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1

A Survey of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in North American River Otters Housed in Zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author

Paige Morabito; Meredith J. Bashaw

2012-01-01

2

A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.  

PubMed

Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated. PMID:22742198

Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

2012-01-01

3

Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach  

PubMed Central

The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the “4P's” (Prediction, Preemption, Personalization, & Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely-related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly-specific model of a single disorder by matching this `fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies; and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders. PMID:21219937

Garner, Joseph P.; Thogerson, Collette M.; Dufour, Brett D.; Wurbel, Hanno; Murray, James D.; Mench, Joy A.

2011-01-01

4

Varieties of Repetitive Behavior in Autism: Comparisons to Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic study of abnormal repetitive behaviors in autism has been lacking despite the diagnostic significance of such behavior. The occurrence of specific topographies of repetitive behaviors as well as their severity was assessed in individuals with mental retardation with and without autism. The occurrence of each behavior category, except dyskinesias, was higher in the autism group and autistic subjects exhibited

James W. Bodfish; Frank J. Symons; Dawn E. Parker; Mark H. Lewis

2000-01-01

5

Repetitive behaviors in autistic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Introduction: Repetitive behaviors are common in autistic disorder, as in other developmental disabilities. Behaviors as diverse as stereotypies,\\u000a cognitive inflexibility, and a need for sameness are grouped together under DSM IV classification, even though they are diverse\\u000a in phenomenology, underlying neural circuitry, and possible clinical significance. In order to better define repetitive behaviors,\\u000a we studied the relationship between such

Roberto Militerni; Carmela Bravaccio; Carmelinda Falco; Cinzia Fico; Mark T. Palermo

2002-01-01

6

The pathophysiology of restricted repetitive behavior.  

PubMed

Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are heterogeneous ranging from stereotypic body movements to rituals to restricted interests. RRBs are most strongly associated with autism but occur in a number of other clinical disorders as well as in typical development. There does not seem to be a category of RRB that is unique or specific to autism and RRB does not seem to be robustly correlated with specific cognitive, sensory or motor abnormalities in autism. Despite its clinical significance, little is known about the pathophysiology of RRB. Both clinical and animal models studies link repetitive behaviors to genetic mutations and a number of specific genetic syndromes have RRBs as part of the clinical phenotype. Genetic risk factors may interact with experiential factors resulting in the extremes in repetitive behavior phenotypic expression that characterize autism. Few studies of individuals with autism have correlated MRI findings and RRBs and no attempt has been made to associate RRB and post-mortem tissue findings. Available clinical and animal models data indicate functional and structural alterations in cortical-basal ganglia circuitry in the expression of RRB, however. Our own studies point to reduced activity of the indirect basal ganglia pathway being associated with high levels of repetitive behavior in an animal model. These findings, if generalizable, suggest specific therapeutic targets. These, and perhaps other, perturbations to cortical basal ganglia circuitry are mediated by specific molecular mechanisms (e.g., altered gene expression) that result in long-term, experience-dependent neuroadaptations that initiate and maintain repetitive behavior. A great deal more research is needed to uncover such mechanisms. Work in areas such as substance abuse, OCD, Tourette syndrome, Parkinson's disease, and dementias promise to provide findings critical for identifying neurobiological mechanisms relevant to RRB in autism. Moreover, basic research in areas such as birdsong, habit formation, and procedural learning may provide additional, much needed clues. Understanding the pathophysioloy of repetitive behavior will be critical to identifying novel therapeutic targets and strategies for individuals with autism. PMID:21547711

Lewis, Mark; Kim, Soo-Jeong

2009-06-01

7

Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted, repetitive behavior, along with deficits in social reciprocity and communication, is diagnostic of autism. Animal models relevant to this domain generally fall into three classes: repetitive behavior associated with targeted insults to the CNS; repetitive behavior induced by pharmacological agents; and repetitive behavior associated with restricted environments and experience. The extant literature provides potential models of the repetitive behavioral phenotype in autism rather than attempts to model the etiology or pathophysiology of restricted, repetitive behavior, as these are poorly understood. This review focuses on our work with deer mice which exhibit repetitive behaviors associated with environmental restriction. Repetitive behaviors are the most common category of abnormal behavior observed in confined animals and larger, more complex environments substantially reduce the development and expression of such behavior. Studies with this model, including environmental enrichment effects, suggest alterations in cortical-basal ganglia circuitry in the development and expression of repetitive behavior. Considerably more work needs to be done in this area, particularly in modeling the development of aberrant repetitive behavior. As mutant mouse models continue to proliferate, there should be a number of promising genetic models to pursue. PMID:16997392

Lewis, Mark H.; Tanimura, Yoko; Lee, Linda W.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

8

Oxytocin Infusion Reduces Repetitive Behaviors in Adults with Autistic and Asperger's Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysfunction in three core behavioral domains: repetitive behaviors, social deficits, and language abnormalities. There is evidence that abnormalities exist in peptide systems, particularly the oxytocin system, in autism spectrum patients. Furthermore, oxytocin and the closely related peptide vasopressin are known to play a role in social and repetitive behaviors. This study examined the

Eric Hollander; Sherie Novotny; Margaret Hanratty; Rona Yaffe; Concetta M DeCaria; Bonnie R Aronowitz; Serge Mosovich

2003-01-01

9

Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of…

Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

2008-01-01

10

The pathophysiology of restricted repetitive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are heterogeneous ranging from stereotypic body movements to rituals to restricted\\u000a interests. RRBs are most strongly associated with autism but occur in a number of other clinical disorders as well as in typical\\u000a development. There does not seem to be a category of RRB that is unique or specific to autism and RRB does not seem

Mark Lewis; Soo-Jeong Kim

2009-01-01

11

The prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat (N = 58), Fragile X (N = 191), Prader-Willi (N = 189), Lowe (N = 56) and Smith-Magenis (N = 42) syndromes and individuals with intellectual disability of heterogeneous aetiology (N = 56). Repetitive behavior was variable across syndromes. Fragile X syndrome scored highly on all subscales. Angelman syndrome demonstrated a significantly lowered probability for most behaviors. Prader-Willi, Cri-du-Chat and Smith-Magenis syndrome evidenced unique profiles of repetitive behavior. There is extreme heterogeneity of repetitive behavior across genetic syndromes, highlighting syndrome specific profiles. PMID:19037716

Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

2009-04-01

12

Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for “higher order” behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research. PMID:21584849

McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

13

fMRI tracks reductions in repetitive behaviors in autism: Two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is characterized by abnormal prefrontal brain activation during cognitive control, a potential biomarker of repetitive behaviors. In this proof-of-principle study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity during an oddball task in two high-functioning males with autism before and after 12 weeks of treatment with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. One participant showed marked

Gabriel S. Dichter; Linmarie Sikich; Steve Mahorney; Jennifer N. Felder; Kristen S. L. Lam; Lauren Turner-Brown; James Bodfish

2010-01-01

14

Repetitive Behaviors in Autism: Relationships with Associated Clinical Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between repetitive behaviors (RBs) and associated clinical features (i.e., cognitive and adaptive functioning levels, sleep problems, medication use, and other behavioral problems) were examined in two groups (High nonverbal IQ greater than or equal to 97 versus Low nonverbal IQ less than or equal to 56) of children with autism…

Gabriels, Robin L.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Hill, Dina E.; Ivers, Bonnie J.; Goldson, Edward

2005-01-01

15

Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.  

PubMed

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. PMID:22114543

Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

2011-01-01

16

Abnormal P600 word repetition effect in elderly persons with Preclinical Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

We sought cognitive event-related potential (ERP) biomarkers of “Preclinical Alzheimer’s disease” (Pre-AD) using an incidental verbal learning paradigm with high sensitivity to prodromal AD. Seven elderly persons, with normal cognition at the time of ERP recordings, but who showed subsequent cognitive decline or AD pathology at autopsy (n=5, mean Braak stage=2.8), were compared to 12 “robust” normal elderly (RNE) who remained cognitively normal (Mfollow-up=9.0 years). EEG was recorded during a word repetition paradigm (semantically congruous (50%) and incongruous target words repeat ~10–140 seconds later). The RNE P600 congruous word repetition ERP effects (New minus Old congruous words) were significantly larger than in Pre-AD (mean amplitudes = 3.28 vs. 0.10 µV, p= 0.04). High group discrimination (84%) was achieved (by a P600 amplitude cutoff of ~1.5 µV). Abnormal P600 word repetition effects in cognitively normal elderly persons may be an important sign of synaptic dysfunction and Preclinical AD. PMID:24090465

Olichney, John M.; Pak, Jamie; Salmon, David P.; Yang, Jin-Chen; Gahagan, Tim; Nowacki, Ralph; Hansen, Lawrence; Galasko, Douglas; Kutas, Marta; Iragui-Madoz, Vicente J.

2013-01-01

17

The effect of deep brain stimulation surgery on repetitive behavior in Parkinson patients: A case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive behavior has been increasingly reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. This study evaluates the effect of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) treatment on existing repetitive behavior in three PD patients who underwent unilateral STN DBS surgery at the University of Florida Movement Disorders Center. No significant change in repetitive behavior was noted acutely post-surgery; however, all cases were participating less

Mary F. Wood; Fredrick N. Nguyen; Michael S. Okun; Ramone L. Rodriguez; Kelly D. Foote; Hubert H. Fernandez

2010-01-01

18

[Repetitive impulse-associated behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease].  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a number of behavioral disorders which may cause considerable social, professional or financial problems. Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, binge eating, compulsive shopping and hypersexuality occur in approximately 13-14% of PD patients. Further behavioral disorders are the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), a substance dependence characterized by craving for dopaminergic substances and punding (prolonged repetitive activities which are not goal-oriented).Treatment-related risk factors are dopamine agonists for ICDs and a high total dopaminergic dose for DDS and punding. Shared risk factors are young age at onset, impulsive personality traits, depression and possibly dyskinesia. At the neuronal level these behavioral disorders seem to be associated with changes in the reward system and dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex. The evidence level for management strategies is at present insufficient. For ICDs current clinical practice consists of discontinuation or reduction of dopamine agonists. PMID:22878676

Katzenschlager, R; Goerlich, K S; van Eimeren, T

2012-12-01

19

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Repetitive Behaviors in Monkeys Are Linked to Specific  

E-print Network

obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, autistic syndromes, and schizophrenia (Ridley, 1994; Leckman, 2002 under- lying drug-induced repetitive behaviors and related syndromes in which stereotypies are manifest. Such behaviors, however, can become exaggerated and behaviorally dominant in neuropsychiatric disorders including

Graybiel, Ann M.

20

Behavioral pattern analysis and dopamine release in quinpirole-induced repetitive behavior in rats.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disease with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3%. People with OCD suffer from intrusive, unwanted and recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive ritualistic behaviors (compulsions). The aim of this study is to quantify the dimensions of ritualistic 'compulsive-like' behavior in quinpirole-induced behavior in rats by using T-pattern behavioral analysis. In addition, we investigated whether the behavioral effects elicited by quinpirole sensitization remained after 2 weeks of cessation of treatment. Finally, to study the neurobiological underpinnings of this 'compulsive-like' behavior, we investigated the effect of quinpirole treatment on the extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Once established, 'compulsive-like' behavior is dependent upon quinpirole administration, as this behavior rapidly normalized after cessation of treatment. After a single dose of quinpirole the dopamine level decreased more in saline pre-treated animals as compared with animals given quinpirole treatment continuously. Furthermore, T-pattern analysis revealed that quinpirole-induced behavior consists, unlike OCD rituals, of a smaller behavioral repertoire. As seen in patients with OCD, quinpirole-treated animals performed these behaviors with a high rate of repetition. These findings suggest that quinpirole-induced behavior mimics only part of the compulsive behavior as shown in OCD patients. PMID:21148023

de Haas, Ria; Nijdam, Annelies; Westra, Tjalke A; Kas, Martien J H; Westenberg, Herman G M

2011-12-01

21

Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment.  

PubMed

We analysed the relationship between abnormal repetitive behaviour (ARB), the presence/absence of environmental enrichment, and two types of behavioural disinhibition in farmed American mink, Neovison vison. The first type, recurrent perseveration, the inappropriate repetition of already completed responses, was assessed using three indices of excessive response repetition and patterning in a bias-corrected serial two-choice guessing task. The second type, disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, a form of impulsivity, was tested in a locomotive detour task adapted from primate reaching tasks: subjects were required to walk around, rather than directly into, a transparent barrier behind which food was visible. In older adult females, recurrent perseveration positively predicted pre-feeding abnormal repetitive locomotion (ARL) in Non-enriched housing. High-ARL subjects also performed repeated (same-choice) responses more rapidly than low-ARL animals, even when statistically controlling for alternated (different-choice) response latency. Mink performed much less ARL following transfer to Enriched housing, but there was no corresponding change in recurrent perseveration. Thus, elevated recurrent perseveration is not sufficient for frequent ARL; and while captive environments do determine ARL frequency, in mink, they do not necessarily do so by modifying levels of perseveration. Disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, meanwhile, did not predict ARL. In a separate sample of differentially housed young adults, neither type of behavioural disinhibition predicted ARL, and again, whether or not housing was enriched did not affect behavioural disinhibition despite affecting ARL. Thus, the relationship between recurrent perseveration and ARB may only develop with age; longitudinal studies are now required for confirmation. PMID:21466825

Dallaire, Jamie A; Meagher, Rebecca K; Díez-León, María; Garner, Joseph P; Mason, Georgia J

2011-10-31

22

Abnormal social behavior in phenylketonuric monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared 4 rhesus monkeys, given a diet high in phenylalanine early in life, with 2 control groups in learning and social behavior when all Ss were on a normal diet. In comparison with the controls, the phenylketonuric (PKU) Ss were slow in learning a conditioned shock-avoidance task and showed extreme subnormal and inadequate social behavior. This gross incompetence in social

Arnold S. Chamove; Harry A. Waisman; Harry F. Harlow

1970-01-01

23

A new type of repetitive behavior in a high-energy transient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-energy burster SGR 1806-20 (GB 790107) has been observed to repeat, on the order of 100 times, between 1978 August 13 and 1986 June 27. Most of the repetitions are in the latter part of 1983. All are clustered on time scales of hours to months. Simple analyses have shown the repetitive behavior to have very little correlation between

J. G. Laros; E. E. Fenimore; R. W. Klebesadel; J.-L. Atteia; M. Boer; K. Hurley; M. Niel; G. Vedrenne; S. R. Kane; C. Kouveliotou; T. L. Cline; B. R. Dennis; U. D. Desai; L. E. Orwig; A. V. Kuznetsov; R. A. Sunyaev; O. V. Terekhov

1987-01-01

24

Asymptotic behavior of intermediate points in the differential mean value theorem of divided differences with repetitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the explicit representation for the divided differences with repetitions involving cycle index of symmetric groups, this paper deals with the asymptotic behavior of the intermediate point of the mean value theorem of divided differences with repetitions. Our results generalize some recent interesting results such as the asymptotic expansions of the immediate points of the Taylor formula and the differential

Aimin Xu; Feng Cui; Zhicheng Hu

2010-01-01

25

Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism.  

PubMed

Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles. PMID:24211371

Moy, Sheryl S; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Teng, Brian L; Agster, Kara L; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Baker, Lorinda K; Nadler, Jessica J; Bodfish, James W

2014-02-01

26

The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

2012-01-01

27

Social Deficits, Stereotypy, and Early Emergence of Repetitive Behavior in the C58/J Inbred Mouse Strain  

PubMed Central

Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect aspects of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by emergence of symptoms early in life, higher prevalence in males, social deficits and abnormal repetitive behavior. Mice from the C57BL/6J inbred strain, which has a similar genetic lineage and physical appearance to C58/J, served as a comparison group. Our results revealed that C58/J mice display elevated activity levels by postnatal day 6, which persist into adulthood. Despite normal olfactory ability, young adult male C58/J mice showed deficits in social approach in the three-chambered choice assay and failed to demonstrate social transmission of food preference. In contrast, female C58/J mice performed similarly to female C57BL/6J mice in both social tests. C58/J mice of both sexes demonstrated abnormal repetitive behaviors, displaying excessive jumping and back flipping in both social and non-social situations. These stereotypies were clearly evident in C58/J pups by postnatal days 20–21, and were also observed in C58/J dams during a test for maternal behavior. Overall, the strain profile for C58/J, including spontaneously developing motor stereotypies emerging early in the developmental trajectory, and social deficits primarily in males, models multiple components of the autism phenotype. PMID:19941908

Ryan, Bryce C.; Young, Nancy B.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Bodfish, James W.; Moy, Sheryl S.

2010-01-01

28

Sexsomnia: Abnormal sexual behavior during sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review attempts to assemble the characteristics of a distinct variant of sleepwalking called sexsomnia\\/sleepsex from the seemingly scarce literature into a coherent theoretical framework. Common features of sexsomnia include sexual arousal with autonomic activation (e.g. nocturnal erection, vaginal lubrication, nocturnal emission, dream orgasms). Somnambulistic sexual behavior and its clinical implications, the role of precipitating factors, diagnostic, treatment, and medico-legal

Monica L. Andersen; Dalva Poyares; Rosana S. C. Alves; Robert Skomro; Sergio Tufik

2007-01-01

29

Abnormal food-seeking behavior after surgery for craniopharyngioma.  

PubMed

Three patients are described in whom surgical removal of a craniopharyngioma was followed by extreme hyperphagia resulting in obesity and abnormal food-seeking behavior, including foraging for food, stealing food or stealing money for food. These behaviors resemble those seen in the Prader-Willi syndrome but contrast with those noted in bulimia. This deviant behavior was a major factor in the poor outcome of surgery. Attempts at rehabilitation were unsuccessful. PMID:2812293

Skorzewska, A; Lal, S; Waserman, J; Guyda, H

1989-01-01

30

Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24315484

Hsiao, Elaine Y; McBride, Sara W; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Patterson, Paul H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

2013-12-19

31

Low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves abnormal visual cortical circuit topography and upregulates BDNF in mice.  

PubMed

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the induced field is focused on a target region during rTMS, adjacent areas also receive stimulation at a lower intensity and the contribution of this perifocal stimulation to network-wide effects is poorly defined. Here, we examined low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS)-induced changes on a model neural network using the visual systems of normal (C57Bl/6J wild-type, n = 22) and ephrin-A2A5(-/-) (n = 22) mice, the latter possessing visuotopic anomalies. Mice were treated with LI-rTMS or sham (handling control) daily for 14 d, then fluorojade and fluororuby were injected into visual cortex. The distribution of dorsal LGN (dLGN) neurons and corticotectal terminal zones (TZs) was mapped and disorder defined by comparing their actual location with that predicted by injection sites. In the afferent geniculocortical projection, LI-rTMS decreased the abnormally high dispersion of retrogradely labeled neurons in the dLGN of ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice, indicating geniculocortical map refinement. In the corticotectal efferents, LI-rTMS improved topography of the most abnormal TZs in ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice without altering topographically normal TZs. To investigate a possible molecular mechanism for LI-rTMS-induced structural plasticity, we measured brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex and superior colliculus after single and multiple stimulations. BDNF was upregulated after a single stimulation for all groups, but only sustained in the superior colliculus of ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice. Our results show that LI-rTMS upregulates BDNF, promoting a plastic environment conducive to beneficial reorganization of abnormal cortical circuits, information that has important implications for clinical rTMS. PMID:25100609

Makowiecki, Kalina; Harvey, Alan R; Sherrard, Rachel M; Rodger, Jennifer

2014-08-01

32

Oxotremorine treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR T+ tf/J mice.  

PubMed

Repetitive behaviors with restricted interests is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current pharmacotherapies that target the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems have limited effectiveness in treating repetitive behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonists can exacerbate motor stereotypies while mAChR agonists reduce stereotypies. The present study determined whether the mAChR agonist, oxotremorine affected repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism. To test the effects of oxotremorine on repetitive behaviors, marble burying and grooming behavior were measured in BTBR mice and compared to that in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The effects of oxotremorine on locomotor activity was also measured. Thirty minutes before each test, mice received an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of saline, 0.001 mg or 0.01 mg of oxotremorine methiodide. Saline- treated BTBR mice exhibited increased marble burying and self-grooming behavior compared to that of saline-treated B6 mice. Oxotremorine significantly reduced marble burying and self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice, but had no significant effect in B6 mice. In addition, oxotremorine did not affect locomotor activity in BTBR mice, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in B6 mice at the 0.01 mg dose. These findings demonstrate that activation of mAChRs reduces repetitive behavior in the BTBR mouse and suggest that treatment with a mAChR agonist may be effective in reducing repetitive behaviors in ASD. PMID:25165445

Amodeo, Dionisio A; Yi, Julia; Sweeney, John A; Ragozzino, Michael E

2014-01-01

33

Medication-related impulse control and repetitive behaviors in Parkinson??s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

rangeofbehaviorspresumedtoberelatedtoaberrantorexcessivedopaminergicmedi- cations are being increasingly recognized in Parkinson disease. These behaviors are linked by their incentive- or reward-based and repetitive natures and include patho- logical gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping, compulsive eating, hobby- ism, and compulsive medication use. Such behaviors can have potentially devastating psychoso- cialconsequencesandareoftenhidden.Whetherthesebehaviorsaresimplyrelatedtodopaminergic medications interacting with an underlying individual vulnerability or whether the primary patho- logical features of

Valerie Voon; Marc N Potenza; Teri Thomsen

2007-01-01

34

Behavioral Measurement for Marketing Models: Estimating the Effects of Advertising Repetition for Media Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

As management science models are developed in marketing, they make demands for more sophisticated inputs from the behavioral sciences. This is particularly true in the area of advertising media models. A continuing behavioral research program to develop estimates of repetition response functions for media models is reviewed. The program finds functions which differ importantly in level, slope and shape depending

Michael L. Ray; Alan G. Sawyer

1971-01-01

35

Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

1986-01-01

36

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

2013-01-01

37

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

2011-01-01

38

Cortical activity and children's rituals, habits and other repetitive behavior: A visual P300 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the link between children's repetitive, ritualistic, behavior and cortical brain activity. Twelve typically developing children between the ages of 6 and 12 years were administered two visual P300, oddball tasks with a 32-electrode electroencephalogram (EEG) system. One of the oddball tasks was specifically designed to reflect sensitivity to asymmetry, a phenomenon common in children and in a

David W. Evans; Ashley Maliken

2011-01-01

39

Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII?/? mice. SynII?/? and SynIII?/? mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI?/?, SynII?/? and SynIII?/? mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI?/? and SynII?/? mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy. PMID:23280234

Greco, Barbara; Manago, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

2013-01-01

40

Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters. PMID:22336640

Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

2012-01-01

41

The Relationship between Executive Functioning, Central Coherence, and Repetitive Behaviors in the High-Functioning Autism Spectrum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between everyday repetitive behavior (primary symptoms of autism) and performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function and central coherence (secondary symptoms). It was hypothesized that the frequency and intensity of repetitive behavior would be positively correlated with laboratory measures of…

South, Mikle; Ozonoff, Sally; McMahon, William M.

2007-01-01

42

Cortical Thickness and Behavior Abnormalities in Children Born Preterm  

PubMed Central

Aim To identify long-term effects of preterm birth and of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) on cortical thickness (CTh). To study the relationship between CTh and cognitive-behavioral abnormalities. Methods We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging on 22 preterm children with PVL, 14 preterm children with no evidence of PVL and 22 full-term peers. T1-weighted images were analyzed with FreeSurfer software. All participants underwent cognitive and behavioral assessments by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results We did not find global CTh differences between the groups. However, a thinner cortex was found in left postcentral, supramarginal, and caudal middle rostral gyri in preterm children with no evidence of PVL than in the full-term controls, while PVL preterm children showed thicker cortex in right pericalcarine and left rostral middle frontal areas than in preterm children with no evidence of PVL. In the PVL group, internalizing and externalizing scores correlated mainly with CTh in frontal areas. Attentional scores were found to be higher in PVL and correlated with CTh increments in right frontal areas. Interpretation The preterm group with no evidence of PVL, when compared with full-term children, showed evidence of a different pattern of regional thinning in the cortical gray matter. In turn, PVL preterm children exhibited atypical increases in CTh that may underlie their prevalent behavioral problems. PMID:22860067

Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Soria-Pastor, Sara; Junque, Carme; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segarra, Dolors; Bargallo, Nuria; Macaya, Alfons

2012-01-01

43

Feasibility of Exposure Response Prevention to Treat Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism and an Intellectual Disability: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility…

Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

44

Natural genetic variation underlying differences in Peromyscus repetitive and social/aggressive behaviors.  

PubMed

Peromyscus maniculatus (BW) and P. polionotus (PO) are interfertile North American species that differ in many characteristics. For example, PO exhibit monogamy and BW animals are susceptible to repetitive behaviors and thus a model for neurobehavioral disorders such as Autism. We analyzed these two stocks as well as their hybrids, a BW Y(PO) consomic line (previously shown to alter glucose homeostasis) and a natural P. maniculatus agouti variant (A(Nb) = wide band agouti). We show that PO animals engage in far less repetitive behavior than BW animals, that this trait is dominant, and that trait distribution in both species is bi-modal. The A(Nb) allele also reduces such behaviors, particularly in females. PO, F1, and A(Nb) animals all dig significantly more than BW. Increased self-grooming is also a PO dominant trait, and there is a bimodal trait distribution in all groups except BW. The inter-stock differences in self-grooming are greater between males, and the consomic data suggest the Y chromosome plays a role. The monogamous PO animals engage in more social behavior than BW; hybrid animals exhibit intermediate levels. Surprisingly, A(Nb) animals are also more social than BW animals, although A(Nb) interactions led to aggressive interactions at higher levels than any other group. PO animals exhibited the lowest incidence of aggressive behaviors, while the hybrids exhibited BW levels. Thus this group exhibits natural, genetically tractable variation in several biomedically relevant traits. PMID:24407381

Shorter, Kimberly R; Owen, Amy; Anderson, Vanessa; Hall-South, April C; Hayford, Samantha; Cakora, Patricia; Crossland, Janet P; Georgi, Velina R M; Perkins, Amy; Kelly, Sandra J; Felder, Michael R; Vrana, Paul B

2014-03-01

45

Marble burying reflects a repetitive and perseverative behavior more than novelty-induced anxiety  

PubMed Central

Rationale An increasing number of investigators utilize the marble-burying assay despite the paucity of information available regarding what underlies the behavior. Objectives We tested the possibility that a genetic component underlies marble burying in mice and if there is a genetic correlation with other anxiety-like traits. Since findings reported in the literature indicate that marble-burying behavior reflects an anxiety-like response, we explored the assumption that the novel nature of a marble induces this anxiety. Finally, we investigated how the natural response of a mouse to dig relates to the marble-burying phenomenon. Methods We examined ten different inbred mouse strains to determine if marble-burying behavior is genetically regulated and correlated with anxiety-like traits in two other assays. We employed multiple variants of the “traditional” marble-burying assay to address how issues such as the novelty of marbles and digging behavior contribute to marble burying. Results Marble-burying behavior varied across strain and did not correlate with anxiety measures in other assays. Multiple tests conducted to reduce the novelty of marbles failed to alter burying behavior. Additionally, digging behavior correlated with marble burying, and the presence of marbles did not significantly impact the digging response. Conclusions Our results indicate that mouse marble burying is genetically regulated, not correlated with other anxiety-like traits, not stimulated by novelty, and is a repetitive behavior that persists/perseveres with little change across multiple exposures. Marble burying is related to digging behavior and may in fact be more appropriately considered as an indicative measure of repetitive digging. PMID:19189082

Thomas, Alexia; Burant, April; Bui, Nghiem; Graham, Deanna; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.

2010-01-01

46

Repetitive behavior profiles: Consistency across autism spectrum disorder cohorts and divergence from Prader-Willi syndrome.  

PubMed

Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is a group of heterogeneous maladaptive behaviors. RRB is one of the key diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and also commonly observed in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In this study, we assessed RRB using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in two ASD samples (University of Illinois at Chicago [UIC] and University of Florida [UF]) and one PWS sample. We compared the RBS-R item endorsements across three ASD cohorts (UIC, UF and an ASD sample from Lam, The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation and the effect of subject variables, PhD thesis, 2004), and a PWS sample. We also compared the mean RBS-R subscale/sum scores across the UIC, UF and PWS samples; across the combined ASD (UIC?+?UF), PWS-deletion and PWS-disomy groups; and across the combined ASD sample, PWS subgroup with a Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) score ?15, and PWS subgroup with a SCQ score <15. Despite the highly heterogeneous nature, the three ASD samples (UIC, UF and Lam's) showed a similar pattern of the RBS-R endorsements, and the mean RBS-R scores were not different between the UIC and UF samples. However, higher RRB was noted in the ASD sample compared with the PWS sample, as well as in the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score ?15 compared with the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score <15. Study limitations include a small sample size, a wide age range of our participants, and not controlling for potential covariates. A future replication study using a larger sample and further investigation into the genetic bases of overlapping ASD and RRB phenomenology are needed, given the higher RRB in the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score ?15. PMID:21881965

Flores, Cindi G; Valcante, Gregory; Guter, Steve; Zaytoun, Annette; Wray, Emily; Bell, Lindsay; Jacob, Suma; Lewis, Mark H; Driscoll, Daniel J; Cook, Edwin H; Kim, Soo-Jeong

2011-12-01

47

Indirect basal ganglia pathway mediation of repetitive behavior: attenuation by adenosine receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and common in related neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their clinical importance, underlying mechanisms associated with the expression of these behaviors remain poorly understood. Our lab has previously shown that the rates of spontaneous stereotypy in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were negatively correlated with enkephalin content, a marker of striatopallidal but not striatonigral neurons. To investigate further the role of the indirect basal ganglia pathway, we examined neuronal activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) using cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry in high- and low-stereotypy mice. CO activity in STN was significantly lower in high-stereotypy mice and negatively correlated with the frequency of stereotypy. In addition, exposure to environmental enrichment, which attenuated stereotypy, normalized the activity of STN. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS21680 and the A(1) receptor agonist CPA attenuated stereotypy dose-dependently. The significant reduction associated with the lowest dose of the drug combination tested was due to its effects on mice with lower baseline levels of stereotypy. Higher doses of the drug combination were required to show robust behavioral effects, and presumably requisite activation of the indirect pathway, in high-stereotypy mice. These findings support that decreased indirect pathway activity is linked to the expression of high levels of stereotypy in deer mice and that striatal A(1) and A(2A) receptors may provide promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20178817

Tanimura, Yoko; Vaziri, Sasha; Lewis, Mark H

2010-06-26

48

Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is not yet known; however, studies suggest that dysfunction of the immune system affects many children with ASD. Increasing evidence points to dysfunction of the innate immune system including activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages, increases in inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in brain tissue and CSF, and abnormal peripheral monocyte cell function. Dendritic cells are major players in innate immunity and have important functions in the phagocytosis of pathogens or debris, antigen presentation, activation of naïve T cells, induction of tolerance and cytokine/chemokine production. In this study, we assessed circulating frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells (defined as Lin-1?BDCA1+CD11c+ and Lin-1?BDCA3+CD123?) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (Lin-1? BDCA2+CD123+ or Lin-1?BDCA4+ CD11c?) in 57 children with ASD, and 29 typically developing controls of the same age, all of who were enrolled as part of the Autism Phenome Project (APP). The frequencies of dendritic cells and associations with behavioral assessment and MRI measurements of amygdala volume were compared in the same participants. The frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were significantly increased in children with ASD compared to typically developing controls (p < 0.03). Elevated frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were positively associated with abnormal right and left amygdala enlargement, severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and increased repetitive behaviors. The frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells were also associated with amygdala volumes as well as developmental regression in children with ASD. Dendritic cells play key roles in modulating immune responses and differences in frequencies or functions of these cells may result in immune dysfunction in children with ASD. These data further implicate innate immune cells in the complex pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:23063420

Breece, Elizabeth; Paciotti, Brian; Nordahl, Christine Wu; Ozonoff, Sally; Van de Water, Judy A.; Rogers, Sally J.; Amaral, David; Ashwood, Paul

2012-01-01

49

Abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite at high pressures.  

PubMed

Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe(2+)-Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H; Leu, Bogdan M; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

2014-01-01

50

Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature.

Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

2014-09-01

51

Repetitive behaviors in monkeys are linked to specific striatal activation patterns.  

PubMed

The spontaneous behavior of humans can be altered dramatically by repeated exposure to psychomotor stimulants. We have developed a primate model for analyzing the neurobiology underlying such drug-induced behavioral changes. We performed ethogram-based behavioral assays on squirrel monkeys given single or multiple cocaine treatments, and in the same monkeys made anatomical plots of striatal neurons that were activated to express early-gene proteins. A final cocaine challenge after chronic intermittent exposure to cocaine induced highly patterned behavioral changes in the monkeys, affecting individual behavioral motifs in distinct ways. In the striatum, the challenge dose induced striosome-predominant expression combined with intense dorsal early-gene expression, especially in the putamen. These patterns of gene expression were highly predictive of the levels of stereotypy exhibited by the monkeys in response to cocaine challenge. The total levels of expression, on the other hand, appeared to reflect increased spontaneous behavioral activation during the drug-free period after the cocaine exposure. We suggest that in the primate, compartmentally and regionally specific striatal activation patterns contribute to the striatal modulation of psychostimulant-induced behaviors. These observations in nonhuman primates raise the possibility that monitoring such basal ganglia activity patterns could help to delineate the neural mechanisms underlying drug-induced repetitive behaviors and related syndromes in which stereotypies are manifest. PMID:15329403

Saka, Esen; Goodrich, Claudia; Harlan, Patricia; Madras, Bertha K; Graybiel, Ann M

2004-08-25

52

Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Repetitive Behaviors in the BTBR T+tf/J Mouse Model of Autism  

PubMed Central

Animal models that express autism-related behavioral characteristics have been used to promote our understanding of factors that can influence specific behavioral aspects of the disorder. The BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mouse has been described as a mouse model of autism because it displays three core features of the disorder, including repetitive behavior patterns. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment on the quantity and quality of repetitive behaviors in the BTBR mouse model. Two types of repetitive behavior were examined: 1) repetitive grooming behaviors were investigated as a lower-order repetitive motor behavior and 2) repetitive object exploration was measured as a higher-order repetitive cognitive behavior. Baseline scores taken from mice at seven weeks of age confirmed that BTBR mice spend significantly more time grooming than control C57BL/6J mice and use a more rigid grooming sequence. After thirty days of enrichment housing, BTBR mice demonstrated a significant reduction in time spent grooming compared to BTBR mice placed in standard housing; no differences were found with regard to grooming sequence between enriched and standard housed BTBR mice. At baseline no differences were found between BTBR mice and control mice for the object exploration task. In addition, no differences were found in relation to sequential object exploration between BTBR mice housed in enriched vs. standard cages. The results suggest that environmental enrichment may be beneficial for reducing time spent engaging in lower-order repetitive behaviors, but may not change the overall quality of the behaviors when they do manifest. Lower order and higher order repetitive behaviors have been documented in the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mouse strain, a mouse model that exhibits all three core behavioral domains that define autism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of environmental enrichment for reducing repetitive behaviors in BTBR mice. Lower order behaviors were captured by assaying the time and sequence of grooming, while higher order behaviors were measured using pattern analysis of an object exploration task from digital recordings. Baseline scores were established at seven weeks of age followed by 30 days of housing in either a standard or enriched cage. As expected, BTBR mice spent significantly more time grooming and had a more rigid grooming sequence than control C57BL/6J mice did at baseline. After 30 days of enrichment housing, BTBR mice demonstrated a significant reduction in time spent grooming, resulting in levels that were lower than those exhibited by BTBR mice in standard housing. However, no changes were noted in the rigidity of their grooming sequence. In contrast to previous findings, there was no difference in repetitive patterns of exploration at baseline between BTBR and C57BL/6J mice on the object exploration test. Subsequently, enrichment did not significantly alter the number of repetitive patterns at posttest. Overall the results suggest that environmental enrichment may be beneficial for reducing the time spent engaging in lower-order repetitive behaviors, but may not change the overall quality of the behaviors when they do manifest. PMID:23813950

Reynolds, Stacey; Urruela, Meagan; Devine, Darragh P.

