Misato; Tochigi, Mamoru; Usami, Satoshi; Yonehara, Hiromi; Fukushima, Masako; Nishida, Atsushi; Togo, Fumiharu; Sasaki, Tsukasa
Several epidemiological studies have indicated that there is a relationship between sleep habits, such as sleep duration, bedtime and bedtime regularity, and mental health status, including depression and anxiety in adolescents. However, it is still to be clarified whether the relationship is direct cause-and-effect or mediated by the influence of genetic and other traits, i.e. quasi-correlation. To examine this issue, we conducted a twin study using a total of 314 data for monozygotic twins from a longitudinal survey of sleep habits and mental health status conducted in a unified junior and senior high school (grades 7-12), located in Tokyo, Japan. Three-level hierarchical linear model analysis showed that both bedtime and sleep duration had significant associations with the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) score, suicidal thoughts and the experience of self-harm behaviours when genetic factors and shared environmental factors, which were completely shared between co-twins, were controlled for. These associations were statistically significant even after controlling for bedtime regularity, which was also associated significantly with the GHQ-12 score. These suggest that the associations between sleep habits and mental health status were still statistically significant after controlling for the influence of genetic and shared environmental factors of twins, and that there may be a direct cause-and-effect in the relationship in adolescents. Thus, late bedtime and short sleep duration could predict subsequent development of depression and anxiety, including suicidal or self-injury risk. This suggests that poor mental health status in adolescents might be improved by health education and intervention concerning sleep and lifestyle habits. PMID:24456111
Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on
Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan
Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795
Thurlow, Martha L.; And Others
The occupational and social status of 106 former students with mental retardation was examined from 1 to 5 years after they graduated from or completed schooling in a special high school during the years 1982 to 1986. Results were compiled as a function of the former students' level of mental retardation, gender, and age. The study involved…
Wu, Heng; Zhao, Xudong; Fritzsche, Kurt; Salm, Florian; Leonhart, Rainer; Jing, Wei; Yang, Jianzhong; Schaefert, Rainer
In western countries, negative illness perceptions are associated with poor health status and affect health outcomes in primary care populations. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between illness perception and mental and physical health status in general hospital outpatients in China. This multicentre, cross-sectional study analysed a total of 281 consecutive patients from four general hospital outpatient departments of internal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine in Beijing and Kunming. The patients answered questionnaires concerning illness perception (Brief-IPQ), somatic symptom severity (Patient Health Questionnaire-15), illness behaviour (Scale for the Assessment of Illness Behaviour), emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (Twelve-Item Short Form Health Survey). Negative illness perception, especially negative emotional reactions, perceived illness consequences, encumbering illness concerns, and strong illness identity were significantly associated with high emotional distress, impairing illness consequences, and a low mental and physical quality of life. Using a multiple linear regression model, five strongest correlates of negative illness perception were high anxiety, seeking diagnosis verification, low mental and physical quality of life and high somatic symptom severity. The variance explained by this model was 35%. Chinese general hospital outpatients showed associations between negative illness perceptions and poor mental and physical health status that were similar to those of primary care patients in western countries. The main difference was that no association with perceived illness control was found in Chinese patients. Chinese physicians should be sensitised to their patients' negative illness perceptions and should focus on helping patients cope with uncertainty and anxiety by providing an understandable illness model and increasing control beliefs. PMID:23721418
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006
Today's school and community stakeholders are attempting to address complex, multifaceted, and overlapping psychosocial and mental health concerns in diverse, fragmented and at-times marginalized ways. This has led to competition for sparse resources and inadequate results. Enhancing mental health in schools is not an easy task. The bottom line is…
Lundgren, Lena M.; Amodeo, Maryann; Chassler, Deborah
This study examined the relationship among mental health symptoms, drug treatment use, and needle sharing in a sample of 507 injection drug users (IDUs). Mental health symptoms were measured through the ASI psychiatric scale. A logistic regression model identified that some of the ASI items were associated with needle sharing in an opposing…
Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie; Ashurst, Nigel
This study explores the impact of bullying on the mental health of students who witness it. A representative sample of 2,002 students aged 12 to 16 years attending 14 schools in the United Kingdom were surveyed using a questionnaire that included measures of bullying at school, substance abuse, and mental health risk. The results suggest that…
Chappell, Neena L.; Penning, Margaret J.
Compared the mental health of the elderly living in three different environments: conventional community housing, subsidized housing, and institutions providing medical care. Mental health variables include autonomy and independence. Results indicated institutions do not appear to have better effects for their inhabitants given similar levels of…
Tutin, Judith; Kessler, Marc
It has been estimated that the most pressing problem in community mental health care clinics is dropout, defined as unilateral termination by the client without therapist approval. To clarify the nature of dropout patients, 133 outpatient records at a rural community mental health center were examined over a one year period. Variables expected to…
Friedman, Paul; Beck, Ronna Lee
Included in the report are summaries of four new cases and updated information on 38 cases regarding legal issues in mental retardation. Featured is a review of cases dealing with liability of judges and lawyers in violating the rights of mentally retarded persons. Other issues addressed (with sample court case in parentheses) include commitment…
Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J
Aggressive victims-children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression-experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim subgroups have focused on preadolescents and/or adolescents. Further, whether children who exhibit early and persistent patterns of aggression and victimization continue to experience greater mental health problems and functional impairments through the transition to adolescence is not known. This study followed 344 children (180 girls) previously identified as socially adjusted, victims, aggressors, or aggressive victims at Grade 1 (Burk et al. 2008) to investigate their involvement in peer bullying through Grade 5. The children, their mothers, and teachers reported on children's involvement in peer aggression and victimization at Grades 1, 3, and 5; and reported on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, inattention and impulsivity, as well as academic functioning, physical health, and service use at Grades 5, 7, and 9. Most children categorized as aggressive victims in Grade 1 continued to be significantly involved in peer bullying across elementary school. Children with recurrent aggressive victim status exhibited higher levels of some mental health problems and greater school impairments across the adolescent transition when compared to other longitudinal peer status groups. This study suggests screening for aggressive victim status at Grade 1 is potentially beneficial. Further early interventions may need to be carefully tailored to prevent and/or attenuate later psychological, academic, and physical health problems. PMID:20811772
Gallo, Carla; Tohen, Mauricio
Working towards mentally healthy societies is fundamental for Latin American countries, in order to keep the pace of development. Although awareness about the importance of mental health research is increasing in Latin America, the mismatch between needs and investment (the 10/90 gap) is still present. During recent years, many initiatives have been fostered to promote mental health research in the region. This paper summarizes the information collected through those efforts, in addition to presenting the current state of research in the field of psychiatry and mental health in Latin American countries. Future perspectives for the field in the region are discussed in terms of funding, research priorities and research resources, as well as the potential of Latin American countries to insert themselves within global psychiatry/mental health research efforts. PMID:20874069
Hoffmann-Riem, M; Diener, W; Benninger, C; Rating, D; Unnebrink, K; Stephani, U; Ernst, H P; Korinthenberg, R
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is one of the most severe types of childhood epilepsy. It is usually resistant to treatment and associated with mental retardation. To delineate the risk factors associated with the outcome of LGS, we evaluated, in a retrospective and multicentre study, the course of the disease, EEG tracings, and intellectual function in 101 patients. Inclusion criteria were the presence of tonic seizures as well as slow spike and wave complexes in the EEG. The average documented observation period was 16 years (range 4-31 years). Overall, the intellectual and neurological outcome was poor. At the last follow-up, 38% of the patients could not speak, 21% were unable to walk and only 4% were free of seizures. Four independent risk factors for severe mental retardation were identified by multivariate analysis. These were in a decreasing order of importance: nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), odds ratio (OR) 25.2, a previous diagnosis of West syndrome (OR 11.6), a symptomatic etiology of epilepsy (OR 9.5), and an early age at onset of epilepsy (OR 4.7). The results highlight the association between NCSE and the severity of mental retardation in patients with LGS; this association appears to be independent of symptomatic etiology. Our data provide an indirect evidence that, at least in some of the patients, NCSE is not only a concomitant feature, but also a cause of severe mental retardation. PMID:11071139
Background Reintegration programs are commonly offered to former combatants and abductees to acquire civilian status and support services to reintegrate into post-conflict society. Among a group of young female abductees in northern Uganda, this study examined access to post-abduction reintegration programming and tested for between group differences in mental health status among young women who had accessed reintegration programming compared to those who self-reintegrated. Methods This cross-sectional study analysed interviews from 129 young women who had previously been abducted by the Lords Resistance Army (LRA). Data was collected between June 2011-January 2012. Interviews collected information on abduction-related experiences including age and year of abduction, manner of departure, and reintegration status. Participants were coded as ‘reintegrated’ if they reported ≥1 of the following reintegration programs: traditional cleansing ceremony, received an amnesty certificate, reinsertion package, or had gone to a reception centre. A t-test was used to measure mean differences in depression and anxiety measured by the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument (APAI) to determine if abductees who participated in a reintegration program had different mental status from those who self-reintegrated. Results From 129 young abductees, 56 (43.4%) had participated in a reintegration program. Participants had been abducted between 1988–2010 for an average length of one year, the median age of abduction was 13 years (IQR:11–14) with escaping (76.6%), being released (15.6%), and rescued (7.0%) being the most common manner of departure from the LRA. Traditional cleansing ceremonies (67.8%) were the most commonly accessed support followed by receiving amnesty (37.5%), going to a reception centre (28.6%) or receiving a reinsertion package (12.5%). Between group comparisons indicated that the mental health status of abductees who accessed ≥1 reintegration program
Liao, W.-T.; Yu, H.-S.; Lin Pinpin; Chang, Louis W.
Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus an interaction between arsenite and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of a tobacco-specific carcinogen 4- (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone, NNK) and arsenite on lung cell transformation. BEAS-2B, an immortalized human lung epithelial cell line, was selected to test the centrosomal abnormalities and colony formation by NNK and arsenite. We found that NNK, alone, could enhance BEAS-2B cell growth at 1-5 muM. Under NNK exposure, arsenite was able to increase centrosomal abnormality as compared with NNK or arsenite treatment alone. NNK treatment could also reduce arsenite-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, these cellular effects were found to be correlated with p53 dysfunction. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells cotreated with NNK and arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that NNK could provide a p53 compromised status. Arsenite would act specifically on this p53 compromised status to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenite under tobacco-specific carcinogen co-exposure.
Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa
This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. PMID:23889027
Sperling, Jeremy D.; Clark, Sunday; Kang, Yoon
Introduction Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS) is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42%) attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001). Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05). They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03), know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01), and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003). Students who participated in a simulation session were more likely
Park, Weon Wook; Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Jeung Il; Ku, Ja Gyung; Lee, Hong Seok; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ki; Lee, Jung Sub
A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The mean mini-mental status exam score in the congenital scoliosis group was significantly lower than that in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis group. Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus. From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. PMID:18446384
Nielsen, Tine Jepsen; Vestergaard, Mogens; Christensen, Bo; Christensen, Kaj Sparle; Larsen, Karen Kjær
Objective To examine the association between mental health status after first-time myocardial infarction (MI) and new cardiovascular events or death, taking into account depression and anxiety as well as clinical, sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors. Design Population-based cohort study based on questionnaires and nationwide registries. Mental health status was assessed 3 months after MI using the Mental Component Summary score from the Short-Form 12 V.2. Setting Central Denmark Region. Participants All patients hospitalised with first-time MI from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2009 (n=880). The participants were categorised in quartiles according to the level of mental health status (first quartile=lowest mental health status). Main outcome measures Composite endpoint of new cardiovascular events (MI, heart failure, stroke/transient ischaemic attack) and all-cause mortality. Results During 1940 person-years of follow-up, 277 persons experienced a new cardiovascular event or died. The cumulative incidence following 3 years after MI increased consistently with decreasing mental health status and was 15% (95% CI 10.8% to 20.5%) for persons in the fourth quartile, 29.1% (23.5% to 35.6%) in the third quartile, 37.0% (30.9% to 43.9%) in the second quartile, and 47.5% (40.9% to 54.5%) in the first quartile. The HRs were high, even after adjustments for age, sociodemographic characteristics, cardiac disease severity, comorbidity, secondary prophylactic medication, smoking status, physical activity, depression and anxiety (HR3rd quartile 1.90 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.93), HR2nd quartile 2.14 (1.37 to 3.33), HR1st quartile 2.23 (1.35 to 3.68) when using the fourth quartile as reference). Conclusions Low mental health status following first-time MI was independently associated with an increased risk of new cardiovascular events or death. Further research is needed to disentangle the pathways that link mental health status following MI to prognosis and to identify
Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M.; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John D.
Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study). Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life. Significance for public health Vitamin D deficiency, depression and osteoporosis are all major public health issues. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both reduced bone mineral density and depressive symptoms. Moreover, cohort studies have found that subjects with depression have lower bone mineral density when compared
Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sykioti, Panagiota; Niakas, Dimitris; Zis, Panagiotis
Residency is a stressful period in a physician's development, characterized by long work hours, time pressure, and excessive work load, that can exert negative effects on residents' mental health. Job burnout and negative work-home interference may play a major role in residents' mental health problems. The present study used the job demands-resources model as a theoretical framework to examine the way in which job demands (e.g., workload, emotional demands) and job resources (e.g., supervisor support, job autonomy) were associated with residents' mental health. From a pool of 290 medical residents, 264 (91 %) completed the questionnaires. Applying structural equation modeling techniques, the results showed that greater emotional exhaustion (β = -.65, SE = .09, p < .001) and more work-home interference (β = -.26, SE = .10, p < .05) were related to poor mental health. Specific job demands (i.e., high workload) and particular job resources (i.e., low opportunities for professional development and low supervisor support) were related to poor mental health not directly but only indirectly, via emotional exhaustion or work-home interference. Thus, through work-related emotional exhaustion, the impact of work conditions might be transmitted to and interfere with non-work related domains such as family life, as well as with domain-unspecific aspects of well-being, such as mental health and psychological distress. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research and practice are outlined. PMID:25554496
Jung, Kyoung In; Park, Chan Kee
Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Mental health and quality of life (QoL) are important issues for patients with glaucoma because visual impairment can be related to those. Analysis of mental health status or QoL in undiagnosed glaucoma patients can be free of the bias caused by awareness of the disease itself. In this study, the association between mental health status or QoL and undiagnosed glaucoma, along with the effects of visual acuity or visual field damage was investigated. Among individuals in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V (2010-2012), subjects 40 years or older were included. KNHANES is a cross-sectional study using a stratified, multistage, probability sampling survey. The KNHANES includes questionnaires to assess psychological health, including depression, sleep duration, psychological stress, and suicidal ideations. To evaluate QoL, the KNHANES includes the EuroQoL, which is composed of a health-status descriptive system (EuroQol 5-dimension, EQ-5D) and the EQ visual analog scale (EQ-VAS). The proportion of people reporting symptoms of "some or severe problems" in all 5 dimensions of the EuroQoL-5 instrument, including anxiety/depression, was higher in the glaucoma group than in the nonglaucoma group. The subjective health status reported by the EQ-VAS was lower in the subjects with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma. Suicidal ideation was greater in subjects with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (P = 0.005). After adjustment for demographic factors, glaucoma subjects were more likely than those without glaucoma to have some or severe problems with anxiety/depression (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.49). Worse best corrected visual acuity was associated with more problems with a lower EQ-5D score in glaucoma subjects. Individuals who had undiagnosed glaucoma were more depressed than those without glaucoma. QoL can be affected by glaucoma, especially in
This monograph considers issues in the training of sexuality skills in students with severe mental retardation. An introduction stresses the importance of such skills for these students. A profile of 12 common characteristics of this population and a summary of human commonalities precede the body of the guide. Common manifestations of sexuality…
Mental health professionals have often reported differences in the psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses of adopted and nonadopted children and adolescents. Since psychiatric diagnoses are influenced by the judgments of the professionals who assign them, it is possible that the differences observed between adopted and nonadopted psychiatric patients…
Friedman, Paul, Ed.; Beck, Ronna Lee, Ed.
Included in the booklet on mental retardation and the law are reports on 11 new court cases and updated information on 35 court cases reported in previous issues. Court cases cover the following issues: architectural barriers, commitment, criminal law, education, employment, guardianship, protection from harm, sterilization, treatment, and zoning.…
President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
The issue contains reports on seven new court cases regarding mental retardation and the law and updated information on 35 cases previously reported. Cases concern such issues as classification, commitment, education, employment, sterilization, and treatment. Also included is a feature article on the implications of Halderman v Pennhurst State…
The document reports on five new cases and updates information on 29 previously reported cases regarding mental retardation and the law. Cases are divided into the following categories: classification, commitment, confidentiality, education, employment, protection from harm, sterilization, treatment, and zoning. Listed separately, by the above…
President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
Presented by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation are an analysis of architectural barriers and a summary of new state cases, updated information on previously reported cases, and a listing of cases all concerned with the legal rights of the retarded. Architectural barriers are considered in terms of statutory actions and constitutional…
Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.
Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…
Thoits, Peggy A.
Whether the higher rates of mental hospitalization and involuntary treatment for marginal social groups are due to differential labeling or simply to the occurrence of higher rates of disorder in these groups remains unresolved. I reexamine this issue with data from the National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5,877) that allow comparisons between…
Carlson, Daniel L.
Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…
Oku, Afiong; Oku, Oboko; Owoaje, Eme; Monjok, Emmanuel
BACKGROUND: The mental health status of medical students has been proven to be poor compared to their peers in other disciplines and has led to grave personal and professional consequences. This subject has however remained largely unexplored in our medical school. AIM: The study was therefore conducted to assess the prevalence of mental health of medical students in the University of Calabar, Cross river state, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 451 randomly selected medical students from the pre-clinical and clinical levels of study in the University of Calabar. A self administered questionnaire including the GHQ12 was used to elicit information from the respondents. A score of ≥ 3 suggested poor mental while a score < 3 represented good mental health. Data were summarized using proportions, and χ2 test was used to explore associations between categorical variables. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 23.4 ± 4.3 years, 63.8% were males, 34.8% were from the preclinical and 65.2% from clinical levels of study. Based on the GHQ categorisation, 39.2% had a poor mental health status, compared to 60.8% with good mental health status. The factors significantly associated with poor mental health, were recent experience of mistreatment by trainers or colleagues, perceived inadequate monthly allowance and perception that medical training is stressful (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: With more than a third of undergraduate medical trainees with traits of poor mental health, provision of accessible mental health services/counselling is strongly recommended early in their training. PMID:27275250
Popham, Frank; Williamson, Lee; Whitley, Elise
Background Actual or perceived status, such as housing tenure, may impact on health through stress-inducing social comparisons. Studies of how status change impacts mental health change are rare but important because they are less prone to confounding. Methods We used data from the British Household Panel Survey to compare psychological distress in local authority renters who opted to buy their home under the UK's Right to Buy (RTB) policy versus those who continued to rent the same (social non-mover (SNM)) or a different (social mover (SM)) local authority property or who bought privately (owner mover (OM)). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores before and after any change in tenure and/or address were compared across groups using a difference-in-difference approach. Results Individuals who moved house (bought or rented) were younger while those who bought (the same or different house) were better off, more likely to be employed, and had higher educational qualifications. Individuals who bought their home (under RTB or privately) had lower distress scores from the outset. Individuals who moved house (bought or rented) experienced a rise in distress prior to moving that was no longer evident 1 year after the move. There was no evidence that changing tenure reduced psychological distress comparing (difference (95% CI)) average GHQ score 2 years preaddress and 1 year postaddress/tenure change in RTB vs SNM, SM, OM: −0.08 (−0.68 to 0.51), 0.16 (−0.70 to 1.01) and −0.17 (−1.28 to 0.94), respectively). Conclusions Changing tenure under RTB did not, on average, impact psychological distress, suggesting that this status change did not change mental health. PMID:25294896
Watson, Sara; Raj, Shekar; Eugster, Erica; Sanchez, Juan
Primary adrenal insufficiency (AI) in children usually presents with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. Here, we report an unusual case of a 15 year old girl who presented with acute mental status change and was ultimately diagnosed with AI due to autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II (APS2). Central nervous system imaging revealed a cerebral infarction. To our knowledge, the constellation of APS2, stroke and acute mental status change has not been previously reported. We review the literature with regard to the presentation of AI as well as the association between vasculitis and APS2. PMID:24259239
Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Jensen, Rigmor Højland
Near-daily intake of acute symptomatic medication for frequent headache increases the risk for medication-overuse headache (MOH). Chronic headache (CH) and MOH prevalences are inversely related to socioeconomic position (SEP). It is not known how SEP influences the health status of people with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ⩾ 16 years were invited to the 2010 Danish National Health Survey. Data on SEP indicators and purchases of prescription drugs in 2009 were retrieved from national registers. Respondents with headache ⩾ 15 days per month over 3 months were classified as having CH. Those with concurrent over-the-counter analgesic intake of ⩾ 15 days per month or prescription medication overuse (⩾ 20 or ⩾ 30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1.8%). CH was more prevalent among those individuals with low SEP. Health status scores were significantly lower among persons with CH in all SEP categories. The burden of CH can be reduced by preventing and treating MOH. PMID:25020001
Yadav, Sankalp; Rawal, Gautam
The epidemic of Ebola virus disease has claimed many lives. The impact of this disease is evident in the mental health of the survivors. The mere drafting of policies will not help; rather execution at the ground level is essential. There is an urgent need, to focus on the ways by which the sufferings should be reduced. The present article throws light on this grave problem in Africa. PMID:26557543
The epidemic of Ebola virus disease has claimed many lives. The impact of this disease is evident in the mental health of the survivors. The mere drafting of policies will not help; rather execution at the ground level is essential. There is an urgent need, to focus on the ways by which the sufferings should be reduced. The present article throws light on this grave problem in Africa. PMID:26557543
Kono, Kumi; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko
We attempted to identify the risk factors that may affect mental health status of the international students and we conducted the survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The students were divided into two groups; (1) those who received scholarships and (2) those who didn't since we thought the division represented practical patterns of their financial status. The associations of socio-demographic characteristics with depressive symptoms were examined. Of the 726 students, 480 (66.1%) responded and 207 (43.1%) had depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis indicated that quality of sleep, amount of exercise, and housing conditions--but not financial status--were statistically associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Although the inversion of the cause and effect is yet to be ascertained, the students who are unsatisfied with their housing conditions, quality of sleep and less exercise need more attention. PMID:25225076
Hilsabeck, Robin C; Holdnack, James A; Cullum, C Munro; Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Edelstein, Barry; Fiske, Amy; Lacritz, Laura; McCoy, Karin J M; Wahlstrom, Dustin
The study purpose was to compare the diagnostic utility of the Brief Cognitive Status Exam (BCSE) to that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and to develop equated scores to facilitate comparisons. One hundred and eighty-two patients underwent cognitive evaluation and were placed into three groups: dementia (DEM), cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND), and no cognitive impairment (NCI). One hundred and eighty-two healthy controls from the BCSE standardization sample served as a comparison group. On both measures, the DEM group obtained significantly lower scores than the other two groups, and the CIND group scored significantly lower than the NCI group. The BCSE was more sensitive in all clinical groups, although at extremely low scores, the two tests displayed similar sensitivity. Results indicate the BCSE has diagnostic utility as a cognitive screening measure in a mixed clinical sample and is more sensitive at detecting cognitive impairment, particularly milder levels, than the MMSE. PMID:26085478
Boodosingh, Dev Richard; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Alemán-Ortiz, Jesse R; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William
Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency characterized by increased core body temperature with associated systemic inflammatory response leading to a syndrome of multi-organ damage in which encephalopathy predominates. We describe a case of a 29 year old male recruit presenting with altered mental status during military training in Puerto Rico. Associated symptoms included high grade fever, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and profuse sweating followed by loss of consciousness. Upon arrival to medical evaluation the patient was found with dry skin and depressed Glasgow Coma Score. Initial laboratories, clinical evolution of symptoms and imaging studies were consistent with the diagnosis of HS. Patient was managed with mechanical ventilatory support, intravenous fluids and external cooling measures. He was later discharged home without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of HS in Puerto Rico. PMID:25563039
Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada
The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (χ (2) = 6.821, p < .009) 'safe drinking water' (χ (2) = 13.506, p < .004) and purchasing medications (χ (2) = 9.958, p < .019). Conversely, participants from above poverty line were dissatisfied in emotional needs dimension i.e. 'commenting on physical appearance (χ (2) = 8.337, p < .040), afraid of family members (χ (2) = 17.809, p < .000). Thus, there is an urgent need to implement mental illness awareness campaigns and government should take active steps for providing employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres. PMID:23288490
Bae, K; Bruner, D W; Baek, S; Movsas, B; Corn, B W; Dignam, J J
The Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) instrument has been commonly used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) to assess mental status in brain cancer patients. Evaluating patient factors in relation to patterns of incomplete MMSE assessments can provide insight into predictors of missingness and optimal MMSE collection schedules in brain cancer clinical trials. This study examined eight RTOG brain cancer trials with ten treatment arms and 1,957 eligible patients. Patient data compliance patterns were categorized as: (1) evaluated at all time points (Complete), (2) not evaluated from a given time point or any subsequent time points but evaluated at all the previous time points (Monotone drop-out), (3) not evaluated at any time point (All missing), and (4) all other patterns (Mixed). Patient characteristics and reasons for missingness were summarized and compared among the missing pattern groups. Baseline MMSE scores and change scores after radiation therapy (RT) were compared between these groups, adjusting for differences in other characteristics. There were significant differences in frequency of missing patterns by age, treatment type, education, and Zubrod performance status (ZPS; P < 0.001). Ninety-two percent of patients were evaluated at least once: seven percent of patients were complete pattern, 49% were Monotone pattern, and 36% were mixed pattern. Patients who received RT only regimens were evaluated at a higher rate than patients who received RT + other treatments (49-64% vs. 27-45%). Institutional error and request to not be contacted were the most frequent known reasons for missing data, but most often, reasons for missing MMSE was unspecified. Differences in baseline mean MMSE scores by missing pattern (Complete, Monotone dropout, Mixed) were statistically significant (P < 0.001) but differences were small (<1.5 points) and significance did not persist after adjustment for age, ZPS, and other factors related to missingness. Post-RT change scores
Güngörmüş, Zeynep; Tanrıverdi, Derya; Gündoğan, Tuğba
It is known that violence against women is an important health problem both in the world and in Turkey (World Health Organization 2005; General Directorate on the Status of Women 2008). Religion is an important factor in preventing suicide and mental disorders by increasing one's ability to cope with events, channeling his/her perspective on life and the future toward a more positive path satisfying people about topics such as the need to be safe, the need for meaning and the reason for creation (Altuntop 2005). Hence, the objective of our study was to determine the effects of religious belief on the mental health status and suicide probabilities of women exposed to violence in Turkey. The study used a descriptive design. The study sample consisted of 135 women who have suffered violence who were consecutively admitted to the Department of Emergency of a State Hospital due to exposed to violence. They entered the study based on their acceptance to the questionnaire. The belief levels of women are based on their own statements and they are all Muslims. The data were collected using a questionnaire form, the Suicide Probability Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. Statistical analyses were used percentage calculation, chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test. In conclusion, a negative relationship was determined between the religious belief levels of women exposed to violence in Turkey and their moods and suicide probabilities. Hence, nurses who can stay alone with women for long periods of time can provide advancement in the determination and prevention of suicides decreasing depression via specific methods and overcoming hopelessness. PMID:24833159
Mueser, K T; McGurk, S R
The individual placement and supported (IPS) model of supported employment is the most empirically validated model of vocational rehabilitation for persons with schizophrenia or another serious mental illness. Over 18 randomized controlled trials have been conducted throughout the world demonstrating the effectiveness of supported employment at improving competitive work compared to other vocational programs: IPS supported employment is defined by the following principles: 1) inclusion of all clients who want to work; 2) integration of vocational and clinical services; 3) focus on competitive employment; 4) rapid job search and no required prevocational skills training; 5) job development by the employment specialist; 6) attention to client preferences about desired work and disclosure of mental illness to prospective employers; 7) benefits counseling; and 8) follow-along supports after a job is obtained. Supported employment has been successfully implemented in a wide range of cultural and clinical populations, although challenges to implementation are also encountered. Common challenges are related to problems such as the failure to access technical assistance, system issues, negative beliefs and attitudes of providers, funding restrictions, and poor leadership. These challenges can be overcome by tapping expertise in IPS supported employment, including standardized and tested models of training and consultation. Efforts are underway to increase the efficiency of training methods for supported employment and the overall program, and to improve its effectiveness for those clients who do not benefit. Progress in IPS supported employment offers people with a serious mental illness realistic hope for achieving their work goals, and taking greater control over their lives. PMID:24929974
Murray, R; Baier, M; North, C; Lato, M; Eskew, C
Of 228 homeless, severely persistently mentally ill clients admitted within a 5 1/2 year period to a transitional residential program, 179 (79%) remained in contact with staff for at least one year post-discharge. Housing was maintained by 141 (78%) of the clients for at least one year. Entitlements increased from admission, to discharge, to one year post-discharge. Clients maintaining contact for at least one year post-discharge were likely to have participated in two or more day treatment programs during residence. Success of the Program may be partly attributed to the staff's vigilance in maintaining post-discharge client contact. PMID:9061262
Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.
Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…
De Luca, Susan M; Blosnich, John R; Hentschel, Elizabeth A W; King, Erika; Amen, Sally
As veterans disproportionately experience higher rates of mental illness than civilians, conflicting results surround the impact of race/ethnicity on treatment utilization. This study utilized the CDC's Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, a random-digit dialed telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults. A subset of Texas respondents (n = 8563) were asked questions related to mental health treatment, stigma, help-seeking attitudes and emotional support. While no differences were found in health care utilization between non-Hispanic white veterans and non-veterans, there were distinct patterns among racial/ethnic minority veterans and non-veterans. Black and Latino non-veterans reported significantly lower health care utilization compared to non-Hispanic white non-veterans. Among veterans, there were no differences in reported utilization rates comparing non-Hispanic whites and Latinos and also non-Hispanic whites and Blacks. Our study adds to the literature by examining health care utilization among a diverse group of veterans by focusing on Veterans Administration (VA) and non-VA services to veterans. PMID:26659853
President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.
The document reports the status of over 100 current court cases relating to the rights of handicapped individuals. Court cases are divided into the following categories: commitment, community living, criminal law, discrimination, guardianship, institutions and deinstitutionalization, medical-legal issues, parental rights and sexuality, special…
Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492
QuickStats: Prevalence* of Abnormal Cholesterol(†) Levels Among Young Persons Aged 6-19 Years, by Sex and Weight Status(§) - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2011-2014.
During 2011-2014, 21.0% of young persons aged 6-19 years had at least one of the three indicators of abnormal cholesterol. A larger percentage of persons categorized as obese (43.3%) had abnormal cholesterol than persons categorized as normal weight or overweight (13.8% and 22.3%, respectively). This pattern was found for both males and females. There were no significant differences between males and females in the prevalences of abnormal cholesterol within each of the weight status groups (e.g., males with obesity compared with females with obesity). PMID:27336214
Objectives This study examines whether the effects of neighborhood disorder on changes in levels of depression differ between the married and nonmarried, and whether these differences are because the married are less likely to experience a decrease in mastery due to neighborhood disorder. Methods Data are derived from a longitudinal study of adults aged 65 and older in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area over a 2-year period (2001–2003). Results Neighborhood disorder is positively related to change in depression and negatively related to change in mastery, but only for the nonmarried. Differences between the married and nonmarried in changes in mastery explain differences in effects of neighborhood disorder on change in depression. Conclusion This research contributes to the study of aging and health by demonstrating that neighborhood conditions continue to affect mental health well into late life by shaping older adults' mastery, but a social connection to a marital partner helps mitigate these effects. PMID:19251881
Biancalana, V.; Taine, L.; Bouix, J. C.; Finck, S.; Chauvin, A.; De Verneuil, H.; Knight, S. J.; Stoll, C.; Lacombe, D.; Mandel, J. L.
The original test for the analysis of the CCG expansion at the FRAXE locus involves Southern blot analysis of HindIII digests. We show that, by using a different probe, the FRAXE mutation can be detected easily on the same EcoRI or EagI+EcoRI blots as are used for detection of FRAXA. Unexpectedly, we found that both the expansion and methylation status can be determined on a single EcoRI digest, because of the presence of a methylation-sensitive EcoRI site very close to the CCG repeat. We thus detected in a series of mentally retarded individuals previously tested for FRAXA expansion a FRAXE proband who led to the identification of a large sibship (7 of 10 children carrying a mutation). We also show that two fragile X families without FRAXA mutation that previously have been described by Oberlé et al. have the FRAXE expansion. In another family also ascertained initially by cytogenetic finding of a fragile X site, we performed the combined cytogenetic and molecular prenatal diagnosis of a mutated male fetus. All nine males (>3 years old) in whom we found a methylated mutation had mild mental retardation. Our results suggest that the threshold of repeat length for abnormal methylation and fragile-site expression may be smaller at FRAXE than at FRAXA. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8808600
Ramadan, Ronnie; Vaccarino, Viola; Esteves, Fabio; Sheps, David S.; Bremner, James Douglas; Raggi, Paolo; Quyyumi, Arshed A.
