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1

Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach  

PubMed Central

The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the “4P's” (Prediction, Preemption, Personalization, & Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely-related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly-specific model of a single disorder by matching this `fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies; and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders. PMID:21219937

Garner, Joseph P.; Thogerson, Collette M.; Dufour, Brett D.; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D.; Mench, Joy A.

2011-01-01

2

Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

3

Is there a relationship between restricted, repetitive, stereotyped behaviors and interests and abnormal sensory response in children with autism spectrum disorders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age, total RBS-R and Sensory Profile scores revealed significant correlations both prior to

Robin L. Gabriels; John A. Agnew; Lucy Jane Miller; Jane Gralla; Zhaoxing Pan; Edward Goldson; James C. Ledbetter; Juliet P. Dinkins; Elizabeth Hooks

2008-01-01

4

Oxytocin Infusion Reduces Repetitive Behaviors in Adults with Autistic and Asperger's Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysfunction in three core behavioral domains: repetitive behaviors, social deficits, and language abnormalities. There is evidence that abnormalities exist in peptide systems, particularly the oxytocin system, in autism spectrum patients. Furthermore, oxytocin and the closely related peptide vasopressin are known to play a role in social and repetitive behaviors. This study examined the

Eric Hollander; Sherie Novotny; Margaret Hanratty; Rona Yaffe; Concetta M DeCaria; Bonnie R Aronowitz; Serge Mosovich

2003-01-01

5

The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

2009-01-01

6

Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

2012-01-01

7

Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders.  

PubMed

EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms. PMID:25281279

Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F

2014-10-01

8

The prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat (N = 58), Fragile X (N = 191), Prader-Willi (N = 189), Lowe (N = 56) and Smith-Magenis (N = 42) syndromes and individuals with intellectual disability of heterogeneous aetiology (N = 56). Repetitive behavior was variable across syndromes. Fragile X syndrome scored highly on all subscales. Angelman syndrome demonstrated a significantly lowered probability for most behaviors. Prader-Willi, Cri-du-Chat and Smith-Magenis syndrome evidenced unique profiles of repetitive behavior. There is extreme heterogeneity of repetitive behavior across genetic syndromes, highlighting syndrome specific profiles. PMID:19037716

Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

2009-04-01

9

Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for “higher order” behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research. PMID:21584849

McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

10

Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

2008-01-01

11

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR DETECTION AND BEHAVIOR MATCHING FOR NETWORKED CAMERAS  

E-print Network

segmentation I. INTRODUCTION Network video cameras permit pervasive, wide-area visual surveillance. However-100362, Presidential Early Career Award (PECASE) behavior model at various regions of the frame, and performs abnormal

Jodoin, Pierre-Marc

12

Repetitive motor behavior: Further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.  

PubMed

Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 57: 201-211, 2015. PMID:25631623

Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

2015-03-01

13

Behavioral correlates of epileptiform abnormalities in autism.  

PubMed

There is a high incidence of epileptiform abnormalities in children with autism even in the absence of clinical seizures. These findings are most prominent during sleep recordings. The significance of these abnormalities is unclear. Although studies do not all agree, there may be some association between cognitive function, behavior, and the presence or absence of epileptiform discharges. Small studies of anticonvulsant treatment mostly suggest an improvement in certain aspects of cognitive or behavioral functioning in these children, but larger and more comprehensive studies are needed to determine the potential relationship between epileptiform discharges on EEG, cognitive and behavioral functioning, and treatment effects in the population with autism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autism and Epilepsy". PMID:25453621

Trauner, Doris A

2014-11-01

14

Examining Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Two Observational Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation…

Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M.

2014-01-01

15

[Repetitive impulse-associated behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease].  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a number of behavioral disorders which may cause considerable social, professional or financial problems. Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, binge eating, compulsive shopping and hypersexuality occur in approximately 13-14% of PD patients. Further behavioral disorders are the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), a substance dependence characterized by craving for dopaminergic substances and punding (prolonged repetitive activities which are not goal-oriented).Treatment-related risk factors are dopamine agonists for ICDs and a high total dopaminergic dose for DDS and punding. Shared risk factors are young age at onset, impulsive personality traits, depression and possibly dyskinesia. At the neuronal level these behavioral disorders seem to be associated with changes in the reward system and dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex. The evidence level for management strategies is at present insufficient. For ICDs current clinical practice consists of discontinuation or reduction of dopamine agonists. PMID:22878676

Katzenschlager, R; Goerlich, K S; van Eimeren, T

2012-12-01

16

Behavioral abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder in which, classically, patients present with postural instability and falls, parkinsonism, and slowing of vertical saccades. PSP patients typically have deficits in cognitive functioning, difficulties with most daily activities, and present with notable behavioral disturbances-particularly apathy, impulsivity, and irritability. Using data from 154 patients meeting criteria for clinically probable PSP, domain and total scores of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were examined and compared to demographics, disease severity, cognition, and motor features. Behavioral abnormalities were common in this cohort of PSP patients, with more than half experiencing apathy, depression, and sleeping problems, and approximately one third displaying agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and eating problems. Few clinical correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms were observed in this cohort. Given the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PSP, these patients are expected to be frequently seen by psychiatrists and other mental health professionals for symptom management and increased quality of life. Clinical trials are clearly needed to address the neuropsychiatric morbidity in these patients. PMID:24035530

Gerstenecker, Adam; Duff, Kevin; Mast, Benjamin; Litvan, Irene

2013-12-30

17

Examining restricted and repetitive behaviors in young children with autism spectrum disorder during two observational contexts.  

PubMed

This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation methods-structured sampling procedures in a clinic and naturalistic everyday activities at home. Measures of restricted and repetitive behaviors were higher in the clinic setting than in the home observation, especially for behaviors involving object use. Repetitive movements with objects in the clinic predicted nonverbal developmental scores and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule social affect scores at later follow-up. In contrast, repetitive movements with objects at home significantly predicted later Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule restricted and repetitive behaviors scores. These results support the utility of the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales to detect restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers and suggest that observations of restricted and repetitive behaviors in clinic and home settings may provide unique and important diagnostic information for improving early detection of autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23175750

Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M

2014-02-01

18

A comparison of repetitive behaviors in Aspergers Disorder and high functioning autism.  

PubMed

In this study we compared 33 IQ and age matched pairs of individuals with Aspergers Disorder (ASP) and high functioning autism (HFA) on measures of repetitive behavior. On the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), the ASP and HFA groups showed no differences in RBS-R Intensity score (severity) score or Frequency score (number of problems present). This suggests that the two groups are similar with respect to the intensity or severity of repetitive behaviors and the presence of repetitive behaviors. At the item level there were no differences on scales typically associated with autism (Stereotyped Behavior) and ASP (Restricted Interests). Similarly, there were no differences between the groups on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Stereotypy scale. These findings add to the body of literature showing that HFA and ASP fail to differ with respect to repetitive behaviors. The implications of the findings for neurobiologic and genetic studies are discussed. PMID:17410426

Cuccaro, Michael L; Nations, Laura; Brinkley, Jason; Abramson, Ruth K; Wright, Harry H; Hall, Alicia; Gilbert, John; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

2007-04-01

19

A Comparison of Repetitive Behaviors in Aspergers Disorder and High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we compared 33 IQ and age matched pairs of individuals with Aspergers Disorder (ASP) and high functioning autism (HFA) on measures of repetitive behavior. On the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), the ASP and HFA groups showed no differences in RBS-R Intensity score (severity) score or Frequency score (number of problems…

Cuccaro, Michael L.; Nations, Laura; Brinkley, Jason; Abramson, Ruth K.; Wright, Harry H.; Hall, Alicia; Gilbert, John; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

2007-01-01

20

The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

2007-01-01

21

Measuring Repetitive Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors vary widely in type, frequency, and intensity among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. They can be stigmatizing and interfere with more constructive activities. Accordingly, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may be a target of intervention. Several standardized…

Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Halladay, Alycia K.; Bishop, Somer L.; Bodfish, James W.; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Jones, Nancy; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; McCracken, James T.; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Dawson, Geraldine

2015-01-01

22

Subcategories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization…

Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

2013-01-01

23

Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment.  

PubMed

We analysed the relationship between abnormal repetitive behaviour (ARB), the presence/absence of environmental enrichment, and two types of behavioural disinhibition in farmed American mink, Neovison vison. The first type, recurrent perseveration, the inappropriate repetition of already completed responses, was assessed using three indices of excessive response repetition and patterning in a bias-corrected serial two-choice guessing task. The second type, disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, a form of impulsivity, was tested in a locomotive detour task adapted from primate reaching tasks: subjects were required to walk around, rather than directly into, a transparent barrier behind which food was visible. In older adult females, recurrent perseveration positively predicted pre-feeding abnormal repetitive locomotion (ARL) in Non-enriched housing. High-ARL subjects also performed repeated (same-choice) responses more rapidly than low-ARL animals, even when statistically controlling for alternated (different-choice) response latency. Mink performed much less ARL following transfer to Enriched housing, but there was no corresponding change in recurrent perseveration. Thus, elevated recurrent perseveration is not sufficient for frequent ARL; and while captive environments do determine ARL frequency, in mink, they do not necessarily do so by modifying levels of perseveration. Disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, meanwhile, did not predict ARL. In a separate sample of differentially housed young adults, neither type of behavioural disinhibition predicted ARL, and again, whether or not housing was enriched did not affect behavioural disinhibition despite affecting ARL. Thus, the relationship between recurrent perseveration and ARB may only develop with age; longitudinal studies are now required for confirmation. PMID:21466825

Dallaire, Jamie A; Meagher, Rebecca K; Díez-León, María; Garner, Joseph P; Mason, Georgia J

2011-10-31

24

Effects of a Family-Implemented Treatment on the Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

The restricted and repetitive behaviors of children with autism can interfere with family functioning as well as learning and socialization opportunities for the child. To date, neither pharmacological nor comprehensive behavioral treatments have been found to be consistently effective at significantly reducing children’s engagement in repetitive behaviors. We developed Family-Implemented Treatment for Behavioral Inflexibility (FITBI) to target the full variety of repetitive behaviors found in autism. For the current study, a therapist and parents of five children with autism (mean age = 48 months) co-implemented FITBI in a clinic setting over a 12-week treatment period. Using single case design methodology, significant reductions in repetitive behaviors were found for all participants and maintenance of treatment effects for 4 of 5 participants. PMID:21161576

McDonough, Stephen G.; Rupp, Betty; Khan, Faraaz; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

25

Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism.  

PubMed

Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles. PMID:24211371

Moy, Sheryl S; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Teng, Brian L; Agster, Kara L; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Baker, Lorinda K; Nadler, Jessica J; Bodfish, James W

2014-02-01

26

The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

2012-01-01

27

Mixed Pattern Matching-Based Traffic Abnormal Behavior Recognition  

PubMed Central

A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity. PMID:24605045

Cui, Zhiming; Zhao, Pengpeng

2014-01-01

28

Repetitive Behavior in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: Parallels with Autism Spectrum Phenomenology.  

PubMed

Syndrome specific repetitive behavior profiles have been described previously. A detailed profile is absent for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire and Social Communication Questionnaire were completed for children and adults with RTS (N = 87), Fragile-X (N = 196) and Down (N = 132) syndromes, and individuals reaching cut-off for autism spectrum disorder (N = 228). Total and matched group analyses were conducted. A phenotypic profile of repetitive behavior was found in RTS. The majority of behaviors in RTS were not associated with social-communication deficits or degree of disability. Repetitive behavior should be studied at a fine-grained level. A dissociation of the triad of impairments might be evident in RTS. PMID:25491025

Waite, Jane; Moss, Joanna; Beck, Sarah R; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy; Oliver, Chris

2014-12-10

29

Development of a mouse test for repetitive, restricted behaviors: Relevance to autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive behavior, a core symptom of autism, encompasses stereotyped responses, restricted interests, and resistance to change. These studies investigated whether different components of the repetitive behavior domain could be modeled in the exploratory hole-board task in mice. Four inbred mouse strains, C57BL\\/6J, BALB\\/cByJ, BTBR T+tf\\/J, and FVB\\/NJ, and mice with reduced expression of Grin1, leading to NMDA receptor hypofunction (NR1neo\\/neo

Sheryl S. Moy; Jessica J. Nadler; Michele D. Poe; Randal J. Nonneman; Nancy B. Young; Beverly H. Koller; Jacqueline N. Crawley; Gary E. Duncan; James W. Bodfish

2008-01-01

30

Age-Related Differences in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) were examined in a large group of children, adolescents and adults with ASD in order\\u000a to describe age-related patterns of symptom change and association with specific contextual factors, and to examine if the\\u000a patterns of change are different for the various types of RRBs. Over 700 individuals with ASD were rated on the Repetitive\\u000a Behavior Scale-Revised.

Anna J. Esbensen; Marsha Mailick Seltzer; Kristen S. L. Lam; James W. Bodfish

2009-01-01

31

Subcategories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization of RRBs in ASD. Using data from the Simons Simplex Collection (n=1825), we examined the association between scores on the ADI-R and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Analyses supported the construct validity of RSM and IS subcategories. As in previous studies, IS behaviors showed no relationship with IQ. These findings support the continued use of RRB subcategories, particularly IS behaviors, as a means of creating more behaviorally homogeneous subgroups of children with ASD. PMID:23065116

Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

2012-01-01

32

Subcategories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization of RRBs in ASD. Using data from the Simons simplex collection (n = 1,825), we examined the association between scores on the ADI-R and the repetitive behavior scale-revised. Analyses supported the construct validity of RSM and IS subcategories. As in previous studies, IS behaviors showed no relationship with IQ. These findings support the continued use of RRB subcategories, particularly IS behaviors, as a means of creating more behaviorally homogeneous subgroups of children with ASD. PMID:23065116

Bishop, Somer L; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

2013-06-01

33

Oxotremorine treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR T+ tf/J mice  

PubMed Central

Repetitive behaviors with restricted interests is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current pharmacotherapies that target the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems have limited effectiveness in treating repetitive behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonists can exacerbate motor stereotypies while mAChR agonists reduce stereotypies. The present study determined whether the mAChR agonist, oxotremorine affected repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism. To test the effects of oxotremorine on repetitive behaviors, marble burying and grooming behavior were measured in BTBR mice and compared to that in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The effects of oxotremorine on locomotor activity was also measured. Thirty minutes before each test, mice received an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of saline, 0.001 mg or 0.01 mg of oxotremorine methiodide. Saline- treated BTBR mice exhibited increased marble burying and self-grooming behavior compared to that of saline-treated B6 mice. Oxotremorine significantly reduced marble burying and self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice, but had no significant effect in B6 mice. In addition, oxotremorine did not affect locomotor activity in BTBR mice, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in B6 mice at the 0.01 mg dose. These findings demonstrate that activation of mAChRs reduces repetitive behavior in the BTBR mouse and suggest that treatment with a mAChR agonist may be effective in reducing repetitive behaviors in ASD. PMID:25165445

Amodeo, Dionisio A.; Yi, Julia; Sweeney, John A.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

2014-01-01

34

The effects of poliomyelitis on motor unit behavior during repetitive muscle actions: a case report  

E-print Network

and be detectable by the EMG decomposition technique developed by De Luca et al. [11], which was supported by Herda and Cooper [10]. Previous studies have utilized repetitive isometric muscle actions to further elucidate mechanisms of fatigue on MU behavior [17...,18]. For example, Carpentier et al. [18] indicated that central drive intensified, as measured by EMG amplitude, while MU discharge rates decreased progressively during the repetitive muscle actions of the first dorsal interosseous at 50% MVC. In addition...

Trevino, Michael A.; Herda, Trent J.

2014-09-06

35

Low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves abnormal visual cortical circuit topography and upregulates BDNF in mice.  