2014-01-01

53

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with a History of ASDs Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes.  

PubMed

Studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are particularly difficult to remediate. We examined present and past RRBs in 34 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes (OOs; lost their ASD diagnosis), 45 high-functioning individuals with ASD (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. The OO group exhibited minimal residual RRBs at the time of the study. All OO participants were reported to have at least one RRB in early childhood and almost 90 % met the RRB cutoff for ASD in early childhood, but RRBs were not more present in the OO than the TD group at the time of the study. History of RRBs in the HFA and OO groups differed only in oversensitivity to noise and insistence on sameness. Reports of current behavior indicated that RRB's had almost totally disappeared in the OO group. Thus, although RRB's were present in the OO group in childhood, they resolved along with social and communication deficits. PMID:25030967

Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah

2014-12-01

54

Normal behavior and the clinical implications of abnormal behavior in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Cavies are becoming more popular as pets because they are relatively easy to care for and provide never-ending love and entertainment with their curious but gentle nature. As with other species, the best way to learn about guinea pig behavior is to own guinea pigs. Understanding normal behavior provides the practitioner with the ability to more easily recognize pathology and abnormal behavior. This allows the veterinarian to provide necessary supportive care and pain management more quickly while performing diagnostics and determining the need for therapeutics. Understanding the behavior of cavies allows the clinician to better educate guinea pig-owning clients and to better and more quickly serve the needs of their guinea pig patients. PMID:11601108

Bradley, T A

2001-09-01

55

Improvement of white matter and functional connectivity abnormalities by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in crossed aphasia in dextral  

PubMed Central

As a special aphasia, the occurrence of crossed aphasia in dextral (CAD) is unusual. This study aims to improve the language ability by applying 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We studied multiple modality imaging of structural connectivity (diffusion tensor imaging), functional connectivity (resting fMRI), PET, and neurolinguistic analysis on a patient with CAD. Furthermore, we applied rTMS of 1 Hz for 40 times and observed the language function improvement. The results indicated that a significantly reduced structural and function connectivity was found in DTI and fMRI data compared with the control. The PET imaging showed hypo-metabolism in right hemisphere and left cerebellum. In conclusion, one of the mechanisms of CAD is that right hemisphere is the language dominance. Stimulating left Wernicke area could improve auditory comprehension, stimulating left Broca’s area could enhance expression, and the results outlasted 6 months by 1 Hz rTMS balancing the excitability inter-hemisphere in CAD. PMID:25419415

Lu, Haitao; Wu, Haiyan; Cheng, Hewei; Wei, Dongjie; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Tong

2014-01-01

56

Severe drug-induced repetitive behaviors and striatal overexpression of VAChT in ChAT-ChR2-EYFP BAC transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

In drug users, drug-related cues alone can induce dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Instructive cues activate inputs to the striatum from both dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, which are thought to work together to support motor learning and motivated behaviors. Imbalances in these neuromodulatory influences can impair normal action selection and might thus contribute to pathologically repetitive and compulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. Dopamine and acetylcholine can have either antagonistic or synergistic effects on behavior, depending on the state of the animal and the receptor signaling systems at play. Semi-synchronized activation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum drives dopamine release via presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on dopamine terminals. Nicotinic receptor blockade is known to diminish abnormal repetitive behaviors (stereotypies) induced by psychomotor stimulants. By contrast, blockade of postsynaptic acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum exacerbates drug-induced stereotypy, exemplifying how different acetylcholine receptors can also have opposing effects. Although acetylcholine release is known to be altered in animal models of drug addiction, predicting whether these changes will augment or diminish drug-induced behaviors thus remains a challenge. Here, we measured amphetamine-induced stereotypy in BAC transgenic mice that have been shown to overexpress the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) with consequent increased acetylcholine release. We found that drug-induced stereotypies, consisting of confined sniffing and licking behaviors, were greatly increased in the transgenic mice relative to sibling controls, as was striatal VAChT protein. These findings suggest that VAChT-mediated increases in acetylcholine could be critical in exacerbating drug-induced stereotypic behaviors and promoting exaggerated behavioral fixity. PMID:24904300

Lacey, Carolyn J.; Lee, Tyrone; Bowden, Hilary A.; Graybiel, Ann M.

2014-01-01

57

The Significance of Repetitive Hair-Pulling Behaviors in Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

We studied the relation between intrusive and repetitive hair-pulling, the defining feature of trichotillomania, and compulsive and impulsive features in 1453 individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. We conducted a series of regression models examining the relative influence of compulsive features associated with obsessive compulsive disorder; compulsive features associated with eating disorders; trait features related to harm avoidance, perfectionism and novelty seeking; and self harm. A final model with a reduced sample (n=928) examined the additional contribution of impulsive attributes. One out of 20 individuals endorsed hair-pulling. Evidence of a positive association with endorsement of compulsive behavior of the obsessive compulsive spectrum emerged. Hair-pulling may be more consonant with ritualistic compulsions than impulsive urges in those with eating disorders. PMID:21365638

Zucker, Nancy; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M.; Strober, Michael; Plotnicov, Kathy; Klump, Kelly L.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2013-01-01

58

Long-term behavioral effects of repetitive pain in neonatal rat pups.  

PubMed

Human preterm neonates are subjected to repetitive pain during neonatal intensive care. We hypothesized that exposure to repetitive neonatal pain may cause permanent or long-term changes because of the developmental plasticity of the immature brain. Neonatal rat pups were stimulated one, two, or four times each day from P0 to P7 with either needle prick (noxious groups N1, N2, N4) or cotton tip rub (tactile groups T1, T2, T4). In groups N2, N4, T2, T4 stimuli were applied to separate paws at hourly intervals;each paw was stimulated only once a day. Identical rearing occurred from P7 to P22 days. Pain thresholds were measured on P16, P22, and P65 (hot-plate test), and testing for defensive withdrawal, alcohol preference, air-puff startle, and social discrimination tests occurred during adulthood. Adult rats were exposed to a hot plate at 62 degrees C for 20 s, then sacrificed and perfused at 0 and 30 min after exposure. Fos expression in the somatosensory cortex was measured by immunocytochemistry. Weight gain in the N2 group was greater than the T2 group on P16 (p < 0.05) and P22 (p < 0.005); no differences occurred in the other groups. Decreased pain latencies were noted in the N4 group [5.0 +/- 1.0 s vs. 6.2 +/- 1.4 s on P16 (p < 0.05); 3.9 +/- 0.5 s vs. 5.5 +/- 1.6 s on P22 (p < 0.005)], indicating effects of repetitive neonatal pain on subsequent development of the pain system. As adults, N4 group rats showed an increased preference for alcohol (55 +/- 18% vs. 32 +/- 21%; p = 0.004); increased latency in exploratory and defensive withdrawal behavior (p < 0.05); and a prolonged chemosensory memory in the social discrimination test (p < 0.05). No significant differences occurred in corticosterone and ACTH levels following air-puff startle or in pain thresholds at P65 between N4 and T4 groups. Fos expression at 30 min after hot-plate exposure was significantly greater in all areas of the somatosensory cortex in the T4 group compared with the N4 group (p < 0.05), whereas no differences occurred just after exposure. These data suggest that repetitive pain in neonatal rat pups may lead to an altered development of the pain system associated with decreased pain thresholds during development. Increased plasticity of the neonatal brain may allow these and other changes in brain development to increase their vulnerability to stress disorders and anxiety-mediated adult behavior. Similar behavioral changes have been observed during the later childhood of expreterm neonates who were exposed to prolonged periods of neonatal intensive care. PMID:10386907

Anand, K J; Coskun, V; Thrivikraman, K V; Nemeroff, C B; Plotsky, P M

1999-06-01

59

Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Repetitive Pain in Neonatal Rat Pups  

PubMed Central

Human preterm neonates are subjected to repetitive pain during neonatal intensive care. We hypothesized that exposure to repetitive neonatal pain may cause permanent or long-term changes because of the developmental plasticity of the immature brain. Neonatal rat pups were stimulated one, two, or four times each day from P0 to P7 with either needle prick (noxious groups N1, N2, N4) or cotton tip rub (tactile groups T1, T2, T4). In groups N2, N4, T2, T4 stimuli were applied to separate paws at hourly intervals; each paw was stimulated only once a day. Identical rearing occurred from P7 to P22 days. Pain thresholds were measured on P16, P22, and P65 (hot-plate test), and testing for defensive withdrawal, alcohol preference, air-puff startle, and social discrimination tests occurred during adulthood. Adult rats were exposed to a hot plate at 62°C for 20 s, then sacrificed and perfused at 0 and 30 min after exposure. Fos expression in the somatosensory cortex was measured by immunocytochemistry. Weight gain in the N2 group was greater than the T2 group on P16 (p < 0.05) and P22 (p < 0.005); no differences occurred in the other groups. Decreased pain latencies were noted in the N4 group [5.0 ± 1.0 s vs. 6.2 ± 1.4 s on P16 (p < 0.05); 3.9 ± 0.5 s vs. 5.5 ±1.6 s on P22 (p < 0.005)], indicating effects of repetitive neonatal pain on subsequent development of the pain system. As adults, N4 group rats showed an increased preference for alcohol (55 ± 18% vs. 32 ± 21%; p < 0.004); increased latency in exploratory and defensive withdrawal behavior (p < 0.05); and a prolonged chemosensory memory in the social discrimination test (p < 0.05). No significant differences occurred in corticosterone and ACTH levels following air-puff startle or in pain thresholds at P65 between N4 and T4 groups. Fos expression at 30 min after hot-plate exposure was significantly greater in all areas of the somatosensory cortex in the T4 group compared with the N4 group (p < 0.05), whereas no differences occurred just after exposure. These data suggest that repetitive pain in neonatal rat pups may lead to an altered development of the pain system associated with decreased pain thresholds during development. Increased plasticity of the neonatal brain may allow these and other changes in brain development to increase their vulnerability to stress disorders and anxiety-mediated adult behavior. Similar behavioral changes have been observed during the later childhood of expreterm neonates who were exposed to prolonged periods of neonatal intensive care. PMID:10386907

ANAND, K. J. S.; COSKUN, V.; THRIVIKRAMAN, K. V.; NEMEROFF, C. B.; PLOTSKY, P. M.

2014-01-01

60

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Pten Haplo-Insufficient Mice with Social Deficits and Repetitive Behavior: Interplay between Pten and p53  

PubMed Central

Etiology of aberrant social behavior consistently points to a strong polygenetic component involved in fundamental developmental pathways, with the potential of being enhanced by defects in bioenergetics. To this end, the occurrence of social deficits and mitochondrial outcomes were evaluated in conditional Pten (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) haplo-insufficient mice, in which only one allele was selectively knocked-out in neural tissues. Pten mutations have been linked to Alzheimer's disease and syndromic autism spectrum disorders, among others. By 4–6 weeks of age, Pten insufficiency resulted in the increase of several mitochondrial Complex activities (II–III, IV and V) not accompanied by increases in mitochondrial mass, consistent with an activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, of which Pten is a negative modulator. At 8–13 weeks of age, Pten haplo-insufficient mice did not show significant behavioral abnormalities or changes in mitochondrial outcomes, but by 20–29 weeks, they displayed aberrant social behavior (social avoidance, failure to recognize familiar mouse, and repetitive self-grooming), macrocephaly, increased oxidative stress, decreased cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity (50%) and increased mtDNA deletions in cerebellum and hippocampus. Mitochondrial dysfunction was the result of a downregulation of p53-signaling pathway evaluated by lower protein expression of p21 (65% of controls) and the CCO chaperone SCO2 (47% of controls), two p53-downstream targets. This mechanism was confirmed in Pten-deficient striatal neurons and, HCT 116 cells with different p53 gene dosage. These results suggest a unique pathogenic mechanism of the Pten-p53 axis in mice with aberrant social behavior: loss of Pten (via p53) impairs mitochondrial function elicited by an early defective assembly of CCO and later enhanced by the accumulation of mtDNA deletions. Consistent with our results, (i) SCO2 deficiency and/or CCO activity defects have been reported in patients with learning disabilities including autism and (ii) mutated proteins in ASD have been found associated with p53-signaling pathways. PMID:22900024

Napoli, Eleonora; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Wong, Sarah; Hung, Connie; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Sakaguchi, Danielle; Angelastro, James; Omanska-Klusek, Alicja; Schoenfeld, Robert; Giulivi, Cecilia

2012-01-01

61

Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by repetitive combined treatments of ketamine and amphetamine in mice.  

PubMed

The combined abuse of recreational drugs such as ketamine (Ket) and amphetamine (Amph) should be seriously considered important social and health issues. Numerous studies have documented the behavioral and neurochemical changes associated with polydrug administration; however, most studies have only examined the acute effects. The consequences following chronic repetitive polydrug use are less studied. In the present study, intraperitoneal injections of saline, Amph (5 mg/kg), low dose Ket (LK, 10 mg/kg), high dose Ket (HK, 50 mg/kg), or Amph plus LK or HK (ALK or AHK) were conducted twice a day for three consecutive days, and one final treatment was administered on day 4. After seven total treatments, animal behaviors, including locomotion, stereotypy and ataxia, were examined in a novel open field. The expression of GAD67 and dopamine (DA) levels were assessed in the striatum and motor-related cortices using immunohistochemistry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Drug-induced hyperactivities and Amph-mediated potentiation of Ket-triggered ataxia manifested after repeated drug treatments. A significant increase in the number of GAD67-positive puncta in the striatum and motor-related cortices was observed, suggesting a neural adaptive change in the GABAergic system. Four hours after the final treatment, while the behavioral hyperactivities had ceased, considerable changes were still evident in the motor-related cortices, suggesting modulation to the DAergic system. Together, our results show the interactive effects of these two drugs in behavioral and neurochemical aspects and neural adaptive changes in the GABAergic and DAergic systems. PMID:25135599

Lai, Chuan-Ching; Lee, Li-Jen; Yin, Hsiang-Shu

2014-11-01

62

Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as…

Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

2012-01-01

63

Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

1984-01-01

64

Behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities in pleiotrophin knockout mice.  

PubMed

Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features. PMID:25000129

Krellman, Jason W; Ruiz, Henry H; Marciano, Veronica A; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D

2014-01-01

65

Behavioral and Neuroanatomical Abnormalities in Pleiotrophin Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features. PMID:25000129

Krellman, Jason W.; Ruiz, Henry H.; Marciano, Veronica A.; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D.

2014-01-01

66

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective

H. G. Brunner; M. Nelen; H. H. Ropers; B. A. van Oost

1993-01-01

67

Coffee consumption during pregnancy: subsequent behavioral abnormalities of the offspring.  

PubMed

Offspring of rats fed coffee during pregnancy had reduced body, liver, and brain weight at birth. By 30 days postnatally these animals had recovered in size but exhibited increased locomotion, decreased grooming time, and decreased time spent with a novel object. Offspring of dams fed decaffeinated coffee demonstrated reduced liver weight at birth and similar behavioral characteristics at 30 days of age. PMID:7069517

Groisser, D S; Rosso, P; Winick, M

1982-04-01

68

Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

2010-01-01

69

Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, in children aged under 15, of severe impairments of social interaction, language abnormalities, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors was investigated in an area of London. A “socially impaired” group (more than half of whom were severely retarded) and a comparison group of “sociable severely mentally retarded” children were identified. Mutism or echolalia, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors were found in

Lorna Wing; Judith Gould

1979-01-01

70

Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Origins of impaired adaptive functioning in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Behavioral disorganization may arise from an abnormal reliance on common combinations between concepts stored in semantic memory. Avolition-apathy may be related to deficits in using goal-related requirements to flexibly plan behavior. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 medicated schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy controls in a novel video paradigm presenting congruous or incongruous objects in real-world activities. All incongruous objects were contextually inappropriate, but the incongruous scenes varied in comprehensibility. Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to less comprehensible incongruous scenes, and larger N400 priming was associated with disorganization severity. A P600 ERP, which may index flexible object-action integration based on goal-related requirements, was abnormally attenuated in patients, and its smaller magnitude was associated with the SANS rating of impersistence at work or school (goal-directed behavior). Thus, distinct neurocognitive abnormalities may underlie disorganization and goal-directed behavior deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:19413402

Sitnikova, Tatiana; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R.

2010-01-01

71

Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

2001-01-01

72

Repetitive Thoughts and Behavior in Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Treatment with Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from two studies indicate the nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) clomipramine is more efficacious than the relatively selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine and placebo in children with autism. A study of the selective SRI fluvoxamine found it to be significantly better than placebo for reducing repetitive

McDougle, Christopher J.; Kresch, Laura E.; Posey, David J.

2000-01-01

73

Abnormal behavior in mice mutant for the Disc1 binding partner, Dixdc1.  

PubMed

Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a genetic susceptibility locus for major mental illness, including schizophrenia and depression. The Disc1 protein was recently shown to interact with the Wnt signaling protein, DIX domain containing 1 (Dixdc1). Both proteins participate in neural progenitor proliferation dependent on Wnt signaling, and in neural migration independently of Wnt signaling. Interestingly, their effect on neural progenitor proliferation is additive. By analogy to Disc1, mutations in Dixdc1 may lead to abnormal behavior in mice, and to schizophrenia or depression in humans. To explore this hypothesis further, we generated mice mutant at the Dixdc1 locus and analyzed their behavior. Dixdc1(-/-) mice had normal prepulse inhibition, but displayed decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, abnormal behavior in the elevated plus maze and deficits in startle reactivity. Our results suggest that Dixdc1(-/-) mice will be a useful tool to elucidate molecular pathophysiology involving Disc1 in major mental illnesses. PMID:22832659

Kivimäe, S; Martin, P-M; Kapfhamer, D; Ruan, Y; Heberlein, U; Rubenstein, J L R; Cheyette, B N R

2011-01-01

74

Abnormal behavior in mice mutant for the Disc1 binding partner, Dixdc1  

PubMed Central

Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a genetic susceptibility locus for major mental illness, including schizophrenia and depression. The Disc1 protein was recently shown to interact with the Wnt signaling protein, DIX domain containing 1 (Dixdc1). Both proteins participate in neural progenitor proliferation dependent on Wnt signaling, and in neural migration independently of Wnt signaling. Interestingly, their effect on neural progenitor proliferation is additive. By analogy to Disc1, mutations in Dixdc1 may lead to abnormal behavior in mice, and to schizophrenia or depression in humans. To explore this hypothesis further, we generated mice mutant at the Dixdc1 locus and analyzed their behavior. Dixdc1?/? mice had normal prepulse inhibition, but displayed decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, abnormal behavior in the elevated plus maze and deficits in startle reactivity. Our results suggest that Dixdc1?/? mice will be a useful tool to elucidate molecular pathophysiology involving Disc1 in major mental illnesses. PMID:22832659

Kivimäe, S; Martin, P-M; Kapfhamer, D; Ruan, Y; Heberlein, U; Rubenstein, J L R; Cheyette, B N R

2011-01-01

75

Glial expression of Borna disease virus phosphoprotein induces behavioral and neurological abnormalities in transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

One hypothesis for the etiology of behavioral disorders is that infection by a virus induces neuronal cell dysfunctions resulting in a wide range of behavioral abnormalities. However, a direct linkage between viral infections and neurobehavioral disturbances associated with human psychiatric disorders has not been identified. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing the phosphoprotein (P) of Borna disease virus (BDV) in glial cells develop behavioral abnormalities, such as enhanced intermale aggressiveness, hyperactivity, and spatial reference memory deficit. We demonstrate that the transgenic brains exhibit a significant reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serotonin receptor expression, as well as a marked decrease in synaptic density. These results demonstrate that glial expression of BDV P leads to behavioral and neurobiological disturbances resembling those in BDV-infected animals. Furthermore, the lack of reactive astrocytosis and neuronal degeneration in the brains indicates that P can directly induce glial cell dysfunction and also suggests that the transgenic mice may exhibit neuropathological and neurophysiological abnormalities resembling those of psychiatric patients. Our results provide a new insight to explore the relationship between viral infections and neurobehavioral disorders. PMID:12857949

Kamitani, Wataru; Ono, Etsuro; Yoshino, Saori; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Lee, Byeong-Jae; Yamashita, Makiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Minoru; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

2003-01-01

76

Clozapine ameliorates epigenetic and behavioral abnormalities induced by phencyclidine through activation of dopamine D1 receptor.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of histone modification is involved in the pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. However, the abnormalities in histone modification in the animal model of schizophrenia and the efficacy of antipsychotics for such abnormalities remain unclear. Here, we investigated the involvement of histone modification in phencyclidine-induced behavioral abnormalities and the effects of antipsychotics on these abnormalities. After repeated phencyclidine (10 mg/kg) treatment for 14 consecutive days, mice were treated with antipsychotics (clozapine or haloperidol) or the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate for 7 d. Repeated phencyclidine treatments induced memory impairment and social deficit in the mice. The acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 residues decreased in the prefrontal cortex with phencyclidine treatment, whereas the expression level of histone deacetylase 5 increased. In addition, the phosphorylation of Ca²?/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus decreased in the prefrontal cortex of phencyclidine-treated mice. These behavioral and epigenetic changes in phencyclidine-treated mice were attenuated by clozapine and sodium butyrate but not by haloperidol. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked the ameliorating effects of clozapine but not of sodium butyrate. Furthermore, clozapine and sodium butyrate attenuated the decrease in expression level of GABAergic system-related genes in the prefrontal cortex of phencyclidine-treated mice. These findings suggest that the antipsychotic effect of clozapine develops, at least in part, through epigenetic modification by activation of the dopamine D1 receptor in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:24345457

Aoyama, Yuki; Mouri, Akihiro; Toriumi, Kazuya; Koseki, Takenao; Narusawa, Shiho; Ikawa, Natsumi; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Nagai, Taku; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

2014-05-01

77

Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with ASD at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as nonverbal cognitive skills. Increases in receptive and expressive language from age 2 to 3 significantly predicted decreases in RRBs, controlling for age in months, time between visits, and gains in nonverbal cognitive skills. This study contributes to the limited research that has examined early patterns and predictors of RRBs in young children with ASD. PMID:22350337

Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

2012-01-01

78

Abnormal crowd behavior detection using high-frequency and spatio-temporal features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal crowd behavior detection is an important research issue in computer vision. The traditional methods first extract\\u000a the local spatio-temporal cuboid from video. Then the cuboid is described by optical flow or gradient features, etc. Unfortunately,\\u000a because of the complex environmental conditions, such as severe occlusion, over-crowding, etc., the existing algorithms cannot\\u000a be efficiently applied. In this paper, we derive

Bo Wang; Mao Ye; Xue Li; Fengjuan Zhao; Jian Ding

79

Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal and emergency situations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for the study of planning is presented and the results of applying the methodology within two experimental investigations of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations are discussed. Beyond showing that the methodology yields consistent results, these experiments also lead to concepts in terms of a dichotomy between event driven and time driven planning, subtle effects of automation on planning, and the relationship of planning to workload and flight performance.

Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

1981-01-01

80

A new type of repetitive behavior in a high-energy transient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-energy burster GB 790107 has been observed to repeat, on the order of 100 times, between August 13, 1978 and June 27, 1986, with most repetitions occurring in the latter part of 1983. Here, these activities are described, discussing intensity and time-of-occurrence information covering a seven-year span of International Cometary Explorer (ICE) data. Arguments for the reality of this activity and its association with the GB 790107 source are presented. A moderately precise location derived from ICE, SMM, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, and Venera 13 Signe data is given and related to the published GB 790107 location.

Laros, J. G.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Atteia, J.-L.; Boer, M.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Kane, S. R.; Kouveliotou, C.

1987-01-01

81

Lymphocyte Subset Alterations Related to Executive Function Deficits and Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing evidence suggests that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in children with ASD. Eighteen high-functioning (HFA) and 19 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17 years,…

Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S.

2011-01-01

82

The Role of Parental Bonding and Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Risk of Suicidal Behavior Repetition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the role of perceived parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in suicidal behavior. Participants completed measures of perceived parental bonding; schemas; risk of repeating suicidal behavior; anxiety; and depression following their presentation at Accident and Emergency with suicidal behavior. A suicidal behavior group (n = 60) differed from a comparison clinical (n = 46) and non-clinical (n = 48) group on measures

Rosanna Dale; Kevin Power; Scott Kane; Alex Mitchell Stewart; Lindsey Murray

2010-01-01

83

Mice Genetically Depleted of Brain Serotonin Display Social Impairments, Communication Deficits and Repetitive Behaviors: Possible Relevance to Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2)) for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2?/?) showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2?/? mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder. PMID:23139830

Briggs, Denise I.; Sykes, Catherine E.; Francescutti, Dina M.; Rosenberg, David R.; Kuhn, Donald M.

2012-01-01

84

Repetitive Behaviors in Monkeys Are Linked to Specific Striatal Activation Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spontaneous behavior of humans can be altered dramatically by repeated exposure to psychomotor stimulants. We have developed a primate model for analyzing the neurobiology underlying such drug-induced behavioral changes. We performed ethogram-based behavioral assays on squirrel monkeys given single or multiple cocaine treatments, and in the same monkeys made anatomical plots of striatal neurons that were activated to express

Esen Saka; Claudia Goodrich; Patricia Harlan; Bertha K. Madras; Ann M. Graybiel

2004-01-01

85

Abnormal animal behavior prior to the Vrancea (Romania) major subcrustal earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to present some observations about abnormal animal behavior prior and during of some Romanian subcrustal earthquakes. The major Vrancea earthquakes of 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.4, Imax = IX-X MSK), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.1, Io = VIII-IX MSK) and 30 May 1990 (Mw = 6.9, Io = VIII MSK), were preceded by extensive occurrences of anomalous animal behavior. These data were collected immediately after the earthquakes from the areas affected by these. Some species of animals became excited, nervous and panicked before and during the earthquakes, such as: dogs (barking and running in panic), cats, snakes, mice and rats (came into the houses and have lost their fear), birds (hens, geese, parrots), horses, fishes etc. These strange manifestations of the animals were observed on the entire territory of country, especially in the extra-Carpathian area. This unusual behavior was noticed within a few hours to days before the seismic events, but for the most of cases the time of occurrence was within two hours of the quakes. We can hope that maybe one day the abnormal animal behavior will be used as a reliable seismic precursor for the intermediate depth earthquakes.

Constantin, Angela; Pantea, Aurelian

2013-04-01

86

Amelioration of Behavioral Abnormalities in BH4-deficient Mice by Dietary Supplementation of Tyrosine  

PubMed Central

This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-deficient Spr?/? mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr?/? mice. We found that Spr?/? mice display variable ‘open-field’ behaviors, impaired motor functions on the ‘rotating rod’, and dystonic ‘hind-limb clasping’. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr?/? mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr?/? mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in Spr?/? mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr?/? mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency. PMID:23577163

Kwak, Sang Su; Jeong, Mikyoung; Choi, Ji Hye; Kim, Daesoo; Min, Hyesun; Yoon, Yoosik; Hwang, Onyou; Meadows, Gary G.; Joe, Cheol O.

2013-01-01

87

Abnormal Vagal Cholinergic Function and Psychological Behaviors in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients A Hospital-Based Oriental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients inWestern countries usually manifest autonomic nervedysfunctions and abnormal psychological behaviors. Thepurpose of this study was to assess whether Oriental IBS patients with predominant bowel symptomsalso exhibited similar abnormalities. We enrolled 40 IBSpatients from the outpatient clinic and 20 controls withnormal daily bowel habit for study. The IBS patients were further divided according totheir predominant bowel

Chi-Teh Lee; Tien-Yow Chuang; Ching-Liang Lu; Chih-Yen Chen; Full-Young Chang; Shou-Dong Lee

1998-01-01

88

Plastic and behavioral abnormalities in experimental Huntington's disease: a crucial role for cholinergic interneurons.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal hereditary neurodegenerative disease causing degeneration of striatal spiny neurons, whereas cholinergic interneurons are spared. This cell-type specific pathology produces an array of abnormalities including involuntary movements, cognitive impairments, and psychiatric disorders. Although the genetic mutation responsible for HD has been identified, little is known about the early synaptic changes occurring within the striatal circuitry at the onset of clinical symptoms. We therefore studied the synaptic plasticity of spiny neurons and cholinergic interneurons in two animal models of early HD. As a pathogenetic model, we used the chronic subcutaneous infusion of the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in rats. This treatment caused striatal damage and impaired response flexibility in the cross-maze task as well as defective extinction of conditioned fear suggesting a perseverative behavior. In these animals, we observed a loss of depotentiation in striatal spiny neurons and a lack of long-term potentiation (LTP) in cholinergic interneurons. These abnormalities of striatal synaptic plasticity were also observed in R6/2 transgenic mice, a genetic model of HD, indicating that both genetic and phenotypic models of HD show cell-type specific alterations of LTP. We also found that in control rats, as well as in wild-type (WT) mice, depotentiation of spiny neurons was blocked by either scopolamine or hemicholinium, indicating that reversal of LTP requires activation of muscarinic receptors by endogenous acetylcholine. Our findings suggest that the defective plasticity of cholinergic interneurons could be the primary event mediating abnormal functioning of striatal circuits, and the loss of behavioral flexibility typical of early HD might largely depend on cell-type specific plastic abnormalities. PMID:16326108

Picconi, Barbara; Passino, Enrica; Sgobio, Carmelo; Bonsi, Paola; Barone, Ilaria; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Pisani, Antonio; Bernardi, Giorgio; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Calabresi, Paolo

2006-04-01

89

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1993-10-22

90

Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation prevents abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from chronic nicotine consumption.  

PubMed

Successful available treatments to quit smoking remain scarce. Recently, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a tool to reduce craving for nicotine has gained interest. However, there is no documented animal model to assess the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS on addiction-related behaviors. To address this topic, we have developed a model of repeated tDCS in mice and used it to validate its effectiveness in relieving nicotine addiction. Anodal repeated tDCS was applied over the frontal cortex of Swiss female mice. The stimulation electrode (anode) was fixed directly onto the cranium, and the reference electrode was placed onto the ventral thorax. A 2 × 20 min/day stimulation paradigm for five consecutive days was used (0.2 mA). In the first study, we screened for behaviors altered by the stimulation. Second, we tested whether tDCS could alleviate abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from nicotine consumption. In naive animals, repeated tDCS had antidepressant-like properties 3 weeks after the last stimulation, improved working memory, and decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine without affecting locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. Importantly, abnormal behaviors associated with chronic nicotine exposure (ie, depression-like behavior, increase in nicotine-induced place preference) were normalized by repeated tDCS. Our data show for the first time in an animal model that repeated tDCS is a promising, non-expensive clinical tool that could be used to reduce smoking craving and facilitate smoking cessation. Our animal model will be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS on addiction and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:24154668

Pedron, Solène; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Van Waes, Vincent

2014-03-01

91

Who Should Report Abnormal Behavior at Preschool Age? The Case of Behavioral Inhibition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are behaviorally "inhibited"--a condition at the extreme of the behavioral inhibition dimension--experience distress in uncertain social situations. Although parents and teachers are in the best position to detect this condition, they rarely agree. This study aims to analyze the agreement between parents and teachers and to examine…

Ballespi, Sergi; Jane, Ma Claustre; Riba, Ma Dolors

2012-01-01

92

Repetitive firing: quantitative analysis of encoder behavior of slowly adapting stretch receptor of crayfish and eccentric cell of Limulus  

PubMed Central

Techniques developed for determining summed encoder feedback in conjunction with the leaky integrator and variable-gamma models for repetitive firing are applied to spike train data obtained from the slowly adapting crustacean stretch receptor and the eccentric cell of Limulus. Input stimuli were intracellularly applied currents. Analysis of data from cells stringently selected by reproducibility criteria gave a consistent picture for the dynamics of repetitive firing. The variable-gamma model with appropriate summed feedback was most accurate for describing encoding behavior of both cell types. The leaky integrator model, while useful for determining summed feedback parameters, was inadequate to account for underlying mechanisms of encoder activity. For the stretch receptor, two summed feedback processes were detected: one had a short time constant; the other, a long one. Appropriate tests indicated that the short time constant effect was from an electrogenic sodium pump, and the same is presumed for the long time constant summed feedback. Both feedbacks show seasonal and/or species variations. Short hyperpolarizing pulses inhibited the feedback from the long time constant process. The eccentric cell also showed two summed feedback processes: one is due to self inhibition, the other is postulated to be a short time constant electrogenic sodium pump similar to that described in the stretch receptor. PMID:894245

1977-01-01

93

Plant Biomechanics Conference Cayenne, November 16 21, 2009 Origins of abnormal behaviors of gelatinous layer in tension wood  

E-print Network

6th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Cayenne, November 16 ­ 21, 2009 Origins of abnormal behaviors, published in "6th Plant Biomechanics Conference, French Guiana (2009)" #12;6th Plant Biomechanics Conference

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Maladaptive and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and clinicians are recognizing that a subgroup of children with Down syndrome (DS) also present with clinically significant impairments in social-communication and restricted patterns of behavior, such as those that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Efforts to better describe the behavioral presentation of children with…

Hepburn, Susan L.; MacLean, William E.