Background Mental stress-induced (MSIMI) or physical stress-induced (PSIMI) myocardial ischemia portends a worse prognosis in CAD patients. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but its relationship to myocardial ischemia remains unclear. We hypothesized that vitamin D insufficiency will be associated with a higher prevalence of myocardial ischemia in CAD patients. Methods In 255 patients with stable CAD, myocardial perfusion imaging was performed to assess ischemia in response to mental and physical stress protocols. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH)D] levels below 30 ng/ml, collected on the day of stress testing. Results Mean 25(OH)D level was 30.8±12.8 ng/ml, and 139 (55%) patients had vitamin D insufficiency. MSIMI occurred in 30 (12%) patients and PSIMI in 67 (27%). Individuals with MSIMI had significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D as compared to those without MSIMI (24.0±8.6 vs. 31.7±12.9, p=0.002). The prevalence of MSIMI was higher in those with as compared to those without vitamin D insufficiency (17% vs. 6%, p=0.009). Moreover, low 25(OH)D levels remained independently associated with MSIMI after adjusting for potential confounders. Conversely, 25(OH)D levels were similar between those with or without PSIMI (29.8±13.0 vs. 31.4±12.7; p=0.37), as was the prevalence of PSIMI in those with or without vitamin D insufficiency (29% vs. 24%, p=0.42). Conclusions Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a higher prevalence of MSIMI, but not PSIMI among stable CAD patients. Whether this association serves as a potential mechanism linking low vitamin D status to adverse cardiovascular outcomes warrants further investigation. PMID:25222601
Hanwella, Raveen; Jayasekera, Nicholas E. L. W.; de Silva, Varuni A.
The main aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of the Navy Special Forces and regular forces three and a half years after the end of combat operations in mid 2009, and compare it with the findings in 2009. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN), three and a half years after the end of combat operations. Representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to the end of combat operations were included in the study. The sample consisted of 220 Special Forces and 275 regular forces personnel. Compared to regular forces a significantly higher number of Special Forces personnel had experienced potentially traumatic events. Compared to the period immediately after end of combat operations, in the Special Forces, prevalence of psychological distress and fatigue showed a marginal increase while hazardous drinking and multiple physical symptoms showed a marginal decrease. In the regular forces, the prevalence of psychological distress, fatigue and multiple somatic symptoms declined and prevalence of hazardous drinking increased from 16.5% to 25.7%. During the same period prevalence of smoking doubled in both Special Forces and regular forces. Prevalence of PTSD reduced from 1.9% in Special Forces to 0.9% and in the regular forces from 2.07% to 1.1%. Three and a half years after the end of combat operations mental health problems have declined among SLN regular forces while there was no significant change among Special Forces. Hazardous drinking among regular forces and smoking among both Special Forces and regular forces have increased. PMID:25254557
Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio
Study purpose Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. Methods Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients’ association as participants. We used raking adjustment to create a database which had similar characteristics to the total sample of dialysis patients in Japan. SES was assessed using family size-adjusted income levels. We divided patients into three groups based on their income levels: below the first quartile, over the second quartile and under the third quartile, and over the fourth quartile. We used the number of dialysis complications as a physical health indicator and depressive symptoms as a mental health indicator. We used a cross-classified random-effects model that estimated fixed effects of age categories and period as level-1 factors, and random effects of birth cohort as level-2 factors. Results Relative risk of dialysis complications in respondents below the first quartile compared with ones over the fourth quartile was reduced in age categories >60 years. Mean differences in depressive symptoms between respondents below the first quartile and ones over the fourth quartile peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old age group, and were reduced in age groups >60 years. In addition, mean differences varied across periods, widening from 1996 to 2006. There were no significant birth cohort effects on income differences for dialysis complications or depressive symptoms. Conclusion The number of dialysis complications and depressive symptoms in dialysis patients were affected by income differences, and the degree of these differences changed with age category and period. PMID:27471405
OBJECTIVES: The disaster of the Sewol ferry that sank at sea off Korea’s southern coast of the Yellow Sea on April 16, 2014 was a tragedy that brought grief and despair to the whole country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health effects of this disaster on the community of Ansan, where most victims and survivors resided. METHODS: The self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted 4 to 6 months after the accident using the Korean Community Health Survey system, an annual nationwide cross-sectional survey. Subjects were 7,076 adults (≥19 years) living in two victimized communities in Ansan, four control communities from Gyeonggi-do, Jindo and Haenam near the accident site. Depression, stress, somatic symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal ideation were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, respectively. RESULTS: The depression rate among the respondents from Ansan was 11.8%, and 18.4% reported suicidal ideation. Prevalence of other psychiatric disturbances was also higher compared with the other areas. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) in depression (1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 2.04), stress (1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.71), somatic symptoms (1.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.58), anxiety (1.82; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.39), and suicidal ideation (1.33; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.56) compared with Gyeonggi-do. In contrast, the accident areas of Jindo and Haenam showed the lowest prevalence and ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Residents in the victimized area of Ansan had a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disturbances than in the control communities.
Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn
Although not as popular as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these two cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (i.e., delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after one year. Both the MMSE and mTICS significantly correlated with the memory composite at baseline (r’s of 0.41 and 0.62, respectively) and one year (r’s of 0.36 and 0.50, respectively). At baseline, stepwise linear regression indicated that the mTICS and gender best predicted the memory composite score (R2=0.45, p<.001), and the MMSE and other demographic variables did not significantly improve the prediction. At one year, the results were very similar. Despite its lesser popularity, the mTICS may be a more attractive option when screening for cognitive abilities in this age range. PMID:25722349
Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin
Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. PMID:25201057
BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA
Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803
Hategekimana, Celestin; Karamouzian, Mohammad
Background: While colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most preventable causes of cancer mortality, it is one of the leading causes of cancer death in Canada where CRC screening uptake is suboptimal. Given the increased rate of mortality and morbidity among mental health patients, their condition could be a potential barrier to CRC screening due to greater difficulties in adhering to behaviours related to long-term health goals. Using a population-based study among Canadians, we hypothesize that self-perceived mental health (SPMH) status and fecal occult blood test (FOBT) uptake for the screening of CRC are associated. Methods: The current study is cross-sectional and utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether SPMH is independently associated with FOBT uptake among a representative sample of 11 386 respondents aged 50-74 years. Results: Nearly half of the respondents reported having ever had FOBT for CRC screening, including 37.28% who have been screened within two years of the survey and 12.41% who had been screened more than two years preceding the survey. Respondents who reported excellent mental health were more likely to have ever been screened two years or more before the survey (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.00-4.43) and to have been screened in the last two years preceding the survey (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI, 0.86-2.71) than those reported poor mental health status. Conclusion: This study supports the association between SPMH status and FOBT uptake for CRC screening. While the efforts to maximize CRC screening uptake should be deployed to all eligible people, those with poor mental health may need more attention. PMID:27285514
Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Brockschmidt, Antje; Todt, Unda; Ryu, Soojin; Hoischen, Alexander; Landwehr, Christina; Birnbaum, Stefanie; Frenck, Wilhelm; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Lichter, Peter; Engels, Hartmut; Driever, Wolfgang; Kubisch, Christian; Weber, Ruthild G
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PHS) is a rare syndromic mental disorder, which is mainly characterized by severe motor and mental retardation including absent language development, a characteristic facial gestalt and episodes of hyperventilation. We report on a female patient with PHS showing severe mental retardation with absent speech, pronounced muscular hypotonia, ataxia, distinctive facial features, such as a coarse face, a broad nasal bridge and a wide mouth, and hyperventilation attacks. In this patient, genomic profiling by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies detected and confirmed a de novo 0.5 Mb deletion in 18q21.2 containing a single gene, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TCF4. cDNA and genomic analyses in the patient and her parents demonstrated TCF4 haploinsufficiency as the underlying cause of the disease. Analysis of the embryonal expression pattern of the Danio rerio ortholog, tcf4, by whole-mount in situ hybridization showed a highly specific expression domain in the pallium of the telencephalon during late somitogenesis, when the patterning of the zebrafish brain is advanced and neural differentiation commences. Later expression domains were restricted to several regions in the central nervous system, including continued expression in the pallium of the telencephalon, and starting expression in the diencephalon (thalamus, ventral thalamus and posterior tuberculum), the midbrain tegmentum, the hindbrain and the branchial arches. This expression pattern correlates with the clinical phenotype. Our results show that haploinsufficiency of TCF4 causes PHS and suggest that D. rerio is a valuable model to study the molecular pathogenesis of PHS and the role of TCF4 in brain development. PMID:17478476
Okwemba, Sylvia; Copeland, Lauren
Delirium is common yet poorly identified in the UK. Early recognition is a key prognostic factor; delay here being associated with: increased mortality, increased morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, long term disability, and increased risk of developing dementia. Improvement in the diagnosis and management of delirium has scope to improve patient care, clinical outcomes, and ultimately an improved patient experience. As patients aged ≥75 years are at an increased risk of developing delirium, we focused the improvement project to this age group. The baseline data demonstrated that the average ≥75 year-old patient admitted to the Acute Surgical Receiving Unit (ASRU) at Ninewells Hospital had 5.4 out of 12 predisposing and precipitating risk factors for delirium; thus there was great potential for delirium to develop in these patients. During the analysis of the baseline data it became clear that we could not go ahead and implement the initial proposed improvement as the completion of the mental status questionnaire (MSQ) was inconsistent and low at 14.99%. Completion of the MSQ is vital in establishing any cognitive deficit at admission, and for providing a baseline for the continuing admission. As a consequence of this, we had to shift the main aim of the improvement project from improving the identification, diagnosis, and management of delirium, to improving the completion rate of the MSQ in our target age group. Consultations with members of the admission team were held to determine ways of improving the MSQ completion rate. It became clear that the completion of the MSQ relied on clinical staff remembering all 10 questions that constitute the test. The main intervention to facilitate improvement involved affixing a sticker with all 10 questions of the MSQ within the admissions document. The main aim was to increase the percentage of cognitive screening by the Mental State Questionnaire (MSQ) to 95% in patients aged ≥75 on admission to ASRU at Ninewells
Mewes, Ricarda; Rief, Winfried; Martin, Alexandra; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar
Knowledge about differential effects of unemployment and job insecurity on mental health and health care utilization are of high relevance. There are no studies which compare unemployed persons and persons with an insecure job in terms of different mental health indicators, and which investigate the mediating effect of mental health on health care utilization. Somatoform symptoms, anxiety, depression, physical health, and health care utilization were assessed in 161 unemployed persons, 218 persons with an insecure job, and 957 securely employed persons. Unemployed persons and persons with an insecure job showed equally worse mental health than securely employed persons on average. They also had significantly higher health care utilization. Mental health was a full mediator between job insecurity and unemployment on the one hand and health care utilization on the other hand. An adequate mental health care is necessary for unemployed persons as well as for persons with an insecure job. PMID:23526088
Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Trout, Alexandra; Chmelka, M. Beth; Burns, Barbara J.; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Daly, Daniel L.