PubMed

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the induced field is focused on a target region during rTMS, adjacent areas also receive stimulation at a lower intensity and the contribution of this perifocal stimulation to network-wide effects is poorly defined. Here, we examined low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS)-induced changes on a model neural network using the visual systems of normal (C57Bl/6J wild-type, n = 22) and ephrin-A2A5(-/-) (n = 22) mice, the latter possessing visuotopic anomalies. Mice were treated with LI-rTMS or sham (handling control) daily for 14 d, then fluorojade and fluororuby were injected into visual cortex. The distribution of dorsal LGN (dLGN) neurons and corticotectal terminal zones (TZs) was mapped and disorder defined by comparing their actual location with that predicted by injection sites. In the afferent geniculocortical projection, LI-rTMS decreased the abnormally high dispersion of retrogradely labeled neurons in the dLGN of ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice, indicating geniculocortical map refinement. In the corticotectal efferents, LI-rTMS improved topography of the most abnormal TZs in ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice without altering topographically normal TZs. To investigate a possible molecular mechanism for LI-rTMS-induced structural plasticity, we measured brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex and superior colliculus after single and multiple stimulations. BDNF was upregulated after a single stimulation for all groups, but only sustained in the superior colliculus of ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice. Our results show that LI-rTMS upregulates BDNF, promoting a plastic environment conducive to beneficial reorganization of abnormal cortical circuits, information that has important implications for clinical rTMS. PMID:25100609

Makowiecki, Kalina; Harvey, Alan R; Sherrard, Rachel M; Rodger, Jennifer

2014-08-01

36

Low-Intensity Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Abnormal Visual Cortical Circuit Topography and Upregulates BDNF in Mice  

PubMed Central

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the induced field is focused on a target region during rTMS, adjacent areas also receive stimulation at a lower intensity and the contribution of this perifocal stimulation to network-wide effects is poorly defined. Here, we examined low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS)-induced changes on a model neural network using the visual systems of normal (C57Bl/6J wild-type, n = 22) and ephrin-A2A5?/? (n = 22) mice, the latter possessing visuotopic anomalies. Mice were treated with LI-rTMS or sham (handling control) daily for 14 d, then fluorojade and fluororuby were injected into visual cortex. The distribution of dorsal LGN (dLGN) neurons and corticotectal terminal zones (TZs) was mapped and disorder defined by comparing their actual location with that predicted by injection sites. In the afferent geniculocortical projection, LI-rTMS decreased the abnormally high dispersion of retrogradely labeled neurons in the dLGN of ephrin-A2A5?/? mice, indicating geniculocortical map refinement. In the corticotectal efferents, LI-rTMS improved topography of the most abnormal TZs in ephrin-A2A5?/? mice without altering topographically normal TZs. To investigate a possible molecular mechanism for LI-rTMS-induced structural plasticity, we measured brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex and superior colliculus after single and multiple stimulations. BDNF was upregulated after a single stimulation for all groups, but only sustained in the superior colliculus of ephrin-A2A5?/? mice. Our results show that LI-rTMS upregulates BDNF, promoting a plastic environment conducive to beneficial reorganization of abnormal cortical circuits, information that has important implications for clinical rTMS. PMID:25100609

Makowiecki, Kalina; Harvey, Alan R.; Sherrard, Rachel M.

2014-01-01

37

Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

2015-01-01

38

Abnormal experimentally- and behaviorally-induced LTP-like plasticity in focal hand dystonia.  

PubMed

Idiopathic focal hand dystonia (FHD) arises from abnormal plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) possibly reflecting abnormal sensori-motor integration processes. In this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in FHD, we evaluated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) and paired associative stimulation (PAS), techniques that elicit different forms of experimentally-induced long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in M1. We also examined behaviorally-induced LTP-like plasticity as reflected by early motor learning of a simple motor task. We studied 14 patients with FHD and 14 healthy subjects. MEPs were recorded before and after iTBS and PAS at the 25 ms interstimulus interval (PAS(25)) in separate sessions. Subjects did a simple motor task entailing repetitive index finger abductions. To measure early motor learning we tested practice-related improvement in peak velocity and peak acceleration. In FHD patients iTBS failed to elicit the expected MEP changes and PAS(25) induced abnormally increased MEPs in target and non-target muscles. In the experiment testing early motor learning, patients lacked the expected practice-related changes in kinematic variables. In FHD, the degree of early motor learning correlated with patients' clinical features. We conclude that experimentally-induced (iTBS and PAS) and behaviorally-induced LTP-like plasticity are both altered in FHD. PMID:23142185

Belvisi, Daniele; Suppa, Antonio; Marsili, Luca; Di Stasio, Flavio; Parvez, Ahmad Khandker; Agostino, Rocco; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

2013-02-01

39

Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

1986-01-01

40

Measuring repetitive behaviors as a treatment endpoint in youth with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors vary widely in type, frequency, and intensity among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. They can be stigmatizing and interfere with more constructive activities. Accordingly, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may be a target of intervention. Several standardized instruments have been developed to assess restricted interests and repetitive behaviors in the autism spectrum disorder population, but the rigor of psychometric assessment is variable. This article evaluated the readiness of available measures for use as outcome measures in clinical trials. The Autism Speaks Foundation assembled a panel of experts to examine available instruments used to measure restricted interests and repetitive behaviors in youth with autism spectrum disorder. The panel held monthly conference calls and two face-to-face meetings over 14 months to develop and apply evaluative criteria for available instruments. Twenty-four instruments were evaluated and five were considered "appropriate with conditions" for use as outcome measures in clinical trials. Ideally, primary outcome measures should be relevant to the clinical target, be reliable and valid, and cover the symptom domain without being burdensome to subjects. The goal of the report was to promote consensus across funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and clinical investigators about advantages and disadvantages of existing outcome measures. PMID:24259748

Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G; Lecavalier, Luc; Halladay, Alycia K; Bishop, Somer L; Bodfish, James W; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Jones, Nancy; Horrigan, Joseph P; Cook, Edwin H; Handen, Benjamin L; King, Bryan H; Pearson, Deborah A; McCracken, James T; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Dawson, Geraldine

2015-01-01

41

A Placebo Controlled Crossover Trial of Liquid Fluoxetine on Repetitive Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescent Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive behaviors are a core symptom domain in autism that has been linked to alterations in the serotonin system. While the selective serotonin-receptive inhibitor fluvoxamine has been shown to be effective in adults with autism, as yet no published placebo controlled trials with these agents document safety and efficacy in children with autism. This study examines the selective serotonin reuptake

Eric Hollander; Ann Phillips; William Chaplin; Karen Zagursky; Sherie Novotny; Stacey Wasserman; Rupa Iyengar

2005-01-01

42

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

2013-01-01

43

Validating the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in a sample of 287 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine six competing structural models. Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated to examine the associations between factor…

Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

2010-01-01

44

Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII?/? mice. SynII?/? and SynIII?/? mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI?/?, SynII?/? and SynIII?/? mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI?/? and SynII?/? mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy. PMID:23280234

Greco, Barbara; Managò, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

2013-01-01

45

Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task  

PubMed Central

Repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal hand dystonia, can be associated with tasks that require prolonged, repetitive behaviors. Previous studies using animal models of repetitive motion have correlated cortical neuroplastic changes or peripheral tissue inflammation with fine motor performance. However, the possibility that both peripheral and central mechanisms coexist with altered motor performance has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between motor behaviour changes associated with repetitive behaviors and both peripheral tissue inflammation and cortical neuroplasticity. A rat model of reaching and grasping involving moderate repetitive reaching with negligible force (MRNF) was used. Rats performed the MRNF task for 2 hrs/day, 3 days/wk for 8 weeks. Reach performance was monitored by measuring reach rate/success, daily exposure, reach movement reversals/patterns, reach/grasp phase times, grip strength and grooming function. With cumulative task exposure, reach performance, grip strength and agility declined while an inefficient food retrieval pattern increased. In S1 of MRNF rats, a dramatic disorganization of the topographic forepaw representation was observed, including the emergence of large receptive fields located on both the wrist/forearm and forepaw with alterations of neuronal properties. In M1, there was a drastic enlargement of the overall forepaw map area, and of the cortex devoted to digit, arm-digits and elbow-wrist responses. In addition, unusually low current amplitude evoked digit movements. IL-1? and TNF-? increased in forearm flexor muscles and tendons of MRNF animals. The increases in IL-1? and TNF-? negatively correlated with grip strength and amount of current needed to evoke forelimb movements. This study provides strong evidence that both peripheral inflammation and cortical neuroplasticity jointly contribute to the development of chronic repetitive motion disorders. PMID:19686738

Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Barr, Ann E; Strata, Fabrizio; Russier, Michael; Kietrys, David M; Merzenich, Michael M; Byl, Nancy N; Barbe, Mary F

2009-01-01

46

Behavioral and neuronal recording of the nucleus accumbens in adolescent rats following acute and repetitive exposure to methylphenidate.  

PubMed

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been shown to play a key role in the brain's response to methylphenidate (MPD). The present study focuses on neuronal recording from this structure. The study postulates that repetitive exposure to the same dose of MPD will elicit in some rats behavioral sensitization and in others tolerance. Furthermore, the study postulates that NAc neuronal activity recorded from animals expressing behavioral tolerance after repetitive MPD exposure will be significantly different from NAc neuronal activity recorded from animals expressing behavioral sensitization after repetitive MPD exposure at doses of 0.6, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg. To test this, behavioral and neuronal activity was recorded concomitantly from the NAc of freely behaving adolescent rats (postnatal day 40) before and after acute and repetitive administration of four different MPD doses. Comparing the acute MPD effect to the repetitive MPD effect revealed that the acute response to MPD exhibited dose-response characteristics: an increase in behavioral activity correlated with increasing MPD doses. On the other hand, following repetitive MPD exposure, some animals exhibited attenuated behavior (tolerance), while others exhibited further increases in the recorded behavior (sensitization). Moreover, the neuronal activity following repetitive MPD exposure recorded in animals exhibiting behavioral sensitization was significantly different from neuronal activity recorded in animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance. This implies that when studying the effects of repetitive MPD administration on adolescent rats, it is advisable to simultaneously record both neuronal and behavioral activity and to evaluate all data based on the animals' behavioral response to the repetitive MPD exposure. PMID:25318764

Frolov, Alexander; Reyes-Vasquez, Cruz; Dafny, Nachum

2015-01-01

47

Developmental Trajectories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Interests in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

This study examined how restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBs) developed over time in a sample of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). One-hundred ninety-two children referred for a diagnosis of autism at age 2 and 22 children with nonspectrum development disorders were evaluated with a battery of cognitive and diagnostic measures at age 2 and subsequently at ages 3, 5, and 9. Factor analysis of the RRB items on the Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised revealed two RRB factors at each wave of data collection, one comprised of ‘repetitive sensorimotor’ (RSM) behaviors and the other of ‘insistence on sameness’ (IS) behaviors. For children with ASD, RSM scores remained relatively high over time, indicating consistent severity, whereas IS scores started low and increased over time, indicating worsening. Having a higher NVIQ at age 2 was associated with milder concurrent RSM behaviors and with improvement in these behaviors over time. There was no relationship between NVIQ at age 2 and IS behaviors. However, milder social/communicative impairment, at age 2 was associated with more severe concurrent IS behaviors. Trajectory analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity in patterns of change over time for both kinds of behaviors. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of RRBs in ASD and other disorders, making prognoses about how RRBs will develop in children with ASD as they get older, and using RRBs to identify ASD phenotypes in genetic studies. PMID:20102647

Richler, Jennifer; Huerta, Marisela; Bishop, Somer L.; Lord, Catherine

2010-01-01

48

Antagonistic control of social versus repetitive self-grooming behaviors by separable amygdala neuronal subsets.  

PubMed

Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocial behavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders. PMID:25215491

Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J

2014-09-11

49

Marble burying and nestlet shredding as tests of repetitive, compulsive-like behaviors in mice.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious and debilitating psychiatric conditions and each constitutes a significant public health concern, particularly in children. Both of these conditions are highlighted by the repeated expression of meaningless behaviors. Individuals with OCD often show checking, frequent hand washing, and counting. Children with ASDs also engage in repetitive tapping, arm or hand flapping, and rocking. These behaviors can vary widely in intensity and frequency of expression. More intense forms of repetitive behaviors can even result in injury (e.g. excessive grooming, hand washing, and self-stimulation). These behaviors are therefore very disruptive and make normal social discourse difficult. Treatment options for repetitive behaviors in OCD and ASDs are somewhat limited and there is great interest in developing more effective therapies for each condition. Numerous animal models for evaluating compulsive-like behaviors have been developed over the past three decades. Perhaps the animal models with the greatest validity and ease of use are the marble burying test and the nestlet shredding test. Both tests take advantage of the fact that the target behaviors occur spontaneously in mice. In the marble burying test, 20 marbles are arrayed on the surface of clean bedding. The number of marbles buried in a 30 min session is scored by investigators blind to the treatment or status of the subjects. In the nestlet shredding test, a nestlet comprised of pulped cotton fiber is preweighed and placed on top of cage bedding and the amount of the nestlet remaining intact after a 30 min test session is determined. Presently, we describe protocols for and show movie documentation of marble burying and nestlet shredding. Both tests are easily and accurately scored and each is sensitive to small changes in the expression of compulsive-like behaviors that result from genetic manipulations, disease, or head injury. PMID:24429507

Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kane, Michael J; Briggs, Denise I; Francescutti, Dina M; Kuhn, Donald M

2013-01-01

50

Feasibility of Exposure Response Prevention to Treat Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism and an Intellectual Disability: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility…

Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

51

Natural genetic variation underlying differences in Peromyscus repetitive and social/aggressive behaviors.  

PubMed

Peromyscus maniculatus (BW) and P. polionotus (PO) are interfertile North American species that differ in many characteristics. For example, PO exhibit monogamy and BW animals are susceptible to repetitive behaviors and thus a model for neurobehavioral disorders such as Autism. We analyzed these two stocks as well as their hybrids, a BW Y(PO) consomic line (previously shown to alter glucose homeostasis) and a natural P. maniculatus agouti variant (A(Nb) = wide band agouti). We show that PO animals engage in far less repetitive behavior than BW animals, that this trait is dominant, and that trait distribution in both species is bi-modal. The A(Nb) allele also reduces such behaviors, particularly in females. PO, F1, and A(Nb) animals all dig significantly more than BW. Increased self-grooming is also a PO dominant trait, and there is a bimodal trait distribution in all groups except BW. The inter-stock differences in self-grooming are greater between males, and the consomic data suggest the Y chromosome plays a role. The monogamous PO animals engage in more social behavior than BW; hybrid animals exhibit intermediate levels. Surprisingly, A(Nb) animals are also more social than BW animals, although A(Nb) interactions led to aggressive interactions at higher levels than any other group. PO animals exhibited the lowest incidence of aggressive behaviors, while the hybrids exhibited BW levels. Thus this group exhibits natural, genetically tractable variation in several biomedically relevant traits. PMID:24407381

Shorter, Kimberly R; Owen, Amy; Anderson, Vanessa; Hall-South, April C; Hayford, Samantha; Cakora, Patricia; Crossland, Janet P; Georgi, Velina R M; Perkins, Amy; Kelly, Sandra J; Felder, Michael R; Vrana, Paul B

2014-03-01

52

Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not yet known; however, studies suggest that dysfunction of the immune system affects many children with ASD. Increasing evidence points to dysfunction of the innate immune system including activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages, increases in inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in brain tissue and CSF, and abnormal peripheral monocyte cell function. Dendritic cells are major players in innate immunity and have important functions in the phagocytosis of pathogens or debris, antigen presentation, activation of naïve T cells, induction of tolerance and cytokine/chemokine production. In this study, we assessed circulating frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells (defined as Lin-1(-)BDCA1(+)CD11c(+) and Lin-1(-)BDCA3(+)CD123(-)) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (Lin-1(-)BDCA2(+)CD123(+) or Lin-1(-)BDCA4(+) CD11c(-)) in 57 children with ASD, and 29 typically developing controls of the same age, all of who were enrolled as part of the Autism Phenome Project (APP). The frequencies of dendritic cells and associations with behavioral assessment and MRI measurements of amygdala volume were compared in the same participants. The frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were significantly increased in children with ASD compared to typically developing controls (p<0.03). Elevated frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were positively associated with abnormal right and left amygdala enlargement, severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and increased repetitive behaviors. The frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells were also associated with amygdala volumes as well as developmental regression in children with ASD. Dendritic cells play key roles in modulating immune responses and differences in frequencies or functions of these cells may result in immune dysfunction in children with ASD. These data further implicate innate immune cells in the complex pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:23063420

Breece, Elizabeth; Paciotti, Brian; Nordahl, Christine Wu; Ozonoff, Sally; Van de Water, Judy A; Rogers, Sally J; Amaral, David; Ashwood, Paul