2009-01-01

95

Maladaptive and Repetitive Behaviors in Children With Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers and clinicians are recognizing that a subgroup of children with Down syndrome (DS) also present with clinically significant impairments in social-communication and restricted patterns of behavior, such as those that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Efforts to better describe the behavioral presentation of children with co-occurring DS and ASD could be useful in developing screening and assessment procedures, which

Susan L. Hepburn; William E. MacLean

2009-01-01

96

Abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis in the allotetraploid of Carassius auratus red var. (?)?×?Megalobrama amblycephala (?)  

PubMed Central

Background Allopolyploids generally undergo bivalent pairing at meiosis because only homologous chromosomes pair up. On the other hand, several studies have documented abnormal chromosome behavior during mitosis and meiosis in allopolyploids plants leading to the production of gametes with complete paternal or maternal chromosomes. Polyploidy is relatively rare in animals compared with plants; thus, chromosome behavior at meiosis in the allopolyploid animals is poorly understood. Results Tetraploid hybrids (abbreviated as 4nRB) (4n?=?148, RRBB) of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC) (2n?=?100, RR) (?)?×?Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB) (2n?=?48, BB) (?) generated gametes of different size. To test the genetic composition of these gametes, the gynogenetic offspring and backcross progenies of 4nRB were produced, and their genetic composition were examined by chromosome analysis and FISH. Our results suggest that 4nRB can produce several types of gametes with different genetic compositions, including allotetraploid (RRBB), autotriploid (RRR), autodiploid (RR), and haploid (R) gametes. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence of abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis in an allotetraploid fish. PMID:25178799

2014-01-01

97

Conformational Behavior of Chemically Reactive Alanine-Rich Repetitive Protein Polymers  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of protein-based polymers with controlled conformational properties and functional group placement offers many opportunities for the design of advanced materials. In this work, protein engineering methods have been used to produce repetitive alanine-rich protein polymers with the sequence [(AAAQ)5-(AAAE)(AAAQ)5]x (x = 2 and 6); these macromolecules may mimic architectural features of certain alanine-rich helical sequences found in natural proteins. Various proteins from this family can be readily expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Circular dichroic spectroscopy (CD) characterization demonstrates that the purified proteins are highly helical under a variety of conditions. Thermal analysis of [(AAAQ)5(AAAE)-(AAAQ)5]2 via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and CD indicates that the protein undergoes a reversible helix–coil transition at approximately 45 °C and that the protein conformation can be manipulated at elevated temperatures depending on solution conditions. The demonstrated conformational properties of these artificial proteins suggest that they may be excellent candidates for elucidating structure–function relationships in biopolymers for nanotechnology and biological applications. PMID:15877375

Farmer, Robin S.; Kiick, Kristi L.

2008-01-01

98

Suppression of Repetitive Self-Injurious Behavior by Contingent Inhalation of Aromatic Ammonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two severely retarded institutionalized children (4 and 7 years old) who exhibited high rates of severely self-injurious behaviors were punished with aromatic ammonia inhalation on a response-contingent basis. (Author/SBH)

Baumeister, Alan A.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

1978-01-01

99

Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.  

PubMed

Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research into implications of gut bacteria, their metabolites and the polyamine system on brain and behavior in laying hens. PMID:23313560

Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

2013-02-17

100

GABA progenitors grafted into the adult epileptic brain control seizures and abnormal behavior  

PubMed Central

Impaired GABA–mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in many neurologic diseases including epilepsy, intellectual disability, and psychiatric disorders. Here we report that inhibitory neuron transplantation into the hippocampus of adult mice with confirmed epilepsy at the time of grafting dramatically reduced the occurrence of electrographic seizures and restored behavioral deficits in spatial learning, hyperactivity, and the aggressive response to handling. In the recipient brain, GABA progenitors migrated up to 1500 ?m from the injection site, expressed genes and proteins characteristic for interneurons, differentiated into functional inhibitory neurons, and received excitatory synaptic input. In contrast to hippocampus, cell grafts into basolateral amygdala rescued the hyperactivity deficit but did not alter seizure activity or other abnormal behaviors. Our results highlight a critical role for interneurons in epilepsy and suggest that interneuron cell transplantation is a powerful approach to halt seizures and rescue accompanying deficits in severely epileptic mice. PMID:23644485

Hunt, Robert F.; Girskis, Kelly M.; Rubenstein, John L.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Baraban, Scott C.

2013-01-01

101

Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmentally Similar Peers--A Follow Up to Watt et al. (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study extended the findings of Watt et al. (J Autism Dev Disord 38:1518-1533, 2008) by investigating repetitive and stereotyped behaviors (RSB) demonstrated by children (n = 50) and typical development (TD; n = 50) matched on developmental age, gender, and parents' education level. RSB were coded from videotaped Communication and…

Barber, Angela B.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Chambers, Nola W.

2012-01-01

102

The Effects of Gender and Age on Repetitive and/or Restricted Behaviors and Interests in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic Assessment…

Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

2011-01-01

103

Delayed reversal learning and association with repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

An important aspect of successful emotion regulation is the ability to adjust emotional responses to changing environmental cues. Difficulties with such adaptation may underlie both marked symptoms of behavioral inflexibility and frequent severe anxiety in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 29 age- and intelligence quotient-matched controls completed a reversal learning paradigm following partial reinforcement Pavlovian fear conditioning, using a surprising air puff as the unconditioned stimulus. After initial reversal of cue contingencies, where a previously safe cue now predicted the air puff threat, the control group but not the ASD group responded more strongly to the new threat cue. The ASD group showed evidence for reversal learning only during later trials. Reversal learning in the ASD group was significantly negatively correlated with everyday symptoms of behavioral inflexibility but not with everyday anxiety. Understanding shared associations between inflexibility, anxiety, and autism, with regard both to clinical symptoms and neurobiological mechanisms, can provide important markers for better characterizing the substantial heterogeneity across the autism spectrum. PMID:23097376

South, Mikle; Newton, Tiffani; Chamberlain, Paul D

2012-12-01

104

Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design  

PubMed Central

We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

2014-01-01

105

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Toddlers and Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders Based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)  

PubMed Central

Lay Abstract Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) have long been considered one of the core characteristics of autism. RRBs include a very broad category of behaviors such as preoccupation with restricted patterns of interest (e.g. having very specific knowledge about vacuum cleaners), adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines (e.g. insisting on taking a certain route to school), repetitive motor manners (e.g., hand flapping), and preoccupation with parts of objects (e.g. peering at the wheels of toy cars while spinning them). Most research on RRBs has used caregiver reports either through interviews or questionnaires; thus, the purpose of this study was to use clinicians’ observations of RRBs, made during the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore & Risi, 2000) to discover how RRBs change over time in very young children who may have ASD and what other factors are related to having RRBs. The ADOS is a 45 minute long, semi-structured, standardized assessment of communication, social interaction and play, which was administered to 121 children with autism, 71 with pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), 90 with a nonspectrum disorder, and 173 children who were typically developing. Even during a relatively short-term observation in the context of an office visit, we found that RRBs occurred more frequently and were more severe in young children with autism and PDD-NOS diagnoses than children in other groups. Diagnostic group differences also emerged in the associations between RRB scores and participant characteristics (e.g. age, NVIQ scores, etc). We also examined different subtypes of RRBs and their associations with NVIQ, age, diagnosis, and gender. Scientific Abstract Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) observed during the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore & Risi, 2000) were examined in a longitudinal dataset of 455 toddlers and preschoolers (age 8–56 months) with clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; autism, n = 121 and pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), n = 71), a nonspectrum disorder (NS; n = 90), or typical development (TD; n = 173). Even in the relatively brief semi-structured observations, Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analyses of the severity and prevalence of RRBs differentiated children with ASD from those with NS and TD across all ages. RRB total scores on the ADOS were stable over time for children with ASD and NS; however, typically developing preschoolers showed lower RRB scores than typically developing toddlers. Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children with PDD-NOS, NS and TD than younger children under 2 years and those with autism. Item analyses revealed different relationships between individual items and NVIQ, age, diagnosis, and gender. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of RRBs as well as for the framework of ASD diagnostic criteria in future diagnostic systems. PMID:20589716

Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

2010-01-01

106

Neuronal degeneration, synaptic defects, and behavioral abnormalities in tau?????? transgenic mice.  

PubMed

The complement of mechanisms underlying tau pathology in neurodegenerative disorders has yet to be elucidated. Among these mechanisms, abnormal tau phosphorylation has received the most attention because neurofibrillary tangles present in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders known as tauopathies are composed of hyperphosphorylated forms of this microtubule-associated protein. More recently, we showed that calpain-mediated cleavage leading to the generation of the 17kDa tau?????? fragment is a conserved mechanism in these diseases. To obtain insights into the role of this fragment in neurodegeneration, we generated transgenic mice that express tau?????? and characterized their phenotype. Our results showed a significant increase in cell death in the hippocampal pyramidal cell layer of transgenic tau?????? mice when compared to wild-type controls. In addition, significant synapse loss was detected as early as six months after birth in transgenic hippocampal neurons. These synaptic changes were accompanied by alterations in the expression of the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate (NMDA) receptor subunits. Furthermore, functional abnormalities were detected in the transgenic mice using Morris Water Maze and fear conditioning tests. These results suggest that the accumulation of tau?????? is responsible, at least in part, for neuronal degeneration and some behavioral changes in AD and other tauopathies. Collectively, these data provide the first direct evidence of the toxic effects of a tau fragment biologically produced in the context of these diseases in vertebrate neurons that develop in situ. PMID:24952329

Lang, A E; Riherd Methner, D N; Ferreira, A

2014-09-01

107

Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination  

SciTech Connect

Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

McCarty, J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Section of Ecology and Systematics; [Fish and Wildlife Service, Cortland, NY (United States); Secord, A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Cortland, NY (United States); Tillitt, D. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

108

Alzheimer Disease in a Mouse Model: MR Imaging-guided Focused Ultrasound Targeted to the Hippocampus Opens the Blood-Brain Barrier and Improves Pathologic Abnormalities and Behavior.  

PubMed

Purpose To validate whether repeated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatments targeted to the hippocampus, a brain structure relevant for Alzheimer disease ( AD Alzheimer disease ), could modulate pathologic abnormalities, plasticity, and behavior in a mouse model. Materials and Methods All animal procedures were approved by the Animal Care Committee and are in accordance with the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Seven-month-old transgenic (TgCRND8) (Tg) mice and their nontransgenic (non-Tg) littermates were entered in the study. Mice were treated weekly with MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound in the bilateral hippocampus (1.68 MHz, 10-msec bursts, 1-Hz burst repetition frequency, 120-second total duration). After 1 month, spatial memory was tested in the Y maze with the novel arm prior to sacrifice and immunohistochemical analysis. The data were compared by using unpaired t tests and analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc analysis. Results Untreated Tg mice spent 61% less time than untreated non-Tg mice exploring the novel arm of the Y maze because of spatial memory impairments (P < .05). Following MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound, Tg mice spent 99% more time exploring the novel arm, performing as well as their non-Tg littermates. Changes in behavior were correlated with a reduction of the number and size of amyloid plaques in the MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound-treated animals (P < .01). Further, after MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatment, there was a 250% increase in the number of newborn neurons in the hippocampus (P < .01). The newborn neurons had longer dendrites and more arborization after MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound, as well (P < .01). Conclusion Repeated MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatments led to spatial memory improvement in a Tg mouse model of AD Alzheimer disease . The behavior changes may be mediated by decreased amyloid pathologic abnormalities and increased neuronal plasticity. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25222068

Burgess, Alison; Dubey, Sonam; Yeung, Sharon; Hough, Olivia; Eterman, Naomi; Aubert, Isabelle; Hynynen, Kullervo

2014-12-01

109

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

Lecture 6 Chromosomal Abnormalities #12;Chromosomal abnormalities Numeric Polyploidy- abnormal # of chromosome sets Aneuploidy- abnormal chromosome number Structural Deletion syndromes Duplications Ring chromosomes Centromeric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) Insertion Inversion Paracentric Pericentric

Dellaire, Graham

110

Abnormal Pre-Attentive Arousal in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Contributes to Their Atypical Auditory Behavior: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks (‘S1’ and ‘S2’) separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the ‘tangential’ P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the ‘radial’ N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD. PMID:23935931

Stroganova, Tatiana A.; Kozunov, Vladimir V.; Posikera, Irina N.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Gratchev, Vitaliy V.; Orekhova, Elena V.

2013-01-01

111

Rotifer neuropharmacology IV. Involvement of aminergic neurotransmitters in the abnormal sessile behavior of Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera, Aschelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Involvement of nine classical neurotransmitters in the abnormal sessile behavior of the rotiferBrachionus plicatilis was investigated. Only norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and octopamine (OA) induced sessility. NE and DA behaved as a full, OA as a partial agonist; NE was more potent than DA. Catecholamines may be involved as neurotransmitters in the pedal gland secretory mechanism.

Jalal Keshmirian; Thomas Nogrady

1989-01-01

112

Late Prenatal Immune Activation in Mice Leads to Behavioral and Neurochemical Abnormalities Relevant to the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the human epidemiological association between prenatal infection and higher risk of schizophrenia, a number of animal models have been established to explore the long-term brain and behavioral consequences of prenatal immune challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that the vulnerability to specific forms of schizophrenia-related abnormalities is critically influenced by the precise timing of the prenatal immunological insult. In the

Byron KY Bitanihirwe; Daria Peleg-Raibstein; Forouhar Mouttet; Joram Feldon; Urs Meyer

2010-01-01

113

Are Structural Brain Abnormalities Associated With Suicidal Behavior In Patients With Psychotic Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception. PMID:23866739

Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

2014-01-01

114

Behavioral and Neurotransmitter Abnormalities in Mice Deficient for Parkin, DJ-1 and Superoxide Dismutase  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of neurons in the substantia nigra that project to the striatum and release dopamine. The cause of PD remains uncertain, however, evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Although most cases of PD are sporadic, 5-10% of cases are caused by inherited mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 were the first to be linked to recessively inherited Parkinsonism. Surprisingly, mice bearing similar loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 do not show age-dependent loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons or depletion of dopamine in the striatum. Although the normal cellular functions of Parkin and DJ-1 are not fully understood, we hypothesized that loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 render cells more sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we crossed mice deficient for Parkin and DJ-1 with mice deficient for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) or the cytosolic antioxidant protein Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Aged Parkin-/-DJ-1-/- and Mn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have enhanced performance on the rotorod behavior test. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have elevated levels of dopamine in the striatum in the absence of nigral cell loss. Our studies demonstrate that on a Parkin/DJ-1 null background, mice that are also deficient for major antioxidant proteins do not have progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons but have behavioral and striatal dopamine abnormalities. PMID:24386432

Hennis, Meghan R.; Seamans, Katherine W.; Marvin, Marian A.; Casey, Bradford H.; Goldberg, Matthew S.

2013-01-01

115

Are structural brain abnormalities associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders?  

PubMed

Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception. PMID:23866739

Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

2013-10-01

116

Pyrene induces a reduction in midbrain size and abnormal swimming behavior in early-hatched pufferfish larvae.  

PubMed

Spills of heavy oil (HO) have an adverse effect on marine life. We have demonstrated previously that exposure to HO by fertilized eggs of the pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) induces neural disruption and behavioral abnormality in early-hatched larvae. Here, two kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrene and phenanthrene, were selected to examine their toxic effects on larval behavior of another pufferfish species (T. niphobles). Larvae exposed to pyrene or phenanthrene exhibited no abnormalities in morphology. However, those exposed to pyrene but not phenanthrene swam in an uncoordinated manner, although their swimming distance and speed were normal. The optic tectum, a part of the midbrain, of pyrene-exposed larvae did not grow to full size. Thus, these findings are indicated that pyrene might be a contributor to the behavioral and neuro-developmental toxicity, although there is no indication that it is the only compound participating in the toxicity of the heavy oil mixture. PMID:24793779

Sugahara, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Itoyama, Tatsuya; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Tosa, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

2014-08-30

117

Familial Associations of Intense Preoccupations, an Empirical Factor of the Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors and Interests Domain of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Clinical heterogeneity of autism likely hinders efforts to find genes associated with this complex psychiatric disorder. Some studies have produced promising results by restricting the sample according to the expression of specific familial factors or components of autism. Previous factor analyses of the restricted, repetitive

Smith, Christopher J.; Lang, Colleen M.; Kryzak, Lauren; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hollander, Eric; Silverman, Jeremy M.

2009-01-01

118

Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

2012-01-01

119

Ts1Cje, a Partial Trisomy 16 Mouse Model for down Syndrome, Exhibits Learning and Behavioral Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called ``Down syndrome region'' of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of learning in the Morris water maze and

Haruhiko Sago; Elaine J. Carlson; Desmond J. Smith; Joshua Kilbridge; Edward M. Rubin; William C. Mobley; Charles J. Epstein; Ting-Ting Huang

1998-01-01

120

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

121

Neonatal Disruption of Serine Racemase Causes Schizophrenia-Like Behavioral Abnormalities in Adulthood: Clinical Rescue by D-Serine  

PubMed Central

Background D-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR). Given the role of D-serine in both neurodevelopment and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal disruption of D-serine synthesis by SRR inhibition could induce behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, in later life. Methodology/Principal Findings Neonatal mice (7–9 days) were injected with vehicle or phenazine methosulfate (Met-Phen: 3 mg/kg/day), an SRR inhibitor. Behavioral evaluations, such as spontaneous locomotion, novel object recognition test (NORT), and prepulse inhibition (PPI) were performed at juvenile (5–6 weeks old) and adult (10–12 weeks old) stages. In addition, we tested the effects of D-serine on PPI deficits in adult mice after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. Finally, we assessed whether D-serine could prevent the onset of schizophrenia-like behavior in these mice. Neonatal Met-Phen treatment reduced D-serine levels in the brain, 24 hours after the final dose. Additionally, this treatment caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms in juveniles and to schizophrenia in adults. A single dose of D-serine improved PPI deficits in adult mice. Interestingly, chronic administration of D-serine (900 mg/kg/day from P35 to P70) significantly prevented the onset of PPI deficits after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that disruption of D-serine synthesis during developmental stages leads to behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms and schizophrenia, in later life. Furthermore, early pharmacological intervention with D-serine may prevent the onset of psychosis in adult. PMID:23630632

Hagiwara, Hiroko; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

2013-01-01

122

Abnormal Behavior in a Chromosome- Engineered Mouse Model for Human 15q11-13 Duplication Seen in Autism  

PubMed Central

Summary Substantial evidence suggests that chromosomal abnormalities contribute to the risk of autism. The duplication of human chromosome 15q11-13 is known to be the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality in autism. We have modeled this genetic change in mice by using chromosome engineering to generate a 6.3 Mb duplication of the conserved linkage group on mouse chromosome 7. Mice with a paternal duplication display poor social interaction, behavioral inflexibility, abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations, and correlates of anxiety. An increased MBII52 snoRNA within the duplicated region, affecting the serotonin 2c receptor (5-HT2cR), correlates with altered intracellular Ca2+ responses elicited by a 5-HT2cR agonist in neurons of mice with a paternal duplication. This chromosome-engineered mouse model for autism seems to replicate various aspects of human autistic phenotypes and validates the relevance of the human chromosome abnormality. This model will facilitate forward genetics of developmental brain disorders and serve as an invaluable tool for therapeutic development. PMID:19563756

Nakatani, Jin; Tamada, Kota; Hatanaka, Fumiyuki; Ise, Satoko; Ohta, Hisashi; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Watanabe, Yasuhito; Chung, Yeun Jun; Banerjee, Ruby; Iwamoto, Kazuya; Kato, Tadafumi; Okazawa, Makoto; Yamauchi, Kenta; Tanda, Koichi; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Bradley, Allan; Takumi, Toru

2009-01-01

123

Plastic and behavioral abnormalities in experimental Huntington's disease: A crucial role for cholinergic interneurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal hereditary neurodegenerative disease causing degeneration of striatal spiny neurons, whereas cholinergic interneurons are spared. This cell-type specific pathology produces an array of abnormalities including involuntary movements, cognitive impairments, and psychiatric disorders. Although the genetic mutation responsible for HD has been identified, little is known about the early synaptic changes occurring within the striatal circuitry

Barbara Picconi; Enrica Passino; Carmelo Sgobio; Paola Bonsi; Ilaria Barone; Veronica Ghiglieri; Antonio Pisani; Giorgio Bernardi; Martine Ammassari-Teule; Paolo Calabresi

2006-01-01

124

Acute administration of fluoxetine normalizes rapid eye movement sleep abnormality, but not depressive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized rats.  

PubMed

In humans, depression is associated with altered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the exact nature of the relationship between depressive behaviors and sleep abnormalities is debated. In this study, bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was carried out to create a model of depression in rats. The sleep-wake profiles were assayed using a cutting-edge sleep bioassay system, and depressive behaviors were evaluated by open field and forced swimming tests. The monoamine content and monoamine metabolite levels in the brain were determined by a HPLC-electrochemical detection system. OBX rats exhibited a significant increase in REM sleep, especially between 15:00 and 18:00 hours during the light period. Acute treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately abolished the OBX-induced increase in REM sleep, but hyperactivity in the open field test and the time spent immobile in the forced swimming test remained unchanged. Neurochemistry studies revealed that acute administration of fluoxetine increased serotonin (5-HT) levels in the hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain and decreased levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT decreased in almost all regions of the brain. These results indicate that acute administration of fluoxetine can reduce the increase in REM sleep but does not change the depressive behaviors in OBX rats, suggesting that there was no causality between REM sleep abnormalities and depressive behaviors in OBX rats. PMID:22035172

Wang, Yi-Qun; Tu, Zhi-Cai; Xu, Xing-Yuan; Li, Rui; Qu, Wei-Min; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

2012-01-01

125

Autism Spectrum Disorder as Early Neurodevelopmental Disorder: Evidence from the Brain Imaging Abnormalities in 2-3 Years Old Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships…

Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

2014-01-01

126

Negative allosteric modulation of the mGluR5 receptor reduces repetitive behaviors and rescues social deficits in mouse models of autism.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and fragile X syndrome were long thought to be medically untreatable, on the assumption that brain dysfunctions were immutably hardwired before diagnosis. Recent revelations that many cases of autism are caused by mutations in genes that control the ongoing formation and maturation of synapses have challenged this dogma. Antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5), which modulate excitatory neurotransmission, are in clinical trials for fragile X syndrome, a major genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. About 30% of patients with fragile X syndrome meet the diagnostic criteria for autism. Reasoning by analogy, we considered the mGluR5 receptor as a potential target for intervention in autism. We used BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice, an established model with robust behavioral phenotypes relevant to the three diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism--unusual social interactions, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors--to probe the efficacy of a selective negative allosteric modulator of the mGluR5 receptor, GRN-529. GRN-529 reduced repetitive behaviors in three cohorts of BTBR mice at doses that did not induce sedation in control assays of open field locomotion. In addition, the same nonsedating doses reduced the spontaneous stereotyped jumping that characterizes a second inbred strain of mice, C58/J. Further, GRN-529 partially reversed the striking lack of sociability in BTBR mice on some parameters of social approach and reciprocal social interactions. These findings raise the possibility that a single targeted pharmacological intervention may alleviate multiple diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:22539775

Silverman, Jill L; Smith, Daniel G; Rizzo, Stacey J Sukoff; Karras, Michael N; Turner, Sarah M; Tolu, Seda S; Bryce, Dianne K; Smith, Deborah L; Fonseca, Kari; Ring, Robert H; Crawley, Jacqueline N

2012-04-25

127

Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance  

PubMed Central

Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence of concomitant language deficits compared to several other studies; (c) describe how performance differed on a nonword repetition test between children who stutter who do and do not have concomitant speech or language deficits; (d) make a general statement about speech motor control for nonword production in children who stutter compared to controls. PMID:23218217

Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

2012-01-01

128

Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry  

PubMed Central

Background Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT) modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24) and nonresponders (n=15) to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion These results suggest that the brain structures in several areas, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cingulate bundles, are related to the lack of a response to BT in patients with OCD. The use of a voxel-based morphometry approach may be advantageous to understanding differences in brain abnormalities between responders and nonresponders to BT. PMID:25349476

Hashimoto, Nobuhiko; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Kawaguchi, Akiko; Sato, Junko; Kasai, Harumasa; Nakamae, Takashi; Narumoto, Jin; Miyata, Jun; Furukawa, Toshi A; Mimura, Masaru

2014-01-01

129

Repetitive Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury Interacts with Post-Injury Foot Shock Stress to Worsen Social and Depression-Like Behavior in Mice  

PubMed Central

The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning) following brain injury (rcTBI). rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury. PMID:24058581

Klemenhagen, Kristen C.; O'Brien, Scott P.; Brody, David L.

2013-01-01

130

Studies of abnormal behavior in the rat. IV. Abortive behavior and its relation to the neurotic attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the animal's response tendencies were manipulated by modifying the jumping apparatus so that the same problem could be given under conditions which differed in the degree to which abortive behavior was possible. A close relationship was found between the appearance of abortive behavior and the disappearance of the neurotic pattern. In 2 cases the experiment was carried

N. R. F. Maier

1940-01-01

131

Prenatal and early-life exposure to high-level diesel exhaust particles leads to increased locomotor activity and repetitive behaviors in mice.  

PubMed

Abundant evidence indicates that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, limited knowledge is available concerning these contributing factors. An epidemiology study reported a link between increased incidence of autism and living closely to major highways, suggesting a possible role for pollutants from highway traffic. We investigated whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) negatively affects fetal development leading to autism-like phenotype in mice. Female mice and their offspring were exposed to DEP during pregnancy and nursing. Adult male offspring were then tested for behaviors reflecting the typical symptoms of ASD patients. Compared to control mice, DEP-exposed offspring exhibited higher locomotor activity, elevated levels of self-grooming in the presence of an unfamiliar mouse, and increased rearing behaviors, which may be relevant to the restricted and repetitive behaviors seen in ASD patients. However, the DEP-exposed mice did not exhibit deficits in social interactions or social communication which are the key features of ASD. These results suggest that early life exposure to DEP could have an impact on mouse development leading to observable changes in animal behaviors. Further studies are needed to reveal other environmental insults and genetic factors that would lead to animal models expressing key phenotypes of the autism spectrum disorders. PMID:23495194

Thirtamara Rajamani, Keerthi; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Bolden, Crystal; Willis, Daniel; Hoffman, Carol; Zelikoff, Judith; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gu, Howard

2013-08-01

132

Loss of prion protein leads to age-dependent behavioral abnormalities and changes in cytoskeletal protein expression.  

PubMed

The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a highly conserved protein whose exact physiological role remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated age-dependent behavioral abnormalities in PrPC-knockout (Prnp0/0) mice and wild-type (WT) controls. Prnp0/0 mice showed age-dependent behavioral deficits in memory performance, associative learning, basal anxiety, and nest building behavior. Using a hypothesis-free quantitative proteomic investigation, we found that loss of PrPC affected the levels of neurofilament proteins in an age-dependent manner. In order to understand the biochemical basis of these observations, we analyzed the phosphorylation status of neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H). We found a reduction in NF-H phosphorylation in both Prnp0/0 mice and in PrPC-deficient cells. The expression of Fyn and phospho-Fyn, a potential regulator for NF phosphorylation, was associated with PrPC ablation. The number of ?-tubulin III-positive neurons in the hippocampus was diminished in Prnp0/0 mice relative to WT mice. These data indicate that PrPC plays an important role in cytoskeletal organization, brain function, and age-related neuroprotection. Our work represents the first direct biochemical link between these proteins and the observed behavioral phenotypes. PMID:24604355

Schmitz, Matthias; Greis, Catharina; Ottis, Philipp; Silva, Christopher J; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Wrede, Arne; Koppe, Katharina; Onisko, Bruce; Requena, Jesús R; Govindarajan, Nambirajan; Korth, Carsten; Fischer, Andre; Zerr, Inga

2014-12-01

133

Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

Hunt, W.A.; Joseph, J.A.; Rabin, B.M.

1989-01-01

134

Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

135

Sexuality in the nursing home, part 2: managing abnormal behavior--legal and ethical issues.  

PubMed

Everyone, regardless of age, needs love, touch, companionship, and intimacy. The 1.6 million elderly in the 20,000 U.S. nursing homes are not an exception. The literature indicates that nursing home residents continue to have an interest in sexual activity regardless of age. Sexuality, however, is frequently overlooked by physicians and staff working with nursing home residents. Many staff members have only a vague understanding of the sexual needs of the elderly. This results in a perception of residents' sexual interests as behavioral problems rather than expressions of need for love and intimacy. Inappropriate sexual behaviors in the nursing home can create an intense burden for nursing home staff. This article discusses ways to dealing with inappropriate sexual behaviors in long-term care settings and the ethical issues involved. PMID:14984611

Kamel, Hosam K; Hajjar, Ramzi R

2004-01-01

136

Sexuality in the nursing home, part 2: Managing abnormal behavior-legal and ethical issues.  

PubMed

Everyone, regardless of age, needs love, touch, companionship, and intimacy. The 1.6 million elderly in the 20,000 U.S. nursing homes are not an exception. The literature indicates that nursing home residents continue to have an interest in sexual activity regardless of age. Sexuality, however, is frequently overlooked by physicians and staff working with nursing home residents. Many staff members have only a vague understanding of the sexual needs of the elderly. This results in a perception of residents' sexual interests as behavioral problems rather than expressions of need for love and intimacy. Inappropriate sexual behaviors in the nursing home can create an intense burden for nursing home staff. This article discusses ways to dealing with inappropriate sexual behaviors in long-term care settings and the ethical issues involved. PMID:12837142

Kamel, Hosam K; Hajjar, Ramzi R

2003-01-01

137

Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Abnormal Turning Behavior in Drosophila Larvae: Identification  

E-print Network

: Identification and Molecular Analysis of scribbler (sbb) Ping Yang,*, Susan A. Shaver,*, Arthur J. Hilliker Accepted for publication March 20, 2000 ABSTRACT Our genetic dissection of behavior has isolated scribbler- source. Bacteria tumble while swimming (Amsler logues parallels that initially unraveled in flies (see

Sokolowski, Marla

138

Personality Theory, Abnormal Psychology, and Psychological MeasurementA Psychological Behaviorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements

Arthur W. Staats

1993-01-01

139

White matter abnormalities associated with disruptive behavior disorder in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are among the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders in children and adolescents. Some important characteristics of DBD vary based on the presence or absence of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may affect the understanding of and treatment decision-making related to the disorders. Thus, identifying neurobiological characteristics of DBD with comorbid ADHD (DBD+ADHD) can provide a basis to establish a better understanding of the condition. This study aimed to assess abnormal white matter microstructural alterations in DBD+ADHD as compared to DBD alone and healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Thirty-three DBD (19 with comorbid ADHD) and 46 age-matched healthy adolescents were studied using DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Significantly lower FA and higher MD, RD and AD in many white matter fibers were found in adolescents with DBD+ADHD compared to controls. Moreover, lower FA and higher RD were also found in the DBD+ADHD versus the DBD alone group. Alterations of white matter integrity found in DBD patients were primarily associated with ADHD, suggesting that ADHD comorbidity in DBD is reflected in greater abnormality of microstructural connections. PMID:22743120

Wang, Yang; Horst, Kelly K; Kronenberger, William G; Hummer, Tom A; Mosier, Kristine M; Kalnin, Andrew J; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

2012-06-30

140

Abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity, impaired remote spatial memory, and increased D1-mediated dopaminergic signaling in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in the regulation of a diverse population of intracellular messenger systems in the brain. In humans, abnormal NOS\\/nitric oxide metabolism is suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Mice with targeted disruption of the nNOS gene exhibit abnormal behaviors. Here, we

Koichi Tanda; Akinori Nishi; Naoki Matsuo; Kazuo Nakanishi; Nobuyuki Yamasaki; Tohru Sugimoto; Keiko Toyama; Keizo Takao; Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

2009-01-01

141

Delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure abnormalities in youth with a family history of alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high-risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH?). Methods Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH? = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH? youth. Results FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH? youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower reaction times on the delay discounting task. Conclusion Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing, and may act as an intrinsic risk-factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-risk youth. PMID:20586754

Herting, Megan M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2011-01-01

142

Paternal ethanol exposure and behavioral abnormities in offspring: associated alterations in imprinted gene methylation.  