Youth entering residential care possess significant emotional and behavioral needs; yet, it is uncertain whether these needs have remained constant or are changing over time. This study examined mental health variables from the admission files of 1,047 youth entering residential group home care in 1995 and 2004. Sequential logistical regression…
... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...
... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...
... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...
... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...
Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...
... Intellectual disability Low blood sugar Memory loss Niacin Schizophrenia Stroke Thiamin Transient ischemic attack Vitamin B12 Vitamin ... Disease Dementia Memory Mild Cognitive Impairment Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...
Wu, Bai-Lin; Schneider, G.H.; Sabatino, D.E.
We describe the clinical manifestations and molecular cytogenetic analyses of three patients with a similar distal deletion of chromosome 8. Each child had mild developmental delay and subtle minor anomalies. Two had cardiac anomalies but no other major congenital anomalies were present. High resolution G and R banding showed in all three patients del(8)(p23.1), but the breakpoint in case 1 was distal to 8p23.1, in case 2 was in the middle of 8p23.1, and in case 3 proximal to 8p23.1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies with a chromosome 8 paint probe confirmed that no other rearrangement had occurred. FISH with a chromosome 8-specific telomere probe indicated that two patients had terminal deletions. Chromosome analysis of the parents of case 1 and mother of case 2 were normal; the remaining parents were not available for study. Thirteen individual patients including the three in this study, and three relatives in one family with del(8)(p23.1), have been reported in the past 5 years. Major congenital anomalies, especially congenital heart defects, are most often associated with a breakpoint proximal to 8p23.1. Three patients were found within a 3-year period in this study and five cases were found within 4 years by another group, indicating that distal 8p deletion might be a relatively common chromosomal abnormality. This small deletion is easily overlooked (i.e., cases 1 and 2 were reported as normal at amniocentesis) and can be associated with few or no major congenital anomalies. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Sahmoun, Abe E; Markland, Mary J; Helgerson, Steven D
Depressive symptoms are common among patients with diabetes and may have a significant impact on self-management and health outcomes. The prevalence of both depression and diabetes varies by race. We examined whether race is also an effect modifier in the association between mental health rated "not good" and diabetes using the national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2002 to 2005. We found that the prevalence of diabetes among Native American respondents was almost double that among Whites. Respondents with at least two weeks of mental health rated "not good" are significantly higher among diabetic patients than among non-diabetic patients. Native Americans (NAs) with at least two weeks of mental health rated "not good" were more likely to have diabetes. This association is stronger in NAs than in Whites. Future research should focus on a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this plausible association between poor mental health and diabetes. PMID:17675716
Schultz, Mark R.; Vogt, Dawne; Glickman, Mark E.; Elwy, A. Rani; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Osei-Bonsu, Princess E.; Martin, James
Objectives. We examined (1) mental and physical health symptoms and functioning in US veterans within 1 year of returning from deployment, and (2) differences by gender, service component (Active, National Guard, other Reserve), service branch (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines), and deployment operation (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom [OEF/OIF]). Methods. We surveyed a national sample of 596 OEF/OIF veterans, oversampling women to make up 50% of the total, and National Guard and Reserve components to each make up 25%. Weights were applied to account for stratification and nonresponse bias. Results. Mental health functioning was significantly worse compared with the general population; 13.9% screened positive for probable posttraumatic stress disorder, 39% for probable alcohol abuse, and 3% for probable drug abuse. Men reported more alcohol and drug use than did women, but there were no gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder or other mental health domains. OIF veterans reported more depression or functioning problems and alcohol and drug use than did OEF veterans. Army and Marine veterans reported worse mental and physical health than did Air Force or Navy veterans. Conclusions. Continuing identification of veterans at risk for mental health and substance use problems is important for evidence-based interventions intended to increase resilience and enhance treatment. PMID:22390605
Brown, David H; Lawson, Lauren E; McDaniel, William F; Wildman, Robert W
Mental status examinations of individuals applying for disability are most often authorized as "2-hour" evaluations and are to include a complete clinical and employment history, assessment of neurocognitive functions, an estimate of general level of intelligence, psychological and social adjustment, functional abilities, and a complete multipage report of the results. In the interest of meeting these demands we have been using the Nevada brief cognitive assessment instrument (NBCAI) to rapidly estimate verbal intelligence, and we have adopted the Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination (SLUMS) to investigate neurocognitive functions. Areas of correspondence and differences between these screens are presented along with an explanation of why execution of both screens could be useful in addressing psychological questions concerning disability. The two instruments failed to correlate significantly in a group of patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation likely because this sample was more highly educated and more homogeneous than the sample of disability referrals. For example, although the ages of the samples were close (disability sample mean and standard deviation age: 43.88 and 11.35 years; pre-surgical sample mean and standard deviation age: 46.14 and 2.84 years), they differed considerably in level of education (disability sample mean and standard deviation: 11.03 and 2.15; pre-surgical mean and standard deviation: 15.22 and 2.84). The pre-surgical group had mean performances close to the ceiling levels of both instruments. PMID:23402058
Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895
Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Osamu; Wake, Norie; Naka, Kuoichi; Todoriki, Hidemi; Ishizu, Hiroshi
Grasping both the extent and the actual situation of psychosomatic disorders, neurotic habits and developmental disorders of infancy and childhood is vital for their prevention and for taking appropriate measures to deal with the current situation. The purpose of this study is to explore the current situation of infant mental health in Japanese…
Villa, Valentine M; Harada, Nancy D; Washington, Donna; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn
This analysis examines the self-rated health and functioning of World War II, Vietnam era, Korean Conflict, and Persian Gulf War veterans participating in the Veteran Identity Program Survey 2001. The results indicate that although World War II veterans are more likely to report poor health status and functioning, Vietnam-era veterans report more difficulty with specific activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living than any other era of veterans. These relationships remain when controlling for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disease prevalence, and mental health status. These findings suggest that there are characteristics unique to the Vietnam experience that negatively affect this cohort of veterans. We suggest that further analysis examine the specific pathways through which the experience of being a Vietnam veteran affects health. In the meantime, health and social service planning within the Department of Veterans Affairs should explore the services that should be developed and targeted to this cohort of veterans so that they may remain independent in the community. PMID:12363172
Background A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. Methods The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Results Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Conclusions Most people with chronic physical health
Talen, Mary R; Mann, Misty M
Mental health factors contribute to the onset and maintenance of overweight and obese status in children, adolescents, and adults. Binge eating disorder (BED), body image, self-esteem, mood disorders, and social and family factors affect individuals in different ways and contribute to weight gain and failure in weight loss management. Assessment of these mental health factors and treatment by 1 of several mental health treatment models may not only improve self-worth but also weight loss and maintenance. PMID:19501244
Fertig, Angela R.; Allison, Paul D.