2013-07-01

53

Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is not yet known; however, studies suggest that dysfunction of the immune system affects many children with ASD. Increasing evidence points to dysfunction of the innate immune system including activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages, increases in inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in brain tissue and CSF, and abnormal peripheral monocyte cell function. Dendritic cells are major players in innate immunity and have important functions in the phagocytosis of pathogens or debris, antigen presentation, activation of naïve T cells, induction of tolerance and cytokine/chemokine production. In this study, we assessed circulating frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells (defined as Lin-1?BDCA1+CD11c+ and Lin-1?BDCA3+CD123?) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (Lin-1? BDCA2+CD123+ or Lin-1?BDCA4+ CD11c?) in 57 children with ASD, and 29 typically developing controls of the same age, all of who were enrolled as part of the Autism Phenome Project (APP). The frequencies of dendritic cells and associations with behavioral assessment and MRI measurements of amygdala volume were compared in the same participants. The frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were significantly increased in children with ASD compared to typically developing controls (p < 0.03). Elevated frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were positively associated with abnormal right and left amygdala enlargement, severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and increased repetitive behaviors. The frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells were also associated with amygdala volumes as well as developmental regression in children with ASD. Dendritic cells play key roles in modulating immune responses and differences in frequencies or functions of these cells may result in immune dysfunction in children with ASD. These data further implicate innate immune cells in the complex pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:23063420

Breece, Elizabeth; Paciotti, Brian; Nordahl, Christine Wu; Ozonoff, Sally; Van de Water, Judy A.; Rogers, Sally J.; Amaral, David; Ashwood, Paul

2012-01-01

54

Indirect basal ganglia pathway mediation of repetitive behavior: attenuation by adenosine receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and common in related neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their clinical importance, underlying mechanisms associated with the expression of these behaviors remain poorly understood. Our lab has previously shown that the rates of spontaneous stereotypy in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were negatively correlated with enkephalin content, a marker of striatopallidal but not striatonigral neurons. To investigate further the role of the indirect basal ganglia pathway, we examined neuronal activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) using cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry in high- and low-stereotypy mice. CO activity in STN was significantly lower in high-stereotypy mice and negatively correlated with the frequency of stereotypy. In addition, exposure to environmental enrichment, which attenuated stereotypy, normalized the activity of STN. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS21680 and the A(1) receptor agonist CPA attenuated stereotypy dose-dependently. The significant reduction associated with the lowest dose of the drug combination tested was due to its effects on mice with lower baseline levels of stereotypy. Higher doses of the drug combination were required to show robust behavioral effects, and presumably requisite activation of the indirect pathway, in high-stereotypy mice. These findings support that decreased indirect pathway activity is linked to the expression of high levels of stereotypy in deer mice and that striatal A(1) and A(2A) receptors may provide promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20178817

Tanimura, Yoko; Vaziri, Sasha; Lewis, Mark H

2010-06-26

55

Repetitive behaviors in autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder: new perspectives from a network analysis.  

PubMed

The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's perceptions as well as a network based on 213 clinically diagnosed children. In all networks, autism and OCD emerged as two distinct symptom clusters and obsessions and compulsions showed few direct associations with autism symptoms. Further, sensory interests were identified as behaviors that may contribute to the link between autism and OCD. Through network analysis, we expose the symptom pathways that may lead to the perceived association between autism and OCD. PMID:25149176

Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M

2015-01-01

56

Abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite at high pressures.  

PubMed

Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe(2+)-Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H; Leu, Bogdan M; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

2014-01-01

57

Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures  

PubMed Central

Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20?GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5?GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8?GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8?GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

2014-01-01

58

Influence of lead on repetitive behavior and dopamine metabolism in a mouse model of iron overload.  

PubMed

Exposures to lead (Pb) are associated with neurological problems including psychiatric disorders and impaired learning and memory. Pb can be absorbed by iron transporters, which are up-regulated in hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disorder in which increased iron deposition in various parenchymal organs promote metal-induced oxidative damage. While dysfunction in HFE (High Fe) gene is the major cause of hemochromatosis, the transport and toxicity of Pb in Hfe-related hemochromatosis are largely unknown. To elucidate the relationship between HFE gene dysfunction and Pb absorption, H67D knock-in Hfe-mutant and wild-type mice were given drinking water containing Pb 1.6 mg/ml ad libitum for 6 weeks and examined for behavioral phenotypes using the nestlet-shredding and marble-burying tests. Latency to nestlet-shredding in Pb-treated wild-type mice was prolonged compared with non-exposed wild-types (p < 0.001), whereas Pb exposure did not alter shredding latency in Hfe-mutant mice. In the marble-burying test, Hfe-mutant mice showed an increased number of marbles buried compared with wild-type mice (p = 0.002), indicating more repetitive behavior upon Hfe mutation. Importantly, Pb-exposed wild-type mice buried more marbles than non-exposed wild-types, whereas the number of marbles buried by Hfe-mutant mice did not change whether or not exposed to Pb. These results suggest that Hfe mutation could normalize Pb-induced behavioral alteration. To explore the mechanism of repetitive behavior caused by Pb, western blot analysis was conducted for proteins involved in brain dopamine metabolism. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter increased upon Pb exposure in both genotypes, whereas Hfe-mutant mice displayed down-regulation of the dopamine transporter and dopamine D1 receptor with D2 receptor elevated. Taken together, our data support the idea that both Pb exposure and Hfe mutation increase repetitive behavior in mice and further suggest that these behavioral changes could be associated with altered dopaminergic neurotransmission, providing a therapeutic basis for psychiatric disorders caused by Pb toxicity. PMID:25584146

Chang, JuOae; Kueon, Chojin; Kim, Jonghan

2014-12-01

59

Influence of Lead on Repetitive Behavior and Dopamine Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Iron Overload  

PubMed Central

Exposures to lead (Pb) are associated with neurological problems including psychiatric disorders and impaired learning and memory. Pb can be absorbed by iron transporters, which are up-regulated in hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disorder in which increased iron deposition in various parenchymal organs promote metal-induced oxidative damage. While dysfunction in HFE (High Fe) gene is the major cause of hemochromatosis, the transport and toxicity of Pb in Hfe-related hemochromatosis are largely unknown. To elucidate the relationship between HFE gene dysfunction and Pb absorption, H67D knock-in Hfe-mutant and wild-type mice were given drinking water containing Pb 1.6 mg/ml ad libitum for 6 weeks and examined for behavioral phenotypes using the nestlet-shredding and marble-burying tests. Latency to nestlet-shredding in Pb-treated wild-type mice was prolonged compared with non-exposed wild-types (p < 0.001), whereas Pb exposure did not alter shredding latency in Hfe-mutant mice. In the marble-burying test, Hfe-mutant mice showed an increased number of marbles buried compared with wild-type mice (p = 0.002), indicating more repetitive behavior upon Hfe mutation. Importantly, Pb-exposed wild-type mice buried more marbles than non-exposed wild-types, whereas the number of marbles buried by Hfe-mutant mice did not change whether or not exposed to Pb. These results suggest that Hfe mutation could normalize Pb-induced behavioral alteration. To explore the mechanism of repetitive behavior caused by Pb, western blot analysis was conducted for proteins involved in brain dopamine metabolism. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter increased upon Pb exposure in both genotypes, whereas Hfe-mutant mice displayed down-regulation of the dopamine transporter and dopamine D1 receptor with D2 receptor elevated. Taken together, our data support the idea that both Pb exposure and Hfe mutation increase repetitive behavior in mice and further suggest that these behavioral changes could be associated with altered dopaminergic neurotransmission, providing a therapeutic basis for psychiatric disorders caused by Pb toxicity. PMID:25584146

Kueon, Chojin; Kim, Jonghan

2014-01-01

60

Development of a mouse test for repetitive, restricted behaviors: relevance to autism.  

PubMed

Repetitive behavior, a core symptom of autism, encompasses stereotyped responses, restricted interests, and resistance to change. These studies investigated whether different components of the repetitive behavior domain could be modeled in the exploratory hole-board task in mice. Four inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and FVB/NJ, and mice with reduced expression of Grin1, leading to NMDA receptor hypofunction (NR1neo/neo mice), were tested for exploration and preference for olfactory stimuli in an activity chamber with a 16-hole floor-board. Reduced exploration and high preference for holes located in the corners of the chamber were observed in BALB/cByJ and BTBR T+tf/J mice. All inbred strains had initial high preference for a familiar olfactory stimulus (clean cage bedding). BTBR T+tf/J was the only strain that did not demonstrate a shift in hole preference towards an appetitive olfactory stimulus (cereal or a chocolate chip), following home cage exposure to the food. The NR1neo/neo mice showed lower hole selectivity and aberrant olfactory stimulus preference, in comparison to wildtype controls. The results indicate that NR1neo/neo mice have repetitive nose poke responses that are less modified by environmental contingencies than responses in wildtype mice. 25-30% of NMDA receptor hypomorphic mice also show self-injurious responses. Findings from the olfactory studies suggest that resistance to change and restricted interests might be modeled in mice by a failure to alter patterns of hole preference following familiarization with an appetitive stimulus, and by high preference persistently demonstrated for one particular olfactory stimulus. Further work is required to determine the characteristics of optimal mouse social stimuli in the olfactory hole-board test. PMID:18068825

Moy, Sheryl S; Nadler, Jessica J; Poe, Michele D; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Koller, Beverly H; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Duncan, Gary E; Bodfish, James W

2008-03-17

61

Development of a Mouse Test for Repetitive, Restricted Behaviors: Relevance to Autism  

PubMed Central

Repetitive behavior, a core symptom of autism, encompasses stereotyped responses, restricted interests, and resistance to change. These studies investigated whether different components of the repetitive behavior domain could be modeled in the exploratory hole-board task in mice. Four inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and FVB/NJ, and mice with reduced expression of Grin1, leading to NMDA receptor hypofunction (NR1neo/neo mice), were tested for exploration and preference for olfactory stimuli in an activity chamber with a 16-hole floor-board. Reduced exploration and high preference for holes located in the corners of the chamber were observed in BALB/cByJ and BTBR T+tf/J mice. All inbred strains had initial high preference for a familiar olfactory stimulus (clean cage bedding). BTBR T+tf/J was the only strain that did not demonstrate a shift in hole preference towards an appetitive olfactory stimulus (cereal or a chocolate chip), following home cage exposure to the food. The NR1neo/neo mice showed lower hole selectivity and aberrant olfactory stimulus preference, in comparison to wildtype controls. The results indicate that NR1neo/neo mice have repetitive nose poke responses that are less modified by environmental contingencies than responses in wildtype mice. 25-30% of NMDA-receptor hypomorphic mice also show self-injurious responses. Findings from the olfactory studies suggest that resistance to change and restricted interests might be modeled in mice by a failure to alter patterns of hole preference following familiarization with an appetitive stimulus, and by high preference persistently demonstrated for one particular olfactory stimulus. Further work is required to determine the characteristics of optimal mouse social stimuli in the olfactory hole-board test. PMID:18068825

Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Poe, Michele D.; Nonneman, Randal J.; Young, Nancy B.; Koller, Beverly H.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Duncan, Gary E.; Bodfish, James W.

2008-01-01

62

Cocaine addiction: from habits to stereotypical-repetitive behaviors and punding.  

PubMed

"Punding" is a stereotypical motor behavior characterized by an intense fascination with repetitive handling and examining of objects. Since its first description in amphetamine and cocaine addicts, data on punding has only derived from studies performed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Punding is classifiable as the most severe form of Repetitive Reward-Seeking Behaviours (RRSB) syndromes. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and phenomelogy of RRSB acutely induced by cocaine in order to determine the prevalence, severity and distinctive features discriminating "punders" from "non-punders". A consecutive sample of 50 cocaine addicts received a clinical psychiatric interview. RRSB diagnosis and severity were assessed using a modified version of a previous published questionnaire designed to identify punding in patients with PD. In the present series, 38% of the cocaine addicts met the proposed diagnostic criteria for a RRSB and 8% were considered punders. Subjects with vs. without RRSB did not differ in terms of sex ratio, age, education, occupation, predisposing habits, duration of cocaine use, hours of sleep, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and concomitant use of other drugs. These results and the observation that in the majority of cases RRSB started soon after first drug intake, strongly suggest that an underlying unknown predisposition led to the development of these behaviors. In conclusion, RRSB and punding is much more common than has been described previously and the resultant social disability is often overlooked. PMID:18378407

Fasano, Alfonso; Barra, Andrea; Nicosia, Paola; Rinaldi, Federica; Bria, Pietro; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Tonioni, Federico

2008-07-01

63

Changes in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors with Age: A Study of High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existing literature suggests that while impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue into adulthood, some behavioral symptoms tend to abate with age. However, there is a dearth of research examining changes in ASD symptoms from childhood to adulthood, especially for Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs). We examined age-related…

Chowdhury, Monali; Benson, Betsey A.; Hillier, Ashleigh

2010-01-01

64

Severe drug-induced repetitive behaviors and striatal overexpression of VAChT in ChAT-ChR2-EYFP BAC transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

In drug users, drug-related cues alone can induce dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Instructive cues activate inputs to the striatum from both dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, which are thought to work together to support motor learning and motivated behaviors. Imbalances in these neuromodulatory influences can impair normal action selection and might thus contribute to pathologically repetitive and compulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. Dopamine and acetylcholine can have either antagonistic or synergistic effects on behavior, depending on the state of the animal and the receptor signaling systems at play. Semi-synchronized activation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum drives dopamine release via presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on dopamine terminals. Nicotinic receptor blockade is known to diminish abnormal repetitive behaviors (stereotypies) induced by psychomotor stimulants. By contrast, blockade of postsynaptic acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum exacerbates drug-induced stereotypy, exemplifying how different acetylcholine receptors can also have opposing effects. Although acetylcholine release is known to be altered in animal models of drug addiction, predicting whether these changes will augment or diminish drug-induced behaviors thus remains a challenge. Here, we measured amphetamine-induced stereotypy in BAC transgenic mice that have been shown to overexpress the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) with consequent increased acetylcholine release. We found that drug-induced stereotypies, consisting of confined sniffing and licking behaviors, were greatly increased in the transgenic mice relative to sibling controls, as was striatal VAChT protein. These findings suggest that VAChT-mediated increases in acetylcholine could be critical in exacerbating drug-induced stereotypic behaviors and promoting exaggerated behavioral fixity. PMID:24904300

Lacey, Carolyn J.; Lee, Tyrone; Bowden, Hilary A.; Graybiel, Ann M.

2014-01-01

65

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Repetitive Behaviors in Monkeys Are Linked to Specific  

E-print Network

for analyzing the neurobiology underlying such drug-induced behavioral changes. We performed ethogram-based behavioral assays on squirrel monkeys given single or multiple cocaine treatments, and in the same monkeys cocaine challenge after chronic intermittent exposure to cocaine induced highly patterned behavioral

Graybiel, Ann M.

66

Elevated levels of the vesicular monoamine transporter and a novel repetitive behavior in the Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is characterized by mental impairment and autism in humans, and it often features hyperactivity and repetitive behaviors. The mechanisms for the disease, however, remain poorly understood. Here we report that the dfmr1 mutant in the Drosophila model of FXS grooms excessively, which may be regulated differentially by two signaling pathways. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling enhances grooming in dfmr1 mutant flies, whereas blocking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) suppresses excessive grooming. dfmr1 mutant flies also exhibit elevated levels of VMAT mRNA and protein. These results suggest that enhanced monoamine signaling correlates with repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity associated with FXS. PMID:22087250

Tauber, John M; Vanlandingham, Phillip A; Zhang, Bing

2011-01-01

67

Elevated Levels of the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter and a Novel Repetitive Behavior in the Drosophila Model of Fragile X Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is characterized by mental impairment and autism in humans, and it often features hyperactivity and repetitive behaviors. The mechanisms for the disease, however, remain poorly understood. Here we report that the dfmr1 mutant in the Drosophila model of FXS grooms excessively, which may be regulated differentially by two signaling pathways. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling enhances grooming in dfmr1 mutant flies, whereas blocking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) suppresses excessive grooming. dfmr1 mutant flies also exhibit elevated levels of VMAT mRNA and protein. These results suggest that enhanced monoamine signaling correlates with repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity associated with FXS. PMID:22087250

Tauber, John M.; Vanlandingham, Phillip A.; Zhang, Bing

2011-01-01

68

The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

Richardson, Lolita Lisa

2010-01-01

69

Brief Report: The Dopamine-3-Receptor Gene ("DRD3") Is Associated with Specific Repetitive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently the "DRD3" gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. This risk allele was…

Staal, Wouter G.; de Krom, Mariken; de Jonge, Maretha V.