PubMed

Research confirms that maternal ethanol (EtOH) exposure can induce physical and mental disorders in offspring, yet the effect of paternal ethanol exposure on offspring is unclear. Methylation alterations in imprinted genes may be related to the well-documented teratogenic effects of ethanol. Here, we report that ethanol (0, 1.1, 3.3 g/kg) was administered intragastrically to male mice and a behavioral study was performed on their F1 generation. Data show that F1 mice with fathers exposed to the highest dose of ethanol had delayed cognitive performance and increased anxiety and depression. A specific circling behavior was observed in the offspring of the paternally ethanol-exposed group. The degree of methylation and mRNA expression of H19, Peg3, Ndn and Snrpn were assessed in paternal sperm and in the cerebral cortices of each offspring. It did affect methylation in paternal sperm (H19 and Peg3) and in the offspring's cerebral cortices (CpG7 and CpG11 in Peg3 and Snrpn), but the level of mRNA expression has not changed. In the circling mice, the highest ethanol exposure increase in methylation (CpG 1, 2, 7 and 11) and decreases in mRNA of Peg3.Thus, chronic paternal ethanol exposure can affect the methylation of imprinted genes in sire sperm that may be passed on to offspring, giving rise to mental deficits. PMID:24486713

Liang, Fei; Diao, Lei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Huijun; Zhou, Wenhao; Huang, Guoying; Ma, Duan

2014-06-01

143

Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3? and GSK-3?. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3? gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3? KO mice by using a well-established battery of behavioral tests together with neurochemical and neuroanatomical analysis. Results Similar to the previously described behaviours of GSK-3?+/-mice, GSK-3? mutants display decreased exploratory activity, decreased immobility time and reduced aggressive behavior. However, genetic inactivation of the GSK-3? gene was associated with: decreased locomotion and impaired motor coordination, increased grooming activity, loss of social motivation and novelty; enhanced sensorimotor gating and impaired associated memory and coordination. GSK-3? KO mice exhibited a deficit in fear conditioning, however memory formation as assessed by a passive avoidance test was normal, suggesting that the animals are sensitized for active avoidance of a highly aversive stimulus in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Changes in cerebellar structure and function were observed in mutant mice along with a significant decrease of the number and size of Purkinje cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data support a role for the GSK-3? gene in CNS functioning and possible involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19925672

2009-01-01

144

Strain background influences neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities in mice expressing the tetracycline transactivator  

PubMed Central

The tet-off system has been widely used to create transgenic models of neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and prion disease. The utility of this system lies in the assumption that the tetracycline transactivator (TTA) acts as an inert control element and does not contribute to phenotypes under study. Here we report that neuronal expression of TTA can affect hippocampal cytoarchitecture and behavior in a strain-dependent manner. While studying neurodegeneration in two tet-off Alzheimer’s disease models, we unexpectedly discovered neuronal loss within the dentate gyrus of single transgenic TTA controls. Granule neurons appeared most sensitive to TTA exposure during postnatal development, and doxycycline treatment during this period was neuroprotective. TTA-induced degeneration could be rescued by moving the transgene onto a congenic C57BL/6J background, and recurred on re-introduction of either CBA or C3H/He backgrounds. Quantitative trait analysis of B6C3 F2 TTA mice identified a region on Chromosome 14 that contains a major modifier of the neurodegenerative phenotype. Although B6 mice were resistant to degeneration, they were not ideal for cognitive testing. F1 offspring of TTA C57BL/6J and 129X1/SvJ, FVB/NJ, or DBA/1J showed improved spatial learning, but TTA expression caused subtle differences in contextual fear conditioning on two of these backgrounds indicating that strain and genotype can interact independently under different behavioral settings. All model systems have limitations that should be recognized and mitigated where possible; our findings stress the importance of mapping the effects caused by TTA alone when working with tet-off models. PMID:22855807

Han, Harry J.; Allen, Carolyn C.; Buchovecky, Christie M.; Yetman, Michael J.; Born, Heather A.; Marin, Miguel A.; Rodgers, Shaefali P.; Song, Bryan J.; Lu, Hui-Chen; Justice, Monica J.; Probst, Frank J.; Jankowsky, Joanna L.

2012-01-01

145

The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

2012-01-01

146

Behavioral, Pharmacological, and Immunological Abnormalities after Streptococcal Exposure: A Novel Rat Model of Sydenham Chorea and Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and autoimmunity are associated with the onset of a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders in children, with the prototypical disorder being Sydenham chorea (SC). Our aim was to develop an animal model that resembled the behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities of SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Male Lewis rats exposed to GAS antigen exhibited motor symptoms (impaired food manipulation and beam walking) and compulsive behavior (increased induced-grooming). These symptoms were alleviated by the D2 blocker haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, respectively, drugs that are used to treat motor symptoms and compulsions in streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Streptococcal exposure resulted in antibody deposition in the striatum, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and concomitant alterations in dopamine and glutamate levels in cortex and basal ganglia, consistent with the known pathophysiology of SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Autoantibodies (IgG) of GAS rats reacted with tubulin and caused elevated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling in SK-N-SH neuronal cells, as previously found with sera from SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Our new animal model translates directly to human disease and led us to discover autoantibodies targeted against dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat model as well as in SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22534626

Brimberg, Lior; Benhar, Itai; Mascaro-Blanco, Adita; Alvarez, Kathy; Lotan, Dafna; Winter, Christine; Klein, Julia; Moses, Allon E; Somnier, Finn E; Leckman, James F; Swedo, Susan E; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Joel, Daphna

2012-01-01

147

Assessment of Behavior Abnormalities of Corticosteroids in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The objective of this work was to define the frequency and severity of steroid related behavioral side effects in children with steroid sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) during Treatment for relapse. Methods. 30 pediatric patients with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome were studied; known as SSNS at complete remission or low dose of Prednisolone and have relapse on follow up. All children in this study were subjected to full history taking, thorough clinical examination, assessment socioeconomic standard, and assessment of pediatric quality of life, a battery of psychometric tests included pediatric anxiety, depression, and aggression scores. Results. Our results revealed that there are highly significant increase in the mean values of anxiety, depression and aggression among cases starts to appear on week one and extends to three, five and seven weeks compared to baseline. In the seventh week of follow up cases show significant positive correlation between prednisone doses and mean values of anxiety and depression scores and aggression. Conclusion. we concluded that all studied children with SSNS often experience significant problems with anxiety, depression, and increased aggression during high dose steroid therapy. PMID:23738225

Youssef, Doaa Mohammed; Abdelsalam, Mohamed Mohamed; Abozeid, Ali Mohamed; Youssef, Usama Mahmoud

2013-01-01

148

Altered synaptic plasticity and behavioral abnormalities in CNGA3-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The role of the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel CNGA3 is well established in cone photoreceptors and guanylyl cyclase-D-expressing olfactory neurons. To assess a potential function of CNGA3 in the mouse amygdala and hippocampus, we examined synaptic plasticity and performed a comparative analysis of spatial learning, fear conditioning and step-down avoidance in wild-type mice and CNGA3 null mutants (CNGA3(-/-) ). CNGA3(-/-) mice showed normal basal synaptic transmission in the amygdala and the hippocampus. However, cornu Ammonis (CA1) hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by a strong tetanus was significantly enhanced in CNGA3(-/-) mice as compared with their wild-type littermates. Unlike in the hippocampus, LTP was not significantly altered in the amygdala of CNGA3(-/-) mice. Enhanced hippocampal LTP did not coincide with changes in hippocampus-dependent learning, as both wild-type and mutant mice showed a similar performance in water maze tasks and contextual fear conditioning, except for a trend toward higher step-down latencies in a passive avoidance task. In contrast, CNGA3(-/-) mice showed markedly reduced freezing to the conditioned tone in the amygdala-dependent cued fear conditioning task. In conclusion, our study adds a new entry on the list of physiological functions of the CNGA3 channel. Despite the dissociation between physiological and behavioral parameters, our data describe a so far unrecognized role of CNGA3 in modulation of hippocampal plasticity and amygdala-dependent fear memory. PMID:20846178

Michalakis, S; Kleppisch, T; Polta, S A; Wotjak, C T; Koch, S; Rammes, G; Matt, L; Becirovic, E; Biel, M

2011-03-01

149

Abnormal Stomatal Behavior and Hormonal Imbalance in flacca, a Wilty Mutant of Tomato  

PubMed Central

The wilty tomato mutant, flacca, and the normal variety, Rheinlands Ruhm, were compared for kinetin-like activity in ontogeny. The mutant wilts easily because its stomata resist closure. This stomatal resistance decreases with age. The occurrence of a root factor which induces stomatal opening was inferred from grafting experiments. It was hypothesized that the excessive stomatal openings in the mutant may result from excess of kinetin-like activity in the leaf of that plant. In addition, it was suggested that the closure of stomata in the aging mutant is due to a decrease of kinetin-like activity with age. Kinetin-like activity in the leaf was determined by incorporation of labeled leucine. The concentration of cytokinins in root exudate and leaf extract was determined by the soybean callus assay. Evidence was presented of higher kinetin-like activity in the leaves of the mutant and higher cytokinin concentration in its root exudate. Cytokinin concentration in the shoot was found to be only slightly higher in the mutant than in the normal plants. Kinetin-like activity in the leaf and cytokinin concentration of root exudate decreased with age in both mutant and normal plants. Kinetin-like activity in the leaves of mutant plants, which phenocopy the normal variety as a result of continuous application of abscisic acid, was lower than in control mutant plants. The significance of these findings per se and in connection with stomatal behavior is discussed. PMID:16657469

Tal, M.; Imber, D.; Itai, C.

1970-01-01

150

Phase Transition Behavior and Abnormal Spall in FeMnNi alloy with Low ?-? Transition Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase transition behavior of a FeMnNi alloy with low ?-? phase transition stress in range of 6˜7GPa and corresponding spall phenomena are studied. Two experiment set up of symmetric impact design with flyer and target of same thickness and reverse impact technique of metal flyer on sapphire window are used. Loading and release wave profile are recorded with help of VISAR with two constants of strip numbers. Experiments are conducted on 100-mm-diameter and two stage light gas gun in velocity range from 300m/s up to 2000m/s. Discussion is focused on the formation of rarefaction shock wave and role of RSW in spallation. It is shown that spallation may happen in symmetric impacts when stress is higher than phase transition point. In velocity range up to 2000m/s, when impacting stress is more than 40GPa and shock front is overdriven, a spallation like oscillation profile is noticed in domain of first plateau in velocity curve. As release wave from impact side should come some time later, it may be raised by reflection of release wave from free surface with reverse phase transition. Specimen is thoroughly broken, although pulse X-ray records at the moment of 14 ?s after impact show no sign of multi-spallation. Further experiments are planned using VISAR with two constants of strip numbers to verify this phenomenon and parameters such as spall strength, spall thickness.

Hu, Haibo; Chen, Yongtao; Li, Qingzhong

2007-06-01

151

Behavior of the TTF2 RF Gun with long pulses and high repetition rates J. Baehr1, I. Bohnet1, J.-P. Carneiro2, K. Floettmann2, J. H. Han1, M. v. Hartrott3,  

E-print Network

Behavior of the TTF2 RF Gun with long pulses and high repetition rates J. Baehr1, I. Bohnet1, J the behavior of the TTF2 RF gun with long RF pulses (up to 900 µs), high peak power (up to 3 MW) and high Zeuthen from January to March 2003, where the RF gun has been tested prior to its installation at DESY

152

Parent-Child DRD4 Genotype as a Potential Biomarker for Oppositional, Anxiety, and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of the present study was to examine whether a combination of parent-child DRD4 genotypes results in more informative prognostic biomarkers of oppositional, separation anxiety, and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on prior research indicating the 7-repeat allele as a potential risk variant, participants were sorted into one of four combinations of parent-child genotypes. Owing to the possibility of parent-of-origin effects, analyses were conducted separately for mother-child (MC) and father-child (FC) dyads. Mothers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. Partial eta-squared (?p2) was used to determine the magnitude of group differences: 0.01–0.06=small, 0.06–0.14=moderate, and >0.14=large. Analyses indicated that children in MC dyads with matched genotypes had the least (7?/7?) and most (7+/7+) severe mother-rated oppositional-defiant (?p2=0.11) and separation anxiety (?p2=0.19) symptoms. Conversely, youths in FC dyads with matched genotypes had the least (7?/7?) and most (7+/7+) severe obsessive-compulsive behaviors (?p2=0.19) and tics (?p2=0.18). Youths whose parents were both noncarriers had less severe tics than peers with at least one parental carrier, and the effect size was large (?p2=0.16). There was little evidence that noncarrier children were rated more severely by mothers who were carriers versus noncarriers. Transmission Disequilibrium Test analyses provided preliminary evidence for undertransmission of the 2-repeat allele in youths with more severe tics (p=0.02). Parent genotype may be helpful in constructing prognostic biomarkers for behavioral disturbances in ASD; however, findings are tentative pending replication with larger, independent samples. PMID:20600463

Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Pisarevskaya, Victoria; Olvet, Doreen M.; Xu, Wenjie; Mendell, Nancy; Finch, Stephen J.; Hatchwell, Eli

2010-01-01

153

Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

2007-01-01

154

Psychology is the study of human and animal behavior (normal and abnormal) and the psychological, social, and biological processes related to behavior. The undergraduate program in psychology at UNL  

E-print Network

Psychology is the study of human and animal behavior (normal and abnormal) and the psychological, social, and biological processes related to behavior. The undergraduate program in psychology at UNL is designed to provide you with exposure to many core areas of psychology. You also have the oppor- tunity

Logan, David

155

Repetitive strain injury.  

PubMed

Pain in the forearm is relatively common in the community. In the workplace forearm pain is associated with work involving frequent repetition, high forces, and prolonged abnormal postures. Nevertheless, other factors are involved in the presentation and the continuation of the pain. Notable among these factors are psychosocial issues and the workplace environment-the attitude to workers and their welfare, the physical conditions, and design of the job. Primary prevention may be effective but active surveillance is important with early intervention and an active management approach. Physical treatments have not been extensively evaluated. In the established case, management should be multidisciplinary, addressing physical aspects of the job but also addressing the "yellow, blue, and black flags" which should be viewed as obstacles to recovery. For the worker "on sick" a dialogue should be established between the worker, the primary care physician, and the workplace. Return to work should be encouraged and facilitated by medical interventions and light duty options. Rehabilitation programmes may be of use in chronic cases. PMID:15299151

Helliwell, P S; Taylor, W J

2004-08-01

156

Repetitive strain injury  

PubMed Central

Pain in the forearm is relatively common in the community. In the workplace forearm pain is associated with work involving frequent repetition, high forces, and prolonged abnormal postures. Nevertheless, other factors are involved in the presentation and the continuation of the pain. Notable among these factors are psychosocial issues and the workplace environment—the attitude to workers and their welfare, the physical conditions, and design of the job. Primary prevention may be effective but active surveillance is important with early intervention and an active management approach. Physical treatments have not been extensively evaluated. In the established case, management should be multidisciplinary, addressing physical aspects of the job but also addressing the "yellow, blue, and black flags" which should be viewed as obstacles to recovery. For the worker "on sick" a dialogue should be established between the worker, the primary care physician, and the workplace. Return to work should be encouraged and facilitated by medical interventions and light duty options. Rehabilitation programmes may be of use in chronic cases. PMID:15299151

Helliwell, P; Taylor, W

2004-01-01

157

The interaction of force and repetition on musculoskeletal and neural tissue responses and sensorimotor behavior in a rat model of work-related musculoskeletal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the relationship of musculoskeletal risk factors underlying force and repetition on tissue responses in an operant rat model of repetitive reaching and pulling, and if force x repetition interactions were present, indicative of a fatigue failure process. We examined exposure-dependent changes in biochemical, morphological and sensorimotor responses occurring with repeated performance of a handle-pulling task for 12 weeks at one of four repetition and force levels: 1) low repetition with low force, 2) high repetition with low force, 3) low repetition with high force, and 4) high repetition with high force (HRHF). Methods Rats underwent initial training for 4–6 weeks, and then performed one of the tasks for 12 weeks, 2 hours/day, 3 days/week. Reflexive grip strength and sensitivity to touch were assayed as functional outcomes. Flexor digitorum muscles and tendons, forelimb bones, and serum were assayed using ELISA for indicators of inflammation, tissue stress and repair, and bone turnover. Histomorphometry was used to assay macrophage infiltration of tissues, spinal cord substance P changes, and tissue adaptative or degradative changes. MicroCT was used to assay bones for changes in bone quality. Results Several force x repetition interactions were observed for: muscle IL-1alpha and bone IL-1beta; serum TNFalpha, IL-1alpha, and IL-1beta; muscle HSP72, a tissue stress and repair protein; histomorphological evidence of tendon and cartilage degradation; serum biomarkers of bone degradation (CTXI) and bone formation (osteocalcin); and morphological evidence of bone adaptation versus resorption. In most cases, performance of the HRHF task induced the greatest tissue degenerative changes, while performance of moderate level tasks induced bone adaptation and a suggestion of muscle adaptation. Both high force tasks induced median nerve macrophage infiltration, spinal cord sensitization (increased substance P), grip strength declines and forepaw mechanical allodynia by task week 12. Conclusions Although not consistent in all tissues, we found several significant interactions between the critical musculoskeletal risk factors of force and repetition, consistent with a fatigue failure process in musculoskeletal tissues. Prolonged performance of HRHF tasks exhibited significantly increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders, while performance of moderate level tasks exhibited adaptation to task demands. PMID:24156755

2013-01-01

158

Abnormal Eu behavior at formation of H2O- and Cl-bearing fluids during degassing of granite magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important features of REE behavior in the process of decompression degassing of granite melts is the presence of europium anomalies in REE spectrum of forming fluid phase. Negative Eu anomaly in REE spectrum of fluids enriched by chlorine that were formed under high pressures at early stages of degassing relative to REE spectrum of granite melts may take place. Negative Eu anomaly in fluid is replaced by positive one with pressure decrease and decline of Cl concentration in fluid [1, 2]. Observable unique features of europium redistribution between fluid and melt find an explanation in such a fact that Eu in contrast to the other REE under oxidation-reduction conditions, being typical for magmatic process, is present in acidic silica-alumina melts in two valency forms Eu3+ and Eu2+ whereas the dominant form for the other REE in such a melts is (REE)3+ [3, 4]. From the analysis of melt-fluid exchange reactions with participation of two valency forms of europium Eu3+ and Eu2+ follows that the total distribution coefficient of Eu between fluid and melt D(Eu)f-m is equal as a first approximation to [5, 6]: D(Eu)f-m = a1? [C(Cl)f]3 + a2 (1 - ?)[C(Cl)f]2, where C(Cl)f - the concentration of Cl in fluid, ? = Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+), i.e. fraction of Eu3+ from the general amount of europium in the melt, and, a1anda2- constants that can be approximately estimated from empirical data upon Eu fluid/melt distribution. The equation given allows to estimate the influence of oxidizing condition of europium on sign and size of Eu anomaly, which is expressed by Eu/Eu# ratio, where Eu is real concentration of europium in fluid being in equilibrium with melt with constant Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+) ratio, and Eu# is possible "virtual" concentration of europium that could be in the same fluid provided that all europium as other REE as well were exclusively present in trivalent form. The sign and size of Eu anomaly in fluid depends upon Cl concentration in fluid and Eu3+/Eu2+ ratio in melt. The abnormal behavior of Eu shows itself the stronger, the lower fO2and, accordingly, the more fraction of Eu2+is present in melt. The work is supported of the Geosciences Department of the Russian Academy of Science (the program 2- 2010) and RFBR (grant 08-05-00022). References [1] Reed M.J., Candela Ph.A., Piccoli Ph.M. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 2000. V. 140. P. 251-262. [2] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Vestnik Otd. Nauk Zemle RAN, No 1(25)'2007 URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2007/informbul-1_2007/term-30e.pdf [3] Drake M.J. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 1975. V. 39. P. 55-64. [4] Wilke M. Behrens H. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 1999. V. 137. P. 102-114. [5] Lukanin O.A. Vestnik Otd. Nauk o Zemle RAN, No 1(26)'2008. URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2008/informbul-1_2008/magm-20e.pdf [6] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Geochemistry International, 2010 (in press)

Lukanin, Oleg

2010-05-01

159

ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response  

PubMed Central

Background The Grin1 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA1) gene expresses a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is considered to play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. Grin1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In our previous study, we examined an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-generated mutant mouse strain (Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+) that has a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1. These mutant mice showed hyperactivity, increased novelty-seeking to objects, and abnormal social interactions. Therefore, Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice may serve as a potential animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, other behavioral characteristics related to these disorders, such as working memory function and sensorimotor gating, have not been fully explored in these mutant mice. In this study, to further investigate the behavioral phenotypes of Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice, we subjected them to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. Results There was no significant difference in nociception between Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ and wild-type mice. The mutants did not display any abnormalities in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. We confirmed the previous observations that the locomotor activity of these mutant mice increased in the open field and home cage activity tests. They displayed abnormal anxiety-like behaviors in the light/dark transition and the elevated plus maze tests. Both contextual and cued fear memory were severely deficient in the fear conditioning test. The mutant mice exhibited slightly impaired working memory in the eight-arm radial maze test. The startle amplitude was markedly decreased in Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice, whereas no significant differences between genotypes were detected in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. The mutant mice showed no obvious deficits in social behaviors in three different social interaction tests. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mutation causes abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, a deficiency in fear memory, and a decreased startle amplitude in mice. Although Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice only partially recapitulate symptoms of patients with ADHD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, they may serve as a unique animal model of a certain subpopulation of patients with these disorders. PMID:23688147

2013-01-01

160

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

161

Repetition avoidance in human language  

E-print Network

Repetition is avoided in countless human languages and at a variety of grammatical levels. In this dissertation I ask what it is that makes repetition so bad. I propose that at least three distinct biases against repetition ...

Walter, Mary Ann, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

162

Recurrent reciprocal 1q21.1 deletions and duplications associated with microcephaly or macrocephaly and developmental and behavioral abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Chromosome region 1q21.1 contains extensive and complex low-copy repeats, and copy number variants (CNVs) in this region have recently been reported in association with congenital heart defects1, developmental delay2,3, schizophrenia and related psychoses4,5. We describe 21 probands with the 1q21.1 microdeletion and 15 probands with the 1q21.1 microduplication. These CNVs were inherited in most of the cases in which parental studies were available. Consistent and statistically significant features of microcephaly and macrocephaly were found in individuals with micro-deletion and microduplication, respectively. Notably, a paralog of the HYDIN gene located on 16q22.2 and implicated in autosomal recessive hydrocephalus6 was inserted into the 1q21.1 region during the evolution of Homo sapiens7; we found this locus to be deleted or duplicated in the individuals we studied, making it a probable candidate for the head size abnormalities observed. We propose that recurrent reciprocal microdeletions and microduplications within 1q21.1 represent previously unknown genomic disorders characterized by abnormal head size along with a spectrum of developmental delay, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. These phenotypes are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. PMID:19029900

Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Berg, Jonathan S; Scaglia, Fernando; Belmont, John; Bacino, Carlos A; Sahoo, Trilochan; Lalani, Seema R; Graham, Brett; Lee, Brendan; Shinawi, Marwan; Shen, Joseph; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Pursley, Amber; Lotze, Timothy; Kennedy, Gail; Lansky-Shafer, Susan; Weaver, Christine; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Grebe, Theresa A; Arnold, Georgianne L; Hutchison, Terry; Reimschisel, Tyler; Amato, Stephen; Geragthy, Michael T; Innis, Jeffrey W; Obersztyn, Ewa; Nowakowska, Beata; Rosengren, Sally S; Bader, Patricia I; Grange, Dorothy K; Naqvi, Sayed; Garnica, Adolfo D; Bernes, Saunder M; Fong, Chin-To; Summers, Anne; Walters, W David; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita

2009-01-01

163

Characterizing temporal repetition  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the representation and reasoning about schedulable, repeated activities, specified using calendars. Examples of such activities include meeting every Tuesday and Thursday during a semester and attending a seminar every first day of a month. This research provides for a valuable framework for scheduling systems, financial systems and, in general, date-based systems. Very recently work has been done related to reasoning about repetition in the Artificial Intelligence community and others. A partial reference list is provided here. However, to our knowledge no extensive taxonomy of repetition has been proposed in the literature. We believe that reasoning about repeated activities calls for a study and precise definition of the topological characteristics in a repetitive series. In this abstract we summarize a proposal to classify types of repetition according to parameters. The combination of all possible values of these parameters provides a complete taxonomy of repetitive classes with respect to the proposed parameters. Several notions of repetition are considered, some are extremely general, some are very specific.

Cukierman, D.; Delgrande, J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

1996-12-31

164

Indirect decentralized repetitive control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect decentralized learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the indirect repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized indirect repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.

Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.

1993-01-01

165

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350  

E-print Network

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008 N-101 Tuesdays 4 psychology. By the end of the semester, students will be able to: · Discuss extant models of abnormal in Foundation II.B., Social and Behavioral Sciences required." #12;Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 2 Course

Gallo, Linda C.

166

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

167

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

psychopathology perspective to understand: 2.1. risk and protective factors influencing the etiology abnormal behavior in everyday life and we need to gain a better understanding of the etiology, social worker, therapist, etc.) directly rely on having extensive knowledge of psychopathology. #12

Liu, Taosheng

168

Abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT) system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR) mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25294992

Jia, Yun-Fang; Song, Ning-Ning; Mao, Rong-Rong; Li, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Han, Hui-Li; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin

2014-01-01

169

Gonadal and Adrenal Abnormalities in Drug Users: Cause or Consequence of Drug Use Behavior and Poor Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opiates and cocaine both have effects on adrenal and gonadal function. Opiates suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, whereas cocaine leads to HPA activation. Opiates also cause gonadal dysfunction in both men and women. During withdrawal from opiates and cocaine, the HPA axis is activated which may reinforce relapse behavior. This review describes these hormonal effects and explores the potential

Todd T. Brown; Amy B. Wisniewski; Adrian S. Dobs

2006-01-01

170

A pdf Neuropeptide Gene Mutation and Ablation of PDF Neurons Each Cause Severe Abnormalities of Behavioral Circadian Rhythms in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which circadian pacemaker systems transmit timing information to control behavior are largely unknown. Here, we define two critical features of that mechanism in Drosophila. We first describe animals mutant for the pdf neuropeptide gene, which is expressed by most of the candidate pacemakers (LNv neurons). Next, we describe animals in which pdf neurons were selectively ablated. Both

Susan C. P. Renn; Jae H. Park; Michael Rosbash; Jeffrey C. Hall; Paul H. Taghert

1999-01-01

171

The PhenoTyper automated home cage environment as a high throughput tool to detect behavioral abnormalities in mutant mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decades, the high throughput toolbox of neurobiologists to measure molecular changes in the brain has grown rapidly. The molecular effects of induced genetic mutations or pharmacological treatment relevant to psychiatric disorders can now be studied on a large scale. In contrast, to investigate the behavioral consequences of genetic mutations or pharmacological treatment, researchers rely on multiple stand-alone

M. Loos

2008-01-01

172

Repetition Priming in Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime–target distance (measured in events).

Sean Hutchins; Caroline Palmer

2008-01-01

173

Avoiding repetitions reduces ADHD children's management problems in the classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit non-compliance that presents a significant management problem for classroom teachers. Student behavior management training programs suggest that reducing repetitions of commands improves student compliance. To examine this claim, 86 teachers of ADHD students between the ages of 5 and 10 were randomized into treatment and control groups. Barkley's procedure for reducing repetitions

George M. Kapalka

2006-01-01

174

Effects of Mild Early Life Stress on Abnormal Emotion-related Behaviors in 5-HTT Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-expressing polymorphic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene has been associated with emotional disorders\\u000a in humans and non-human primates following exposure to early life trauma. 5-HTT gene knockout (KO) mice exhibit increased\\u000a anxiety- and depression-related behaviors, and provide a model to study interactions between 5-HTT gene variation and early\\u000a life stress. The present study assessed the effects of

Jenna C. Carroll; Janel M. Boyce-Rustay; Rachel Millstein; Rebecca Yang; Lisa M. Wiedholz; Dennis L. Murphy; Andrew Holmes

2007-01-01

175

Abnormal PMC microtubule distribution pattern and chromosome behavior resulted in low pollen fertility of an intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids have high heterosis in both vegetative and reproductive growth, but low seed\\u000a set hinders commercial utilization of autotetraploid rice. Autotetraploid rice hybrids with high and low pollen fertility\\u000a were used in the present study to compare microtubule distribution patterns and chromosome behavior during pollen mother cell\\u000a (PMC) meiosis, using indirect immunofluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy. Microtubule

Jin-Hua He; Muhammad Qasim Shahid; Zhi-Xiong Chen; Xing-An Chen; Xiang-Dong Liu; Yong-Gen Lu

2011-01-01

176

Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 Induces Hyper-?-Glutamyl Transpeptidasemia without Abnormal Head Development and Schizophrenia-Relevant Behaviors in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as “the Japan Mouse Clinic”. No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-?-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-?-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia. PMID:22242126

Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Ohba, Hisako; Sakaguchi, Toru; Honma, Yota; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Motoko; Watanabe, Kazutada; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yoshikawa, Takeo

2011-01-01

177

Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

2007-01-01

178

Deletion in the N-terminal half of olfactomedin 1 modifies its interaction with synaptic proteins and causes brain dystrophy and abnormal behavior in mice.  

PubMed

Olfactomedin 1 (Olfm1) is a secreted glycoprotein that is preferentially expressed in neuronal tissues. Here we show that deletion of exons 4 and 5 from the Olfm1 gene, which encodes a 52 amino acid long region in the N-terminal part of the protein, increased neonatal death and reduced body weight of surviving homozygous mice. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed reduced brain volume and attenuated size of white matter tracts such as the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and optic nerve. Adult Olfm1 mutant mice demonstrated abnormal behavior in several tests including reduced marble digging, elevated plus maze test, nesting activity and latency on balance beam tests as compared with their wild-type littermates. The olfactory system was both structurally and functionally disturbed by the mutation in the Olfm1 gene as shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis and a smell test. Deficiencies of the olfactory system may contribute to the neonatal death and loss of body weight of Olfm1 mutant. Shotgun proteomics revealed 59 candidate proteins that co-precipitated with wild-type or mutant Olfm1 proteins in postnatal day 1 brain. Olfm1-binding targets included GluR2, Cav2.1, teneurin-4 and Kidins220. Modified interaction of Olfm1 with binding targets led to an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and activation of ERK1/2, MEK1 and CaMKII in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of Olfm1 mutant mice compared with their wild-type littermates. Excessive activation of the CaMKII and Ras-ERK pathways in the Olfm1 mutant olfactory bulb and hippocampus by elevated intracellular calcium may contribute to the abnormal behavior and olfactory activity of Olfm1 mutant mice. PMID:24095980

Nakaya, Naoki; Sultana, Afia; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Cheng, Aiwu; Mattson, Mark P; Tomarev, Stanislav I

2013-12-01

179

Do GluA1 knockout mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities relevant to the negative or cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder?  

PubMed Central

The glutamate system has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic illnesses, including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We recently found that knockout (KO) mice lacking the AMPA GluA1 subunit displayed behavioral abnormalities relevant to some of the positive symptoms of these disorders. Here we phenotyped GluA1 KO mice for behavioral phenotypes pertinent to negative and cognitive/executive symptoms. GluA1 KO mice were tested for conspecific social interactions, the acquisition and extinction of an operant response for food-reward, operant-based pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning, and impulsive choice in a delay-based cost/benefit decision-making T-maze task. Results showed that GluA1 KO mice engaged in less social interaction than wildtype (WT) controls when tested in a non-habituated, novel environment, but, conversely, displayed more social interaction in a well habituated, familiar environment. GluA1 KO mice were faster to acquire an operant stimulus-response for food reward than WT and were subsequently slower to extinguish the response. Genotypes showed similar pairwise discrimination learning and reversal, although GluA1 KO mice made fewer errors during early reversal. GluA1 KO mice also displayed increased impulsive choice, being less inclined to choose a delayed, larger reward when given a choice between this and a smaller, immediate reward, compared to WT mice. Finally, sucrose preference did not differ between genotypes. Collectively, these data add to the growing evidence that GluA1 KO mice display at least some phenotypic abnormalities mimicking those found in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Although these mice, like any other single mutant line, are unlikely to model the entire disease, they may nevertheless provide a useful tool for studying the role of GluA1 in certain aspects of the pathophysiology of major psychotic illness. PMID:21693126

Barkus, Chris; Feyder, Michael; Graybeal, Carolyn; Wright, Tara; Wiedholz, Lisa; Izquierdo, Alicia; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Schmitt, Wolfram; Sanderson, David J.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Sprengel, Rolf; Bannerman, David; Holmes, Andrew

2011-01-01

180

Hierarchical representation and machine learning from faulty jet engine behavioral examples to detect real time abnormal conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical basis and operation of LEBEX, a machine-learning system for jet-engine performance monitoring, are described. The behavior of the engine is modeled in terms of four parameters (the rotational speeds of the high- and low-speed sections and the exhaust and combustion temperatures), and parameter variations indicating malfunction are transformed into structural representations involving instances and events. LEBEX extracts descriptors from a set of training data on normal and faulty engines, represents them hierarchically in a knowledge base, and uses them to diagnose and predict faults on a real-time basis. Diagrams of the system architecture and printouts of typical results are shown.

Gupta, U. K.; Ali, M.

1988-01-01

181

Brain Growth Rate Abnormalities Visualized in Adolescents with Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide-ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, ASD is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared to those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry (TBM), we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and 7 typically developing boys (mean age/inter-scan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole-brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (p = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (p = 0.008), temporal (p = 0.03) and occipital lobes (p =0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in some gray matter structures, such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. TBM revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093

Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M.; Leow, Alex D.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R.; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

2014-01-01

182

Brain growth rate abnormalities visualized in adolescents with autism.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093

Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G

2013-02-01

183

Long-term running alleviates some behavioral and molecular abnormalities in Down syndrome mouse model Ts65Dn.  

PubMed

Running may affect the mood, behavior and neurochemistry of running animals. In the present study, we investigated whether voluntary daily running, sustained over several months, might improve cognition and motor function and modify the brain levels of selected proteins (SOD1, DYRK1A, MAP2, APP and synaptophysin) in Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). Ts65Dn and age-matched wild-type mice, all females, had free access to a running wheel either from the time of weaning (post-weaning cohort) or from around 7 months of age (adult cohort). Sedentary female mice were housed in similar cages, without running wheels. Behavioral testing and evaluation of motor performance showed that running improved cognitive function and motor skills in Ts65Dn mice. However, while a dramatic improvement in the locomotor functions and learning of motor skills was observed in Ts65Dn mice from both post-weaning and adult cohorts, improved object memory was seen only in Ts65Dn mice that had free access to the wheel from weaning. The total levels of APP and MAP2ab were reduced and the levels of SOD1 were increased in the runners from the post-weaning cohort, while only the levels of MAP2ab and ?-cleaved C-terminal fragments of APP were reduced in the adult group in comparison with sedentary trisomic mice. Hence, our study demonstrates that Ts65Dn females benefit from sustained voluntary physical exercise, more prominently if running starts early in life, providing further support to the idea that a properly designed physical exercise program could be a valuable adjuvant to future pharmacotherapy for DS. PMID:23201095

Kida, Elizabeth; Rabe, Ausma; Walus, Marius; Albertini, Giorgio; Golabek, Adam A

2013-02-01

184

Neuroimaging, behavioral, and psychological sequelae of repetitive combined blast/impact mild traumatic brain injury in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.  