Objectives. We assessed the independent effect of homeless and doubled-up episodes on physical and mental health, cognitive development, and health care use among children. Methods. We used data from 4 waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, involving a sample of 2631 low-income children in 20 large US cities who have been followed since birth. Multivariate analyses involved logistic regression using the hybrid method to include both fixed and random effects. Results. Of the sample, 9.8% experienced homelessness and an additional 23.6% had a doubled-up episode. Housing status had little significant adverse effect on child physical or mental health, cognitive development, or health care use. Conclusions. Family and environmental stressors common to many children in poverty, rather than just homeless and doubled-up episodes, were associated with young children's poor health and cognitive development and high health care use. Practitioners need to identify and respond to parental and family needs for support services in addition to housing assistance to effectively improve the health and development of young children who experience residential instability, particularly those in homeless families. PMID:21551380
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard
Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Borak, J; Chodosowska, E; Zieliński, J
Thirty two patients with severe COPD were studied. We evaluated relationships between their psychological status, lung function parameters, exercises tolerance (6 MWD test) and dyspnea at rest and exercise (visual analogue scale). Patients demonstrated increased level of anxiety and psychological tension. In nearly half of the patients depression, low self-esteem and disbelief in the efficiency of therapy were observed. The correlations between the psychological status and the exercise tolerance hasn't been found. The correlation between the high level of depression and impairment of the lung function was found. The high increase in dyspnea score during exercises was connected with low self-esteem, although at rest the dyspnea level in those patients was low. PMID:1292832
Matheson, Flora I; Smith, Katherine L W; Moineddin, Rahim; Dunn, James R; Glazier, Richard H
Background There is a growing interest in understanding the connection between mental illness (MI) and the onset of new physical illnesses among previously physically healthy individuals. Yet the role of gender is often forgotten in research focused on comorbidity of health problems. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the onset of physical illness in a cohort of respondents who met criteria for MI compared with a control cohort without mental health problems. Methods This cohort study, conducted in Ontario, Canada, used a unique linked dataset with information from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and medical records (n=15 902). We used adjusted Cox proportional survival analysis to examine risk of onset of four physical health problems (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, asthma, hypertension and diabetes) for those with and without baseline MI across a 10-year period (2002–2011) among respondents aged 18–74 years. We controlled for socioeconomic and health indicators associated with health. Results The incidence of physical illness in the MI cohort was 28.5% among women and 29.9% among men (p=0.85) relative to controls (23.8% and 24%, respectively; p=0.48). Women in the MI cohort developed secondary physical health problems a year earlier than their male counterparts (p=0.002). Findings from the Cox proportional survival regression showed that women were at 14% reduced risk of developing physical illness, meaning that men were more disadvantaged (HR=0.89, CI 0.80 to 0.98). Those in the MI cohort were at 10 times greater risk of developing a secondary physical illness over the 10-year period (HR=1.10, CI 0.98 to 1.21). There was no significant interaction between gender and MI cohort (HR=1.05, CI 0.85 to 1.27). Conclusions Policy and clinical practice have to be sensitive to these complex-needs patients. Gender-specific treatment and prevention practices can be developed to target those at higher risk of
Sugiyama, Takemi; Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew; Francis, Jacinta; Foster, Sarah; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie
This study examined whether the association of psychological distress with area-level socio-economic status (SES) was moderated by the area and attractiveness of local green space. As expected, the odds of higher psychological distress was higher in residents in lower SES areas than those in higher SES areas. However, our results were inconclusive with regard to the moderating role of green space in the relationship between psychological distress and SES. Further investigations incorporating safety and maintenance features of green space and street-level greenery are warranted. PMID:26796324
Kang, Eun Kyoung; Jeong, Hyun Sun; Moon, Eun Rhan; Lee, Joo Young
Objective To assess the clinical usefulness of the relatively short instrument, the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), for testing the association between cognition and language function in subacute post-stroke aphasia patients. Methods Medical charts of 111 post-stroke patients (65 men; age 69.6±10.0 years; 124.6±80.6 days post-onset) were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were assessed longitudinally for aphasia using the validated Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) and for cognition using the MMSE-K. Patients were categorized and analyzed according to 3 aphasia-severity clusters. Results All subscales of the K-WAB showed significant improvement in follow-up assessments in all groups (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Only the scores of orientation, language function, and total score of MMSE-K showed significant improvement in all groups (p<0.01). The more severely impaired group showed stronger Pearson correlation coefficients between cognition and language function. Additionally, comparisons between correlation coefficients showed that the association of improvement in orientation with that of fluency and AQ% (aphasia quotient %) was significant in the more severely impaired group. Conclusion Among subacute post-stroke aphasic patients, patients with more severe aphasia showed greater impairments to cognitive function; in addition, recovery of orientation may be related to recovery of language function. PMID:26949682
Danforth, S; Navarro, V
A sample of speech acts in everyday discourse referring to persons or events having to do with the term mental retardation was analyzed in order to investigate the belief that language use both constructs and reflects cultural norms that define the social roles of persons reduced to object status through categorical membership. Speech acts gathered suggest four emergent themes: the discourse of category membership, the dichotomy of normal and abnormal, issues of place and space, and fear. These themes were explicated from a social constructionist perspective, displaying the way speech acts construct mental retardation and subvert individuals with the label into demeaned and ridiculed objects of cultural fear. PMID:9492516
The Association Between Physical Activity, Mental Status, and Social and Family Support with Five Major Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases Among Elderly People: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Rural Population in Southern China
Huang, Xiang; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Harry H.X.; Qiu, Yongjun; Lai, Xiujuan; Zhou, Zhiheng; Li, Fangjian; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Jiaji; Lei, Jimin
Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) have become the top threat in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major NCDs among the elderly population in rural areas in southern China and explore its associated social determinants. Methods: A multistage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to select a total of 9245 rural elderly people from 3860 rural households in Guangdong Province. Interviews and physical examinations were performed to collect patient information. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with the presence of major NCDs. Results: Over one-third (38.5%) of the study population suffered from five major NCDs. The grade of activities of daily living (ADL), mental status, and social relationship of elderly people without NCDs were better than those with NCDs. The major factors associated with the presence of NCDs among the elderly people included age (70–79 years group and 80–89 years group), education level (senior high/technical secondary school and junior college and above), mental status (concentration, enrichment and happy life and memory), relationship with neighbours, activities of daily living (ADL) (being able to climb three floors and bend over), physical activity, marital status (bereft), and living conditions (with offspring and family members). Conclusions: The study identified several social determinants associated with the presence of major NCDs. A higher level of family support and physical exercise might contribute to improved physical condition, mental status, and ADL among the elderly people in rural areas in southern China. PMID:26506364
Feinstein, Leon; Bynner, John
This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on this change, and the extent to which this change influenced adult outcomes. The analyses were conducted on 11,200 individuals from the UK Birth Cohort Study who were born in 1970 and who were resurveyed at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, and 30. Substantial discontinuities emerged during middle childhood, with strong SES influences. Changes in middle childhood strongly affected adult outcomes, often outweighing the effects of cognitive development before age 5. PMID:15369517
Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Córdoba-Arenas, Sara; Jiménez-Guerra, Alvaro; Monsalve-Guil, Loreto; López-López, José
Objectives: To study the dental status and treatment needs of institutionalized older adults with chronic mental illness compared to a non-psychiatric control sample. Study Design: The sample size was 100, in which 50 were psychogeriatric patients (study group; SG) classified according to DSM-IV, with a mean age of 69.6 ± 6.7 years, and 50 non-psychiatric patients (control group; CG), with a mean age of 68.3 ± 6.9 years. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted and caries were recorded clinically using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMFT). Results were analyzed statistically using the Student’s t-test or analysis of variance. Results: Caries prevalence was 58% and 62% in SG and CG, respectively. DMFT index was 28.3 ± 6.6 in SG and 21.4 ± 6.07 in CG (p < 0.01). Mean number of decayed teeth was higher in SG (3.1) compared to CG (1.8) (p=0.047). Mean number of missing teeth were 25.2 and 16.4 in SG and CG respectively (p<0.05). DMFT scores were higher in SG in all the age groups (p < 0.01). Mean number of teeth per person needing treatment was 3.4 in SG and 1.9 in CG (p= 0.037). The need for restorative dental care was significantly lower in the SG (0.8 teeth per person) than in the CG (1.7 teeth per person) (p = 0.043). Conclusions: Institutionalized psychiatric patients have significantly worse dental status and more dental treatment needs than non-psychiatric patients. Key words:Gerodontology, oral health, older adult, psychiatric patients, schizophrenia. PMID:23229258