2012-01-01

70

Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

1984-01-01

71

Abnormal eating behaviors in adolescent and young adult women from southern Brazil: Reassessment after four years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate whether abnormal eating behaviors in young women could predict eating disorders after 4 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  56 women were identified as presenting abnormal eating behaviors in a cross-sectional study (Eating Attitudes Test-26 and\\u000a Edinburgh Bulimic Investigation Test). They were matched for age and neighborhood to two controls (n = 112). Four years later, they were re-assessed with the two screening questionnaires plus the

Maria Angélica Nunes; Maria Teresa A. Olinto; Suzi Camey; Christina Morgan; Jair de Jesus Mari

2006-01-01

72

Behavioral abnormality and pharmacologic response in social isolation-reared mice.  

PubMed

Social isolation (SI) rearing in rodents causes a variety of behavioral changes, including hyperlocomotion, anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, and learning and memory deficits. These behavioral abnormalities in rodents may be related to the symptoms in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, schizophrenia and depression. In this study, we examined the effect of long-term SI rearing after weaning on emotional behaviors and cognitive function in mice. Furthermore, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH), clozapine (CLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on SI-induced behavioral changes were examined to measure the predictive validity of SI-reared mice as an animal model for these neuropsychiatric disorders. MPH improved SI-induced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test, but had no effect on aggressive behavior. In contrast, CLZ ameliorated aggressive behavior, but not anxiety-like behavior in SI-reared mice. Repeated FLX treatment prevented SI-induced aggressive behavior and social interaction deficits. These findings suggest that SI-induced behavioral abnormality is a psychobehavioral complex relevant to various clinical symptoms observed in neuropsychiatric disorders and that SI-reared mice are a useful animal model to study the pathophysiology/pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:19447287

Koike, Hiroyuki; Ibi, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Taku; Nitta, Atsumi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yoneda, Yukio; Yamada, Kiyofumi

2009-08-24

73

Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

2001-01-01

74

Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Origins of impaired adaptive functioning in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Behavioral disorganization may arise from an abnormal reliance on common combinations between concepts stored in semantic memory. Avolition-apathy may be related to deficits in using goal-related requirements to flexibly plan behavior. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 medicated schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy controls in a novel video paradigm presenting congruous or incongruous objects in real-world activities. All incongruous objects were contextually inappropriate, but the incongruous scenes varied in comprehensibility. Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to less comprehensible incongruous scenes, and larger N400 priming was associated with disorganization severity. A P600 ERP, which may index flexible object-action integration based on goal-related requirements, was abnormally attenuated in patients, and its smaller magnitude was associated with the SANS rating of impersistence at work or school (goal-directed behavior). Thus, distinct neurocognitive abnormalities may underlie disorganization and goal-directed behavior deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:19413402

Sitnikova, Tatiana; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R.

2010-01-01

75

The microbiota modulates gut physiology and behavioral abnormalities associated with autism  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by core behavioral impairments, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly reported. Subsets of ASD individuals display dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, and some exhibit increased intestinal permeability. Here we demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in a mouse model displaying features of ASD, maternal immune activation (MIA). Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition and ameliorates ASD-related defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naïve mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:24315484

Hsiao, Elaine Y.; McBride, Sara W.; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R.; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A.; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Patterson, Paul H.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

2014-01-01

76

Motor Learning in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Activation in Superior Parietal Lobule Related to Learning and Repetitive Behaviors.  

PubMed

Motor-linked implicit learning is the learning of a sequence of movements without conscious awareness. Although motor symptoms are frequently reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), recent behavioral studies have suggested that motor-linked implicit learning may be intact in ASD. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is one of the most common measures of motor-linked implicit learning. The present study used a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner to examine the behavioral and neural correlates of real-time motor sequence learning in adolescents and adults with ASD (n?=?15) compared with age- and intelligence quotient-matched individuals with typical development (n?=?15) during an SRT task. Behavioral results suggested less robust motor sequence learning in individuals with ASD. Group differences in brain activation suggested that individuals with ASD, relative to individuals with typical development, showed decreased activation in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) and right precuneus (Brodmann areas 5 and 7, and extending into the intraparietal sulcus) during learning. Activation in these areas (and in areas such as the right putamen and right supramarginal gyrus) was found to be significantly related to behavioral learning in this task. Additionally, individuals with ASD who had more severe repetitive behavior/restricted interest symptoms demonstrated greater decreased activation in these regions during motor learning. In conjunction, these results suggest that the SPL may play an important role in motor learning and repetitive behavior in individuals with ASD. Autism Res 2014, ??: ??-??. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25258047

Travers, Brittany G; Kana, Rajesh K; Klinger, Laura G; Klein, Christopher L; Klinger, Mark R

2014-09-24

77

Abnormal behavior of supercooled liquid region in bulk-forming metallic glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metallic glass is often viewed as an amorphous alloy exhibiting a single endothermic reaction in the supercooled liquid region (SCLR, ?Tx=Tx-Tg). Here we discuss the origin and consequences of abnormal behavior of SCLR in various bulk-forming metallic glasses (BMGs). The two-stage-like endothermic reaction in Ni-based, Cu-based, Zr-based, and Mg-based BMGs can originate from the local immiscibility of liquids, which is closely related to chemical heterogeneity in as-cast BMG. These inflections can be attributed to the overlap of the exothermic reaction for the formation and growth of clusters in SCLR. The abnormal behavior of SCLR can be modulated by controlling cooling rate as well as by tailoring alloy composition, with the consequence that the modulated local heterogeneity in these BMGs can lead to enhanced flexibility of the BMGs. This correlation assists in understanding toughening mechanism and in guiding alloy design to alleviate brittleness of BMGs.

Park, E. S.; Na, J. H.; Kim, D. H.

2010-09-01

78

Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal and emergency situations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for the study of planning is presented and the results of applying the methodology within two experimental investigations of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations are discussed. Beyond showing that the methodology yields consistent results, these experiments also lead to concepts in terms of a dichotomy between event driven and time driven planning, subtle effects of automation on planning, and the relationship of planning to workload and flight performance.

Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

1981-01-01

79

Abnormal behavior during influenza in Japan during the last seven seasons: 2006-2007 to 2012-2013.  

PubMed

A few mortalities and cases of severe abnormal behavior have been reported after oseltamivir administration for influenza, thus increasing medical and public concerns regarding the drug's safety. We investigated the association between oseltamivir and abnormal behavior for seven years. All outpatient clinics and hospitals all over the country were requested to report severe abnormal behavior that could have resulted in a fatality if nobody intervened, such as abrupt running outside the home or intention of jumping off a building. The survey was performed prospectively between the 2007-2008 and 2012-2013 seasons, and retrospectively for the 2006-2007 season. As the result of the investigation, eight-hundred fifty-eight cases were reported and among of them 95.7% were positive by the influenza rapid diagnosis test. The epidemic curve of severe abnormal behavior showed a pattern similar to influenza-like illness. The same pattern was observed regardless of age group, gender, or timing of the incidents after waking. Consequently, specific association between the types of medications used or the types of antiviral and abnormal behavior was not observed clearly. The reported abnormal behaviors include fatal cases that would have died if nobody had stopped. This suggested that patients with influenza should be observed with caution for possible abnormal behavior whether taking oseltamivir or other neuraminidase inhibitor anti-influenza drugs. PMID:25284815

Nakamura, Yuuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Miyazaki, Chiaki; Momoi, Mariko; Okabe, Nobuhiko

2014-12-01

80

Lymphocyte Subset Alterations Related to Executive Function Deficits and Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing evidence suggests that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in children with ASD. Eighteen high-functioning (HFA) and 19 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17 years,…

Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S.

2011-01-01

81

Mice genetically depleted of brain serotonin display social impairments, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors: possible relevance to autism.  

PubMed

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2)) for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/-) showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder. PMID:23139830

Kane, Michael J; Angoa-Peréz, Mariana; Briggs, Denise I; Sykes, Catherine E; Francescutti, Dina M; Rosenberg, David R; Kuhn, Donald M

2012-01-01

82

Mice Genetically Depleted of Brain Serotonin Display Social Impairments, Communication Deficits and Repetitive Behaviors: Possible Relevance to Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2)) for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2?/?) showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2?/? mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder. PMID:23139830

Briggs, Denise I.; Sykes, Catherine E.; Francescutti, Dina M.; Rosenberg, David R.; Kuhn, Donald M.

2012-01-01

83

Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization  

PubMed Central

Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years) or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years). The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined. PMID:25379228

Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl

2013-01-01

84

Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for the study of human planning behavior in complex dynamic systems is presented and applied to the study of aircraft pilot behavior in normal, abnormal and emergency situations. The method measures the depth of planning, that is the level of detail employed with respect to a specific task, according to responses to a verbal questionnaire, and compares planning depth with variables relating to time, task criticality and the probability of increased task difficulty. In two series of experiments, depth of planning was measured on a five- or ten-point scale during various phases of flight in a HFB-320 simulator under normal flight conditions, abnormal scenarios involving temporary runway closure due to snow removal or temporary CAT-III conditions due to a dense fog, and emergency scenarios involving engine shut-down or hydraulic pressure loss. Results reveal a dichotomy between event-driven and time-driven planning, different effects of automation in abnormal and emergency scenarios and a low correlation between depth of planning and workload or flight performance.

Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

1981-01-01

85

On possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behaviors before an earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behaviors before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilzed to characterize the unusual animal behaviors; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15-20 years. As the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f < 1Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f < a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behaviors. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behaviors before an EQ.

Hayakawa, Masashi

2013-04-01

86

Abnormal animal behavior prior to the Vrancea (Romania) major subcrustal earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to present some observations about abnormal animal behavior prior and during of some Romanian subcrustal earthquakes. The major Vrancea earthquakes of 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.4, Imax = IX-X MSK), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.1, Io = VIII-IX MSK) and 30 May 1990 (Mw = 6.9, Io = VIII MSK), were preceded by extensive occurrences of anomalous animal behavior. These data were collected immediately after the earthquakes from the areas affected by these. Some species of animals became excited, nervous and panicked before and during the earthquakes, such as: dogs (barking and running in panic), cats, snakes, mice and rats (came into the houses and have lost their fear), birds (hens, geese, parrots), horses, fishes etc. These strange manifestations of the animals were observed on the entire territory of country, especially in the extra-Carpathian area. This unusual behavior was noticed within a few hours to days before the seismic events, but for the most of cases the time of occurrence was within two hours of the quakes. We can hope that maybe one day the abnormal animal behavior will be used as a reliable seismic precursor for the intermediate depth earthquakes.

Constantin, Angela; Pantea, Aurelian

2013-04-01

87

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1993-10-22

88

Repetitive firing: quantitative analysis of encoder behavior of slowly adapting stretch receptor of crayfish and eccentric cell of Limulus  

PubMed Central

Techniques developed for determining summed encoder feedback in conjunction with the leaky integrator and variable-gamma models for repetitive firing are applied to spike train data obtained from the slowly adapting crustacean stretch receptor and the eccentric cell of Limulus. Input stimuli were intracellularly applied currents. Analysis of data from cells stringently selected by reproducibility criteria gave a consistent picture for the dynamics of repetitive firing. The variable-gamma model with appropriate summed feedback was most accurate for describing encoding behavior of both cell types. The leaky integrator model, while useful for determining summed feedback parameters, was inadequate to account for underlying mechanisms of encoder activity. For the stretch receptor, two summed feedback processes were detected: one had a short time constant; the other, a long one. Appropriate tests indicated that the short time constant effect was from an electrogenic sodium pump, and the same is presumed for the long time constant summed feedback. Both feedbacks show seasonal and/or species variations. Short hyperpolarizing pulses inhibited the feedback from the long time constant process. The eccentric cell also showed two summed feedback processes: one is due to self inhibition, the other is postulated to be a short time constant electrogenic sodium pump similar to that described in the stretch receptor. PMID:894245

1977-01-01

89

Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors.  

PubMed

Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis. PMID:15347806

Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; McKnight, Steven L

2004-09-14

90

Maladaptive and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and clinicians are recognizing that a subgroup of children with Down syndrome (DS) also present with clinically significant impairments in social-communication and restricted patterns of behavior, such as those that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Efforts to better describe the behavioral presentation of children with…

Hepburn, Susan L.; MacLean, William E.

2009-01-01

91

Maladaptive and Repetitive Behaviors in Children With Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers and clinicians are recognizing that a subgroup of children with Down syndrome (DS) also present with clinically significant impairments in social-communication and restricted patterns of behavior, such as those that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Efforts to better describe the behavioral presentation of children with co-occurring DS and ASD could be useful in developing screening and assessment procedures, which

Susan L. Hepburn; William E. MacLean

2009-01-01

92

Suppression of Repetitive Self-Injurious Behavior by Contingent Inhalation of Aromatic Ammonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two severely retarded institutionalized children (4 and 7 years old) who exhibited high rates of severely self-injurious behaviors were punished with aromatic ammonia inhalation on a response-contingent basis. (Author/SBH)

Baumeister, Alan A.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

1978-01-01

93

Who should report abnormal behavior at preschool age? The case of behavioral inhibition.  

PubMed

Children who are behaviorally "inhibited"-a condition at the extreme of the behavioral inhibition dimension-experience distress in uncertain social situations. Although parents and teachers are in the best position to detect this condition, they rarely agree. This study aims to analyze the agreement between parents and teachers and to examine the relations between ratings made by parents and teachers and assessments made by clinicians and researchers. Parents, teachers and clinicians rated the behavioral inhibition of 365 preschoolers. Seventy-three randomly selected participants were observed using an adaptation of the Behavioral Inhibition Paradigm. Parent-teacher correlations on 34 items and different clusters were, on average, r = .3. The degree of convergence between observational measures and ratings by parents and teachers was moderate-low and did not improve when considering only subsamples from the ends of the distributions. Discriminant analysis suggests that both parents and teachers tend to have a moderate-low ability to detect "inhibited" children. PMID:21915723

Ballespí, Sergi; Jané, M Claustre; Riba, M Dolors

2012-02-01

94

Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmentally Similar Peers--A Follow Up to Watt et al. (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study extended the findings of Watt et al. (J Autism Dev Disord 38:1518-1533, 2008) by investigating repetitive and stereotyped behaviors (RSB) demonstrated by children (n = 50) and typical development (TD; n = 50) matched on developmental age, gender, and parents' education level. RSB were coded from videotaped Communication and…

Barber, Angela B.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Chambers, Nola W.