PubMed

Abstract Whether persisting cognitive complaints and postconcussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with blast- and/or combined blast/impact-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are associated with enduring structural and/or functional brain abnormalities versus comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. We sought to characterize relationships among these variables in a convenience sample of Iraq and Afghanistan-deployed veterans with (n=34) and without (n=18) a history of one or more combined blast/impact-related mTBIs. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of fractional anisotropy (FA) and macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) to assess brain white matter (WM) integrity; [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu); structured clinical assessments of blast exposure, psychiatric diagnoses, and PTSD symptoms; neurologic evaluations; and self-report scales of PCS, combat exposure, depression, sleep quality, and alcohol use. Veterans with versus without blast/impact-mTBIs exhibited reduced FA in the corpus callosum; reduced MPF values in subgyral, longitudinal, and cortical/subcortical WM tracts and gray matter (GM)/WM border regions (with a possible threshold effect beginning at 20 blast-mTBIs); reduced CMRglu in parietal, somatosensory, and visual cortices; and higher scores on measures of PCS, PTSD, combat exposure, depression, sleep disturbance, and alcohol use. Neuroimaging metrics did not differ between participants with versus without PTSD. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with one or more blast-related mTBIs exhibit abnormalities of brain WM structural integrity and macromolecular organization and CMRglu that are not related to comorbid PTSD. These findings are congruent with recent neuropathological evidence of chronic brain injury in this cohort of veterans. PMID:24102309

Petrie, Eric C; Cross, Donna J; Yarnykh, Vasily L; Richards, Todd; Martin, Nathalie M; Pagulayan, Kathleen; Hoff, David; Hart, Kim; Mayer, Cynthia; Tarabochia, Matthew; Raskind, Murray A; Minoshima, Satoshi; Peskind, Elaine R

2014-03-01

185

Constructive and Unconstructive Repetitive Thought  

PubMed Central

The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive preparation and anticipatory planning, (c) recovery from depression, and (d) uptake of health-promoting behaviors. Several potential principles accounting for these distinct consequences of RT are identified within this review: (a) the valence of thought content, (b) the intrapersonal and situational context in which RT occurs, and (c) the level of construal (abstract vs. concrete processing) adopted during RT. Of the existing models of RT, it is proposed that an elaborated version of the control theory account provides the best theoretical framework to account for its distinct consequences. PMID:18298268

Watkins, Edward R.

2008-01-01

186

Deletion of densin-180 results in abnormal behaviors associated with mental illness and reduces mGluR5 and DISC1 in the postsynaptic density fraction  

PubMed Central

Densin is an abundant scaffold protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that forms a high affinity complex with ?CaMKII and ?-actinin. To assess the function of densin, we created a mouse line with a null mutation in the gene encoding it (LRRC7). Homozygous knockout mice display a wide variety of abnormal behaviors that are often considered endophenotypes of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. At the cellular level, loss of densin results in reduced levels of ?-actinin in the brain and selective reduction in the localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction; whereas, the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors and other prominent PSD proteins are unchanged. In addition, deletion of densin results in impairment of mGluR- and NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD), alters the early dynamics of regulation of CaMKII by NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), and produces a change in spine morphology. These results indicate that densin influences the function of mGluRs and CaMKII at synapses, and contributes to localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction. They are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations that disrupt the organization and/or dynamics of postsynaptic signaling complexes in excitatory synapses can cause behavioral endophenotypes of mental illness. PMID:22072671

Carlisle, Holly J.; Luong, Tinh N.; Medina-Marino, Andrew; Schenker, Leslie; Khorosheva, Eugenia; Indersmitten, Tim; Gunapala, Keith M.; Steele, Andrew D.; O'Dell, Thomas J.; Patterson, Paul H.; Kennedy, Mary B.

2011-01-01

187

Combination of neonatal PolyI:C and adolescent phencyclidine treatments is required to induce behavioral abnormalities with overexpression of GLAST in adult mice.  

PubMed

Cumulative incidences of multiple risk factors are related to pathology of psychiatric disorders. The present study was designed to examine combinative effects of a neonatal immune challenge with adolescent abused substance treatment on the psychological behaviors and molecular expressions in the adult. C57BL/6J mice were neonatally treated, with polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (PolyI:C: 5mg/kg) during postnatal days (PD) 2-6, then with phencyclidine (PCP: 10mg/kg) during adolescence (PD35-41). Locomotor activity was analyzed to evaluate sensitivity to PCP on PD35 and PD41. Emotional and cognitive tests were carried out on PD42-48. Neonatal PolyI:C treatment markedly enhanced sensitivity to PCP- and methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in the adolescent. Mice treated with both neonatal PolyI:C and adolescent PCP (PolyI:C/PCP) showed social deficit and object recognition memory impairment. The expression of glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the (PolyI:C/PCP)-treated mice. Infusion of glutamate transporter inhibitor (DL-TBOA: 1 nmol/bilaterally) into the PFC reversed the object recognition impairment in the (PolyI:C/PCP)-treated mice. These results indicate that the combined treatment of neonatal PolyI:C with adolescent PCP leads to behavioral abnormalities, which were associated with increase of GLAST expression in the adult PFC. PMID:24060653

Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Ando, Yu; Mori, Kentaro; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

2014-01-01

188

Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or ?PD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and activated microglia in perivascular areas and brain parenchyma. Genetically resistant, chronically infected mice had substantially less inflammation. Conclusion In outbred mice, chronic, adult acquired T. gondii infection causes neurologic and behavioral abnormalities secondary to inflammation and loss of brain parenchyma. Perivascular inflammation is prominent particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus. Even resistant mice have perivascular inflammation. This mouse model of chronic T. gondii infection raises questions of whether persistence of this parasite in brain can cause inflammation or neurodegeneration in genetically susceptible hosts. PMID:18947414

Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

2008-01-01

189

Huntingtin-associated Protein-1 Deficiency in Orexin-producing Neurons Impairs Neuronal Process Extension and Leads to Abnormal Behavior in Mice*  

PubMed Central

Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (Hap1) is a neuronal protein that associates with huntingtin, the Huntington disease protein. Although Hap1 and huntingtin are known to be involved in intracellular trafficking, whether and how the impairment of Hap1-associated trafficking leads to neurological pathology and symptoms remain to be seen. As Hap1 is enriched in neuronal cells in the brain, addressing this issue is important in defining the role of defective intracellular trafficking in the selective neuropathology associated with Hap1 dysfunction. Here, we find that Hap1 is abundantly expressed in orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons (orexin neurons), which are distinctly distributed in the hypothalamus and play an important role in the regulation of feeding and behavior. We created conditional Hap1 knock-out mice to selectively deplete Hap1 in orexin neurons via the Cre-loxP system. These mice show process fragmentation of orexin neurons and reductions in food intake, body weight, and locomotor activity. Sucrose density gradient fractionation reveals that loss of Hap1 in the mouse brain also reduces the distribution of trafficking protein complexes and cargo proteins in the fractions that are enriched in synaptosomes. These results suggest that Hap1 is critical for the transport of multiple proteins to the nerve terminals to maintain the integrity of neuronal processes and that selective disruption of the processes of orexin neurons can cause abnormal feeding and locomotor activity. PMID:20304926

Lin, Yung-Feng; Xu, Xingshun; Cape, Austin; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

2010-01-01

190

Abnormal behavior of longitudinal optical phonon in silicon dioxide films on 4H-SiC bulk epitaxial substrate using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We report the abnormal behavior of longitudinal optical (LO) phonon in a silicon dioxide (SiO2) film on a 4H-SiC bulk epitaxial substrate using an attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique. The peak frequency of the LO phonon in the ATR spectrum was observed at around 1165 cm(-1) and red-shifted by approximately 92 cm(-1) relative to that at the grazing incidence (40°), whereas the peak frequency of the transverse optical (TO) phonon in the ATR spectrum agreed well with that at the grazing incidence. Furthermore, the peak frequency of the TO phonon hardly depends on change in the incident angle and thickness, suggesting that the microstructure of the sample is homogeneous within a thickness of 100 nm. On the other hand, we found that the microstructure of the sample was inhomogeneous within a thickness less than 5 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy provides us with a large amount of data on microstructures in the SiO2 films on a 4H-SiC substrate. PMID:23643043

Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Seki, Hirohumi; Yamane, Tsuneyuki; Nanen, Yuichiro; Kato, Muneharu; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

2013-05-01

191

Repetitive exposures to a surrogate nipple providing nutritive and non-nutritive fluids: effects on suckling behavior of the newborn rat.  

PubMed

Responsiveness to a surrogate nipple providing water, 0.1% saccharin, 10% sucrose, pedialyte, or milk was tested in naïve-to-suckling newborn rats during six 10-min exposures, one every 1.5 h over a 7.5 h period. Across a succession of exposures, newborn rats repeatedly attached to and ingested milk from a surrogate nipple, yielding significant body weight gain and increased concentration of blood plasma glucose. Initially, pups ingested considerable amounts of saccharin and sucrose, but then dramatically decreased their consumption of these fluids across the experimental sessions. Intake of milk was significantly higher than that of all other substances. Blood glucose concentration in pups treated with water, saccharin, sucrose, and pedialyte did not differ significantly from that of non-treated pups. The present data suggest a potential contribution of a fluid's palatability and nutritive value in the persistence and efficacy of diet intake for neonatal rats in the context of suckling behavior. PMID:15458805

Petrov, Evgeniy S; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Kramskaya, Tatiana A; Spear, Norman E

2004-10-01

192

Repetition Blindness for Rotated Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repetition blindness (RB) is the finding that observers often miss the repetition of an item within a rapid stream of words or objects. Recent studies have shown that RB for objects is largely unaffected by variations in viewpoint between the repeated items. In 5 experiments, we tested RB under different axes of rotation, with different types of…

Hayward, William G.; Zhou, Guomei; Man, Wai-Fung; Harris, Irina M.

2010-01-01

193

Repetition priming: Is music special?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using short and long contexts, the present study investigated musical priming effects that are based on chord repetition and harmonic relatedness. A musical target (a chord) was preceded by either an identical prime or a different but harmonically related prime. In contrast to words, pictures, and environmental sounds, chord processing was not facilitated by repetition. Experiments 1 and 2 using

E. Bigand; B. Tillmann; B. Poulin-Charronnat; D. Manderlier

2005-01-01

194

Repetitive resonant railgun power supply  

DOEpatents

A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

195

The Impacts of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome Severity and Surgery Intervention on Psychological and Behavioral Abnormalities and Postoperative Recovery in Pediatric Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of impact of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) severity on pediatric psychological and behavioral abnormalities. Material/Methods Fifty-one children aged 5–12 years with a confirmed diagnosis of OSAHS were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of OSAHS. They underwent bilateral tonsillectomy plus adenoidectomy or adenoidectomy alone. Repeated polysomnography and integrated visual and auditory continuous performance testing (IVA-CPT) was performed to assess full-scale response control quotient (FRCQ), full-scale attention quotient (FAQ), and hyperactivity (HYP) before surgery and 3 and 6 months after surgery. Results Mean FRCQ, FAQ, and HYP significantly improved over time in the 3 groups (FRCQ, F=292.05; FAQ, F=258.27; HYP, F=295.10, all P<0.001). FRCQ and HYP were not significantly different among the groups at the 3 time points. FAQ was significantly different among the groups (F=3.89, P<0.05). For FRCQ, FAQ, and HYP, there was no interaction between time and disease severity. Within groups, the effect of time on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and lowest oxygen saturation (LaSO2) were significant for each group and they were significantly different among the 3 groups at each time point (all P<0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that OSAHS may have a significant impact on self-control, attention, and hyperactivity in children, which is gradually alleviated after surgery. Disease severity was not closely related to preoperative mental and psychological function or postoperative recovery. Thus, we find it difficult to determine the impact degree of OSAHS severity on mental and psychological function or predict postoperative recovery by using OSAHS severity alone in children. PMID:25141885

Zhu, Jin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Xin; Wang, Haifei; Teng, Yaoshu; Yu, Daojun; Zhang, Haisheng; Shen, Yi

2014-01-01

196

Emotional response to musical repetition.  

PubMed

Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure. PMID:21707165

Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

2012-06-01

197

High repetition rate fiber lasers  

E-print Network

This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

198

Repetitive RNA unwinding by RNA helicase A facilitates RNA annealing.  

PubMed

Helicases contribute to diverse biological processes including replication, transcription and translation. Recent reports suggest that unwinding of some helicases display repetitive activity, yet the functional role of the repetitiveness requires further investigation. Using single-molecule fluorescence assays, we elucidated a unique unwinding mechanism of RNA helicase A (RHA) that entails discrete substeps consisting of binding, activation, unwinding, stalling and reactivation stages. This multi-step process is repeated many times by a single RHA molecule without dissociation, resulting in repetitive unwinding/rewinding cycles. Our kinetic and mutational analysis indicates that the two double stand RNA binding domains at the N-terminus of RHA are responsible for such repetitive unwinding behavior in addition to providing an increased binding affinity to RNA. Further, the repetitive unwinding induces an efficient annealing of a complementary RNA by making the unwound strand more accessible. The complex and unusual mechanism displayed by RHA may help in explaining how the repetitive unwinding of helicases contributes to their biological functions. PMID:24914047

Koh, Hye Ran; Xing, Li; Kleiman, Lawrence; Myong, Sua

2014-01-01

199

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position in the womb Infections during pregnancy ...

200

Constructive and Unconstructive Repetitive Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive…

Watkins, Edward R.

2008-01-01

201

Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital and developmental abnormalities influencing life are rare. They mainly consist of pectus deformities, sternal fusion\\u000a abnormalities and clavicular pseudoarthrosis. The most life-threatening abnormality is cleft sternum which may leave the heart\\u000a and great vessels unprotected.

Anne Grethe Jurik

202

Measuring Abnormal Bond Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the empirical power and specification of test statistics designed to detect abnormal bond returns in corporate event studies, using monthly and daily data. We find that test statistics based on frequently used methods of calculating abnormal monthly bond returns are biased. Most methods implemented in monthly data also lack power to detect abnormal returns. We also consider unique

Hendrik Bessembinder; Kathleen M. Kahle; William F. Maxwell; Danielle Xu

2009-01-01

203

Abnormal electromyographic activity of the urethral sphincter, voiding dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries: a new syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential association between abnormal electromyographic activity--that is, decelerating bursts and complex repetitive discharges--of the urethral sphincter and difficulty in voiding was examined in 57 women with urinary retention. Abnormal electromyographic activity was found in 33. Ultrasonography of the ovaries in 22 of the 33 women showed that 14 had polycystic ovaries. Of the other eight women, two had had

C. J. Fowler; T. J. Christmas; C. R. Chapple; H. F. Parkhouse; R. S. Kirby; H. S. Jacobs

1988-01-01

204

Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

Moyzis, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

205

How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network.  

PubMed

A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier

2014-06-01

206

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures.  

PubMed

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) represents a peculiar form of encephalitis mainly affecting children. They usually present abruptly with seizure or impaired consciousness as well as high-grade fever following antecedent infection. Seizures in AERRPS are almost exclusively of localized origin, whose semiology includes eye deviation, hemifacial twitching, hemiclonic convulsion, and autonomic manifestations. Partial seizures are brief, but repeat with increasing frequency and develop status epilepticus at nadir. They are extremely pharmaco-resistant and are only suppressed by intravenous administration of high-dose barbiturates. Although acute seizures are hardly controlled, patients gradually recover with decreasing seizure frequency and continuously evolve into post-encephalitic epilepsy without latent period. Residual cognitive impairment is common. Electroencephalograms in active stage demonstrate electrical seizure activities and interictal periodic discharges. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals late cerebral atrophy with limited signal abnormality. Persistent fever during active stage, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, and up-regulation of neopterin raise the hypothesis that inflammatory process is involved in this condition. Furthermore, early production of autoantibody against NMDA receptor 2B in serum and CSF, although its disease specificity is still in controversy, is suggestive of autoimmune etiology. Exploration for definite clinical marker is currently in progress. PMID:19327924

Sakuma, Hiroshi

2009-08-01

207

A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm. It is possible that the Y chromosomal abnormality

Aisling Mulligan; Michael Gill; Michael Fitzgerald

2008-01-01

208

Repetitive learning control of robotic manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis deals with the repetitive learning control of robotic manipulators. The research topic is motivated by the fact that industrial robots usually perform repetitive tasks. Unlike other conventional controllers, the repetitive learning controller can improve the performance of a robot as it repeats the same task. The proposed control strategy has advantages of easy implementation, low cost and better

Jianguo Fu

1994-01-01

209

Repetitive Learning Control of Robotic Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis deals with the repetitive learning control of robotic manipulators. The research topic is motivated by the fact that industrial robots usually perform repetitive tasks. Unlike other conventional controllers, the repetitive learning controller can improve the performance of a robot as it repeats the same task. The proposed control strategy has advantages of easy implementation, low cost and better

Jianguo Fu

1993-01-01

210

21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. 882.5805...5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an...

2012-04-01

211

21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. 882.5805...5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an...

2013-04-01

212

21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.  

... false Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. 882.5805...5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an...

2014-04-01

213

Pilot randomized trial demonstrating reversal of obesity-related abnormalities in reward system responsivity to food cues with a behavioral intervention  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Obesity is associated with hyperactivation of the reward system for high-calorie (HC) versus low-calorie (LC) food cues, which encourages unhealthy food selection and overeating. However, the extent to which this hyperactivation can be reversed is uncertain, and to date there has been no demonstration of changes by behavioral intervention. Subjects and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure changes in activation of the striatum for food images at baseline and 6 months in a pilot study of 13 overweight or obese adults randomized to a control group or a novel weight-loss intervention. Results: Compared to controls, intervention participants achieved significant weight loss (?6.3±1.0?kg versus +2.1±1.1?kg, P<0.001) and had increased activation for LC food images with a composition consistent with that recommended in the behavioral intervention at 6 months versus baseline in the right ventral putamen (P=0.04), decreased activation for HC images of typically consumed foods in the left dorsal putamen (P=0.01). There was also a large significant shift in relative activation favoring LC versus HC foods in both regions (P<0.04). Conclusions: This study provides the first demonstration of a positive shift in activation of the reward system toward healthy versus unhealthy food cues in a behavioral intervention, suggesting new avenues to enhance behavioral treatments of obesity. PMID:25177910

Deckersbach, T; Das, S K; Urban, L E; Salinardi, T; Batra, P; Rodman, A M; Arulpragasam, A R; Dougherty, D D; Roberts, S B

2014-01-01

214

Disrupted ERK signaling during cortical development leads to abnormal progenitor proliferation, neuronal and network excitability and behavior, modeling human neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous and related syndromes.  

PubMed

Genetic disorders arising from copy number variations in the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases or mutations in their upstream regulators that result in neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous syndromes are associated with developmental abnormalities, cognitive deficits, and autism. We developed murine models of these disorders by deleting the ERKs at the beginning of neurogenesis and report disrupted cortical progenitor generation and proliferation, which leads to altered cytoarchitecture of the postnatal brain in a gene-dose-dependent manner. We show that these changes are due to ERK-dependent dysregulation of cyclin D1 and p27(Kip1), resulting in cell cycle elongation, favoring neurogenic over self-renewing divisions. The precocious neurogenesis causes premature progenitor pool depletion, altering the number and distribution of pyramidal neurons. Importantly, loss of ERK2 alters the intrinsic excitability of cortical neurons and contributes to perturbations in global network activity. These changes are associated with elevated anxiety and impaired working and hippocampal-dependent memory in these mice. This study provides a novel mechanistic insight into the basis of cortical malformation which may provide a potential link to cognitive deficits in individuals with altered ERK activity. PMID:22723706

Pucilowska, Joanna; Puzerey, Pavel A; Karlo, J Colleen; Galán, Roberto F; Landreth, Gary E

2012-06-20

215

Multiple autism-like behaviors in a novel transgenic mouse model  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses are behaviorally-based with no defined universal biomarkers, occur at a 1:110 ratio in the population, and predominantly affect males compared to females at approximately a 4:1 ratio. One approach to investigate and identify causes of ASD is to use organisms that display abnormal behavioral responses that model ASD-related impairments. This study describes a novel transgenic mouse, MALTT, which was generated using a forward genetics approach. It was determined that the transgene integrated within a noncoding region on the X chromosome. The MALTT line exhibited a complete repertoire of ASD-like behavioral deficits in all three domains required for an ASD diagnosis: reciprocal social interaction, communication, and repetitive or inflexible behaviors. Specifically, MALTT male mice showed deficits in social interaction and interest, abnormalities in pup and juvenile ultrasonic vocalization communications, and exhibited a repetitive stereotypy. Abnormalities were also observed in the domain of sensory function, a secondary phenotype prevalently associated with ASD. Mapping and expression studies suggested that the Fam46 gene family may be linked to the observed ASD-related behaviors. The MALTT line provides a unique genetic model for examining the underlying biological mechanisms involved in ASD-related behaviors. PMID:21093492

Hamilton, Shannon M.; Spencer, Corinne M.; Harrison, Wilbur R.; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.; Graham, Deanna F.; Daza, Ray A.M.; Hevner, Robert F.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Paylor, Richard

2011-01-01

216

Abnormal expression of synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and synaptotagmin 1 in the hippocampus of kainic acid-exposed rats with behavioral deficits.  

PubMed

Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and associated with behavioral problems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these problems are not yet clear. In this study, kainic acid (KA) was systemically administered to immature male Wistar rats to induce SRS. The behavior of the immature rats was evaluated with a water maze, elevated-plus mazes, and open field tests. The expression patterns of synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and synaptotagmin 1 (Syt 1) were examined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. KA-treated rats with SRS demonstrated learning and memory deficits, reduced anxiety, and increased locomotor activity, compared with placebo-treated rats and KA-treated rats without SRS. No neuronal cell loss was observed in the hippocampus 6 weeks after exposure to KA. However, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed decreased synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and Syt 1 expression in KA-treated rats with SRS. Synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and Syt1 expression levels were found to be positively correlated with learning and memory but negatively correlated with anxiety and locomotor activity. These data suggested that SRS may induce changes in synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and Syt1 expression and may be functionally related to SRS-induced behavioral deficits. PMID:24832394

Zhang, Feng-Xia; Sun, Qin-Jian; Zheng, Xing-Yue; Lin, You-Ting; Shang, Wei; Wang, Ai-Hua; Duan, Rui-Sheng; Chi, Zhao-Fu

2014-08-01

217

Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

Honih, E. M.

218

Effect of repetitive infant-infant separation of young monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of several methodological difficulties inherent in mother-infant separation, an alternative procedure, that of repetitive, short-term, infant-infant separations, is proposed. Results from 3 studies employing this procedure with 4 young rhesus monkeys indicate that: (a) each short-term infant-infant separation produced behavior patterns similar to those exhibited by infants separated from their mothers; (b) Ss did not adapt to the

Stephen J. Suomi; Harry F. Harlow; Carol J. Domek

1970-01-01

219

Improved Discrimination of Visual Stimuli Following Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a “virtual lesion” in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary to expectations of

Michael L. Waterston; Christopher C. Pack; Bart Krekelberg

2010-01-01

220

Repetition priming in picture naming: sustained learning through the speeding of multiple processes.  

PubMed

Picture naming has been used by vision researchers to study object identification, by language researchers to study word production, and by memory researchers to study implicit memory. Response times for naming repeated pictures decrease with successive repetitions. Repetition priming in picture naming involves an implicit, nonhippocampal form of memory. In this review, the processes speeded with repetition are decomposed, the time course of the effect is characterized, the factors affecting the magnitude of priming are enumerated, and possible mechanisms of priming are evaluated. Both behavioral response time and neuroimaging studies are considered. The processes that are speeded with repetition include high-level object identification and word production processes, but not low-level visual processes or articulation. Repetition priming lasts for at least several weeks and follows a typical forgetting function. The mechanism of priming is concluded to be speeded completion of the component processes of picture naming. PMID:24590468

Francis, Wendy S

2014-10-01

221

Word repetition priming induced oscillations in auditory cortex: a magnetoencephalography study  

PubMed Central

Magnetoencephalography was used in a passive repetition priming paradigm. Words in two frequency bins (high/low) were presented to subjects auditorily. Subjects’ brain responses to these stimuli were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry. The main finding is that single word repetition of low frequency word pairs significantly attenuated the post-second word event related desynchronization in the theta-alpha (5–15Hz) bands, 200–600ms post second word stimulus onset. Peak significance between repeated high and low frequency words was evident at ~365–465ms post target onset. This finding has implications for (i) the role of theta-alpha ERD in lexical representation and access; (ii) the study of repetition suppression in the spectral-temporal domain; and (iii) the connection of neuronal repetition suppression with behavioral effects of repetition priming. PMID:21968323

Tavabi, Kambiz; Embick, David; Roberts, Timothy P.L.

2011-01-01

222

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques. PMID:22089618

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

223

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions may involve: When the abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history Exposure to fluoride Oral care habits Other symptoms ...

224

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

225

Pressure rig for repetitive casting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

Vasquez, Peter (inventor); Hutto, William R. (inventor); Philips, Albert R. (inventor)

1989-01-01

226

Hybrid indexes for repetitive datasets.  

PubMed

Advances in DNA sequencing mean that databases of thousands of human genomes will soon be commonplace. In this paper, we introduce a simple technique for reducing the size of conventional indexes on such highly repetitive texts. Given upper bounds on pattern lengths and edit distances, we pre-process the text with the lossless data compression algorithm LZ77 to obtain a filtered text, for which we store a conventional index. Later, given a query, we find all matches in the filtered text, then use their positions and the structure of the LZ77 parse to find all matches in the original text. Our experiments show that this also significantly reduces query times. PMID:24751871

Ferrada, H; Gagie, T; Hirvola, T; Puglisi, S J

2014-05-28

227

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury  

PubMed Central

Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed “dementia pugilistica” and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review the 47 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 professional athletes: one football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes, Parkinsonism, and speech and gait abnormalities. Neuropathologically, CTE is characterized by atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem, with ventricular dilatation and a fenestrated cavum septum pellucidum. Microscopically, there are extensive tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles, and spindle-shaped and threadlike neurites throughout the brain. The neurofibrillary degeneration of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies by preferential involvement of the superficial cortical layers, irregular, patchy distribution in the frontal and temporal cortices, propensity for sulcal depths, prominent perivascular, periventricular and subpial distribution, and marked accumulation of tau-immunoreactive astrocytes. Deposition of beta amyloid, most commonly as diffuse plaques, occurs in fewer than half the cases. CTE is a neuropathologically distinct, slowly progressive tauopathy with a clear environmental etiology. PMID:19535999

McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Gavett, Brandon E.; Budson, Andrew E.; Santini, Veronica E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Stern, Robert A.

2009-01-01

228

Effects of Repetitive Motor Training on Movement Representations in Adult Squirrel Monkeys: Role of Use versus Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current evidence indicates that repetitive motor behavior during motor learning paradigms can produce changes in representational organization in motor cortex. In a previous study, we trained adult squirrel monkeys on a repetitive motor task that required the retrieval of food pellets from a small-diameter well. It was found that training produced consistent task-related changes in movement representations in primary motor

Erik J. Plautz; Garrett W. Milliken; Randolph J. Nudo

2000-01-01

229

Brand Familiarity and Advertising Repetition Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial communication task for unknown brands is to build the knowledge in consumers' minds necessary to become established. However, communication effectiveness may depend on prior familiarity of the advertised brand. The findings of two experiments using television ads and computer Internet ads revealed that brand familiarity influenced repetition effectiveness. In particular, repetition of advertising attributed to an unfamiliar brand

2003-01-01

230

Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

Anderson, Robyn

2012-01-01

231

Effects of attention and emotion on repetition priming and their modulation by cholinergic enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether behavioral and neural effects of repeating faces are modulated by independent factors of selective attention, emotion, and cholinergic enhancement, during functional MRI. Face repetition occurred either between task-relevant (spatially attended) or task-irrelevant (unattended) stimuli; faces could be fearful or neutral; subjects received either placebo or physostigmine. Under placebo, a reaction time advantage occurred with repetition (i.e., priming)

Paul Bentley; Patrik Vuilleumier; Christiane M. Thiel; Jon Driver; Raymond J. Dolan

2003-01-01

232

Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model  

PubMed Central

In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 s, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1) a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2) a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The “paradoxically” high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception. PMID:25018691

Nakao, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Kazu

2014-01-01

233

Communication Impairments in Mice Lacking Shank1: Reduced Levels of Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Scent Marking Behavior  

E-print Network

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of ...

Wohr, Markus

234

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

235

Autism spectrum disorder as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence from the brain imaging abnormalities in 2-3 years old toddlers.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships in adolescents and adults with ASD, literature is still limited in information about the neurobiology of ASD in the early age of life. Brain images of 50 toddlers with ASD and 28 age, gender, and developmental quotient matched toddlers with developmental delay (DD) (control group) between ages 2 and 3 years were captured using combined magnetic resonance-based structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was applied to assess overall gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and regional alterations were assessed by voxel-based morphometry. DTI was used to investigate the white matter tract integrity. Compared with DD, significant increases were observed in ASD, primarily in global GM and WM volumes and in right superior temporal gyrus regional GM and WM volumes. Higher fractional anisotropy value was also observed in the corpus callosum, posterior cingulate cortex, and limbic lobes of ASD. The converging findings of structural and white matter abnormalities in ASD suggest that alterations in neural-anatomy of different brain regions may be involved in behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with ASD, especially in an early age of 2-3 years old toddlers. PMID:24419870

Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

2014-07-01

236

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

237

Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

Saville, Kirt

2011-01-01

238

On the Parallel Repetition of Multi-Player Games: The No-Signaling Case  

E-print Network

We consider the natural extension of two-player nonlocal games to an arbitrary number of players. An important question for such nonlocal games is their behavior under parallel repetition. For two-player nonlocal games, it is known that both the classical and the non-signaling value of any game converges to zero exponentially fast under parallel repetition, given that the game is non-trivial to start with (i.e., has classical/non-signaling value game under parallel repetition. For nonlocal games with three or more players, very little is known up to present on their behavior under parallel repetition; this is true for the classical, the quantum and the non-signaling value. In this work, we show a parallel repetition theorem for the non-signaling value of a large class of multi-player games, for an arbitrary number of players. Our result applies to all multi-player games for which all possible combinations of questions have positive probability; this class in particular includes all free games, in which the questions to the players are chosen independently. Specifically, we prove that if the original game has a non-signaling value smaller than 1, then the non-signaling value of the $n$-fold parallel repetition is exponentially small in $n$. Our parallel repetition theorem for multi-player games is weaker than the known parallel repetition results for two-player games in that the rate at which the non-signaling value of the game decreases not only depends on the non-signaling value of the original game (and the number of possible responses), but on the complete description of the game. Nevertheless, we feel that our result is a first step towards a better understanding of the parallel repetition of nonlocal games with more than two players.

Harry Buhrman; Serge Fehr; Christian Schaffner

2013-12-28

239

Repetition suppression of face-selective evoked and induced EEG recorded from human cortex.  

PubMed

In functional MRI studies, repetition suppression refers to the reduction of hemodynamic activation to repeated stimulus presentation. For example, the repeated presentation of a face reduces the hemodynamic response evoked by faces in the fusiform gyrus. The neural events that underlie repetition suppression are not well understood. Indeed, in contrast to the hemodynamic response, the face-specific N200 recorded from subdural electrodes on the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, primarily along the fusiform gyrus, has been reported to be insensitive to face-identity repetition. We have previously described a face-specific broadband gamma (30-100 Hz) response at ventral face-specific N200 sites that is functionally dissociable from the N200. In this study, we investigate whether gamma and other components of the electroencephalogram spectrum are affected by face-identity repetition independently of the N200. Participants viewed sequentially presented identical faces. At sites on and around the fusiform gyrus, we found that face repetition modulated alpha (8-12 Hz), low-gamma (30-60 Hz), and high-gamma (60-100 Hz) synchrony, but not the N200. These findings provide evidence of a spatially co-localized progression of face processing. Whereas the N200 reflects an initial obligatory response that is less sensitive to face-identity repetition, the subsequent spectral fluctuations reflect more elaborative face processing and are thus sensitive to face novelty. It is notable that the observed modulations were different for different frequency bands. We observed repetition suppression of broadband gamma, but repetition enhancement of alpha synchrony. This difference is discussed with regard to an existing model of repetition suppression and behavioral repetition priming. PMID:24677530

Engell, Andrew D; McCarthy, Gregory

2014-08-01

240

The spectrum of neurobehavioral sequelae after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury: a novel mouse model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury. PMID:24766454

Petraglia, Anthony L; Plog, Benjamin A; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H

2014-07-01

241

The Spectrum of Neurobehavioral Sequelae after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Mouse Model of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Abstract There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury. PMID:24766454

Plog, Benjamin A.; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L.; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T.; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H.

2014-01-01

242

Detection of Abnormal Hemoglobins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An intensive literature survey was performed to review the methods and products used to detect, identify and/or quantitate abnormal or variant hemoglobins in human erythrocytes. The report consists of a bibliography (198 citations, 1968-1979) and a summar...

J. Atwater, B. E. Hindman, K. Joseph

1979-01-01

243

Neuro-Immune Abnormalities in Autism and Their Relationship with the Environment: A Variable Insult Model for Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous condition affecting an individual’s ability to communicate and socialize and often presents with repetitive movements or behaviors. It tends to be severe with less than 10% achieving independent living with a marked variation in the progression of the condition. To date, the literature supports a multifactorial model with the largest, most detailed twin study demonstrating strong environmental contribution to the development of the condition. Here, we present a brief review of the neurological, immunological, and autonomic abnormalities in ASD focusing on the causative roles of environmental agents and abnormal gut microbiota. We present a working hypothesis attempting to bring together the influence of environment on the abnormal neurological, immunological, and neuroimmunological functions and we explain in brief how such pathophysiology can lead to, and/or exacerbate ASD symptomatology. At present, there is a lack of consistent findings relating to the neurobiology of autism. Whilst we postulate such variable findings may reflect the marked heterogeneity in clinical presentation and as such the variable findings may be of pathophysiological relevance, more research into the neurobiology of autism is necessary before establishing a working hypothesis. Both the literature review and hypothesis presented here explore possible neurobiological explanations with an emphasis of environmental etiologies and are presented with this bias. PMID:24639668

Goyal, Daniel K.; Miyan, Jaleel A.