Pham, Phuong N; Vinck, Patrick; Stover, Eric
are multiple, ranging from witnessing to being forced to commit violent acts, and compounded by prolonged exposure to violence, often for months or years. Community-based mental health care services and reintegration programs are needed to facilitate the reintegration of former abductees back into their communities. PMID:19445689
Improving the Health Status of Children. Hearing on Examining Proposals To Improve the Health Status of Children, Including S. 435 and S. 525, Focusing on Pediatric Care, Public Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Issues. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
These hearings transcripts present testimony before the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources to address the question of how to improve the health care status of American children. The hearings addressed a range of issues relating to children's health from witnesses with expertise in pediatric care, public health, mental health, and…
McPherson, S; Buckwalter, G J; Tingus, K; Betz, B; Back, C
Abbreviated versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have been developed as time saving devices that provide accurate estimates of overall level of general intellectual functioning while decreasing test administration time. The Satz-Mogel short form of the WAIS-R has received substantial attention in the literature as an accurate measure of intellectual functions when compared with the Full WAIS-R. However, most studies comparing the Satz-Mogel version to the Full WAIS-R have only provided correlational analyses. Our study was an attempt to apply a more rigorous statistical methodology in determining if the Full WAIS-R and abbreviated versions are equivalent. We explored the impact of level of global mental status and age on the Satz-Mogel version. Although the two forms of the test correlated highly, repeated measures design indicated significant differences between Satz-Mogel and Full WAIS-R when participants were divided into groups based on level of global impairment and age. Our results suggest that the Satz-Mogel version of the test may not be equivalent to the full WAIS-R and is likely to misrepresent a patient's level of intellectual functioning, particularly for patients with progressive degenerative conditions. The implications of applying Satz-Mogel scoring to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) are discussed. PMID:11094390
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study. PMID:25241113
Hirano, Keiko; Fukuda, Tokiko
The ability to visualize brain perfusion is important for identifying epileptic foci. We present three pediatric cases showing asymmetrical cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI. During the acute phase, regional CBF measurements in the areas considered including epileptic foci were higher than in the corresponding area of the contralateral hemisphere, though the exact quantitative value varied between cases. We could not identify the correct epileptogenic foci, because those ASL images were taken after the prolonged and extraordinary activation of neurons in the affected area. During the recovery phase, the differences reduced and the average regional CBF measurement was 54.6 ± 6.1 ml/100 g per minute, which was a little less than the number of previous ASL studies. ASL perfusion MRI imaging provides a method for evaluating regional CBF by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. With this technique, we can repeatedly evaluate both the brain structure and the level of perfusion at the same time. ASL is noninvasive and easily accessible, and therefore it could become a routine tool for assessment of perfusion in daily practice of pediatric neurology. PMID:27349086
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K
This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...
... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...
Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
Outcome evaluation assesses the results or benefits of mental health services received by clients or communities by comparing descriptive data on the mental health status of clients at different points in time. It aids clinicians and managers in planning programs and managing clinical services. A mental health center should establish goal-oriented…
Farahangiz, Saman; Mohebpour, Fatemeh; Salehi, Alireza
Objectives More mental morbidities were reported in medical students than their nonmedical peers, which may negatively influence their lives and future career. The aim of this study was to assess the mental health status among medical students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Method Two hundred and eight 1st to 4th year Medical students took part in this cross-sectional study. General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28) was used for data collection. We performed descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U test, one way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc and Kruskal Wallis H and Chi square test for statistical analysis. Results The mean age of participants was 20.70 ± 1.14 (mean ± SD) years. More than half of them (54.4%) had total GHQ score above the cut-off point considered as probably abnormal mental health status. Years of education, positive family history and low satisfaction of the medicine discipline affected their mental health. Third and fourth year students had significantly higher mean scores of total GHQ (p-value = 0.009) and anxiety, somatic and social subscales (p-value = 0.001, 0.004 and 0.026). Students with positive family history of mental illness and low satisfaction of field of the study significantly had higher GHQ scores (p-value = 0.012 and < 0.001 respectively). Conclusion Poor mental health prevalence is high among medical students in Shiraz. Proper changes in educational programs and other effective interventions to raise the students’ satisfaction may reduce the effect of other stress reasons and improve their mental health status. PMID:27004057
... your thinking, mood, and behavior. There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ... Biological factors can also be part of the cause. Mental disorders are common, but treatments are available.
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Bialer, M G; Wilson, W G; Kelly, T E
The Ruvalcaba syndrome is a rare malformation syndrome characterized by skeletal dysplasia, facial anomalies, and mental retardation. We report on a 22-year-old woman with severe growth and mental retardation and numerous manifestations characteristic of the Ruvalcaba syndrome. In addition, she has several anomalies not previously described in the Ruvalcaba syndrome, including upslanting palpebral fissures, torus palatinus, hiatal hernia with gastroesophageal reflux, recurrent respiratory infections, pectus excavatum, equinovarous deformity, hypotonia, unilateral renal hypoplasia, an accessory ovary, and atretic fallopian tube. Review of published reports of Ruvalcaba syndrome confirms variability of the clinical and radiographic changes. Findings present in at least 50% of reported patients include mental retardation, short stature, pubertal delay, an abnormal nose (usually beaked) with hypoplastic nasal alae, microstomia with narrow maxilla, thin upper lip vermilion, broad hips, small hands, joint limitation, short fingers and toes, and vertebral abnormalities. Because 5 of the reported patients had renal abnormalities, a renal ultrasound or contrast study is indicated in the evaluation of these patients. Additional reports, particular from multiplex families, will be important to better characterize this syndrome. PMID:2679089
Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...
Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...
Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R
The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547
Background Health services are subject to frequent changes, yet there has been insufficient research to address how staff working within these services perceive the climate for implementation. Staff perceptions, particularly of barriers to change, may affect successful implementation and the resultant quality of care. This study measures staff perceptions of barriers to change in acute mental healthcare. We identify whether occupational status and job satisfaction are related to these perceptions, as this might indicate a target for intervention that could aid successful implementation. As there were no available instruments capturing staff perceptions of barriers to change, we created a new measure (VOCALISE) to assess this construct. Methods All nursing staff from acute in-patient settings in one large London mental health trust were eligible. Using a participatory method, a nurse researcher interviewed 32 staff to explore perceptions of barriers to change. This generated a measure through thematic analyses and staff feedback (N = 6). Psychometric testing was undertaken according to standard guidelines for measure development (N = 40, 42, 275). Random effects models were used to explore the associations between VOCALISE, occupational status, and job satisfaction (N = 125). Results VOCALISE was easy to understand and complete, and showed acceptable reliability and validity. The factor analysis revealed three underlying constructs: ‘confidence,’ ‘de-motivation’ and ‘powerlessness.’ Staff with negative perceptions of barriers to change held more junior positions, and had poorer job satisfaction. Qualitatively, nursing assistants expressed a greater sense of organisational unfairness in response to change. Conclusions VOCALISE can be used to explore staff perceptions of implementation climate and to assess how staff attitudes shape the successful outcomes of planned changes. Negative perceptions were linked with poor job satisfaction and to
Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Sheng-Ru
Little explicit attention has been given to the generic health profile of staff working for people with intellectual disability in institutions. This study aimed to provide a profile of physical and mental health of staff working in disability welfare institutions, and to examine the possible demographic and organizational factors that explain an…
Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…
Biochemical evidence of low vitamin B-12 status is common in seniors, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result in rapid, irreversible cognitive decline – a phenomenon that has been linked to high folate status. Our objective was to investigate the cognitive significa...
Best, Patrick K.
Evaluated is the effect of deafness on healthy mental development based on Erikson's eight stages of man, and reported is a survey of the mental health status of students at the California School for the Deaf. (DB)
Parkar, Shubhangi R.
This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727
Keutzer, Carolin S.
Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)
... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...