2012-01-01

95

Lack of Efficacy of Citalopram in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and High Levels of Repetitive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Context Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely prescribed for children with autism spectrum disorders. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of citalopram hydrobromide therapy for repetitive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Design National Institutes of Health–sponsored randomized controlled trial. Setting Six academic centers, including Mount Sinai School of Medicine, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of California at Los Angeles, Yale University, and Dartmouth Medical School. Participants One hundred forty-nine volunteers 5 to 17 years old (mean [SD] age, 9.4 [3.1] years) were randomized to receive citalopram (n = 73) or placebo (n = 76). Participants had autistic spectrum disorders, Asperger disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified; had illness severity ratings of at least moderate on the Clinical Global Impressions, Severity of Illness Scale; and scored at least moderate on compulsive behaviors measured with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Interventions Twelve weeks of citalopram hydrobromide (10 mg/5 mL) or placebo. The mean (SD) maximum dosage of citalopram hydrobromide was 16.5 (6.5) mg/d by mouth (maximum, 20 mg/d). Main Outcome Measures Positive response was defined by a score of much improved or very much improved on the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement subscale. An important secondary outcome was the score on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Adverse events were systematically elicited using the Safety Monitoring Uniform Report Form. Results There was no significant difference in the rate of positive response on the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement subscale between the citalopram-treated group (32.9%) and the placebo group (34.2%) (relative risk, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.51; P> .99). There was no difference in score reduction on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders from baseline (mean [SD], ?2.0 [3.4] points for the citalopram-treated group and ?1.9 [2.5] points for the placebo group; P=.81). Citalopram use was significantly more likely to be associated with adverse events, particularly increased energy level, impulsiveness, decreased concentration, hyperactivity, stereotypy, diarrhea, insomnia, and dry skin or pruritus. Conclusion Results of this trial do not support the use of citalopram for the treatment of repetitive behavior in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00086645 PMID:19487623

King, Bryan H.; Hollander, Eric; Sikich, Linmarie; McCracken, James T.; Scahill, Lawrence; Bregman, Joel D.; Donnelly, Craig L.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann; Ritz, Louise

2014-01-01

96

Impaired Auditory-Vestibular Functions and Behavioral Abnormalities of Slitrk6-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

A recent study revealed that Slitrk6, a transmembrane protein containing a leucine-rich repeat domain, has a critical role in the development of the inner ear neural circuit. However, it is still unknown how the absence of Slitrk6 affects auditory and vestibular functions. In addition, the role of Slitrk6 in regions of the central nervous system, including the dorsal thalamus, has not been addressed. To understand the physiological role of Slitrk6, Slitrk6-knockout (KO) mice were subjected to systematic behavioral analyses including auditory and vestibular function tests. Compared to wild-type mice, the auditory brainstem response (ABR) of Slitrk6-KO mice indicated a mid-frequency range (8–16 kHz) hearing loss and reduction of the first ABR wave. The auditory startle response was also reduced. A vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) test showed decreased vertical (head movement–induced) VOR gains and normal horizontal VOR. In an open field test, locomotor activity was reduced; the tendency to be in the center region was increased, but only in the first 5 min of the test, indicating altered adaptive responses to a novel environment. Altered adaptive responses were also found in a hole-board test in which head-dip behavior was increased and advanced. Aside from these abnormalities, no clear abnormalities were noted in the mood, anxiety, learning, spatial memory, or fear memory–related behavioral tests. These results indicate that the Slitrk6-KO mouse can serve as a model of hereditary sensorineural deafness. Furthermore, the altered responses of Slitrk6-KO mice to the novel environment suggest a role of Slitrk6 in some cognitive functions. PMID:21298075

Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Katayama, Kei-ichi; Okamoto, Takehito; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Takashima, Noriko; Nagao, Soichi; Aruga, Jun

2011-01-01

97

Genetic manipulation of STEP reverses behavioral abnormalities in a fragile X syndrome mouse model  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and prevailing known genetic basis of autism, is caused by an expansion in the Fmr1 gene that prevents transcription and translation of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP binds to and controls translation of mRNAs downstream of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. Recent work identified striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) as an FMRP target mRNA. STEP opposes synaptic strengthening and promotes synaptic weakening by dephosphorylating its substrates, including ERK1/2, p38, Fyn, Pyk2, and subunits of NMDA and AMPA receptors. Here we demonstrate that STEP translation is dysregulated in Fmr1KO mice, resulting in elevated basal levels of STEP with a concomitant loss of mGluR-dependent STEP translation. We hypothesized that the weakened synaptic strength and behavioral abnormalities reported in FXS may be linked to excess levels of STEP. To test this hypothesis, we reduced or eliminated STEP genetically in Fmr1KO mice. In addition to attenuating audiogenic seizures and seizure-induced c-Fos activation in the periaqueductal gray, genetically reducing STEP in Fmr1KO mice reversed characteristic social abnormalities, including approach, investigation, novelty-induced hyperactivity and anxiety. Loss of STEP also corrected select non-social anxiety-related behaviors in Fmr1KO mice, such as open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze. Our findings indicate that genetically reducing STEP significantly diminishes seizures and restores social and non-social anxiety-related behaviors in Fmr1KO mice, suggesting that strategies to inhibit STEP activity may be effective for treating patients with FXS. PMID:22405502

Goebel-Goody, Susan M.; Wilson-Wallis, Evan D.; Royston, Sara; Tagliatela, Stephanie; Naegele, Janice R.; Lombroso, Paul J.

2014-01-01

98

Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design  

PubMed Central

We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

2014-01-01

99

Inactivation of Ceramide Synthase 6 in Mice Results in an Altered Sphingolipid Metabolism and Behavioral Abnormalities*  

PubMed Central

The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for ?-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ?35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain. PMID:23760501

Ebel, Philipp; vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

2013-01-01

100

Abnormal foraging behavior induced by sublethal dosage of imidacloprid in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae).  

PubMed

Although sublethal dosages of insecticide to nontarget insects have never been an important issue, they are attracting more and more attention lately. It has been demonstrated that low dosages of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid may affect honey bee, Apis mellifera L., behavior. In this article, the foraging behavior of the honey bee workers was investigated to show the effects of imidacloprid. By measuring the time interval between two visits at the same feeding site, we found that the normal foraging interval of honey bee workers was within 300 s. However, these honey bee workers delayed their return visit for > 300 s when they were treated orally with sugar water containing imidacloprid. This time delay in their return visit is concentration-dependent, and the lowest effective concentration was found to be 50 microg/liter. When bees were treated with an imidacloprid concentration higher than 1,200 microg/liter, they showed abnormalities in revisiting the feeding site. Some of them went missing, and some were present again at the feeding site the next day. Returning bees also showed delay in their return trips. Our results demonstrated that sublethal dosages of imidacloprid were able to affect foraging behavior of honey bees. PMID:19133451

Yang, E C; Chuang, Y C; Chen, Y L; Chang, L H

2008-12-01

101

Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination  

SciTech Connect

Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

McCarty, J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Section of Ecology and Systematics; [Fish and Wildlife Service, Cortland, NY (United States); Secord, A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Cortland, NY (United States); Tillitt, D. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

102

A quantitative association study of SLC25A12 and restricted repetitive behavior traits in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background SLC25A12 was previously identified by a linkage-directed association analysis in autism. In this study, we investigated the relationship between three SLC25A12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2056202, rs908670 and rs2292813) and restricted repetitive behavior (RRB) traits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), based on a positive correlation between the G allele of rs2056202 and an RRB subdomain score on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Methods We used the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) as a quantitative RRB measure, and conducted linear regression analyses for individual SNPs and a previously identified haplotype (rs2056202-rs2292813). We examined associations in our University of Illinois at Chicago-University of Florida (UIC-UF) sample (179 unrelated individuals with an ASD), and then attempted to replicate our findings in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) sample (720 ASD families). Results In the UIC-UF sample, three RBS-R scores (ritualistic, sameness, sum) had positive associations with the A allele of rs2292813 (p = 0.006-0.012) and with the rs2056202-rs2292813 haplotype (omnibus test, p = 0.025-0.040). The SSC sample had positive associations between the A allele of rs2056202 and four RBS-R scores (stereotyped, sameness, restricted, sum) (p = 0.006-0.010), between the A allele of rs908670 and three RBS-R scores (stereotyped, self-injurious, sum) (p = 0.003-0.015), and between the rs2056202-rs2292813 haplotype and six RBS-R scores (stereotyped, self-injurious, compulsive, sameness, restricted, sum)(omnibus test, p = 0.002-0.028). Taken together, the A alleles of rs2056202 and rs2292813 were consistently and positively associated with RRB traits in both the UIC-UF and SSC samples, but the most significant SNP with phenotype association varied in each dataset. Conclusions This study confirmed an association between SLC25A12 and RRB traits in ASDs, but the direction of the association was different from that in the initial study. This could be due to the examined SLC25A12 SNPs being in linkage disequilibrium with another risk allele, and/or genetic/phenotypic heterogeneity of the ASD samples across studies. PMID:21609426

2011-01-01

103

Decomposition of abnormal free locomotor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Poverty of spontaneous movement, slowed execution and reduced amplitudes of movement (akinesia, brady- and hypokinesia) are cardinal motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease that can be modeled in experimental animals by brain lesions affecting midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most behavioral investigations in experimental parkinsonism have employed short-term observation windows to assess motor impairments. We postulated that an analysis of longer-term free exploratory behavior could provide further insights into the complex fine structure of altered locomotor activity in parkinsonian animals. To this end, we video-monitored 23 h of free locomotor behavior and extracted several behavioral measures before and after the expression of a severe parkinsonian phenotype following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the rat dopaminergic substantia nigra. Unbiased stereological cell counting verified the degree of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive cell loss in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In line with previous reports, overall covered distance and maximal motion speed of lesioned animals were found to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Before lesion surgery, exploratory rat behavior exhibited a bimodal distribution of maximal speed values obtained for single movement episodes, corresponding to a “first” and “second gear” of motion. 6-OHDA injections significantly reduced the incidence of second gear motion episodes and also resulted in an abnormal prolongation of these fast motion events. Likewise, the spatial spread of such episodes was increased in 6-OHDA rats. The increase in curvature of motion tracks was increased in both lesioned and control animals. We conclude that the discrimination of distinct modes of motion by statistical decomposition of longer-term spontaneous locomotion provides useful insights into the fine structure of fluctuating motor functions in a rat analog of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24348346

Grieb, Benjamin; von Nicolai, Constantin; Engler, Gerhard; Sharott, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.; Moll, Christian K.

2013-01-01

104

Abnormal Pre-Attentive Arousal in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Contributes to Their Atypical Auditory Behavior: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks (‘S1’ and ‘S2’) separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the ‘tangential’ P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the ‘radial’ N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD. PMID:23935931

Stroganova, Tatiana A.; Kozunov, Vladimir V.; Posikera, Irina N.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Gratchev, Vitaliy V.; Orekhova, Elena V.

2013-01-01

105

GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish  

SciTech Connect

At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA{sub A}R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 mug/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 mug/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA{sub A}ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p < 0.05) and great (p < 0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatment sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p < 0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA{sub A}R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA{sub A}R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

Facciolo, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rm.facciolo@unical.i [Comparative Neuroanatomy Laboratory, Ecology Department, University of Calabria, 87030 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello [Comparative Neuroanatomy Laboratory, Ecology Department, University of Calabria, 87030 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

2010-02-15

106

Cytogenetic abnormalities and fragile-x syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Autism is a behavioral disorder with impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. About 5–10 % of individuals with autism have 'secondary' autism in which an environmental agent, chromosome abnormality, or single gene disorder can be identified. Ninety percent have idiopathic autism and a major gene has not yet been identified. We have assessed the incidence of

Kavita S Reddy

2005-01-01

107

Late Prenatal Immune Activation in Mice Leads to Behavioral and Neurochemical Abnormalities Relevant to the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the human epidemiological association between prenatal infection and higher risk of schizophrenia, a number of animal models have been established to explore the long-term brain and behavioral consequences of prenatal immune challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that the vulnerability to specific forms of schizophrenia-related abnormalities is critically influenced by the precise timing of the prenatal immunological insult. In the

Byron KY Bitanihirwe; Daria Peleg-Raibstein; Forouhar Mouttet; Joram Feldon; Urs Meyer

2010-01-01

108

Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) which was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction. PMID:22775285

Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

2012-01-01

109

RATS EXPOSED TO ISOFLURANE IN UTERO DURING EARLY GESTATION ARE BEHAVIORALLY ABNORMAL AS ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Background Preclinical evidence suggests that commonly used anesthetic agents induce long-lasting neurobehavioral changes when administered early in life but there has been virtually no attention to the neurodevelopmental consequences for the fetus of maternal anesthesia. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal rats exposed to isoflurane during maternal anesthesia on gestational day 14, which corresponds to the second trimester in humans, would be behaviorally abnormal as adults. Methods Timed, pregnant rats were randomly assigned on gestational day 14 to receive 1.4% isoflurane in 100% oxygen (N = 3) or 100 % oxygen (N = 2) for 4 h. Beginning at 8 weeks of age, male offspring were evaluated for spontaneous locomotor activity, hippocampal dependent learning and memory (spontaneous alternations, novel object recognition, and radial arm maze), and anxiety (elevated plus maze). Results Isoflurane anesthesia was physiologically well tolerated by the dams. Adult rats exposed prenatally to isoflurane were not different than controls on spontaneous locomotor activity, spontaneous alternations, or object recognition memory but made more open arm entries on the elevated plus maze and took longer and made more errors of omission on the radial arm maze. Conclusions Rats exposed to isoflurane in utero at a time that corresponds to the second trimester in humans have impaired spatial memory acquisition and, reduced anxiety compared to controls. This suggests the fetal brain may be adversely affected by maternal anesthesia and raises the possibility that vulnerability to deleterious neurodevelopmental effects of isoflurane begins much earlier in life than previously recognized. PMID:21307768

Palanisamy, Arvind; Baxter, Mark G.; Keel, Pamela K.; Xie, Zhongcong; Crosby, Gregory; Culley, Deborah J.

2011-01-01

110

Pyrene induces a reduction in midbrain size and abnormal swimming behavior in early-hatched pufferfish larvae.  

PubMed

Spills of heavy oil (HO) have an adverse effect on marine life. We have demonstrated previously that exposure to HO by fertilized eggs of the pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) induces neural disruption and behavioral abnormality in early-hatched larvae. Here, two kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrene and phenanthrene, were selected to examine their toxic effects on larval behavior of another pufferfish species (T. niphobles). Larvae exposed to pyrene or phenanthrene exhibited no abnormalities in morphology. However, those exposed to pyrene but not phenanthrene swam in an uncoordinated manner, although their swimming distance and speed were normal. The optic tectum, a part of the midbrain, of pyrene-exposed larvae did not grow to full size. Thus, these findings are indicated that pyrene might be a contributor to the behavioral and neuro-developmental toxicity, although there is no indication that it is the only compound participating in the toxicity of the heavy oil mixture. PMID:24793779

Sugahara, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Itoyama, Tatsuya; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Tosa, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

2014-08-30

111

Abnormal Behaviors and Developmental Disorder of Hippocampus in Zinc Finger Protein 521 (ZFP521) Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) regulates a number of cellular processes in a wide range of tissues, such as osteoblast formation and adipose commitment and differentiation. In the field of neurobiology, it is reported to be an essential factor for transition of epiblast stem cells into neural progenitors in vitro. However, the role of ZFP521 in the brain in vivo still remains elusive. To elucidate the role of ZFP521 in the mouse brain, we generated mice lacking exon 4 of the ZFP521 gene. The birth ratio of our ZFP521?/? mice was consistent with Mendel's laws. Although ZFP521?/? pups had no apparent defect in the body and were indistinguishable from ZFP521+/+ and ZFP521+/? littermates at the time of birth, ZFP521?/? mice displayed significant weight reduction as they grew, and most of them died before 10 weeks of age. They displayed abnormal behavior, such as hyper-locomotion, lower anxiety and impaired learning, which correspond to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The border of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the mice was indistinct and granular neurons were reduced in number. Furthermore, Sox1-positive neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and cerebellum were significantly reduced in number. Taken together, these findings indicate that ZFP521 directly or indirectly affects the formation of the neuronal cell layers of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, and thus ZFP521?/? mice displayed schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. ZFP521?/? mice may be a useful research tool as an animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:24676388

Ohkubo, Nobutaka; Matsubara, Etsuko; Yamanouchi, Jun; Akazawa, Rie; Aoto, Mamoru; Suzuki, Yoji; Sakai, Ikuya; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Seiji; Yasukawa, Masaki; Mitsuda, Noriaki

2014-01-01

112

Neural Basis of Repetition Priming during Mathematical Cognition: Repetition Suppression or Repetition Enhancement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the neural basis of repetition priming (RP) during mathematical cognition. Previous studies of RP have focused on repetition suppression as the basis of behavioral facilitation, primarily using word and object identification and classification tasks. More recently, researchers have suggested associative stimulus-response learning…

Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Chang, Catie; Menon, Vinod

2010-01-01

113

Abnormal sexual behavior during sleep in temporal lobe epilepsy: a case report.  