2014-01-01

244

Mouse behavioral mutants have neuroimaging abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired cognitive, memory, or motor performance is a distinguishing characteristic of neu- rological diseases. Although these symptoms are frequently the most evident in human patients, addi- tional markers of disease are critical for proper diagnosis and staging. Noninvasive neuroimaging methods have become essential in this capacity and provide means of evaluating disease and tracking progression. These imaging methods are also

Brian J. Nieman; Jason P. Lerch; Nicholas A. Bock; X. Josette Chen; John G. Sled; R. Mark Henkelman

2007-01-01

245

A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

2008-01-01

246

Visual abnormal event detection for prolonged independent living  

E-print Network

apply visual surveillance techniques to in-house abnormal event detection, where (elderly) persons-visual surveillance; independent living; abnormal behavior detection; human tracking; I. INTRODUCTION The elderly part a fixed model of normality based on a set of pre-trained, supervised human body trackers [11], the second

Grabner, Helmut

247

Episodic repetitive thought: dimensions, correlates, and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive thought (RT) – attentive, prolonged, or frequent thought about oneself and one's world – plays an important role in many models of psychological and physical ill health (e.g., rumination and worry), as well as models of recovery and well-being (e.g., processing and reminiscing). In these models, repetitive thought is typically treated as stable or trait-like. In contrast, episodic RT

Suzanne C. Segerstrom; Annette L. Stanton; Sarah McQueary Flynn; Abbey R. Roach; Jamie J. Testa; Jaime K. Hardy

2011-01-01

248

Episodic repetitive thought: dimensions, correlates, and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive thought (RT) – attentive, prolonged, or frequent thought about oneself and one's world – plays an important role in many models of psychological and physical ill health (e.g., rumination and worry), as well as models of recovery and well-being (e.g., processing and reminiscing). In these models, repetitive thought is typically treated as stable or trait-like. In contrast, episodic RT

Suzanne C. Segerstrom; Annette L. Stanton; Sarah McQueary Flynn; Abbey R. Roach; Jamie J. Testa; Jaime K. Hardy

2012-01-01

249

Adequately address abnormal operations  

SciTech Connect

Abnormal situation management (ASM) is a safety issue, and safety long has been a top priority for companies in the chemical process industries (CPI). To investigate and identify root causes of abnormal operations and to pinpoint best practices for preventing these situations or at least handling them most effectively, the author formed a team and conducted surveys around the world, including the US, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Japan. The author visited a variety of facilities, including gas processing plants, oil refineries, a coker, ethylene plant, polyethylene units, steam-generating stations, as well as transportation and storage facilities. The team identified eight key issues: lack of management leadership; the significant role of human errors; inadequate design of the work environment; absence of procedures for dealing with abnormal operations (as opposed to emergencies); loss of valuable information from earlier minor incidents; the potential economic return; transferability of good ASM performance to other plants; and the importance of teamwork and job design. The paper looks at each of these in more detail, as well as what`s involved in assessing the ASM at a site.

Nimmo, I. [Honeywell Industrial Automation and Control, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

250

Repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes  

PubMed Central

Housekeeping genes are expressed across a wide variety of tissues. Since repetitive sequences have been reported to influence the expression of individual genes, we employed a novel approach to determine whether housekeeping genes can be distinguished from tissue-specific genes their repetitive sequence context. We show that Alu elements are more highly concentrated around housekeeping genes while various longer (>400-bp) repetitive sequences ("repeats"), including Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) elements, are excluded from these regions. We further show that isochore membership does not distinguish housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes and that repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes in every isochore. The distinct repetitive sequence environment, in combination with other previously published sequence properties of housekeeping genes, were used to develop a method of predicting housekeeping genes on the basis of DNA sequence alone. Using expression across tissue types as a measure of success, we demonstrate that repetitive sequence environment is by far the most important sequence feature identified to date for distinguishing housekeeping genes. PMID:17141428

Eller, C. Daniel; Regelson, Moira; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stan; Horvath, Steve; Marahrens, York

2007-01-01

251

Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

2013-01-01

252

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

253

Experimental repetitive quantum error correction.  

PubMed

The computational potential of a quantum processor can only be unleashed if errors during a quantum computation can be controlled and corrected for. Quantum error correction works if imperfections of quantum gate operations and measurements are below a certain threshold and corrections can be applied repeatedly. We implement multiple quantum error correction cycles for phase-flip errors on qubits encoded with trapped ions. Errors are corrected by a quantum-feedback algorithm using high-fidelity gate operations and a reset technique for the auxiliary qubits. Up to three consecutive correction cycles are realized, and the behavior of the algorithm for different noise environments is analyzed. PMID:21617070

Schindler, Philipp; Barreiro, Julio T; Monz, Thomas; Nebendahl, Volckmar; Nigg, Daniel; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Blatt, Rainer

2011-05-27

254

Roentgenologic Abnormalities in Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...

T. Higuchi, W. J. Russell, M. Komatsuda, S. Neriishi

1968-01-01

255

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

256

Abnormal verbal event related potentials in mild cognitive impairment and incipient Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

PAPER Abnormal verbal event related potentials in mild cognitive impairment and incipient Alzheimer subsequently converted to probable Alzheimer's disease. The congruous word repetition effect in the group to the memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment and could have value in predicting incipient Alzheimer

Kutas, Marta

257

Item Repetition in Short-term Memory 1 PUBLISHED AS  

E-print Network

Item Repetition in Short-term Memory 1 PUBLISHED AS: Henson, R.N.A. (1998). Item repetition in short-term memory: Ranschburg repeated. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 24, 1162-1181 Running head: ITEM REPETITION IN SHORT-TERM MEMORY Item Repetition in Short-term

Henson, Rik

258

Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration. PMID:23908629

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

2013-01-01

259

Reinforcing Robot Perception of Multi-Modal Events through Repetition and Redundancy and Repetition and Redundancy  

E-print Network

Reinforcing Robot Perception of Multi-Modal Events through Repetition and Redundancy and Repetition the rhythm of everyday actions as a basis for identifying the characteristic appearance and sounds associated, are processed simultaneously, and the integration of all such percepts at the brain's cerebral cortex forms our

Torres-Jara, Eduardo

260

Manipulating Articulatory Demands in Non-Word Repetition: A "Late-8" Non-Word Repetition Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to examine the psychometric properties of a non-word repetition task (NRT), the Late-8 Non-word Repetition Task (L8NRT). This task was designed similarly to the NRT, but contains only Late-8 consonants to increase articulatory demands and avoid ceiling effects in studies with adolescents and adults. Thirty college…

Moore, Michelle W.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Dollaghan, Christine A.

2010-01-01

261

Spirometric abnormalities among welders  

SciTech Connect

A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1991-10-01

262

Passive, Noiseless, Intensity Amplification of Repetitive Signals  

E-print Network

Amplification of signal intensity is essential for initiating physical processes, diagnostics, sensing, communications, and scientific measurement. During traditional amplification, the signal is amplified by multiplying the signal carriers through an active gain process using an external power source. However, for repetitive waveforms, sufficient energy for amplification often resides in the signal itself. In such cases, the unneeded external power is wasted, and the signal is additionally degraded by noise and distortions that accompany active gain processes. We show noiseless, intensity amplification of repetitive optical pulse waveforms with a gain from 2 to ~20 without using active gain, by recycling energy already stored in the input repetitive signal. This "green" method uses dispersion-induced self-imaging (Talbot) effects to precisely re-distribute the original signal energy into fewer replica waveforms. This approach simply requires a suitable manipulation of the input signal's phase profile along t...

Maram, R; Li, M; Azaña, J

2014-01-01

263

Speech-evoked brainstem frequency-following responses during verbal transformations due to word repetition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech-evoked brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) were recorded to repeated presentations of the same stimulus word. Word repetition results in illusory verbal transformations (VTs) in which word perceptions can differ markedly from the actual stimulus. Previous behavioral studies support an explanation of VTs based on changes in arousal or attention. Horizontal and vertical dipole FFRs were recorded to assess responses with

Gary C. Galbraith; Soham P. Jhaveri; Jeff Kuo

1997-01-01

264

The ups and downs of repetition: Modulation of the perirhinal cortex by conceptual repetition predicts priming and long-term memory  

PubMed Central

In order to better understand how concepts might be represented in the brain, we used a cross-modal conceptual priming paradigm to examine how repetition-related activity changes in the brain are related to conceptual priming. During scanning, subjects made natural/manmade judgments on a continuous stream of spoken nouns, written nouns and pictures of objects. Each stimulus either repeated in the same or a different modality with 1-4 intervening trials between repetitions. Behaviorally, participants showed significant perceptual and conceptual priming effects. The fMRI data showed that the conditions associated with the greatest behavioral priming exhibited the largest decreases in BOLD activity in left perirhinal cortex (PRc), as well as a few other regions. Furthermore, the PRc was the only region to show this relationship for the cross-modal conditions alone, where the concept but not the percept repeated. Conversely, repetition-related increases in PRc activity predicted better subsequent memory as assessed by a post-scan recognition test. These results suggest that repetition-related activity changes in the PRc are related both to the speed of access to a repeated concept and to that concept’s later memorability. PMID:23651708

Heusser, Andrew C.; Awipi, Tarimotimi; Davachi, Lila

2013-01-01

265

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) represents a peculiar form of encephalitis mainly affecting children. They usually present abruptly with seizure or impaired consciousness as well as high-grade fever following antecedent infection. Seizures in AERRPS are almost exclusively of localized origin, whose semiology includes eye deviation, hemifacial twitching, hemiclonic convulsion, and autonomic manifestations. Partial seizures are brief, but

Hiroshi Sakuma

2009-01-01

266

Lateralized Repetition Priming for Unfamiliar Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetition priming (RP) is the ability to recognize a stimulus more rapidly as a result of prior exposure to the item. Recent research examining the neuroanatomical basis of this effect has demonstrated RP for familiar faces presented to the right but not to the left cerebral hemisphere. Extending this line of enquiry, the current research considered whether similar effects emerge

Douglas Martin; Louise K. Nind; C. Neil Macrae

2009-01-01

267

The Value of Repetition in Articulation Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exact analysis of an experiment involving children from the ages of 4 to 12 learning three new articulations revealed that most of the articulation learning took place on the second attempt with relatively moderate improvement in subsequent trials, thus placing the value of repetition in articulation learning in question. (FB)

Locke, John L.

1970-01-01

268

Enhancing Speech Discrimination through Stimulus Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of sequential and alternating repetition on speech-sound discrimination. Method: Typically hearing adults' discrimination of 3 pairs of speech-sound contrasts was assessed at 3 signal-to-noise ratios using the change/no-change procedure. On change trials, the standard and comparison stimuli differ; on no-change…

Holt, Rachael Frush

2011-01-01

269

High repetition tokamak CSTN-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By employing a condenser system charging up at high speed with a triac switch, a stable tokamak discharge with a high repetition rate was achieved. A good reproducibility of the tokamak discharge made detailed measurements of spatial distribution of plasma and wave parameters possible, with a sampling technique. Basic studies on waves and particle transport in a tokamak configuration are possible with this system.

Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Hayashi, Takashi; Takamura, Shuichi; Okuda, Takayoshi

1983-12-01

270

Active control of repetitive transient noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the possibilities of active noise control techniques to reduce repetitive transient noise. Although there is a significant difference in nature between periodic and transient noise, up till now no specific research on active noise control of transient noise was reported. The presented research focuses on the development of control algorithms, dedicated for the control of repetitive transient noise. The effectiveness of the control algorithms is demonstrated for the reduction of impulse noise in a duct by a secondary loudspeaker. A linear time-invariant feedback controller is developed to drive this loudspeaker. The performance of this time-invariant controller is limited for several reasons: time variance of the system parameters, limited controller bandwidth, nonlinearities, etc. However, when the noise consists of successive impulsive sounds that exhibit a repetitive character, it is possible to extend the developed time-invariant feedback controller with a learning behaviour, based on the additional information about the repetitiveness. At each pulse, the control signal for the secondary loudspeaker can be adapted on the basis of the residual noise at the previous pulses, such that the radiated noise is reduced. This latter control technique, called iterative learning control, can significantly increase the performance of a feedback active noise control system.

Pinte, G.; Desmet, W.; Sas, P.

2007-11-01

271

[Dystonia, tremor and repetitive instrumental use].  

PubMed

Three characteristic observations are presented along with three tables presenting 24 patients with the following elements in common: excessively repeated use of an instrument such as a pen, a musical instrument or a tool. The appearance after that use of a central pathological phenomenon that includes a local dystonia of a hand or the mouth, a tremor, or the association of a tremor and a dystonia, all within the muscular domain corresponding to that of the use. The discussion, which is based exclusively on the clinical findings, deals with the following elements: the role of the use of the instrument rather than task itself, the predominant pathogenic factor which is the repetitive action, to which is added a genetic component in one incompletely penetrant case of DYT 1, and a probable genetic susceptibility in the others. The absence of improvement with rest distinguishes this central pathology from rheumatologic or orthopaedic problems involving repetitive activities. The evolution is slowly declining when the responsible action is continued. This occurs in three stages: a specific disorder involving only the use of the particular instrument, a more enlarged involvement affecting other activities and eventually a dystonia associated with a tremor or a postural tremor always located to the initial area. The therapeutic interventions suggested by the pathologic role of the repetitive movement is: (1) to advise a new training for the instrument that excludes the habitual movement; (2) to advise the patient to vary any newly acquired repetitive movements. PMID:18342058

Jedynak, C P; Youssov, K; Apartis, E; Welter, M-L; Willer, J-C; Agid, Y

2008-01-01

272

503MHz repetition rate femtosecond Yb: fiber ring laser with an integrated WDM collimator.  

PubMed

We demonstrate 503MHz fundamental high repetition rate operation in a ring cavity passively mode-locked Yb:fiber laser incorporating a novel wavelength-division-multiplexing collimator and a piece of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. The Yb doped fiber was directly fabricated as one fiber pigtail into the functional collimator, greatly shortening the cavity length and facilitating the splicing operation. A 5cm long photonic bandgap fiber with abnormal dispersion at the lasing wavelength (centered at 1030nm) decreases the net dispersion for shorter output pulses. The spectral bandwidth of the pulse was 34nm. The direct output pulse was measured to be 156fs and the dechirped pulse was about 76fs. With this innovative Yb:fiber pigtailed WDM collimator, the ring cavity laser has the potential to work at a repetition rate up to GHz. PMID:22273932

Wang, Aimin; Yang, Hongyu; Zhang, Zhigang

2011-12-01

273

Local state space temporal fluctuations: a methodology to reveal changes during a fatiguing repetitive task.  

PubMed

The effect of muscular fatigue on temporal and spectral features of muscle activities and motor performance, i.e., kinematics and kinetics, has been studied. It is of value to quantify fatigue related kinematic changes in biomechanics and sport sciences using simple measurements of joint angles. In this work, a new approach was introduced to extract kinematic changes from 2D phase portraits to study the fatigue adaptation patterns of subjects performing elbow repetitive movement. This new methodology was used to test the effect of load and repetition rate on the temporal changes of an elbow phase portrait during a dynamic iso-inertial fatiguing task. The local flow variation concept, which quantifies the trajectory shifts in the state space, was used to track the kinematic changes of an elbow repetitive fatiguing task in four conditions (two loads and two repetition rates). Temporal kinematic changes due to muscular fatigue were measured as regional curves for various regions of the phase portrait and were also expressed as a single curve to describe the total drift behavior of trajectories due to fatigue. Finally, the effect of load and repetition rate on the complexity of kinematic changes, measured by permutation entropy, was tested using analysis of variance with repeated measure design. Statistical analysis showed that kinematic changes fluctuated more (showed more complexity) under higher loads (p=0.014), but did not differ under high and low repetition rates (p=0.583). Using the proposed method, new features for complexity of kinematic changes could be obtained from phase portraits. The local changes of trajectories in epochs of time reflected the temporal kinematic changes in various regions of the phase portrait, which can be used for qualitative and quantitative assessment of fatigue adaptation of subjects and evaluation of the influence of task conditions (e.g., load and repetition rate) on kinematic changes. PMID:20887012

Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Arshi, Ahmad Reza; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Seyed-Mohseni, Saeedeh

2010-10-01

274

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

275

TMI abnormal waste project plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses plans for the TMI Abnormal Waste Project, which is part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program and funded by the US Department of Energy. The sequence proposed for disposition of Three Mile Island (TMI) abnormal wastes includes: (a) packaging at TMI, (b) shipment to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), (c) storage at INEL

Ayers; A. L. Jr

1984-01-01

276

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

277

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

278

38 CFR 21.132 - Repetition of the course.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Repetition of the course. 21.132 Section 21.132 Pensions...Training Services § 21.132 Repetition of the course. (a) Repeating all or part of the course. A veteran, having completed a...

2012-07-01

279

38 CFR 21.132 - Repetition of the course.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Repetition of the course. 21.132 Section 21.132 Pensions...Training Services § 21.132 Repetition of the course. (a) Repeating all or part of the course. A veteran, having completed a...

2010-07-01

280

38 CFR 21.132 - Repetition of the course.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Repetition of the course. 21.132 Section 21.132 Pensions...Training Services § 21.132 Repetition of the course. (a) Repeating all or part of the course. A veteran, having completed a...

2011-07-01

281

38 CFR 21.132 - Repetition of the course.  

... 2014-07-01 false Repetition of the course. 21.132 Section 21.132 Pensions...Training Services § 21.132 Repetition of the course. (a) Repeating all or part of the course. A veteran, having completed a...

2014-07-01

282

38 CFR 21.132 - Repetition of the course.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Repetition of the course. 21.132 Section 21.132 Pensions...Training Services § 21.132 Repetition of the course. (a) Repeating all or part of the course. A veteran, having completed a...

2013-07-01

283

A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics  

PubMed Central

Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non-functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression, and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome re-arrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins. Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space. PMID:23060903

Casa, Valentina; Gabellini, Davide

2012-01-01

284

Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities Induced by Prenatal Valproic Acid Exposure in Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

In-utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been known as a potent inducer of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), not only in humans, but also in animals. In addition to the defects in communication and social interaction as well as repetitive behaviors, ASD patients usually suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) problems. However, the exact mechanism underlying these disorders is not known. In this study, we examined the gross GI tract structure and GI motility in a VPA animal model of ASD. On embryonic day 12 (E12), 4 pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subcutaneously injected with VPA (400 mg/kg) in the treatment group, and with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in the control group; the resulting male offspring were analyzed at 4 weeks of age. VPA exposure decreased the thickness of tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis in the stomach and ileum. Other regions such as duodenum, jejunum, and colon did not show a significant difference. In high-resolution microscopic observation, atrophy of the parietal and chief cells in the stomach and absorptive cells in the ileum was observed. In addition, decreased staining of the epithelial cells was observed in the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained ileum section. Furthermore, decreased motility in GI tract was also observed in rat offspring prenatally exposed to VPA. However, the mechanism underlying GI tract defects in VPA animal model as well as the association between abnormal GI structure and function with ASD is yet to be clearly understood. Nevertheless, the results from the present study suggest that this VPA ASD model undergoes abnormal changes in the GI structure and function, which in turn could provide beneficial clues pertaining to the pathophysiological relevance of GI complications and ASD phenotypes. PMID:24386517

Kim, Ji-Woon; Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Ki Chan; Park, Jin Hee; Seung, Hana; Joo, So Hyun; Yang, Sung Min

2013-01-01

285

Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

2012-01-01

286

Research report Acquisition of ischemic tolerance by repetitive transcranial magnetic  

E-print Network

Research report Acquisition of ischemic tolerance by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Rats received 1000 pulses/day for 7 days, and the field: Disorders of the nervous system Topic: Ischemia Keywords: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (r

Kawato, Suguru

287

Repetitive Behaviours in Typically Developing 2-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Repetitive behaviours are an essential part of the diagnosis of autism but are also commonly seen in typically developing children. The current study investigated the frequency and factor structure of repetitive behaviours in a large community sample of 2-year-olds. Methods: A new measure, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ-2)…

Leekam, Susan; Tandos, Jonathan; McConachie, Helen; Meins, Elizabeth; Parkinson, Kathryn; Wright, Charlotte; Turner, Michelle; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Le Couteur, Ann

2007-01-01

288

The Role of Repetition in Aural Identification of Harmonic Sequences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the role of stimulus repetition during on line aural identification of harmonic sequences by 72 adult beginners. Demonstrates that the first presentation is a powerful image influencing subsequent identifications. Clarifies the role of repetition and provides an explanation of the incidence of repetition in omitted and incorrect…

Martinez, Isabel Cecilia; Malbran, Silvia; Shifres, Favio

1999-01-01

289

Repetitive stimulation of the long thoracic nerve in myasthenia gravis: clinical and electrophysiological correlations  

PubMed Central

Methods: 15 patients with myasthenia gravis and positive single fibre electromyography had repetitive stimulation of the long thoracic nerve together with serratus anterior recordings. There were 20 normal controls. Results: Eight patients with respiratory symptoms all had abnormal results, with an increased response decrement. These patients required intensive monitoring and supplemental oxygen. The remaining seven cases with no respiratory symptoms all had negative studies. Conclusions: This is a simple well tolerated method that shows good correlation with respiratory symtoms and management requirements in myasthenia gravis. It can alert the physician to serious respiratory complications in this disease. PMID:12588934

Lo, Y; Leoh, T; Dan, Y; Tan, Y; Nurjannah, S; Ratnagopal, P

2003-01-01

290

Therapeutic Targeting of the Axonal and Microvascular Change Associated with Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recent interest in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has increased the recognition that repetitive mTBI occurring within the sports and military settings can exacerbate the adverse consequences of the initial injury. While multiple studies have recently reported the pathological, metabolic, and functional changes associated with repetitive mTBI, no consideration has been given to the development of therapeutic approaches to attenuate these abnormalities. In this study, we used the model of repetitive impact acceleration insult previously reported by our laboratory to cause no initial structural and functional changes, yet evoke dramatic change following second insult of the same intensity. Using this model, we employed established neuroprotective agents including FK506 and hypothermia that were administered 1?h after the second insult. Following either therapeutic intervention, changes of cerebral vascular reactivity to acetylcholine were assessed through a cranial window. Following the completion of the vascular studies, the animals were prepared to access the numbers of amyloid precursor protein (APP) positive axons, a marker of axonal damage. Following repetitive injury, cerebral vascular reactivity was dramatically preserved by either therapeutic intervention or the combination thereof compared to control group in which no intervention was employed. Similarly, APP density was significantly lower in the therapeutic intervention group compared in controls. Although the individual use of FK506 or hypothermia exerted significant protection, no additive benefit was found when both therapies were combined. In sum, the current study demonstrates that the exacerbated pathophysiological changes associated with repetitive mTBI can be therapeutically targeted. PMID:23796228

Miyauchi, Takashi; Wei, Enoch P.

2013-01-01

291

Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic  

SciTech Connect

Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

2011-03-22

292

Repetition of educational AIDS advertising affects attitudes.  

PubMed

In educational AIDS campaigns, initiators often use advertisements to warn about the threat of AIDS. The present Internet study (N = 283) tested the assumption of an inverted U-shaped relationship between the number of educational AIDS advertisements in a magazine and the perceived threat of AIDS among different groups (i.e., homosexual men and heterosexual men and women). This expectation was primarily based on signaling theory, which assumes that recipients use repetition frequency as a cue for judgments about the message. Results provided support for the expected inverted U-curve. PMID:21879615

Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

2011-06-01

293

AUTOSIM: An automated repetitive software testing tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AUTOSIM is a software tool which automates the repetitive run testing of software. This tool executes programming tasks previously performed by a programmer with one year of programming experience. Use of the AUTOSIM tool requires a knowledge base containing information about known faults, code fixes, and the fault diagnosis-correction process. AUTOSIM can be considered as an expert system which replaces a low level of programming expertise. Reference information about the design and implementation of the AUTOSIM software test tool provides flowcharts to assist in maintaining the software code and a description of how to use the tool.

Dunham, J. R.; Mcbride, S. E.

1985-01-01

294

Investigation of a repetitive pulsed electrothermal thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pulsed electrothermal (PET) thruster with 1000:1 ratio nozzle is tested in a repetitive mode on water propellant. The thruster is driven by a 60J pulse forming network at repetition rates up to 10 Hz (600W). The pulse forming network has a .31 ohm impedance, well matched to the capillary discharge resistance of .40 ohm, and is directly coupled to the thruster electrodes without a switch. The discharge is initiated by high voltage breakdown, typically at 2500V, through the water vapor in the interelectrode gap. Water is injected as a jet through a .37 mm orifice on the thruster axis. Thruster voltage, current and impulse bit are recorded for several seconds at various power supply currents. Thruster to power ratio is typically T/P = .07 N/kW. Tank background pressure precludes direct measurement of exhaust velocity which is inferred from calculated pressure and temperature in the discharge to be about 14 km/sec. Efficiency, based on this velocity and measured T/P is .54 + or - .07. Thruster ablation is zero at the throat and becomes measurable further upstream, indicating that radiative ablation is occurring late in the pulse.

Burton, R. L.; Fleischer, D.; Goldstein, S. A.; Tidman, D. A.; Winsor, N. K.

1986-01-01

295

High repetition rate alexandrite laser divergence measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beam divergence measurements were performed on a high repetition rate alexandrite laser currently being developed for a Los Alamos National Laboratory photochemistry research program, and were found to be spherically correctable and approximately constant at 8 times diffraction limited over a large input power range. A 0.5 x 10 cm alexandrite rod was pumped in a double ellipse head at a constant 42 joules/pulse input energy at repetition rates of 75 to 200 Hz. Several resonators were employed over the input power range to compensate for the thermal lensing, which varied from 0.63 to 0.12 m. The divergence measurements were performed by splitting a fraction of the output beam, passing it through a long focal length lens, and measuring the transmission percentage through calibrated apertures at the focal plane. This measurement was performed for seven resonators and cross-checked by imaging the far field pattern through a TV camera system and observing the spot sizes. With a similar experimental setup, a Glan prism was placed extra-cavity to examine the magnitude of depolarization losses due to stress induced birefringence under pumped conditions. No measurable effect was found up to 1 kW input power.

Birrell, S. E.; Rapoport, W. R.; Budgor, A. B.

296

High repetition rate nitrogen ion laser  

SciTech Connect

The average power of a pulsed discharge laser may be increased by increasing the single pulse energy or by pulsing the laser at a higher rate without a substantial loss of single pulse energy. Single pulse energy can be enhanced by increasing the energy deposition to the medium, and by scaling to larger discharge volumes. The realization of high repetition rates (HRR's) is often accomplished by the addition of specialized power supplies, pulse-forming-networks, and laser heads. In this work, a HRR N{sub 2}+ laser has been developed and its output characterized as a function of gas pressure, temperature, velocity, energy deposition, and repetition rate. It is shown that a self-excited superradiant device is more susceptible to HRR failure modes than a similar oscillator-amplifier arrangement, the difference arising from gain and saturation considerations. With this understanding, A HRR N{sub 2}+ oscillator-amplifier was constructed yielding pulse energies of 4.5 mJ and 0.25 W average power at 60 pps, while capable of several hour gas fill lifetimes.

Harshaw, R.C.

1984-01-01

297

Serotonin 2A receptor antagonist treatment reduces dopamine D1 receptor-mediated rotational behavior but not l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements in the unilateral dopamine-depleted rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experiments have demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor antagonists suppress hyperkinetic behaviors associated with dopamine (DA) D1 receptor supersensitivity in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. Since l-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID) may be mediated by oversensitive D1-mediated signaling, the present study examined the effects of the selective 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 on LID behaviors in DA-depleted rats. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats

Jennifer L. Taylor; Christopher Bishop; Thomas Ullrich; Kenner C. Rice; Paul D. Walker

2006-01-01

298

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-01-01

299

Abnormal waves during Hurricane Camille  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reanalysis is reported of the wave time series recorded during Hurricane Camille having as objective the identification of individual waves that satisfy current criteria defining abnormal or freak waves. It is shown that during the hurricane development, a very nonstationary situation has occurred during which the second-order sea state parameters changed significantly with time. The parameters of the largest individual waves in sea states which identify abnormal waves did not show any clear trend, and such waves occurred during the development stage and not when the significant wave height was the largest. It is argued that the present criteria of identification of abnormal waves are not satisfactory, as they do not take into account the nature of the sea states in which the waves occur.

Guedes Soares, C.; Cherneva, Z.; AntãO, E. M.

2004-08-01

300

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical ``heartprints'' which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing ~105 heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-09-01

301

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

302

Abnormal gastrointestinal motility in patients with celiac sprue  

Microsoft Academic Search

No study to date has objectively investigated whether the motor behavior of the small bowel is abnormal in celiac sprue. The purpose of this study was to systematically address this topic by means of intraluminal pressure recordings in a series of such patients. Sixteen subjects (nine adults, seven children, age range 2–69 years) with celiac sprue were recruited and studied

Gabrio Bassotti; Giuseppe Castellucci; Cesare Betti; Carla Fusaro; Maria Lucia Cavalletti; Alberto Bertotto; Fabrizio Spinozzi; Antonio Morelli; Maria Antonietta Pelli

1994-01-01

303

The Therapeutic Function of the Instructor in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three main types of therapeutic problems which college instructors of abnormal psychology courses may encounter with their students. Students may seek the instructor's assistance in helping a relative or acquaintance or for self-help. Often a student may not seek help but may display pathological behavior. (AM)

Halgin, Richard P.

1982-01-01

304

[Hematological abnormalities in rheumatic diseases].  

PubMed

Haematological abnormalities are present in 25-50% patients with rheumatic diseases. The most common finding is anaemia of chronic disease which is driven by inflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin plays key role in iron homeostasis. It reduces iron absorption from duodenum and iron release from reticuloendothelial cells. Anaemia of chronic disease could be successfully treated by recombinant erythropoietin in combination with iron supplementation. Various abnormalities can be observed in the leukocyte and platelets counts. Other haematological disturbances are considered as part of autoimmune disease. Prolonged antigen stimulation can induce lymphomagenesis and lymphoma incidence in patients with rheumatic diseases is 5 to 6-fold increased compared to normal population. PMID:17580549

Radman, Ivo

2006-01-01

305

High-repetition rate, commercial pseudospark switches for pulsed modulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results of high-repetition rate pseudospark switch testing are reported. High-repetition rate operation was investigated with special regard to applications including copper vapor lasers, high-repetition-rate high-average power excimer lasers, and linear induction accelerators. Typical test parameters are hold-off voltage on the order of 15-25 kV, peak currents on the order of 10 kA, and pulse durations on the order of

P. Bickel; J. Christiansen; K. Frank; A. Gortler; W. Hartmann; R. Kowalewicz; A. Linsenmever; A. Kozlik; R. Stark; P. Wiesneth

1990-01-01

306

A system for repetitive pulsed corona plasmas, with ecological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A depollution system for gases, using the repetitive pulsed corona plasmas, is described. The main sub-systems are: High-voltage repetitive pulser; treatment chamber; gas flow circuit; gas analyzer. The high-voltage repetitive pulser discharges a capacitor in the primary of a pulse transformer. The high-voltage switch is a thyratron. Many construction manners were tested for the pulse transformer. High-voltage pulses with 25-100

N. Georgeseut; A. Vulpe; R. Minea

2003-01-01

307

Variable pulse repetition frequency output from an optically injected solid state laser.  

PubMed

An optically injected solid state laser (OISSL) system is known to generate complex nonlinear dynamics within the parameter space of varying the injection strength of the master laser and the frequency detuning between the master and slave lasers. Here we show that within these complex nonlinear dynamics, a system which can be operated as a source of laser pulses with a pulse repetition frequency (prf) that can be continuously varied by a single control, is embedded. Generation of pulse repetition frequencies ranging from 200 kHz up to 4 MHz is shown to be achievable for an optically injected Nd:YVO4 solid state laser system from analysis of prior experimental and simulation results. Generalizing this to other optically injected solid state laser systems, the upper bound on the repetition frequency is of order the relaxation oscillation frequency for the lasers. The system is discussed in the context of prf versatile laser systems more generally. Proposals are made for the next generation of OISSLs that will increase understanding of the variable pulse repetition frequency operation, and determine its practical limitations. Such variable prf laser systems; both low powered, and, higher powered systems achieved using one or more optical power amplifier stages; have many potential applications from interrogating resonance behaviors in microscale structures, through sensing and diagnostics, to laser processing. PMID:21369300

Kane, D M; Toomey, J P

2011-02-28

308

Linearly repetitive Delone sets are rectifiable  

E-print Network

In this paper we prove that, for any integer $d>0$, every linearly repetitive Delone set in the Euclidean $d$-space $\\RR^d$ is equivalent, up to a bi-Lipschitz homeomorphism, to the integer lattice $\\ZZ^d$. In the particular case when the Delone set $X$ in $\\RR^d$ comes from a primitive substitution tiling of $\\RR^d$, we give a condition on the eigenvalues of the substitution matrix which implies the existence of a homeomorphism with bounded displacement from $X$ to the lattice lattice $\\lambda\\ZZ^d$ for some positive $\\lambda$. This condition includes primitive Pisot substitution tilings but also concerns a much broader set of substitution tilings.

J. Aliste-Prieto; D. Coronel; J. -M. Gambaudo

2011-03-28

309

Context and repetition in word learning  

PubMed Central

Young children learn words from a variety of situations, including shared storybook reading. A recent study by Horst et al. (2011a) demonstrates that children learned more new words during shared storybook reading if they were read the same stories repeatedly than if they were read different stories that had the same number of target words. The current paper reviews this study and further examines the effect of contextual repetition on children's word learning in both shared storybook reading and other situations, including fast mapping by mutual exclusivity. The studies reviewed here suggest that the same cognitive mechanisms support word learning in a variety of situations. Both practical considerations for experimental design and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23580347

Horst, Jessica S.

2013-01-01

310

Emergent structured transition from variation to repetition in a biologically-plausible model of learning in basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

Often, when animals encounter an unexpected sensory event, they transition from executing a variety of movements to repeating the movement(s) that may have caused the event. According to a recent theory of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), repetition allows the animal to represent those movements, and the outcome, as an action for later recruitment. The transition from variation to repetition often follows a non-random, structured, pattern. While the structure of the pattern can be explained by sophisticated cognitive mechanisms, simpler mechanisms based on dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia (BG) activity are thought to underlie action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006). In this paper we ask the question: can simple BG-mediated mechanisms account for a structured transition from variation to repetition, or are more sophisticated cognitive mechanisms always necessary? To address this question, we present a computational model of BG-mediated biasing of behavior. In our model, unlike most other models of BG function, the BG biases behavior through modulation of cortical response to excitation; many possible movements are represented by the cortical area; and excitation to the cortical area is topographically-organized. We subject the model to simple reaching tasks, inspired by behavioral studies, in which a location to which to reach must be selected. Locations within a target area elicit a reinforcement signal. A structured transition from variation to repetition emerges from simple BG-mediated biasing of cortical response to excitation. We show how the structured pattern influences behavior in simple and complicated tasks. We also present analyses that describe the structured transition from variation to repetition due to BG-mediated biasing and from biasing that would be expected from a type of cognitive biasing, allowing us to compare behavior resulting from these types of biasing and make connections with future behavioral experiments. PMID:24575067

Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

2014-01-01

311

Abnormalities of human sex determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cytogenetic and molecular studies in patients with abnormalities of sex determination have been the key to the isolation and investigation of candidates for the primary testis determining factor (TDF). A gene, SRY, isolated from the sex determining region of the Y chromosome within 5 kilobases of the pairing segment boundary, has been characterized recently which fulfils the expectations of

M. A. Ferguson-Smith

1992-01-01

312

Steganography with Least Histogram Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel steganographic scheme is proposed which avoids asymmetry inherent in conventional LSB embedding techniques so that abnormality in the image histogram is kept minimum. The proposed technique is capable of re- sisting the ?2 test and RS analysis, as well as a new steganalytic method named GPC analysis as introduced in this paper. In the described steganographic tech- nique,

Xinpeng Zhang; Shuozhong Wang; Kaiwen Zhang

2003-01-01

313

Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

Berretta, Sabina

2011-01-01

314

Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

2013-01-01

315

Nonword repetition and nonword reading abilities in adults who do and do not stutter  

PubMed Central

Purpose In the present study a nonword repetition and a nonword reading task were used to investigate the behavioral (speech accuracy) and speech kinematic (movement variability measured as lip aperture variability index; speech duration) profiles of groups of young adults who do (AWS) and do not stutter (control). Method Participants were 9 AWS (8 males, Mean age = 32.2, SD = 14.7) and 9 age- and sex-matched control participants (Mean age = 31.8, SD = 14.6). For the nonword repetition task, participants were administered the Nonword Repetition Test (Dolloghan & Campbell, 1998). For the reading task, participants were required to read out target nonwords varying in length (6 vs. 11 syllables). Repeated measures ANOVA were conducted to compare the groups in percent speech accuracy for both tasks; only for the nonword reading task, the groups were compared in movement variability and speech duration. Results The groups were comparable in percent accuracy in nonword repetition. Findings from nonword reading revealed a trend for the AWS to show a lower percent of accurate productions compared to the control group. AWS also showed significantly higher movement variability and longer speech durations compared to the control group in nonword reading. Some preliminary evidence for group differences in practice effect (seen as differences between the early vs. later 5 trials) was evident in speech duration. Conclusions Findings suggest differences between AWS and control groups in phonemic encoding and/or speech motor planning and production. Findings from nonword repetition vs. reading highlight the need for careful consideration of nonword properties. PMID:24238389

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi

2013-01-01

316

Multi-Input Multi-Output Repetitive Control Theory And Taylor Series Based Repetitive Control Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repetitive control (RC) systems aim to achieve zero tracking error when tracking a periodic command, or when tracking a constant command in the presence of a periodic disturbance, or both a periodic command and periodic disturbance. This dissertation presents a new approach using Taylor Series Expansion of the inverse system z-transfer function model to design Finite Impulse Response (FIR) repetitive controllers for single-input single-output (SISO) systems, and compares the designs obtained to those generated by optimization in the frequency domain. This approach is very simple, straightforward, and easy to use. It also supplies considerable insight, and gives understanding of the cause of the patterns for zero locations in the optimization based design. The approach forms a different and effective time domain design method, and it can also be used to guide the choice of parameters in performing in the frequency domain optimization design. Next, this dissertation presents the theoretical foundation for frequency based optimization design of repetitive control design for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. A comprehensive stability theory for MIMO repetitive control is developed. A necessary and sufficient condition for asymptotic stability in MIMO RC is derived, and four sufficient conditions are created. One of these is the MIMO version of the approximate monotonic decay condition in SISO RC, and one is a necessary and sufficient condition for stability for all possible disturbance periods. An appropriate optimization criterion for direct MIMO is presented based on minimizing a Frobenius norm summed over frequencies from zero to Nyquist. This design process is very tractable, requiring only solution of a linear algebraic equation. An alternative approach reduces the problem to a set of SISO design problems, one for each input-output pair. The performances of the resulting designs are studied by extensive examples. Both approaches are seen to be able to create RC designs with fast monotonic decay of the tracking error. Finally, this dissertation presents an analysis of using an experiment design sequence for parameter identification based on the theory of iterative learning control (ILC), a sister field to repetitive control. This is suggested as an alternative to the results in optimal experiment design. Modified ILC laws that are intentionally non-robust to model errors are developed, as a way to fine tune the use of ILC for identification purposes. The non-robustness with respect to its ability to improve identification of system parameters when the model error is correct is studied. It is demonstrated that in many cases the approach makes the learning particularly sensitive to relatively small parameter errors in the model, but sensitivity is sometimes limited to parameter errors of a specific sign.

Xu, Kevin

317

A Negative Effect of Repetition in Episodic Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the foundational principles of human memory is that repetition (i.e., being presented with a stimulus multiple times) improves recall. In the current study a group of participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once, a negative repetition effect. Such a…

Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

2012-01-01

318

Two Forms of Spoken Repetition in a Girl with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The talk of persons with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) often features distinctive forms of repetition (echophenomena). Although often characterized as meaningless or inappropriate, there is evidence that such practices can sometimes have communicative functions. Aims: To investigate the interactional organization of repetition

Stribling, Penny; Rae, John; Dickerson, Paul

2007-01-01

319

Conversational Characteristics of Children with Fragile X Syndrome: Repetitive Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of the production of repetitive speech during conversations in 30 people with either fragile X syndrome, autistic disorder, or mental retardation not caused by fragile X found repetitive speech more prevalent among those with fragile X. Results support the hypothesis that such speech dysfluency reflects the effects of physiological…

Belser, Richard C.; Sudhalter, Vicki

2001-01-01

320

Role Playing and Repetition Effects on Opinion Strength  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of role playing and repetition of persuasive communication on opinion change were studied by means of a 2 x 2 factorial design (N = 296). Active role playing was superior to passive listening, and three presentations of the persuasive communications were superior to a single presentation. Role playing and repetition did not interact.…

Weiss, Robert Frank

1971-01-01

321

RUPERT: a Device for Robotic Upper Extremity Repetitive Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development and initial evaluation of a device for robotic assisted upper extremity repetitive therapy (RUPERTtrade). Intense repetitive physical therapies provided by individualized interaction between the patient and a rehabilitation specialist to overcome upper extremity impairment after stroke are beneficial, however, they are expensive and difficult to evaluate quantitatively and objectively. The need is urgent and growing for

Jiping He; E. J. Koeneman; R. S. Schultz; D. E. Herring; J. Wanberg; H. Huang; T. Sugar; R. Herman; J. B. Koeneman

2005-01-01

322

Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate…

Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

2012-01-01

323

Repetitive sequence families in Alces alces americana.  

PubMed

High-resolution derivative melting was used to obtain detailed distributions of local (G + C) contents in a number of ruminant DNAs. Profiles over low (G + C) regions [20-36% (G + C)] are congruent for all ruminants. This region represents 45-50% of the nuclear DNA content and primarily contains intergenic and intron sequences. The high (G + C) region, where most coding sequences are found [38-68% (G + C)], is marked by satellite bands denoting the presence of transcriptionally inert, tandemly repetitive sequence families. These bands can be analyzed for the abundance, base composition, and sequence divergence of satellite families with relatively high precision. Band patterns are unique to each species; even closely related species can be readily distinguished by their base distribution profiles. Variations in nuclear DNA contents in ruminants, determined by flow cytometry, are primarily due to variations in abundances of these repetitive sequence families. Thus, A. alces (moose) is found to have 8.85 +/- 0.2 pg DNA/cell, 25% more than the average in ruminants, while the base distribution curve indicates the presence of an unusually abundant satellite of 52.6% (G + C). The size (1 kb) and sequence of this satellite corresponds to satellite-I of other cervids, and in consequence it is designated Alces-I. The sequence of a cloned repeat of Alces-I has a length of 968 bp, a (G + C) content of 52.6%, and contributes 35%, or almost 3 million copies to the nuclear DNA, exceeding by approximately 300% the average array size of this repeat family in related cervids. In situ hybridization indicates the repeat is distributed throughout centromeric regions of all 62 acrocentric autosomes. Alces-I has much greater-than-expected numbers of GG, GA, and AG and far fewer numbers of TA and CG duplets, characteristics of all tandem repeats. The sequence is judged to be orthologous with satellite-I sequences from Rangifer tarandus (caribou), Capreolus capreolus (roe deer), Muntiacus muntjac (Chinese muntjac) and Muntiacus reevesi (Indian muntjac), as well as Antilocapra americana (pronghorn), and the bovids Bos taurus and Ovis aries. A tentative tree for the five cervids is in excellent agreement with one proposed on the basis of morphological characteristics. Differences from a consensus sequence indicate transversions exceed transitions by almost twofold, suggesting that substitutions occur randomly, or nearly so. PMID:9115175

Blake, R D; Wang, J Z; Beauregard, L

1997-05-01

324

Repetition is easy: Why repeated referents have reduced prominence  

PubMed Central

The repetition and predictability of a word in a conversation are two factors that are believed to affect whether or not it is emphasized: predictable, repeated words are less acoustically prominent than unpredictable, new words. However, because predictability and repetition are correlated, it is unclear whether speakers lengthen unpredictable words to facilitate comprehension or whether this lengthening is the result of difficulties in accessing a new (non-repeated) lexical item. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between acoustic prominence, repetition, and predictability in a description task. In Experiment 1, we find that repeated referents are produced with reduced prominence, even when these referents are unexpected. In Experiment 2, we find that predictability and repetition both have independent effects on duration and intensity. However, word duration was primarily determined by repetition, and intensity was primarily determined by predictability. The data are most consistent with an account in which multiple cognitive factors influence the acoustic prominence of a word. PMID:21156876

Lam, Tuan Q.; Watson, Duane G.

2011-01-01

325

Methane conversion by repetitive nanosecond pulsed plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of methane conversion by repetitive nanosecond pulsed plasma was accomplished. In this study, a conversion rate of about 60% was obtained at an energy conversion efficiency of more than 75%. The conversion performance reached the optimum value at an electrode gap of about 5 mm. To raise the temperature, the reactor was thermally isolated. At moderate frequencies, a non-isolated reactor with a lower temperature demonstrated a better conversion performance. This was attributed to the dominance of the vibrational dissociation channel. It was also demonstrated that the conversion process considerably improved at a pulse-to-pulse time interval of less than 100 µs, which is the lifetime of ion molecules at atmospheric pressure. A mathematical model based on two temperatures is developed in order to explain the dissociation mechanism. The model reveals that the greatest molecular dissociation occurs when there is a high vibrational non-equilibrium state in the molecule. This non-equilibrium state lasts less than a microsecond at the post-plasma stage. It explains the high efficiencies obtained in the conversion process and is specific to the pulsed plasmas.

Lotfalipour, R.; Ghorbanzadeh, A. M.; Mahdian, A.

2014-09-01

326

Can the Edinburgh Risk of Repetition Scale Predict Repetition of Deliberate Self-Poisoning in an Australian Clinical Setting?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the ability of the Edinburgh Risk of Repetition Scale (ERRS) to identify patients at high risk for repeat deliberate self-poisoning (DSP). A statistically significant relationship between ERRS scores and repetition was observed; however, sensitivity and specificity were low. The ERRS had limited value in identifying patients at high risk of…

Carter, Gregory Leigh; Clover, Kerrie Ann; Bryant, Jennifer Lynn; Whyte, Ian MacGregor

2002-01-01

327

Repetitive calls of juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels ( Spermophilus richardsonii ) communicate response urgency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Richardson's ground squirrels, Spermophilus richardsonii, produce both repetitive and non-repetitive antipredator calls. While many hypotheses have been advanced to explain non-repetitive calls, the function of repetitive calling has received relatively little attention. We presented juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels with a predator model at distances ranging from 1 to 8 m and recorded the subsequent repetitive calls on digital audiotape. The

Kurtis J. Warkentin; Annika T. H. Keeley; James F. Hare

2001-01-01

328

Selective attention modulates neural substrates of repetition priming and "implicit" visual memory: suppressions and enhancements revealed by FMRI.  

PubMed

Attention can enhance processing for relevant information and suppress this for ignored stimuli. However, some residual processing may still arise without attention. Here we presented overlapping outline objects at study, with subjects attending to those in one color but not the other. Attended objects were subsequently recognized on a surprise memory test, whereas there was complete amnesia for ignored items on such direct explicit testing; yet reliable behavioral priming effects were found on indirect testing. Event-related fMRI examined neural responses to previously attended or ignored objects, now shown alone in the same or mirror-reversed orientation as before, intermixed with new items. Repetition-related decreases in fMRI responses for objects previously attended and repeated in the same orientation were found in the right posterior fusiform, lateral occipital, and left inferior frontal cortex. More anterior fusiform regions also showed some repetition decreases for ignored objects, irrespective of orientation. View-specific repetition decreases were found in the striate cortex, particularly for previously attended items. In addition, previously ignored objects produced some fMRI response increases in the bilateral lingual gyri, relative to new objects. Selective attention at exposure can thus produce several distinct long-term effects on processing of stimuli repeated later, with neural response suppression stronger for previously attended objects, and some response enhancement for previously ignored objects, with these effects arising in different brain areas. Although repetition decreases may relate to positive priming phenomena, the repetition increases for ignored objects shown here for the first time might relate to processes that can produce "negative priming" in some behavioral studies. These results reveal quantitative and qualitative differences between neural substrates of long-term repetition effects for attended versus unattended objects. PMID:16197681

Vuilleumier, Patrik; Schwartz, Sophie; Duhoux, Stéphanie; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon

2005-08-01

329

Symphalangism with metacarpophalangeal fusions and elbow abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three generations of a family manifest similar skeletal abnormalities: proximal symphalangism with several unusual features, metacarpophalangeal synostoses, massive tarsal and carpal fusions and abnormalities of the elbows (radial head dislocation, radiohumetal synosfosis).

E. G. Kassner; I. Katz; Q. H. Qazi

1976-01-01

330

Controversies surrounding "misuse," "overuse," and "repetition" in musicians.  

PubMed

Medical opinion remains divided on the existence of a specific medical entity of nonspecific arm pain produced by repetition. Controversy also exists in the pathophysiology of certain painful, anatomically defined medical conditions in the hand and arm and the role of repetition, cumulative trauma, and microtrauma in the development of these conditions. The flaws in science and the language are examined in this article, as are the results of a survey of Australian music students in comparison with nonmusic students, questioning accepted wisdom on repetitive strain injuries. PMID:12852675

Winspur, Ian

2003-05-01

331

Contextual repetition facilitates word learning via fast mapping.  

PubMed

The current study explores whether contextual repetition during fast mapping facilitates word learning. Three-year-old children completed fast mapping and test trials using a touchscreen computer. For half of the children, the non-targets (competitors) repeated across learning trials and for other children there was no repetition. All children received the same test trials. Children who experienced contextual repetition, that is, children for whom the competitors repeated during the initial fast mapping task, demonstrated word learning. These data demonstrate that children's word learning is facilitated by the presence of extraneous yet predictable information in the initial fast mapping task. PMID:25195163

Axelsson, Emma L; Horst, Jessica S

2014-10-01

332

Symmetry versus repetition in cyclopean vision: a microgenetic analysis.  

PubMed

In four experiments, participants had to detect symmetries or repetitions distributed over two depth planes, under presentation times of 200-1000 ms. Structurally corresponding elements were placed in different planes (Experiments 1a and 1b) or in the same plane (Experiments 2a and 2b). Results suggest (a) an ongoing interaction between regularity cues and depth cues, and (b) that efficient detection of symmetry but not of repetition depends on structural correspondences within depth planes. The latter confirms the idea that, to perceptual organization, symmetry is a cue for the presence of one object, whereas repetition is a cue for the presence of multiple objects. PMID:17881033

Treder, Matthias S; van der Helm, Peter A

2007-10-01

333

Repetitive mechanical responses of the amphibian skin to adrenergic stimulation .  

PubMed

Mechanical responses of the amphibian nerve-skin preparation to adrenergic stimulation were investigated by recording pressure changes at the skin surface with a piezoelectric sensor. When a dilute epinephrine (or norepinephrine) solution was applied to the inner skin surface, repetitive mechanical responses, representing quick swelling of the skin repeating at more or less regular intervals of about 1 min, were frequently observed. In about 10% of the preparations, the skin was found to undergo repetitive quick shrinkage (instead of swelling) under practically indistinguishable experimental conditions. Rapid volume changes occurring in the cytoplasmic gel of the gland cells are considered to be at the base of these repetitive mechanical responses. PMID:9757146

Tasaki, I

1998-08-01

334

[Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autism].  

PubMed

The autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by socially aloof behavior and impairment of language and social interaction. This paper is a review of literature on gastrointestinal problems in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal symptoms are described in 9-54% of autistic children, among which most common are: constipation, diarrhea and abdominal distension. The gastro-intestinal abnormalities reported in autism include: inflammation (esophagitis, gastritis, duodenitis, enterocolitis) with or without autoimmunity, lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, increased intestinal permeability, low activities of disaccharidase enzymes, impairment of detoxification (e.g. defective sulfation of ingested phenolic amines), dysbiosis with bacterial overgrowth, food intolerance or exorphin intoxication (by opioid derived from casein and gluten). A beneficial effect of dietary intervention on behavior and cognition of some autistic children indicates a functional relationship between the alimentary tract and the central nervous system. There are no epidemiologic data concerning the incidence or prevalence of gastrointestinal problems within the population of children with ASD in comparison to the population of non-ASD children. PMID:19650428

Wasilewska, Jolanta; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elzbieta; Kaczmarski, Maciej

2009-07-01

335

Foot abnormalities of wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

1962-01-01

336

Disruption of Saccadic Adaptation with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Posterior  

E-print Network

Disruption of Saccadic Adaptation with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the ability of healthy human subjects to adapt magnetic stimulation . Repetitive Introduction Several areas of cerebral cortex contribute

Miall, Chris

337

A model of abnormal gastric electrical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of abnormal gastric electrical activity is presented and used to investigate the accuracy of surface EGGs in the detection of gastric electrical abnormalities. The results show that current surface electrode configurations, cannot detect abnormalities that are not widespread. Substantial improvements can be obtained by using electrode arrays. Surface maps of the slow waves and the signal-to-noise ratio

B. O. Familoni; T. L. Abell; R. Praturu; S. Katragadda; P. Sabourin

1989-01-01

338

The profile of body abnormalities of bodybuilders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situational abnormalities usually occur due to the non-standard use of body which leads in the deformity of body and has lost of side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the type and incidence of skeletal abnormalities in bodybuilders. Situational abnormality of 118 bodybuilders were assessed via posture screen and inserted in examination form. ?2 Test was used

Mahdi Rostami Haji-Abadi; Nader Rahnama

2010-01-01

339

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

340

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

341

The Effect of Repetition on Tempo Preferences of Elementary Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of children's preferences between slow and fast tempo classical music excerpts. Finds that students preferred music with a slow tempo. Concludes that repetition had a positive effect on children's preferences. (CFR)

Moskovitz, Elisa M.

1992-01-01

342

10 CFR 52.8 - Combining licenses; elimination of repetition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 52.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.8 Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. (a) An...

2011-01-01

343

10 CFR 52.8 - Combining licenses; elimination of repetition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 52.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.8 Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. (a) An...

2013-01-01

344

Analysis of repetitive DNA in chromosomes by flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

We developed a flow cytometry method, chromosome flow fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), called CFF, to analyze repetitive DNA in chromosomes using FISH with directly labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. We used CFF to measure the abundance of interstitial telomeric sequences in Chinese hamster chromosomes and major satellite sequences in mouse chromosomes. Using CFF we also identified parental homologs of human chromosome 18 with different amounts of repetitive DNA. PMID:21532581

Brind'Amour, Julie; Lansdorp, Peter M.

2013-01-01

345

Long term repetition effects during massed, serial, and random practice  

E-print Network

LONG TERM REPETITION EFFECTS DURING MASSED, SERIAL, AND RANDOM PRACTICE A Thesis by MARIANNE ELIZABETH GOEN Submitted to Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved... as to style and content by: 'd Wright (Ch of Committee) rgia Frey (Member) ck Nation ember) Jack Wilmore ead of Department) December 1998 Major Subject: Kinesiology ABSTRACT Long Term Repetition Effects During Massed, Serial, and Random Practice...

Goen, Marianne Elizabeth

2012-06-07

346

Plasma Source for a Miniature and Repetitive Plasma Opening Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many modern applications of pulsed power, such as industrial food processing, pollution control and compact radiation sources for the defence industry require a simple, reliable, repetitive table-top high-power source. Although Marx generators are commonly used, a much simpler technical solution is to couple a single high-voltage capacitor with a repetitive and miniaturized plasma opening switch (POS). Loughborough University has recently

R. Kumar; B. M. Novac; I. R. Smith; C. Greenwood

2008-01-01

347

Human Scalp Electroencephalography Reveals that Repetition Suppression Varies with Expectation  

PubMed Central

Repetitions of a sensory event elicit lower levels of brain activity than its initial presentation (“repetition suppression,” RS). According to one view, RS depends on the biophysics of neuronal discharge, and is thus an automatic consequence of stimulus processing (“fatigue” model). Another account suggests that RS depends on the statistical structure of the environment, and occurs when repeated stimuli are less surprising than novel stimuli (“surprise reduction” model). In support of the latter view, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that RS is modulated by the local probability of repetition. However, single-cell recordings from macaque inferotemporal area (IT) have failed to replicate this finding. Here, we recorded scalp electroencephalography from human participants viewing pairs of faces that repeated (face1–face1) or alternated (face1–face2), in contexts in which repetitions were expected or unexpected. As previously described, event-related potentials in the range of 100–400?ms recorded at posterior electrode sites and at the vertex differed between repetitions and alternations. Critically, at central electrodes, we observed that the difference between repeated and alternating stimuli was attenuated when repetitions were unexpected, as predicted by the surprise reduction model. These findings demonstrate that the modulation of RS by repetition probability is observable using direct neural recording methods in human participants, and that it occurs relatively late (>300?ms) post-stimulus. Finally, we found that theta-band (4–8?Hz) spectral power over central electrodes varied with the three-way interaction between of repetition, expectation, and the rate of change of the environment, consistent with recent reports that frontal theta may be a hallmark of learning processes originating in the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:21847378

Summerfield, Christopher; Wyart, Valentin; Johnen, Vanessa Mareike; de Gardelle, Vincent

2011-01-01

348

Short palindromic repetitive DNA elements in enterobacteria: a survey.  

PubMed

We present a survey of short palindromic repetitive elements in enterobacteria. Seven families are presented. Five were already known (RSA, IRU, 29-bp repeats, BIMEs and boxC), and their properties are updated; in particular, a new composite element is shown to include the formerly identified boxC repeats. Two repetitions, YPAL1 and YPAL2, found primarily in Yersinia, are described here for the first time. PMID:10673002

Bachellier, S; Clément, J M; Hofnung, M

1999-01-01

349

Brain Injury Following Repetitive Apnea in Newborn Piglets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repetitive apnea is associated with a significant increase in extracellular dopamine, generation of free radicals as determined by o-tyrosine formation and increase in Fluoro-Jade staining of degenerating neurons. This increase in extracellular dopamine and of hydroxyl radicals in striatum of newborn brain is likely to be at least partly responsible for the neuronal injury and neurological side effects of repetitive apnea.

Schears, Gregory; Creed, Jennifer; Antoni, Diego; Zaitseva, Tatiana; Greeley, William; Wilson, David F.; Pastuszko, Anna

350

Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H2O2 and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

Ruma, Hosseini, S. H. R.; Yoshihara, K.; Akiyama, M.; Sakugawa, T.; Lukeš, P.; Akiyama, H.

2014-09-01

351

Stimulus repetition modulates gamma-band synchronization in primate visual cortex  

PubMed Central

When a sensory stimulus repeats, neuronal firing rate and functional MRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses typically decline, yet perception and behavioral performance either stay constant or improve. An additional aspect of neuronal activity is neuronal synchronization, which can enhance the impact of neurons onto their postsynaptic targets independent of neuronal firing rates. We show that stimulus repetition leads to profound changes of neuronal gamma-band (?40–90 Hz) synchronization. Electrocorticographic recordings in two awake macaque monkeys demonstrated that repeated presentations of a visual grating stimulus resulted in a steady increase of visually induced gamma-band activity in area V1, gamma-band synchronization between areas V1 and V4, and gamma-band activity in area V4. Microelectrode recordings in area V4 of two additional monkeys under the same stimulation conditions allowed a direct comparison of firing rates and gamma-band synchronization strengths for multiunit activity (MUA), as well as for isolated single units, sorted into putative pyramidal cells and putative interneurons. MUA and putative interneurons showed repetition-related decreases in firing rate, yet increases in gamma-band synchronization. Putative pyramidal cells showed no repetition-related firing rate change, but a decrease in gamma-band synchronization for weakly stimulus-driven units and constant gamma-band synchronization for strongly driven units. We propose that the repetition-related changes in gamma-band synchronization maintain the interareal stimulus signaling and sharpen the stimulus representation by gamma-synchronized pyramidal cell spikes. PMID:24554080

Brunet, Nicolas M.; Bosman, Conrado A.; Vinck, Martin; Roberts, Mark; Oostenveld, Robert; Desimone, Robert; De Weerd, Peter; Fries, Pascal

2014-01-01

352

Psy 3604 Abnormal Psychology (3 cr.) (call # 12480) Fall 2003 Class Meetings: 2:30-3:45 p.m. TTh, 325 Science Classroom Building  

E-print Network

Psy 3604 Abnormal Psychology (3 cr.) (call # 12480) Fall 2003 Class Meetings: 2:30-3:45 p.m. TTh (Psy 3617, Introduction to Clinical Psychology). Text V. M. Durand & D. H. Barlow. Abnormal Psychology of abnormal behavior. Emphasis will be placed on an empirical view. The bulk of the course will cover

Grove, William M.

353

Extreme developmental temperatures result in morphological abnormalities in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta): a climate change perspective.  

PubMed

Increases in extreme environmental events are predicted to be major results of ongoing global climate change and may impact the persistence of species. We examined the effects of heat and cold waves during embryonic development of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in natural nests on the occurrence of abnormal shell morphologies in hatchlings. We found that nests exposed to extreme hot temperatures for >60 h produced more hatchlings with abnormalities than nests exposed to extreme hot temperatures for shorter periods, regardless of whether or not nesting females displayed abnormal morphologies. We observed no effect of extreme cold nest temperatures on the occurrence of hatchlings with abnormalities. Moreover, the frequency of nesting females with abnormal shell morphologies was approximately 2-fold lower than that of their offspring, suggesting that such abnormalities are negatively correlated with survival and fitness. Female turtles could potentially buffer their offspring from extreme heat by altering aspects of nesting behavior, such as choosing shadier nesting sites. We addressed this hypothesis by examining the effects of shade cover on extreme nest temperatures and the occurrence of hatchling abnormalities. While shade cover was negatively correlated with the occurrence of extreme hot nest temperatures, it was not significantly correlated with abnormalities. Therefore, female choice of shade cover does not appear to be a viable target for selection to reduce hatchling abnormalities. Our results suggest that increases in the frequency and intensity of heat waves associated with climate change might perturb developmental programs and thereby reduce the fitness of entire cohorts of turtles. PMID:23731815

Telemeco, Rory S; Warner, Daniel A; Reida, Molly K; Janzen, Fredric J

2013-06-01

354

Switching between global and local levels: the level repetition effect and its hemispheric asymmetry  

PubMed Central

The global level of hierarchical stimuli (Navon’s stimuli) is typically processed quicker and better than the local level; further differential hemispheric dominance is described for local (left hemisphere, LH) and global (right hemisphere, RH) processing. However, neuroimaging and behavioral data indicate that stimulus category (letter or object) could modulate the hemispheric asymmetry for the local level processing. Besides, when the targets are unpredictably displayed at the global or local level, the participant has to switch between levels, and the magnitude of the switch cost increases with the number of repeated-level trials preceding the switch. The hemispheric asymmetries associated with level switching is an unresolved issue. LH areas may be involved in carrying over the target level information in case of level repetition. These areas may also largely participate in the processing of level-changed trials. Here we hypothesized that RH areas underly the inhibitory mechanism performed on the irrelevant level, as one of the components of the level switching process. In an experiment using a within-subject design, hierarchical stimuli were briefly presented either to the right or to the left visual field. 32 adults were instructed to identify the target at the global or local level. We assessed a possible RH dominance for the non-target level inhibition by varying the attentional demands through the manipulation of level repetitions (two or gour repeated-level trials before the switch). The behavioral data confirmed a LH specialization only for the local level processing of letter-based stimuli, and detrimental effect of increased level repetitions before a switch. Further, data provides evidence for a RH advantage in inhibiting the non-target level. Taken together, the data supports the notion of the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying level-switch effects. PMID:24723903

Keita, Luc; Bedoin, Nathalie; Burack, Jacob A.; Lepore, Franco

2014-01-01

355

Event-related potentials differentiate the effects of aging on word and nonword repetition in explicit and implicit memory tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explicit memory declines with age while implicit memory remains largely intact. These experiments extended behavioral findings by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in young and elderly adults during repetition priming and recognition memory paradigms. Words and pronounceable nonwords repeated after 1 of 3 delays. Stimuli were categorized as either word-nonword or old-new. Repeated items elicited more positive-going potentials in bom tasks.

Diane Swick; Robert T. Knight

1997-01-01

356

Repetition-priming Modulates Category-related Effects on Event-related Potentials: Further Evidence for Multiple Cortical Semantic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the significance of category-related brain activations as an index of semantic memory structure was assessed within a repetition-priming paradigm during a lexical decision task. The interpretation of category-related effects has been debated since previous studies observed category-related brain activity mainly in tasks requiring explicit semantic categorization. Furthermore, categories were frequently associated with behavioral performance differences, which

Markus Kiefer

2005-01-01

357

Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser.  

PubMed

High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100 GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55 ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7 nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary. PMID:24226153

Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu

2013-01-01

358

Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser  

PubMed Central

High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100?GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55?ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7?nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary. PMID:24226153

Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu

2013-01-01

359

Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100 GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55 ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7 nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary.

Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu

2013-11-01

360

Pain Catastrophizing as Repetitive Negative Thinking: A Development of the Conceptualization  

PubMed Central

Pain catastrophizing is a well-known concept in the pain literature and has been recognized as one of the most powerful psychological determinants of negative outcomes for pain problems. However, relatively little effort has been put into developing its theoretical underpinnings. More specifically, the intrinsic function of catastrophizing is not explicitly dealt with in contemporary theoretical models. The aim of this article is to add to existing models by proposing a development of the conceptualization of catastrophizing that stresses its function as an emotion regulator. We argue that catastrophizing can be conceptualized as a form of negative repetitive thinking, which is abstract, intrusive, and difficult to disengage from. It has been argued that repetitive negative thinking is a form of ineffective problem solving that functions to downregulate negative affect and that it can be regarded as an avoidant coping strategy because it impedes processing of emotional and somatic responses. Thus, in our conceptualization, catastrophizing is proposed to be a form of problem-solving behavior that functions to reduce negative emotion triggered by pain, and other related stimuli. Furthermore, we argue that catastrophizing is preferably regarded as a process where cognitions, emotions, and overt behavior are intertwined and not viewed as separate entities. To underscore the latter, we suggest the term catastrophic worry. Our intention with this development of the conceptualization is to give rise to new ideas for research and clinical practice and to revitalize discussions about the theoretical framework around pain-related catastrophizing. PMID:23978106

Flink, Ida Landstrom; Boersma, Katja; Linton, Steven J.

2013-01-01

361

Multiple cellular mechanisms prevent chromosomal rearrangements involving repetitive DNA  

PubMed Central

Repetitive DNA is present in the eukaryotic genome in the form of segmental duplications, tandem and interspersed repeats, and satellites. Repetitive sequences can be beneficial by serving specific cellular functions (e.g. centromeric and telomeric DNA) and by providing a rapid means for adaptive evolution. However, such elements are also substrates for deleterious chromosomal rearrangements that affect fitness and promote human disease. Recent studies analyzing the role of nuclear organization in DNA repair and factors that suppress non-allelic homologous recombination have provided insights into how genome stability is maintained in eukaryotes. In this review we outline the types of repetitive sequences seen in eukaryotic genomes and how recombination mechanisms are regulated at the DNA sequence, cell organization, chromatin structure, and cell cycle control levels to prevent chromosomal rearrangements involving these sequences. PMID:22494239

George, Carolyn M.; Alani, Eric

2012-01-01

362

White Matter Abnormalities and Animal Models Examining a Putative Role of Altered White Matter in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1% of the population worldwide. Although the dopamine (DA) hypothesis is still keeping a dominant position in schizophrenia research, new advances have been emerging in recent years, which suggest the implication of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will briefly review some of recent human studies showing white matter abnormalities in schizophrenic brains and altered oligodendrocyte-(OL-) and myelin-related genes in patients with schizophrenia and will consider abnormal behaviors reported in patients with white matter diseases. Following these, we will selectively introduce some animal models examining a putative role of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The emphasis will be put on the cuprizone (CPZ) model. CPZ-fed mice show demyelination and OLs loss, display schizophrenia-related behaviors, and have higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex. These features suggest that the CPZ model is a novel animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:22937274

Xu, Haiyun; Li, Xin-Min

2011-01-01

363

Clinical specificity of acute versus chronic self-injury: measurement and evaluation of repetitive non-suicidal self-injury.  