PubMed

Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999

Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

2012-06-01

114

Ts1Cje, a Partial Trisomy 16 Mouse Model for down Syndrome, Exhibits Learning and Behavioral Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called ``Down syndrome region'' of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of learning in the Morris water maze and

Haruhiko Sago; Elaine J. Carlson; Desmond J. Smith; Joshua Kilbridge; Edward M. Rubin; William C. Mobley; Charles J. Epstein; Ting-Ting Huang

1998-01-01

115

Autism Spectrum Disorder as Early Neurodevelopmental Disorder: Evidence from the Brain Imaging Abnormalities in 2-3 Years Old Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships…

Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

2014-01-01

116

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

117

Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

2012-01-01

118

?1,6-Fucosyltransferase-deficient Mice Exhibit Multiple Behavioral Abnormalities Associated with a Schizophrenia-like Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that ?1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8)-deficient (Fut8?/?) mice exhibit emphysema-like changes in the lung and severe growth retardation due to dysregulation of TGF-?1 and EGF receptors and to abnormal integrin activation, respectively. To study the role of ?1,6-fucosylation in brain tissue where Fut8 is highly expressed, we examined Fut8?/? mice using a combination of neurological and behavioral tests. Fut8?/? mice exhibited multiple behavioral abnormalities consistent with a schizophrenia-like phenotype. Fut8?/? mice displayed increased locomotion compared with wild-type (Fut8+/+) and heterozygous (Fut8+/?) mice. In particular, Fut8?/? mice showed strenuous hopping behavior in a novel environment. Working memory performance was impaired in Fut8?/? mice as evidenced by the Y-maze tests. Furthermore, Fut8?/? mice showed prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficiency. Intriguingly, although there was no significant difference between Fut8+/+ and Fut8+/? mice in the PPI test under normal conditions, Fut8+/? mice showed impaired PPI after exposure to a restraint stress. This result suggests that reduced expression of Fut8 is a plausible cause of schizophrenia and related disorders. The levels of serotonin metabolites were significantly decreased in both the striatum and nucleus accumbens of the Fut8?/? mice. Likewise, treatment with haloperidol, which is an antipsychotic drug that antagonizes dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors, significantly reduced hopping behaviors. The present study is the first to clearly demonstrate that ?1,6-fucosylation plays an important role in the brain, and that it might be related to schizophrenia-like behaviors. Thus, the results of the present study provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:21471224

Fukuda, Tomohiko; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Okayasu, Natsumi; Kameyama, Akihiko; Onogi, Hiroshi; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Kurosawa, Tomoyo; Hao, Yan; Isaji, Tomoya; Tadano, Takeshi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Gu, Jianguo

2011-01-01

119

Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry  

PubMed Central

Background Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT) modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24) and nonresponders (n=15) to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion These results suggest that the brain structures in several areas, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cingulate bundles, are related to the lack of a response to BT in patients with OCD. The use of a voxel-based morphometry approach may be advantageous to understanding differences in brain abnormalities between responders and nonresponders to BT. PMID:25349476

Hashimoto, Nobuhiko; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Kawaguchi, Akiko; Sato, Junko; Kasai, Harumasa; Nakamae, Takashi; Narumoto, Jin; Miyata, Jun; Furukawa, Toshi A; Mimura, Masaru

2014-01-01

120

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Ameliorates Anxiety-Like Behavior and Impaired Sensorimotor Gating in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been employed for decades as a non-pharmacologic treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although a link has been suggested between PTSD and impaired sensorimotor gating (SG), studies assessing the effects of rTMS against PTSD or PTSD with impaired SG are scarce. Aim To assess the benefit of rTMS in a rat model of PTSD. Methods Using a modified single prolonged stress (SPS&S) rat model of PTSD, behavioral parameters were acquired using open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPMT), and prepulse inhibition trial (PPI), with or without 7 days of high frequency (10Hz) rTMS treatment of SPS&S rats. Results Anxiety-like behavior, impaired SG and increased plasma level of cortisol were observed in SPS&S animals after stress for a prolonged time. Interestingly, rTMS administered immediately after stress prevented those impairment. Conclusion Stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, increased plasma level of cortisol and impaired PPI occur after stress and high-frequency rTMS has the potential to ameliorate this behavior, suggesting that high frequency rTMS should be further evaluated for its use as a method for preventing PTSD. PMID:25659132

Wang, Hua-ning; Bai, Yuan-han; Chen, Yun-chun; Zhang, Rui-guo; Wang, Huai-hai; Zhang, Ya-hong; Gan, Jing-li; Peng, Zheng-wu; Tan, Qing-rong

2015-01-01

121

Prenatal and early-life exposure to high-level diesel exhaust particles leads to increased locomotor activity and repetitive behaviors in mice.  

PubMed

Abundant evidence indicates that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, limited knowledge is available concerning these contributing factors. An epidemiology study reported a link between increased incidence of autism and living closely to major highways, suggesting a possible role for pollutants from highway traffic. We investigated whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) negatively affects fetal development leading to autism-like phenotype in mice. Female mice and their offspring were exposed to DEP during pregnancy and nursing. Adult male offspring were then tested for behaviors reflecting the typical symptoms of ASD patients. Compared to control mice, DEP-exposed offspring exhibited higher locomotor activity, elevated levels of self-grooming in the presence of an unfamiliar mouse, and increased rearing behaviors, which may be relevant to the restricted and repetitive behaviors seen in ASD patients. However, the DEP-exposed mice did not exhibit deficits in social interactions or social communication which are the key features of ASD. These results suggest that early life exposure to DEP could have an impact on mouse development leading to observable changes in animal behaviors. Further studies are needed to reveal other environmental insults and genetic factors that would lead to animal models expressing key phenotypes of the autism spectrum disorders. PMID:23495194

Thirtamara Rajamani, Keerthi; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Bolden, Crystal; Willis, Daniel; Hoffman, Carol; Zelikoff, Judith; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gu, Howard

2013-08-01

122

Neural basis of repetition priming during mathematical cognition: repetition suppression or repetition enhancement?  

PubMed

We investigated the neural basis of repetition priming (RP) during mathematical cognition. Previous studies of RP have focused on repetition suppression as the basis of behavioral facilitation, primarily using word and object identification and classification tasks. More recently, researchers have suggested associative stimulus-response learning as an alternate model for behavioral facilitation. We examined the neural basis of RP during mathematical problem solving in the context of these two models of learning. Brain imaging and behavioral data were acquired from 39 adults during novel and repeated presentation of three-operand mathematical equations. Despite wide-spread decreases in activation during repeat, compared with novel trials, there was no direct relation between behavioral facilitation and the degree of repetition suppression in any brain region. Rather, RT improvements were directly correlated with repetition enhancement in the hippocampus and the posteromedial cortex [posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and retrosplenial cortex; Brodmann's areas (BAs) 23, 7, and 30, respectively], regions known to support memory formation and retrieval, and in the SMA (BA 6) and the dorsal midcingulate ("motor cingulate") cortex (BA 24d), regions known to be important for motor learning. Furthermore, improvements in RT were also correlated with increased functional connectivity of the hippocampus with both the SMA and the dorsal midcingulate cortex. Our findings provide novel support for the hypothesis that repetition enhancement and associated stimulus-response learning may facilitate behavioral performance during problem solving. PMID:19366289

Salimpoor, Valorie N; Chang, Catie; Menon, Vinod

2010-04-01

123

Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice  

PubMed Central

Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and ?-endorphin (?-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems. PMID:22919413

Amat, Nurmuhammat; Hoxur, Parida; Ming, Dang; Matsidik, Aynur; Kijjoa, Anake; Upur, Halmurat

2012-01-01

124

Abnormal relationship between GABA, neurophysiology and impulsive behavior in neurofibromatosis type 1.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and region dependent manner. PMID:25437375

Ribeiro, Maria J; Violante, Inês R; Bernardino, Inês; Edden, Richard A E; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2014-11-11

125

Sexuality in the nursing home, part 2: managing abnormal behavior--legal and ethical issues.  

PubMed

Everyone, regardless of age, needs love, touch, companionship, and intimacy. The 1.6 million elderly in the 20,000 U.S. nursing homes are not an exception. The literature indicates that nursing home residents continue to have an interest in sexual activity regardless of age. Sexuality, however, is frequently overlooked by physicians and staff working with nursing home residents. Many staff members have only a vague understanding of the sexual needs of the elderly. This results in a perception of residents' sexual interests as behavioral problems rather than expressions of need for love and intimacy. Inappropriate sexual behaviors in the nursing home can create an intense burden for nursing home staff. This article discusses ways to dealing with inappropriate sexual behaviors in long-term care settings and the ethical issues involved. PMID:14984611

Kamel, Hosam K; Hajjar, Ramzi R

2004-01-01

126

Behavioral deficits, abnormal corticosterone, and reduced prefrontal metabolites of adolescent rats subject to early life stress  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the effect of early life stress in adolescent rats on brain metabolites, serum corticosterone, and depressive-like behavior. A group of rats were subject to early life stress from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 14. A matched control group was studied. Behavioral tests, serum corticosterone and high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were conducted between PND 30 and 40. In this study, adolescent rats exposed to early life stress demonstrated depressive-like behavior and increased serum corticosterone during adolescence. They also showed reduced glutamate, glutamine, and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) levels in the prefrontal cortex. A reduced myo-inositol level, consistent with astroglial deficits, was observed but was not statistically significant. Together, these findings characterize the effect of early life stress on adolescent animals and underscore the long-lasting and detrimental effects of childhood adversities. PMID:23643993

Zhang, Jie; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Tianhua; Huang, Qingjun; Xu, Chongtao; Xiao, Yeyu; Liu, Yuzhen; Ding, Yan; Wu, Renhua

2013-01-01

127

Repetitive Motion Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Repetitive Motion Disorders Information Page Synonym(s): Cumulative Trauma Disorders, Repetitive Stress Injuries, Overuse Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Repetitive Motion Disorders? Is there any ...

128

Personality Theory, Abnormal Psychology, and Psychological MeasurementA Psychological Behaviorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements

Arthur W. Staats

1993-01-01

129

Age-related sperm DNA methylation changes are transmitted to offspring and associated with abnormal behavior and dysregulated gene expression.  

PubMed

Advanced paternal age (APA) has been shown to be a significant risk factor in the offspring for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. During aging, de novo mutations accumulate in the male germline and are frequently transmitted to the offspring with deleterious effects. In addition, DNA methylation during spermatogenesis is an active process, which is susceptible to errors that can be propagated to subsequent generations. Here we test the hypothesis that the integrity of germline DNA methylation is compromised during the aging process. A genome-wide DNA methylation screen comparing sperm from young and old mice revealed a significant loss of methylation in the older mice in regions associated with transcriptional regulation. The offspring of older fathers had reduced exploratory and startle behaviors and exhibited similar brain DNA methylation abnormalities as observed in the paternal sperm. Offspring from old fathers also had transcriptional dysregulation of developmental genes implicated in autism and schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrate that DNA methylation abnormalities arising in the sperm of old fathers are a plausible mechanism to explain some of the risks that APA poses to resulting offspring.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 5 August 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.84. PMID:25092244

Milekic, M H; Xin, Y; O'Donnell, A; Kumar, K K; Bradley-Moore, M; Malaspina, D; Moore, H; Brunner, D; Ge, Y; Edwards, J; Paul, S; Haghighi, F G; Gingrich, J A

2014-08-01

130

Ameliorating effect of piperine on behavioral abnormalities and oxidative markers in sodium valproate induced autism in BALB/C mice.  

PubMed

Post natal exposure to VPA (valproic acid) in mice induces behavioral deficits, abnormal sensitivity to sensory stimuli and self-injurious behavior, observed in autism. Piperine has been reported to have protective effect on brain. The present study aimed at evaluating effect of piperine on VPA induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in BALB/c mice. Young BALB/c mice 13 days old were procured from five different litters and segregated into five groups (n=6; 3 male, 3 female) i.e., Group I served as control group, received physiological saline on PND (Post natal day) 14 & Tween 80 p.o. from PND13-40. Group II served as normal treated group and received piperine (20mg/kg p.o.) from PND 13-40 and saline s.c. on PND 14. Group III served as valproate treated group received VPA (400mg/kg s.c.) on PND 14 and Tween 80 p.o. from PND 13-40. Group IV & V served as disease treated group received VPA (400mg/kg s.c.) on PND 14 & piperine (5 & 20mg/kg p.o.) from PND 13-40 respectively. BALB/c mice pups were subjected to behavioral testing to assess motor skill development, nociceptive response, locomotion, anxiety, and cognition on various postnatal days up to PND 40. At the end of behavioral evaluation, mice were sacrificed; brain was isolated for biochemical estimations (serotonin, glutathione, MDA and nitric oxide) and histopathological examination. Our study revealed that treatment with piperine significantly improved behavioral alterations, lowered oxidative stress markers, and restored histoarchitecture of cerebellum. This ameliorating effect of piperine is attributed to its anti-oxidant activity, cognition enhancing and neuroprotective activity. PMID:24803211

Pragnya, B; Kameshwari, J S L; Veeresh, B

2014-08-15

131

Effect of abnormal mineralization on the mechanical behavior of X-linked hypophosphatemic mice femora.  

PubMed

The Hyp mouse is an established animal model of X-linked hypophosphatemia, one of the most common genetic forms of metabolic bone disease in humans. This study describes the first determination of whole bone mechanical behavior in the heterozygous male and female Hyp mouse. Femora from 12-week-old mice were tested in torsion. The contribution of structural and material properties to mechanical behavior was determined by geometrical evaluation prior to testing and by analysis of the diaphyseal mineral after testing. The male and female Hyp femora were found to undergo significantly more angular deformation at failure than the same sex normal femora (82.49 +/- 24.37 vs. 22.63 +/- 8.02 rad/m [corrected] for the females and 128.90 +/- 37.05 vs. 22.79 +/- 7.24 rad/m [corrected] for the males) and to have a significantly lower structural stiffness (0.373 +/- 0.130 x 10(-3) vs. 1.33 +/- 0.380 x 10(-3) [corrected] [N-m/(rad/m)] for the females and 0.167 +/- 0.104 x 10(-3) vs. 1.60 +/- 0.502 x 10(-3) [corrected] [N-m/(rad/m)] for the males). The male Hyp femora had a significantly lower failure torque than male normal femora (1.58 +/- 0.62 x 10(-2) vs. 3.44 +/- 1.57 x 10(-2) N-m). Because the polar movement of inertia, a geometrical property that affects torsional behavior, was not significantly different between the Hyp femora and the same sex normals, differences in mechanical behavior were attributed to material properties.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8541141

Camacho, N P; Rimnac, C M; Meyer, R A; Doty, S; Boskey, A L

1995-09-01

132

Gestational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Reciprocal Social, Repetitive, and Stereotypic Behaviors in 4- and 5-Year-Old Children: The HOME Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, but identifying relevant chemicals within mixtures of EDCs is difficult. Objective: Our goal was to identify gestational EDC exposures associated with autistic behaviors. Methods: We measured the concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 organochlorine pesticides, 8 brominated flame retardants, and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances in blood or urine samples from 175 pregnant women in the HOME (Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment) Study (Cincinnati, OH). When children were 4 and 5 years old, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic behaviors. We examined confounder-adjusted associations between 52 EDCs and SRS scores using a two-stage hierarchical analysis to account for repeated measures and confounding by correlated EDCs. Results: Most of the EDCs were associated with negligible absolute differences in SRS scores (? 1.5). Each 2-SD increase in serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether-28 (PBDE-28) (? = 2.5; 95% CI: –0.6, 5.6) or trans-nonachlor (? = 4.1; 95% CI: 0.8–7.3) was associated with more autistic behaviors. In contrast, fewer autistic behaviors were observed among children born to women with detectable versus nondetectable concentrations of PCB-178 (? = –3.0; 95% CI: –6.3, 0.2), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (? = –3.3; 95% CI: –6.1, –0.5), or PBDE-85 (? = –3.2; 95% CI: –5.9, –0.5). Increasing perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations were also associated with fewer autistic behaviors (? = –2.0; 95% CI: –4.4, 0.4). Conclusions: Some EDCs were associated with autistic behaviors in this cohort, but our modest sample size precludes us from dismissing chemicals with null associations. PFOA, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB-178, PBDE-28, PBDE-85, and trans-nonachlor deserve additional scrutiny as factors that may be associated with childhood autistic behaviors. Citation: Braun JM, Kalkbrenner AE, Just AC, Yolton K, Calafat AM, Sjödin A, Hauser R, Webster GM, Chen A, Lanphear BP. 2014. Gestational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and reciprocal social, repetitive, and stereotypic behaviors in 4- and 5-year-old children: the HOME Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:513–520;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307261 PMID:24622245

Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Just, Allan C.; Yolton, Kimberly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Glenys M.; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P.