PubMed

Overall, previous studies on the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors in the general population have stressed the importance of differentiating between occasional and repetitive NSSI, examining different severity levels (e.g., frequency and variety of methods), as well as investigating the diverse psychopathological correlates of NSSI. However, existing NSSI measures have not been explicitly developed by to comply with the NSSI diagnostic criteria proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The purpose of this study is to develop a measure of repetitive NSSI by considering its essential features, as described in the proposed DSM-5 as well as in other clinically relevant aspects emerging from case reports. Two independent samples of participants (N1=383 young adults and 251 adolescents; N2=953 adolescents) belonging to the general population were involved in the present study. The questionnaire showed satisfactory fit statistics and reliably discriminated between occasional and repetitive self-injurers (Area Under Curve, AUC=0.755). The pattern of correlations with psychopathological measures confirmed a more clinically-compromised profile for repetitive rather than occasional self-injurers. PMID:24210667

Manca, Maura; Presaghi, Fabio; Cerutti, Rita

2014-01-30

364

Abnormal conductivity behavior in porous lead telluride films  

PubMed Central

We report the experimental observation of the novel phenomenon of the resistivity decrease in porous PbTe layers during the pore formation process. Investigations were performed on the n-PbTe films with 2.3-?m thickness, which were near the point of the conductivity-type inversion at room temperature. Anodic electrochemical treatment for the porous layers with 41% to 52% porosity fabrication was performed using a KOH-based Norr electrolyte solution. For the porous lead telluride layers, the resistivity value at 300?K decreased 2.5 to 3 times. For the explanation of the observed phenomenon, a physical model is proposed which takes into account the Pb/Te ratio change during the anodic treatment. PMID:22873648

2012-01-01

365

Abnormal behavior in adiabatic calorimetry of set dental stone.  

PubMed

Dehydration in set dental stone was studied by employing specific heat measurements. Dehydration proceeds in two steps in air. In the case of bulk samples, especially those made with a lower water-powder ratio, three endothermic reaction stages are observed; a reaction of the dihydrate to the hemihydrate is apparently separated in two, one of which is not inherent. It is thought that the occurrence of a new peak is due to the difficulty for the dehydrated water to escape, depending on the porosity of the set stone. PMID:8940549

Hisatsune, K; el Araby, A M; Iwanuma, K; Tanaka, Y; Udoh, K; Yasuda, K

1995-06-01

366

Spontaneous imitation by children with autism during a repetitive musical play routine.  

PubMed

Joint-attention-type intervention strategies have been identified as effective scaffolds for increasing social engagement in children with autism. Imitating children with autism within child-led social routines has increased children's attention and active participation in social interaction. The current study expands on this research by establishing a musical social milieu using repetitive imitation routines for four children with autism. Results were evaluated using an MPD across three behaviors and four children with an ABAB reversal for one child. Children increased spontaneous imitation of the researcher's models after being imitated with only social reinforcement for increased imitation. However, experimental control was weakened with carry-over effects for two children and failure to fully replicate results across participants and behaviors. The accumulation of evidence from varied studies, despite some mixed results, encourages further study into the effects of imitating children with autism to increase spontaneous social engagement. PMID:19005033

Stephens, Carolyn E

2008-11-01

367

Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

2012-01-01

368

TECHWR-L: Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you work in front of a computer a lot, you are probably a candidate for Repetitive-Stress Injuries (RSI). This article from TECHWR-L entitled, Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries: A Guide for the Technical Communicator gives some helpful tips for preventing the aches, pains, hand problems and eye strain associated with repeated computer usage. The article discusses different mouse options, keyboard options, and other adjustments you can make to lessen your risk of RSI and make typing at the computer a little more pleasant. Additional links at the bottom provide further information on healthy computing.

369

Prediction of Muscle Performance During Dynamic Repetitive Exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for predicting human muscle performance was developed. Eight test subjects performed a repetitive dynamic exercise to failure using a Lordex spinal machine. Electromyography (EMG) data was collected from the erector spinae. Evaluation of the EMG data using a 5th order Autoregressive (AR) model and statistical regression analysis revealed that an AR parameter, the mean average magnitude of AR poles, can predict performance to failure as early as the second repetition of the exercise. Potential applications to the space program include evaluating on-orbit countermeasure effectiveness, maximizing post-flight recovery, and future real-time monitoring capability during Extravehicular Activity.

Byerly, D. L.; Byerly, K. A.; Sognier, M. A.; Squires, W. G.

2002-01-01

370

Repetitive spreading depression causes selective suppression of GABAergic function.  

PubMed

Cortical spreading depression (SD) represents a pathophysiological signal that has been associated with the induction of migraine and ischaemic brain damage. The properties of repetitive SDs and their effects on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission were analysed in neocortical slices obtained from adult rats. The SD showed only small variations in amplitude, duration and integral when elicited four times at intervals of 30 min. Extracellularly recorded paired pulse inhibition was, however, significantly reduced by approximately 10% with each SD episode. Since excitatory synaptic transmission was unaffected, our data indicate that repetitive SD causes a selective reduction of intracortical inhibition. PMID:8981457

Krüger, H; Luhmann, H J; Heinemann, U

1996-11-01

371

On detecting abnormalities in digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in many countries all over the world. Early detection of cancer, in either diagnosis or screening programs, decreases the mortality rates. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) is software that aids radiologists in detecting abnormalities in medical images. In this article we present our approach in detecting abnormalities in mammograms using digital mammography. Each mammogram

Waleed A. Yousef; Waleed A. Mustafa; Ali A. Ali; Naglaa A. Abdelrazek; Ahmed M. Farrag

2010-01-01

372

Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

Andreas Schedl

2007-01-01

373

Dark Immunofluorescence: Correlation with Serum Immunoglobulin Abnormalities?  

PubMed Central

Occasional serum samples (<0.5%) tested by indirect immunofluorescence showed less fluorescence than did negative-control serum. A retrospective review of these patients' serum immunoglobulins revealed a high percentage of abnormalities (71%, versus 22% of controls). We suggest that this observation should be reported when seen and that the clinician should be alerted to an association with immunoglobulin abnormalities. PMID:16971516

List, J.; Buckland, M. S.; Thobhani, B.; Sheed, C. J.; Mann, J. C.; Claxton, M.; Heelan, B.

2006-01-01

374

Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

Warren, Reed P.; And Others

1986-01-01

375

Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

2008-03-01

376

Predicting Abnormal Returns Using Debt Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the ability of the company capital structures to be used as a predictor for abnormal returns in the US stock market in the long run. The relationship between debt level and abnormal return over a three-year holding period is investigated. Robustness tests are carried out to determine the predictive ability of debt ratios when controlling for size

Brian Baturevich; Gulnur Muradoglu

377

Research Report: Students' knowledge of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to compare whether final year psychology students (n = 26) could answer more items on a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) correctly on abnormal psychology than prospective psychology candidates (n = 77) and final year engineering students (n = 26). The three groups of students completed MCQs in five different fields of abnormal psychology namely; eating disorders,

Adrian Furnham; Bahman Baluch; Fiona Starr

2003-01-01

378

COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology  

E-print Network

COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011 Instructor: Dennis P. Saccuzzo, Ph: Abnormal Psychology by Susan Holen-Hoeksema 4th edition This course covers the history, theories.D., J.D. Meeting Times: Wednesday:-6:40pm Professor of Psychology E-Mail: dsaccuzz

Gallo, Linda C.

379

The present status of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of the content of fifteen representative textbooks in abnormal psychology and seven textbooks in psychiatry. It is found that abnormal psychology is a dumping ground for miscellaneous topics left over from general psychology, including sleep, dreams, suggestion, etc. The most conspicuous defect is the lack of experimental material, of which there is only .8%. Another is the

W. A. Hunt; C. Landis

1935-01-01

380

An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

White, Geoffry D.

1977-01-01

381

Abnormal mitosis induced by wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines.  

PubMed

Octoploid triticale were derived from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Mianyang11') × rye (Secale cereale L. 'Kustro'), and some progeny were obtained by the backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. In situ hybridization using rye genomic DNA and repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes was used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Three wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines and a wheat line (12FT-1685) containing a 1R and a 1BL.1RS translocation chromosome were identified. Abnormal mitosis was observed in the two lines. During mitosis of a 1R monosomic addition line (3-8-20-1R-2), lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, chromosomal bridges, and the one pole segregation of 1R chromosome were observed. Abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was also observed in some of the self-progeny plants of lines 12FT-1685 and 3-8-20-1R-2. These progeny contained 1R chromosome or 1R chromosome arm. In addition, 4B chromosomes were absent from one of the progeny of 3-8-20-1R-2. This abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was not observed in two other 1R monosomic addition lines. These results indicate that a single 1R chromosome added to wheat might cause abnormal mitotic behaviour of both wheat and rye chromosomes and different genetic variations might occurr among the sibling 1R monosomic addition lines. PMID:24564212

Fu, Shu-Lan; Yang, Man-Yu; Ren, Zheng-Long; Yan, Ben-Ju; Tang, Zong-Xiang

2014-01-01

382

Spectroscopic evidence of hippocampal abnormalities in neocortical epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Lesional neocortical epilepsy (NE) can be associated with hippocampal sclerosis or hippocampal spectroscopic abnormalities without atrophy (dual pathology). In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) was used to determine the frequency of hippocampal damage/dysfunction in NE with and without structural lesion. Sixteen patients with NE [seven temporal NE (NE-T), nine extratemporal (NE-ET)] and 16 controls were studied with a 2D MRSI sequence (Repetition time/echo time (TR/TE) = 1800/135 ms) covering both hippocampi. Seven NE patients had MR visible lesions (NE-Les), nine had normal MRI (NE-no). In each hippocampus, 12 voxels were uniformly selected. In controls, mean (± SD) NAA/(Cr + Cho) values for each voxel were calculated and voxels with NAA/(Cr + Cho) ? (mean in controls – 2SD in controls) were defined as ‘pathological’ in patients. Eight of 16 NE patients had at least two ‘pathological’ voxel (mean 2.5, range 2–5) in one hippocampus. Four were NE-Les and four NE-no. Three (43%) NE-T patients, had evidence for hippocampal damage/dysfunction and five (56%) had NE-ET. The ipsilateral hippocampus was affected in six of eight NE patients. Evidence for unilateral hippocampal damage/dysfunction was demonstrated in 50% of the NE patients. The type of NE, i.e. NE-Les or NE-no, NE-T or NE-ET, had no influence on the occurrence of hippocampal damage/dysfunction. PMID:16618342

Mueller, S. G.; Laxer, K. D.; Cashdollar, N.; Lopez, R. C.; Weiner, M. W.

2009-01-01

383

Orientation-Invariant Object Recognition: Evidence from Repetition Blindness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation.…

Harris, Irina M.; Dux, Paul E.

2005-01-01

384

The Effects of Syntactic Simplification and Repetition on Listening Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments with native Japanese-speaking English majors are reported that explored the absolute and relative effectiveness of syntactic simplification and repetition on listening comprehension. Results of both experiments indicate that syntactic simplification is an aid to comprehension. (seven references) (Author/LB)

Cervantes, Raoul; Gainer, Glenn

1992-01-01

385

Process of labeling specific chromosomes using recombinant repetitive DNA  

DOEpatents

Chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family members and consensus sequences of the repetitive DNA families for the chromosome preferential sequences. The selected low homology regions are then hybridized with chromosomes to determine those low homology regions hybridized with a specific chromosome under normal stringency conditions.

Moyzis, R.K.; Meyne, J.

1988-02-12

386

Specialized stem cell niche enables repetitive renewal of alligator teeth  

E-print Network

goal here is to identify stem cells that can be used as a resource for episodic tooth renewal. DentalSpecialized stem cell niche enables repetitive renewal of alligator teeth Ping Wua , Xiaoshan Wua lamina. Using multiple mitotic labeling, we map putative stem cells to the distal enlarged bulge

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

387

Piriform Spider Silk Sequences Reveal Unique Repetitive Elements  

PubMed Central

Orb-weaving spider silk fibers are assembled from very large, highly repetitive proteins. The repeated segments contain, in turn, short, simple repetitive amino acid motifs that account for the physical and mechanical properties of the assembled fiber. Of the six orb-weaver silk fibroins, the piriform silk that makes the attachment discs, which lashes the joints of the web and attaches dragline silk to surfaces has not been previously characterized. Piriform silk protein cDNAs were isolated from phage libraries of three species, A. trifasciata, N. clavipes, and N. cruentata. The deduced amino acid sequences from these genes revealed two new repetitive motifs: an alternating proline motif where every other amino acid is proline, and a glutamine-rich motif of 6 to 8 amino acids. Similar to other spider silk proteins, the repeated segments are large (>200 amino acids) and highly homogenized within a species. There is also substantial sequence similarity across the genes from the three species with particular conservation of the repetitive motifs. Northern blot analysis revealed that the messenger RNA is larger than 11kb and is expressed exclusively in the piriform glands of the spider. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal regions of the new proteins with published spidroins robustly shows that the pirifom sequences form an ortholog group. PMID:20954740

Perry, David J.; Bittencourt, Daniela; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica; Rech, Elibio L.; Lewis, Randolph V.

2010-01-01

388

Encoding variability, memory organization, and the repetition effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recall performance improves as the opportunities for study increase in number. This phenomenon is the repetition effect. A basic assumption of theories that emphasize the role of encoding variability in learning is that greater variability in encoding processes or context from one presentation to the next tends to improve memory performance. In contrast, theories that emphasize the role of organization

Daniel R. Young; Francis S. Bellezza

1982-01-01

389

A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2013-04-15

390

Examining the relationship between word learning, nonword repetition, and immediate  

E-print Network

of these resultsusingdifferentstimuliandavariantoftheword-learningtask,anditalsoexaminedperfor- mance in a visuospatial span task, to test an alternative correlations have been obtained between digit span, nonword repetition ability, and vocabulary achievement, even when other possible factors such as age and nonverbal intelligence have been factored out (e

Gupta, Prahlad

391

Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

392

Computational Modeling of Brain Dynamics during Repetitive Head Motions  

E-print Network

Computational Modeling of Brain Dynamics during Repetitive Head Motions Igor Szczyrba School motions in traumatic scenarios that are as- sociated with severe brain injuries. Our results are based on the linear Kelvin-Voigt brain injury model, which treats the brain matter as a viscoelastic solid, and on our

Burtscher, Martin

393

The Perceptual Determinants of Repetition Learning in Auditory Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study includes seven experiments examining the effect of repetition learning (Hebb effect) on auditory spatial serial recall. Participants were asked to remember sequences of spatial locations marked by auditory stimuli, where one sequence was repeated across trials. Consistent with the proposition that the spatial scattering of…

Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Maybery, Murray T.; Huitson, Matthew; Jones, Dylan M.

2008-01-01

394

Paleoclimate controls on stratigraphic repetition of chemical and siliciclastic rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate is a primary control on sediment flux from continental sources into sedimentary systems. In warm climates, siliciclastic input is greatest under highly seasonal rainfall. Nonseasonal conditions favor formation of end member chemical rocks; perennially wet climates are conductive to coal formation, whereas dry climates produce carbonates and\\/or evaporites. Stratigraphic repetition of siliciclastic and chemical rocks therefore appears to be

C. Blaine Cecil

1990-01-01

395

Forward and Backward Repetition Blindness in Speed and Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repetition blindness (RB) was investigated in a new paradigm in which effects could stem from items preceding or following a target. Speeded-response tasks in which 3 critical items (C1, C2, and C3) were sequentially presented on each trial. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to judge whether C2 (the target) was present on each trial.…

Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2009-01-01

396

Use and safety of a new repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to test a new repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator, the Dantec MagPro, we administered transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at 1 Hz and 125% of motor threshold for an average of 204 s (until the coil temperature reached 40°C) and 20 Hz stimulation at 100% of motor threshold for 2 s every minute for 10 min, on different days to

Eric M. Wassermann; Jordan Grafman; Cherisse Berry; Caroline Hollnagel; Krista Wild; Kim Clark; Mark Hallett

1996-01-01

397

A new moderately repetitive DNA sequence family of novel organization.  

PubMed Central

In cloning adenovirus homologous sequences, from a human cosmid library, we identified a moderately repetitive DNA sequence family consisting of tandem arrays of 2.5 kb members. A member was sequenced and several non-adjacent, 15-20 bp G-C rich segments with homology to the left side of adenovirus were discovered. The copy number of 400 members is highly conserved among humans. Southern blots of partial digests of human DNA have verified the tandem array of the sequence family. The chromosomal location was defined by somatic cell genetics and in situ hybridization. Tandem arrays are found only on chromosomes 4 (4q31) and 19 (q13.1-q13.5). Homologous repetitive sequences are found in DNA of other primates but not in cat or mouse. Thus we have identified a new family of moderately repetitive DNA sequences, unique because of its organization in clustered tandem arrays, its length, its chromosomal location, and its lack of homology to other moderately repetitive sequence families. Images PMID:3562229

Epstein, N D; Karlsson, S; O'Brien, S; Modi, W; Moulton, A; Nienhuis, A W

1987-01-01

398

6 A computational model of nonword repetition, immediate serial recall,  

E-print Network

syndrome. The model thus provides a concretely instantiated means of thinking about relation- ships between to some of the most centrally human cognitive abilities. However, there is no current widely presented poly- syllabic nonwords, to determine whether repetition accuracy broken down by syllables within

Gupta, Prahlad

399

A New Method for Recognizing Pulse Repetition Interval Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a dense modern electronic warfare environment, there are a lot of radar signals. The identification of these radar signals is the main task of the electronic support measures systems. Pulse repetition intervals of signals received from radars can have various PRI modulations and levels. In this paper, a new method of recognizing PRI modulation type and its levels is

Moein Ahmadi; Kamal Mohamedpour

2009-01-01

400

Compact and repetitive Tesla-based power source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the development of a very compact (diameter = 100 mm, length = 840 mm) battery powered, high repetition rate pulsed power source. Tesla technology is employed in the generation of a high output voltage and the source is capable of producing voltage pulses of up to 250 kV. Details are given of the conductor topology adopted to

B. M. Novac; P. Sarkar; I. R. Smith; C. Greenwood

2009-01-01

401

Adaptive repetitive control of a compact disc mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radial track following of a compact disc player servo mechanism is severely exposed to periodic disturbances, induced by the eccentric rotation of the disc. The period of this disturbance is not available for measurement and varies slowly in time. Periodic disturbances can be adequately attenuated using the concept of repetitive control, provided the period is known. To deal with time

H. G. M. Dotsch; H. T. Smakman; M. Steinbuch

1995-01-01

402

Electrophysiological Evidence for Size Invariance in Masked Picture Repetition Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment examined invariance in object representations through measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) to pictures in a masked repetition priming paradigm. Pairs of pictures were presented where the prime was either the same size or half the size of the target object and the target was either presented in a normal orientation or was a…

Eddy, Marianna D.; Holcomb, Phillip J.

2009-01-01

403

High-repetition-rate excimer laser for micromachining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excimer lasers are nowadays well established UV laser sources for the wide area of micromachining. Their high energy and average power at short UV wavelengths makes them ideal for ablation of various materials e. g. polyamide and PMMA. The typical excimer laser sources used in micro machining deliver several hundred mJ of energy at repetition rates of up to 400

Ludolf Herbst; Ingo Klaft; Thomas Wenzel; Ulrich Rebhan

2003-01-01

404

The Effects of Repetition on Children's True and False Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

As children are often called upon to provide testimony in court proceedings, determining the veracity of their statements is an important issue. In the course of investigation by police and social workers, children are often repeatedly interviewed about their experiences, though the impact of this repetition on children's true and false statements remains largely unexamined. The current study analysed semantic

Angela D. Evans; Megan K. Brunet; Victoria Talwar; Nicholas Bala; Rod C. L. Lindsay; Kang Lee

2011-01-01

405

The Effects of Repetition on Children's True and False Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

As children are often called upon to provide testimony in court proceedings, determining the veracity of their statements is an important issue. In the course of investigation by police and social workers, children are often repeatedly interviewed about their experiences, though the impact of this repetition on children's true and false statements remains largely unexamined. The current study analysed semantic

Angela D. Evans; Megan K. Brunet; Victoria Talwar; Nicholas Bala; Rod C. L. Lindsay; Kang Lee

2012-01-01

406

Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. in situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences over all chromosomes of H. vulgare and the wild barley species H. bulbosum, H. marinum and H. murinum.

S. Svitashev; T. Bryngelsson; A. Vershinin; C. Pedersen; T. Säll; R. Bothmer

1994-01-01

407

Brief Report: Avoidance Extinction as Treatment for Compulsive and Ritual Behavior in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Treatment options for maladaptive repetitive behaviors associated with autism are limited. This is particularly so for ritual and compulsive forms of repetitive behavior, which commonly interfere with adaptive activities and may cause distress to individuals with autism and their families. The present study assessed an avoidance extinction…

Wolff, Jason J.; Hupp, Susan C.; Symons, Frank J.

2013-01-01

408

Laplacian eigenmap with temporal constraints for local abnormality detection in crowded scenes.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the problem of detecting and localizing abnormal activities in crowded scenes. A spatiotemporal Laplacian eigenmap method is proposed to extract different crowd activities from videos. This is achieved by learning the spatial and temporal variations of local motions in an embedded space. We employ representatives of different activities to construct the model which characterizes the regular behavior of a crowd. This model of regular crowd behavior allows the detection of abnormal crowd activities both in local and global contexts and the localization of regions which show abnormal behavior. Experiments on the recently published data sets show that the proposed method achieves comparable results with the state-of-the-art methods without sacrificing computational simplicity. PMID:23757524

Thida, Myo; Eng, How-Lung; Remagnino, Paolo

2013-12-01

409

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

410

Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral\\u000a disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities\\u000a and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high\\u000a resolution MRI to

Katherine G Akers; Steven A Kushner; Ana T Leslie; Laura Clarke; Derek van der Kooy; Jason P Lerch; Paul W Frankland

2011-01-01

411

Tracing the time course of n - 2 repetition costs in task switching.  

PubMed

In order to flexibly adapt to a permanently changing environment, it is necessary to inhibit previously activated but now irrelevant processing pathways. Empirically, this inhibition manifests itself only indirectly in terms of a cost of reengaging a previously inhibited pathway (n - 2 repetition costs). While imaging studies suggest an involvement of the prefrontal cortex in this type of inhibition, it has recently been argued that the underlying processes are implicated not in triggering inhibition, but in overcoming it. To disentangle these processes on a behavioral level, we investigated the time course of inhibition using a cued task switching paradigm. The response-cue interval (between the response of trial n - 1 and the cue of trial n) was varied in five steps to capture its influence on inhibition in a fine-grained manner. The results suggest that the impact of inhibitory processes increases during the first 200-300 ms after the response of the previous trial, reaches its full extent with about 300 ms, and starts to diminish after that. Therefore, future research on the neural correlates of n - 2 repetition costs should employ techniques with a high temporal resolution that are able to capture this presumed time course of inhibitory processes. PMID:25059914

Scheil, Juliane; Kleinsorge, Thomas

2014-11-01

412

Long-term consequences of repetitive brain trauma: chronic traumatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has been linked to participation in contact sports such as boxing and American football. CTE results in a progressive decline of memory and cognition, as well as depression, suicidal behavior, poor impulse control, aggressiveness, parkinsonism, and, eventually, dementia. In some individuals, it is associated with motor neuron disease, referred to as chronic traumatic encephalomyelopathy, which appears clinically similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Results of neuropathologic research has shown that CTE may be more common in former contact sports athletes than previously believed. It is believed that repetitive brain trauma, with or possibly without symptomatic concussion, is responsible for neurodegenerative changes highlighted by accumulations of hyperphosphorylated tau and TDP-43 proteins. Given the millions of youth, high school, collegiate, and professional athletes participating in contact sports that involve repetitive brain trauma, as well as military personnel exposed to repeated brain trauma from blast and other injuries in the military, CTE represents an important public health issue. Focused and intensive study of the risk factors and in vivo diagnosis of CTE will potentially allow for methods to prevent and treat these diseases. Research also will provide policy makers with the scientific knowledge to make appropriate guidelines regarding the prevention and treatment of brain trauma in all levels of athletic involvement as well as the military theater. PMID:22035690

Stern, Robert A; Riley, David O; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Nowinski, Christopher J; Cantu, Robert C; McKee, Ann C

2011-10-01

413

Hereditary abnormalities in pigs L. OLLIVIER  

E-print Network

to a single autosomal recessive gene,5to one autosomal dominant gene and I to a sexlinked recessive gene in production traits compensating for the disadvantages due to the abnormality itself; this is for instance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears  

MedlinePLUS

... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

415

Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences  

SciTech Connect

Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identified an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1990. The report discusses five abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Two involved significant overexposures to the hands of two radiographers, two involved medical therapy misadministrations, and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported abnormal occurrence. 8 refs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

416

Abnormal Glucose Levels Found in Transportation Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM) is responsible for the certification of pilots with diabetic conditions. Therefore, it is essential for OAM to monitor pilots involved in fatal accidents for abnormal glucose levels, ...

D. V. Canfield, A. K. Chaturvedi, H. K. Boren, S. J. H. Veronneau, V. L. White

2000-01-01

417

Structural abnormality of the carburized layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The tendency toward abnormality is characterized by the rate of decomposition of austentite into ferrite at definite temperatures.2.The horophilic elements (AI, V, W, Mn) increase the tendency toward abnormality; the horophobic substances (Mn, Cr, Ni) are conducive to the formation of a normal structure.3.By selecting the chemical composition it is possible in the process of melting to control the degree

B. S. Natapov

1962-01-01

418

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to SMA worsens complex movements in Parkinson's disease  

E-print Network

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to SMA worsens complex movements in Parkinson the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for Parkinson's disease (PD analysis, timed motor performance tests, United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), patient self

Pullman, Seth L.

419

High voltage repetitive pulsed nanosecond discharges as a selective source of reactive species  

E-print Network

High voltage nanosecond duration discharges can be used in a repetitive manner to create a sustained pool of short lived excited species and ions and long-lived radicals in a gas. Although the suitability of the Repetitive ...

Guerra García, Carmen

2011-01-01

420

Genome wide survey, discovery and evolution of repetitive elements in three Entamoeba species.  

E-print Network

Background: Identification and mapping of repetitive elements is a key step for accurate gene prediction and overall structural annotation of genomes. During the assembly and annotation of three highly repetitive amoeba ...

Lorenzi, Hernan

421

Latent Regulatory Potential of Human-Specific Repetitive Elements  

PubMed Central

Summary At least half of the human genome is derived from repetitive elements, which are often lineage specific and silenced by a variety of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Using a transchromosomic mouse strain that transmits an almost complete single copy of human chromosome 21 via the female germline, we show that a heterologous regulatory environment can transcriptionally activate transposon-derived human regulatory regions. In the mouse nucleus, hundreds of locations on human chromosome 21 newly associate with activating histone modifications in both somatic and germline tissues, and influence the gene expression of nearby transcripts. These regions are enriched with primate and human lineage-specific transposable elements, and their activation corresponds to changes in DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides. This study reveals the latent regulatory potential of the repetitive human genome and illustrates the species specificity of mechanisms that control it. PMID:23246434

Ward, Michelle C.; Wilson, Michael D.; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L.; Schmidt, Dominic; Stark, Rory; Pan, Qun; Schwalie, Petra C.; Menon, Suraj; Lukk, Margus; Watt, Stephen; Thybert, David; Kutter, Claudia; Kirschner, Kristina; Flicek, Paul; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Odom, Duncan T.

2013-01-01

422

Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi-gigahertz repetition rate.  

PubMed

We present a femtosecond vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) that is continuously tunable in repetition rate from 6.5 GHz up to 11.3 GHz. The use of a low-saturation fluence semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) enables stable cw modelocking with a simple cavity design, for which the laser mode area on SESAM and VECSEL are similar and do not significantly change for a variation in cavity length. Without any realignment of the cavity for the full tuning range, the pulse duration remained nearly constant around 625 fs with less than 3.5% standard deviation. The center wavelength only changed ±0.2 nm around 963.8 nm, while the output power was 169 mW with less than 6% standard deviation. Such a tunable repetition rate is interesting for various metrology applications such as optical sampling by laser cavity tuning (OSCAT). PMID:22109232

Sieber, Oliver D; Wittwer, Valentin J; Mangold, Mario; Hoffmann, Martin; Golling, Matthias; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula

2011-11-01

423

MOS-Gated Thyristors (MCTs) for Repetitive High Power Switching  

SciTech Connect

Certain applications for pulse power require narrow, high current pulses for their implementation. This work was performed to determine if MCTS (MOS Controlled Thyristors) could be used for these applications. The MCTS were tested as discharge switches in a low inductance circuit delivering 1 {micro}s pulses at currents between roughly 3 kA and 11 kA, single shot and repetitively at 1, 10 and 50 Hz. Although up to 9000 switching events could be obtained, all the devices failed at some combination of current and repetition rate. Failure was attributed to temperature increases caused by average power dissipated in the thyristor during the switching sequence. A simulation was performed to confirm that the temperature rise was sufficient to account for failure. Considerable heat sinking, and perhaps a better thermal package, would be required before the MCT could be considered for pulse power applications.

BAYNE,S.B.; PORTNOY,W.M.; ROHWEIN,G.J.; HEFNER,A.R.

2000-01-13

424

Paleoclimate controls on stratigraphic repetition of chemical and siliciclastic rocks  

SciTech Connect

Climate is a primary control on sediment flux from continental sources into sedimentary systems. In warm climates, siliciclastic input is greatest under highly seasonal rainfall. Nonseasonal conditions favor formation of end member chemical rocks; perennially wet climates are conductive to coal formation, whereas dry climates produce carbonates and/or evaporites. Stratigraphic repetition of siliciclastic and chemical rocks therefore appears to be related to paleoclimate cycles as well as to transgressive-regressive events and tectonics.

Cecil, C.B. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1990-06-01

425

Increasing effects of repetitive cocaine administration in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

REPORTS of chronic cocaine (and related psychomotor stimulant) administration suggest that tolerance develops to many drug effects1-3. A few studies of high dose cocaine administration have suggested that, on the contrary, repetitive administration may be associated with increasing effects on cocaine-induced convulsions in the rat4,5 and monkey6 and increasing bizarre visual and inhibitory behaviour, as well as dyskinesias, in the

Robert M. Post; Harvey Rose

1976-01-01

426

Automation of a repetitive experiment applied to a thermogravimetric analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to automate the recording of data from a thermogravimetric analyzer, a controller was designed to fetch instrument readings at specified time intervals and send the data to a teletype/paper tape punch. Additional goals were to minimize cost, hardware design time, software development time, and debugging time. Project details which can be applied to a general class of repetitive experiments that are common in a laboratory environment are described.

Burris, K.

1980-03-01

427

Repetitive somatic embryogenesis from peanut cultures in liquid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A regeneration system based on repetitive somatic embryogenesis was developed for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Embryogenic suspension cultures were initiated using individual somatic embryos induced from immature cotyledons cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 40 mg\\/l 2,4-D for 30 days. After transfer to a modified MS liquid medium, the somatic embryos produced masses of secondary and tertiary

Richard E. Durham; Wayne A. Parrott

1992-01-01

428

Pseudospark switches for high repetition rates and high current applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state-of-the-art of pseudospark switch (PSS) development is reported. In addition to the replacement of thyratrons for high power applications in TE-gas-discharge lasers, PSSs have been tested at high repetition rates up to 2 kHz. In order to minimize the erosion rate and to reduce total switch inductance, multichannel PSSs with various geometrical configurations have been investigated: linear, coaxial, and

K. Frank; O. Almen; P. Bickel; J. Christiansen; A. Gortler; W. Hartmann; C. Kozlik; A. Linsenmeyer; H. Loscher; F. Peter; A. Schwandner; R. Stark

1992-01-01

429

Patterns of tandem repetition in plant whole genome assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tandem repeats often confound large genome assemblies. A survey of tandemly arrayed repetitive sequences was carried out in\\u000a whole genome sequences of the green alga Chlamydomonas\\u000a reinhardtii, the moss Physcomitrella patens, the monocots rice and sorghum, and the dicots Arabidopsis thaliana, poplar, grapevine, and papaya, in order to test how these assemblies deal with this fraction of DNA. Our results

Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Andrew H. Paterson

2009-01-01

430

Word and nonword repetition in bilingual subjects: A PET study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning a specific skill during childhood may partly determine the functional organization of the adult brain. This hypothesis led us to study brain activation patterns using positron emission tomography (PET), in which we compared word and nonword repetition in 10 right-handed native English-speakers (L1) who were proficient in their second language, French (L2), which was learned after the age of

Denise Klein; Kate E. Watkins; Robert J. Zatorre; Brenda Milner

2006-01-01

431

The perceptual determinants of repetition learning in auditory space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study includes seven experiments examining the effect of repetition learning (Hebb effect) on auditory spatial serial recall. Participants were asked to remember sequences of spatial locations marked by auditory stimuli, where one sequence was repeated across trials. Consistent with the proposition that the spatial scattering of auditory to-be-remembered stimuli hinders the pre-attentive processing of order information by preventing

Fabrice B. R. Parmentier; Murray T. Maybery; Matthew Huitson; Dylan M. Jones

2008-01-01

432

Modulation of corticospinal excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to modulate the corticospinal excitability and the effects appear to last beyond the duration of the rTMS itself. Different studies, employing different rTMS parameters, report different modulation of corticospinal excitability ranging from inhibition to facilitation. Intraindividual variability of these effects and their reproducibility are unclear.Methods: We examined the modulatory effects of rTMS

Fumiko Maeda; Julian Paul Keenan; Jose Maria Tormos; Helge Topka; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2000-01-01

433

Modulation of corticospinal excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to modulate the corticospinal excitability and the effects appear to last beyond the duration of the rTMS itself. Different studies, employing different rTMS parameters, report different modulation of corticospinal excitability ranging from inhibition to facilitation. Intraindividual variability of these effects and their reproducibility are unclear. Methods: We examined the modulatory effects

Fumiko Maeda; Julian Paul Keenan; Jose Maria Tormos; Helge Topka; Alvaro Pascual-leone

434

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS

Ru-Rong Ji; Carlos D. Aizenman; Charles M. Epstein; Dike Qiu; Justin C. Huang; Fabio Rupp

1998-01-01

435

Boxcar controller for low-repetition-rate use  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple digital circuit which will control a Princeton Applied Research Corporation (model No. 164) boxcar integrator and thereby allow full utilization of the linear sum mode. This provides for improved signal-to-noise ratios and shorter data acquisition times for short