2014-01-01

133

The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

2012-01-01

134

Delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure abnormalities in youth with a family history of alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high-risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH?). Methods Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH? = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH? youth. Results FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH? youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower reaction times on the delay discounting task. Conclusion Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing, and may act as an intrinsic risk-factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-risk youth. PMID:20586754

Herting, Megan M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2011-01-01

135

Abnormal magnetoresistance behavior in Nb thin films with rectangular arrays of antidots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoresistance in superconducting Nb films perforated with rectangular arrays of antidots (holes) is investigated at various temperatures and currents. Normally, the magnetoresistance increases with the increasing magnetic field. In this paper, we report a reverse behavior in a certain range of high fields after vortex reconfiguration transition, where the resistances at non-matching fields are smaller than those in the low field regime. This phenomenon is due to a strong caging effect, in which the interstitial vortices are trapped among the pinned multiquanta vortices. This effect is temperature and current dependent.

Zhang, Wei-Jun; He, Shi-Kun; Li, Bo-Hong; Cheng, Fei; Xu, Bing; Wen, Zhen-Chao; Cao, Wen-Hui; Xiao, Hong; Han, Xiu-Feng; Zhao, Shi-Ping; Qiu, Xiang-Gang

2012-07-01

136

Memory for recent actions in the bottlenosed dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ): Repetition of arbitrary behaviors using an abstract rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how animals represent their own actions in working memory. We investigated whether bottlenosed dolphins\\u000a could recall actions they had recently performed and reveal those recollections using an abstract rule. Two dolphins were\\u000a trained to respond to a specific gestural command by repeating the last behavior performed. Both dolphins proved to be able\\u000a to repeat a wide

Eduardo Mercado; Scott O. Murray; Robert K. Uyeyama; Adam A. Pack; Louis M. Herman

1998-01-01

137

Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3? and GSK-3?. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3? gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3? KO mice by using a well-established battery of behavioral tests together with neurochemical and neuroanatomical analysis. Results Similar to the previously described behaviours of GSK-3?+/-mice, GSK-3? mutants display decreased exploratory activity, decreased immobility time and reduced aggressive behavior. However, genetic inactivation of the GSK-3? gene was associated with: decreased locomotion and impaired motor coordination, increased grooming activity, loss of social motivation and novelty; enhanced sensorimotor gating and impaired associated memory and coordination. GSK-3? KO mice exhibited a deficit in fear conditioning, however memory formation as assessed by a passive avoidance test was normal, suggesting that the animals are sensitized for active avoidance of a highly aversive stimulus in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Changes in cerebellar structure and function were observed in mutant mice along with a significant decrease of the number and size of Purkinje cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data support a role for the GSK-3? gene in CNS functioning and possible involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19925672

2009-01-01

138

Behavior of the TTF2 RF Gun with long pulses and high repetition rates J. Baehr1, I. Bohnet1, J.-P. Carneiro2, K. Floettmann2, J. H. Han1, M. v. Hartrott3,  

E-print Network

Behavior of the TTF2 RF Gun with long pulses and high repetition rates J. Baehr1, I. Bohnet1, J the behavior of the TTF2 RF gun with long RF pulses (up to 900 µs), high peak power (up to 3 MW) and high Zeuthen from January to March 2003, where the RF gun has been tested prior to its installation at DESY

139

Strain background influences neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities in mice expressing the tetracycline transactivator  

PubMed Central

The tet-off system has been widely used to create transgenic models of neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and prion disease. The utility of this system lies in the assumption that the tetracycline transactivator (TTA) acts as an inert control element and does not contribute to phenotypes under study. Here we report that neuronal expression of TTA can affect hippocampal cytoarchitecture and behavior in a strain-dependent manner. While studying neurodegeneration in two tet-off Alzheimer’s disease models, we unexpectedly discovered neuronal loss within the dentate gyrus of single transgenic TTA controls. Granule neurons appeared most sensitive to TTA exposure during postnatal development, and doxycycline treatment during this period was neuroprotective. TTA-induced degeneration could be rescued by moving the transgene onto a congenic C57BL/6J background, and recurred on re-introduction of either CBA or C3H/He backgrounds. Quantitative trait analysis of B6C3 F2 TTA mice identified a region on Chromosome 14 that contains a major modifier of the neurodegenerative phenotype. Although B6 mice were resistant to degeneration, they were not ideal for cognitive testing. F1 offspring of TTA C57BL/6J and 129X1/SvJ, FVB/NJ, or DBA/1J showed improved spatial learning, but TTA expression caused subtle differences in contextual fear conditioning on two of these backgrounds indicating that strain and genotype can interact independently under different behavioral settings. All model systems have limitations that should be recognized and mitigated where possible; our findings stress the importance of mapping the effects caused by TTA alone when working with tet-off models. PMID:22855807

Han, Harry J.; Allen, Carolyn C.; Buchovecky, Christie M.; Yetman, Michael J.; Born, Heather A.; Marin, Miguel A.; Rodgers, Shaefali P.; Song, Bryan J.; Lu, Hui-Chen; Justice, Monica J.; Probst, Frank J.; Jankowsky, Joanna L.

2012-01-01

140

Evaluation of tributyltin toxicity in Chinese rare minnow larvae by abnormal behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress.  

PubMed

Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic environment, but the detailed mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully understood. In this study, the effects of TBT on behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated by using Chinese rare minnow larvae. Fish larvae were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (100, 400 and 800ng/L) for 7days. Compared with the control, energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) were significantly inhibited in fish exposed at highest concentration (800ng/L), as well as abnormal behaviors observed. Moreover, we found that the PERK (PKR-like ER kinase)-eIF2? (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2?) pathway, as the main branch was activated by TBT exposure in fish larvae. In short, TBT-induced physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in fish larvae were reflected in parameters measured in this study, which suggest that these biomarkers could be used as potential indicators for monitoring organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. PMID:25499138

Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping

2015-02-01

141

Behavioral abnormalities and Parkinson’s-like histological changes resulting from Id2 inactivation in mice  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Characterizing dopaminergic neuronal development and function in novel genetic animal models might uncover strategies for researchers to develop disease-modifying treatments for neurologic disorders. Id2 is a transcription factor expressed in the developing central nervous system. Id2?/? mice have fewer dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb and reduced olfactory discrimination, a pre-clinical marker of Parkinson’s disease. Here, we summarize behavioral, histological and in vitro molecular biological analyses to determine whether midbrain dopaminergic neurons are affected by Id2 loss. Id2?/? mice were hyperactive at 1 and 3 months of age, but by 6 months showed reduced activity. Id2?/? mice showed age-dependent histological alterations in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpC) associated with changes in locomotor activity. Reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) expression was observed at early ages in Id2?/? mice and DAT expression was dependent on Id2 expression in an in vitro dopaminergic differentiation model. Evidence of neurodegeneration, including activated caspase-3 and glial infiltration, were noted in the SNpC of older Id2?/? mice. These findings document a novel role for Id2 in the maintenance of midbrain dopamine neurons. The Id2?/? mouse should provide unique opportunities to study the progression of neurodegenerative disorders involving the dopamine system. PMID:23264561

Havrda, Matthew C.; Paolella, Brenton R.; Ward, Nora M.; Holroyd, Kathryn B.

2013-01-01

142

Phase Transition Behavior and Abnormal Spall in FeMnNi alloy with Low ?-? Transition Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase transition behavior of a FeMnNi alloy with low ?-? phase transition stress in range of 6˜7GPa and corresponding spall phenomena are studied. Two experiment set up of symmetric impact design with flyer and target of same thickness and reverse impact technique of metal flyer on sapphire window are used. Loading and release wave profile are recorded with help of VISAR with two constants of strip numbers. Experiments are conducted on 100-mm-diameter and two stage light gas gun in velocity range from 300m/s up to 2000m/s. Discussion is focused on the formation of rarefaction shock wave and role of RSW in spallation. It is shown that spallation may happen in symmetric impacts when stress is higher than phase transition point. In velocity range up to 2000m/s, when impacting stress is more than 40GPa and shock front is overdriven, a spallation like oscillation profile is noticed in domain of first plateau in velocity curve. As release wave from impact side should come some time later, it may be raised by reflection of release wave from free surface with reverse phase transition. Specimen is thoroughly broken, although pulse X-ray records at the moment of 14 ?s after impact show no sign of multi-spallation. Further experiments are planned using VISAR with two constants of strip numbers to verify this phenomenon and parameters such as spall strength, spall thickness.

Hu, Haibo; Chen, Yongtao; Li, Qingzhong

2007-06-01

143

Psychology is the study of human and animal behavior (normal and abnormal) and the psychological, social, and biological processes related to behavior. The undergraduate program in psychology at UNL  

E-print Network

Psychology is the study of human and animal behavior (normal and abnormal) and the psychological, social, and biological processes related to behavior. The undergraduate program in psychology at UNL is designed to provide you with exposure to many core areas of psychology. You also have the oppor- tunity

Logan, David

144

New Perspectives in the Studies on Endocannabinoid and Cannabis: Abnormal Behaviors Associate With CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor and Development of Therapeutic Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC), the major psychoactive component of mari- juana, induces catalepsy-like immobilization and impairment of spatial memory in rats. 9-THC also induces aggressive behavior in isolated housing stress. These abnormal behaviors could be counteracted by SR141716A, a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist. Also 9-THC inhibited release of glutamate in the dorsal hippocampus, but this inhibition could be antagonized by SR141716A in

Michihiro Fujiwara; Nobuaki Egashira

2004-01-01

145

Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

2007-01-01

146

How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal  

MedlinePLUS

... in Feet: Normal or Abnormal How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal Page Content The ... this extensive repetitive use leads to several normal changes associated with aging: The foot becomes wider and ...

147

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

148

The interaction of force and repetition on musculoskeletal and neural tissue responses and sensorimotor behavior in a rat model of work-related musculoskeletal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the relationship of musculoskeletal risk factors underlying force and repetition on tissue responses in an operant rat model of repetitive reaching and pulling, and if force x repetition interactions were present, indicative of a fatigue failure process. We examined exposure-dependent changes in biochemical, morphological and sensorimotor responses occurring with repeated performance of a handle-pulling task for 12 weeks at one of four repetition and force levels: 1) low repetition with low force, 2) high repetition with low force, 3) low repetition with high force, and 4) high repetition with high force (HRHF). Methods Rats underwent initial training for 4–6 weeks, and then performed one of the tasks for 12 weeks, 2 hours/day, 3 days/week. Reflexive grip strength and sensitivity to touch were assayed as functional outcomes. Flexor digitorum muscles and tendons, forelimb bones, and serum were assayed using ELISA for indicators of inflammation, tissue stress and repair, and bone turnover. Histomorphometry was used to assay macrophage infiltration of tissues, spinal cord substance P changes, and tissue adaptative or degradative changes. MicroCT was used to assay bones for changes in bone quality. Results Several force x repetition interactions were observed for: muscle IL-1alpha and bone IL-1beta; serum TNFalpha, IL-1alpha, and IL-1beta; muscle HSP72, a tissue stress and repair protein; histomorphological evidence of tendon and cartilage degradation; serum biomarkers of bone degradation (CTXI) and bone formation (osteocalcin); and morphological evidence of bone adaptation versus resorption. In most cases, performance of the HRHF task induced the greatest tissue degenerative changes, while performance of moderate level tasks induced bone adaptation and a suggestion of muscle adaptation. Both high force tasks induced median nerve macrophage infiltration, spinal cord sensitization (increased substance P), grip strength declines and forepaw mechanical allodynia by task week 12. Conclusions Although not consistent in all tissues, we found several significant interactions between the critical musculoskeletal risk factors of force and repetition, consistent with a fatigue failure process in musculoskeletal tissues. Prolonged performance of HRHF tasks exhibited significantly increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders, while performance of moderate level tasks exhibited adaptation to task demands. PMID:24156755

2013-01-01

149

Accidental fall due to abnormal behavior after experiencing a Streptococcus pyogenes infection: febrile delirium or pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection?  

PubMed

An 11-year-old boy with a high fever (39.4 degrees C) presented at a local medical institution. His condition was diagnosed as hemolytic streptococcal infection, and he was prescribed an antibiotic. After returning home, he took a dose of his medication and rested; however, he suddenly began to run around while yelling incomprehensible words. He ran up to his room on the second floor and fell from the second floor window down to the ground. He lost consciousness and was transferred to our department. His history included being born as a twin with a low birth weight and pneumonia at 1 year of age. He regained consciousness on the seventh hospital day and was discharged without any neurological abnormality on the 14th day. His abnormal behavior might have resulted from febrile delirium or an unusual expression of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with a streptococcal infection. PMID:19687712

Yanagawa, Youichi; Kaneko, Naoyuki; Higashidate, Seiki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

2009-08-01

150

Roles of repetitive sequences  

SciTech Connect

The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

Bell, G.I.

1991-12-31

151

Roles of repetitive sequences  

SciTech Connect

The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

Bell, G.I.

1991-01-01

152

Cause and Consequence: Mitochondrial Dysfunction Initiates and Propagates Neuronal Dysfunction, Neuronal Death and Behavioral Abnormalities in Age Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and accumulation of abnormal proteins. Within the cell, the mitochondria appears to be a dominant site for initiation and propagation of disease processes. Shifts in metabolism in response to mild metabolic perturbations may decrease the threshold for irreversible injury in response to ordinarily sub lethal metabolic insults. Mild impairment of metabolism accrue from and lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS change cell signaling via post transcriptional and transcriptional changes. The cause and consequences of mild impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is one focus of this review. Many experiments in tissues from humans support the notion that oxidative modification of the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) compromises neuronal energy metabolism and enhance ROS production in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). These data suggest that cognitive decline in AD derives from the selective tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle abnormalities. By contrast in Huntington’s Disease (HD), a movement disorder with cognitive features distinct form AD, complex II + III abnormalities may dominate. These distinct mitochondrial abnormalities culminate in oxidative stress, energy dysfunction, and aberrant homeostasis of cytosolic calcium. Cytosolic calcium, elevations even only transiently, leads to hyperactivity of a number of enzymes. One calcium activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological import in HD and AD is transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is a cross linking enzymes that can modulate transcrption, inactivate metabolic enzymes, and cause aggregation of critical proteins. Recent data indicate that TGase can silence expression of genes involved in compensating for metabolic stress. Altogether, our results suggest that increasing KGDHC via inhibition of TGase or via a host of other strategies to be described would be effective therapeutic approaches in age associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19715758

Gibson, Gary E.; Starkov, Anatoly; Blass, John P.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Beal, M. Flint

2009-01-01

153

Repetition avoidance in human language  

E-print Network

Repetition is avoided in countless human languages and at a variety of grammatical levels. In this dissertation I ask what it is that makes repetition so bad. I propose that at least three distinct biases against repetition ...

Walter, Mary Ann, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

154

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

155

Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

156

Observation of abnormal magnetoelectric behavior in 0-3 type CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we report an example of xCoFe2O4/(1 - x)BaTiO3 composites formed in 0-3 type structure, which exhibit abnormal magnetic field-dependent magnetoelectric behaviors different from those reported previously. The magnetoelectric response of the composites with x ? 0.4 is found to undergo a minor change upon the dc bias magnetic field. However, when the BaTiO3 content is decreased to the extent x = 0.5, the magnetoelectric response exhibits a staircase-like dependence on the dc magnetic field with a sudden decrease at around 2.5 kOe. We propose another possible mechanism to explain the field-dependent magnetoelectric behaviors of our CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 composites.

Wang, W. P.; Yang, H.; Xian, T.; Yu, R. C.

2015-01-01

157

A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome  

PubMed Central

Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to behavioral arousal in symptomatic RTT mice. PMID:25147297

Kron, Miriam; Lang, Min; Adams, Ian T.; Sceniak, Michael; Longo, Frank; Katz, David M.

2014-01-01

158

Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these behavioral

Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

2011-01-01

159

Characterizing temporal repetition  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the representation and reasoning about schedulable, repeated activities, specified using calendars. Examples of such activities include meeting every Tuesday and Thursday during a semester and attending a seminar every first day of a month. This research provides for a valuable framework for scheduling systems, financial systems and, in general, date-based systems. Very recently work has been done related to reasoning about repetition in the Artificial Intelligence community and others. A partial reference list is provided here. However, to our knowledge no extensive taxonomy of repetition has been proposed in the literature. We believe that reasoning about repeated activities calls for a study and precise definition of the topological characteristics in a repetitive series. In this abstract we summarize a proposal to classify types of repetition according to parameters. The combination of all possible values of these parameters provides a complete taxonomy of repetitive classes with respect to the proposed parameters. Several notions of repetition are considered, some are extremely general, some are very specific.

Cukierman, D.; Delgrande, J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

1996-12-31

160

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350  

E-print Network

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008 N-101 Tuesdays 4 psychology. By the end of the semester, students will be able to: · Discuss extant models of abnormal in Foundation II.B., Social and Behavioral Sciences required." #12;Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 2 Course

Gallo, Linda C.

161

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Ask your pediatrician for a referral to a genetic counseling service . These services have expertise with a variety ... Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for ...

162

Neural Response Suppression Predicts Repetition Priming of Spoken Words and Pseudowords  

E-print Network

Neural Response Suppression Predicts Repetition Priming of Spoken Words and Pseudowords Eleni in a different voice. Behavioral and neural priming was observed for both words and pseudowords reduced and elevated activation for second presentations (repetition suppression and enhancement) were

Davis, Matt

163

Abnormal InGaN growth behavior in indium-desorption regime in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InGaN strained bulk layers were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on c-plane GaN/sapphire templates. Two growth regimes, mass-transport limited regime and indium desorption regime, were examined for InGaN growth. In the indium desorption regime, more indium source must be fed to keep a constant indium content. In the indium desorption regime, we found an abnormally enhanced GaN growth rate, which was proved to be related to the indium desorption and dependent on the growth temperature and the indium source flow. Due to the enhanced growth rate, the optical quality of In0.16Ga0.84N layers degraded significantly.

Zhou, Kun; Ikeda, Masao; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Shuming; Li, Zengcheng; Feng, Meixin; Tian, Aiqin; Wen, Pengyan; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Liqun; Yang, Hui

2015-01-01

164

Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

2001-01-01

165

Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 Induces Hyper-?-Glutamyl Transpeptidasemia without Abnormal Head Development and Schizophrenia-Relevant Behaviors in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as “the Japan Mouse Clinic”. No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-?-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-?-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia. PMID:22242126

Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Ohba, Hisako; Sakaguchi, Toru; Honma, Yota; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Motoko; Watanabe, Kazutada; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yoshikawa, Takeo

2011-01-01

166

Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

2007-01-01

167

Deletion in the N-terminal Half of Olfactomedin 1 Modifies Its Interaction with Synaptic Proteins and Causes Brain Dystrophy and Abnormal Behavior in Mice  

PubMed Central

Olfactomedin 1 (Olfm1) is a secreted glycoprotein that is preferentially expressed in neuronal tissues. Here we show that deletion of exons 4 and 5 from the Olfm1 gene, which encodes a 52 amino acid long region in the N-terminal part of the protein, increased neonatal death and reduced body weight of surviving homozygous mice. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed reduced brain volume and attenuated size of white matter tracts such as the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and optic nerve. Adult Olfm1 mutant mice demonstrated abnormal behavior in several tests including reduced marble digging, elevated plus maze test, nesting activity and latency on balance beam tests as compared with their wild-type littermates. The olfactory system was both structurally and functionally disturbed by the mutation in the Olfm1 gene as shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis and a smell test. Deficiencies of the olfactory system may contribute to the neonatal death and loss of body weight of Olfm1 mutant. Shotgun proteomics revealed 59 candidate proteins that co-precipitated with wild-type or mutant Olfm1 proteins in postnatal day 1 brain. Olfm1-binding targets included GluR2, Cav2.1, Teneurin-4 and Kidins220. Modified interaction of Olfm1 with binding targets led to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and activation of ERK1/2, MEK1 and CaMKII in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of Olfm1 mutant mice compared with their wild-type littermates. Excessive activation of the CaMKII and Ras-ERK pathways in the Olfm1 mutant olfactory bulb and hippocampus by elevated intracellular calcium may contribute to the abnormal behavior and olfactory activity of Olfm1 mutant mice. PMID:24095980

Nakaya, Naoki; Sultana, Afia; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Cheng, Aiwu; Mattson, Mark P.; Tomarev, Stanislav I.

2013-01-01

168

Repetition Priming in Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance…

Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

2008-01-01

169

Repetition, Relaxation, Routine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mother of a mentaly retarded young man describes how important repetition, relaxation, and routine have been to her family and how helpful they may be to others. She discusses the need for planning ahead when routines are to be broken. (CL)

Tingey-Michaelis, Carol

1983-01-01

170

Repetition through Successive Approximations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted in an attempt to provide an alternative to the long-established method of tape listening and repetition drills, a method that has had disappointing results. It is suggested that the rate of speed of phonic presentation is not commensurate with the rate of comprehension. The proposed method seeks to prevent cognitive…

Littell, Katherine M.

171

Hierarchical representation and machine learning from faulty jet engine behavioral examples to detect real time abnormal conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical basis and operation of LEBEX, a machine-learning system for jet-engine performance monitoring, are described. The behavior of the engine is modeled in terms of four parameters (the rotational speeds of the high- and low-speed sections and the exhaust and combustion temperatures), and parameter variations indicating malfunction are transformed into structural representations involving instances and events. LEBEX extracts descriptors from a set of training data on normal and faulty engines, represents them hierarchically in a knowledge base, and uses them to diagnose and predict faults on a real-time basis. Diagrams of the system architecture and printouts of typical results are shown.

Gupta, U. K.; Ali, M.

1988-01-01

172

Gonadal and Adrenal Abnormalities in Drug Users: Cause or Consequence of Drug Use Behavior and Poor Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Opiates and cocaine both have effects on adrenal and gonadal function. Opiates suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, whereas cocaine leads to HPA activation. Opiates also cause gonadal dysfunction in both men and women. During withdrawal from opiates and cocaine, the HPA axis is activated which may reinforce relapse behavior. This review describes these hormonal effects and explores the potential consequences, including the effects on mood cognition and cardiovascular risk. Modification of the drug-induced hormonal dysfunction may represent a treatment strategy for drug rehabilitation. PMID:17364020

Brown, Todd T.; Wisniewski, Amy B.; Dobs, Adrian S.

2007-01-01

173

Long-term recovery from hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical abnormalities induced by noise exposure during brain development. Evaluation of auditory pathway integrity.  

PubMed

Sound is an important part of man's contact with the environment and has served as critical means for survival throughout his evolution. As a result of exposure to noise, physiological functions such as those involving structures of the auditory and non-auditory systems might be damaged. We have previously reported that noise-exposed developing rats elicited hippocampal-related histological, biochemical and behavioral changes. However, no data about the time lapse of these changes were reported. Moreover, measurements of auditory pathway function were not performed in exposed animals. Therefore, with the present work, we aim to test the onset and the persistence of the different extra-auditory abnormalities observed in noise-exposed rats and to evaluate auditory pathway integrity. Male Wistar rats of 15 days were exposed to moderate noise levels (95-97 dB SPL, 2 h a day) during one day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or during 15 days (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal biochemical determinations as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) behavioral assessments were performed. In addition, histological and functional evaluations of the auditory pathway were carried out in exposed animals. Our results show that hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical changes (impairments in habituation, recognition and associative memories as well as distortion of anxiety-related behavior, decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increases in antioxidant enzymes activities) induced by noise exposure were almost completely restored by PND 90. In addition, auditory evaluation shows that increased cochlear thresholds observed in exposed rats were re-established at PND 90, although with a remarkable supra-threshold amplitude reduction. These data suggest that noise-induced hippocampal and auditory-related alterations are mostly transient and that the effects of noise on the hippocampus might be, at least in part, mediated by the damage on the auditory pathway. However, we cannot exclude that a different mechanism might be responsible for the observed hippocampal-related changes. PMID:24911434

Uran, S L; Gómez-Casati, M E; Guelman, L R

2014-10-01

174

Neuroimaging, behavioral, and psychological sequelae of repetitive combined blast/impact mild traumatic brain injury in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.  

PubMed

Abstract Whether persisting cognitive complaints and postconcussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with blast- and/or combined blast/impact-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are associated with enduring structural and/or functional brain abnormalities versus comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. We sought to characterize relationships among these variables in a convenience sample of Iraq and Afghanistan-deployed veterans with (n=34) and without (n=18) a history of one or more combined blast/impact-related mTBIs. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of fractional anisotropy (FA) and macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) to assess brain white matter (WM) integrity; [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu); structured clinical assessments of blast exposure, psychiatric diagnoses, and PTSD symptoms; neurologic evaluations; and self-report scales of PCS, combat exposure, depression, sleep quality, and alcohol use. Veterans with versus without blast/impact-mTBIs exhibited reduced FA in the corpus callosum; reduced MPF values in subgyral, longitudinal, and cortical/subcortical WM tracts and gray matter (GM)/WM border regions (with a possible threshold effect beginning at 20 blast-mTBIs); reduced CMRglu in parietal, somatosensory, and visual cortices; and higher scores on measures of PCS, PTSD, combat exposure, depression, sleep disturbance, and alcohol use. Neuroimaging metrics did not differ between participants with versus without PTSD. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with one or more blast-related mTBIs exhibit abnormalities of brain WM structural integrity and macromolecular organization and CMRglu that are not related to comorbid PTSD. These findings are congruent with recent neuropathological evidence of chronic brain injury in this cohort of veterans. PMID:24102309

Petrie, Eric C; Cross, Donna J; Yarnykh, Vasily L; Richards, Todd; Martin, Nathalie M; Pagulayan, Kathleen; Hoff, David; Hart, Kim; Mayer, Cynthia; Tarabochia, Matthew; Raskind, Murray A; Minoshima, Satoshi; Peskind, Elaine R

2014-03-01

175

Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments  

PubMed Central

Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2?/? mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2?/? mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

2014-01-01

176

Deletion of densin-180 results in abnormal behaviors associated with mental illness and reduces mGluR5 and DISC1 in the postsynaptic density fraction  

PubMed Central

Densin is an abundant scaffold protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that forms a high affinity complex with ?CaMKII and ?-actinin. To assess the function of densin, we created a mouse line with a null mutation in the gene encoding it (LRRC7). Homozygous knockout mice display a wide variety of abnormal behaviors that are often considered endophenotypes of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. At the cellular level, loss of densin results in reduced levels of ?-actinin in the brain and selective reduction in the localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction; whereas, the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors and other prominent PSD proteins are unchanged. In addition, deletion of densin results in impairment of mGluR- and NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD), alters the early dynamics of regulation of CaMKII by NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), and produces a change in spine morphology. These results indicate that densin influences the function of mGluRs and CaMKII at synapses, and contributes to localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction. They are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations that disrupt the organization and/or dynamics of postsynaptic signaling complexes in excitatory synapses can cause behavioral endophenotypes of mental illness. PMID:22072671

Carlisle, Holly J.; Luong, Tinh N.; Medina-Marino, Andrew; Schenker, Leslie; Khorosheva, Eugenia; Indersmitten, Tim; Gunapala, Keith M.; Steele, Andrew D.; O'Dell, Thomas J.; Patterson, Paul H.; Kennedy, Mary B.

2011-01-01

177

Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or ?PD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and activated microglia in perivascular areas and brain parenchyma. Genetically resistant, chronically infected mice had substantially less inflammation. Conclusion In outbred mice, chronic, adult acquired T. gondii infection causes neurologic and behavioral abnormalities secondary to inflammation and loss of brain parenchyma. Perivascular inflammation is prominent particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus. Even resistant mice have perivascular inflammation. This mouse model of chronic T. gondii infection raises questions of whether persistence of this parasite in brain can cause inflammation or neurodegeneration in genetically susceptible hosts. PMID:18947414

Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

2008-01-01

178

A Parallel Repetition Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that a parallel repetition of any two-prover one-round proof system (MIP(2,1)) decreases the probability of error at an exponential rate. No constructive bound was previously known. The constant in the exponent (in our analysis) depends only on the original probability of error and on the total number of possible answers of the two provers. The dependency on the

Ran Raz

1998-01-01

179

Cortical folding abnormalities in autism revealed by surface-based morphometry.  

PubMed

We tested for cortical shape abnormalities using surface-based morphometry across a range of autism spectrum disorders (7.5-18 years of age). We generated sulcal depth maps from structural magnetic resonance imaging data and compared typically developing controls to three autism spectrum disorder subgroups: low-functioning autism, high-functioning autism, and Asperger's syndrome. The low-functioning autism group had a prominent shape abnormality centered on the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus that was associated with a sulcal depth difference in the anterior insula and frontal operculum. The high-functioning autism group had bilateral shape abnormalities similar to the low-functioning group, but smaller in size and centered more posteriorly, in and near the parietal operculum and ventral postcentral gyrus. Individuals with Asperger's syndrome had bilateral abnormalities in the intraparietal sulcus that correlated with age, intelligence quotient, and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised social and repetitive behavior scores. Because of evidence suggesting age-related differences in the developmental time course of neural alterations in autism, separate analyses on children (7.5-12.5 years of age) and adolescents (12.75-18 years of age) were also carried out. All of the cortical shape abnormalities identified across all ages were more pronounced in the children. These findings are consistent with evidence of an altered trajectory of early brain development in autism, and they identify several regions that may have abnormal patterns of connectivity in individuals with autism. PMID:17959814

Nordahl, Christine Wu; Dierker, Donna; Mostafavi, Iman; Schumann, Cynthia M; Rivera, Susan M; Amaral, David G; Van Essen, David C

2007-10-24

180

Alterations in local thyroid hormone signaling in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mouse at younger ages: Association with delayed myelination and behavioral abnormalities  

PubMed Central

The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains were established through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain based on phenotypic variations of aging and consist of senescence-prone (SAMP) and senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Among them, SAMP8 is considered as a model of neurodegeneration displaying age-associated learning and memory impairment and altered emotional status. Because adult hypothyroidism is one of the common causes of cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders, we examined the possible involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the pathological aging of SAMP8 using the senescence-resistant SAMR1 as control. Although plasma TH levels were similar in both strains, a significant decrease in type 2 deiodinase (D2) gene expression was observed in the SAMP8 hippocampus from 1 to 8 months of age, which led to a 35–50% reductions at the protein level and 20% reduction of its enzyme activity at 1, 3, and 5 months. D2 is responsible for local conversion of thyroxine into transcriptionally active 3,5,3?-triiodothyronine (T3), so the results suggest a reduction in T3 level in the SAMP8 hippocampus. Attenuation of local TH signaling was confirmed by downregulation of TH-dependent genes and by immunohistochemical demonstration of delayed and reduced accumulation of myelin basic protein, the expression of which is highly dependent on TH. Furthermore, we found that hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were not age-associated but were characteristic of young SAMP8 before they start showing impairments in learning and memory. Early alterations in local TH signaling may thus underlie behavioral abnormalities as well as the pathological aging of SAMP8. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23224839

Sawano, Erika; Negishi, Takayuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Masami; Tashiro, Tomoko

2013-01-01

181

The Impacts of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome Severity and Surgery Intervention on Psychological and Behavioral Abnormalities and Postoperative Recovery in Pediatric Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of impact of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) severity on pediatric psychological and behavioral abnormalities. Material/Methods Fifty-one children aged 5–12 years with a confirmed diagnosis of OSAHS were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of OSAHS. They underwent bilateral tonsillectomy plus adenoidectomy or adenoidectomy alone. Repeated polysomnography and integrated visual and auditory continuous performance testing (IVA-CPT) was performed to assess full-scale response control quotient (FRCQ), full-scale attention quotient (FAQ), and hyperactivity (HYP) before surgery and 3 and 6 months after surgery. Results Mean FRCQ, FAQ, and HYP significantly improved over time in the 3 groups (FRCQ, F=292.05; FAQ, F=258.27; HYP, F=295.10, all P<0.001). FRCQ and HYP were not significantly different among the groups at the 3 time points. FAQ was significantly different among the groups (F=3.89, P<0.05). For FRCQ, FAQ, and HYP, there was no interaction between time and disease severity. Within groups, the effect of time on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and lowest oxygen saturation (LaSO2) were significant for each group and they were significantly different among the 3 groups at each time point (all P<0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that OSAHS may have a significant impact on self-control, attention, and hyperactivity in children, which is gradually alleviated after surgery. Disease severity was not closely related to preoperative mental and psychological function or postoperative recovery. Thus, we find it difficult to determine the impact degree of OSAHS severity on mental and psychological function or predict postoperative recovery by using OSAHS severity alone in children. PMID:25141885

Zhu, Jin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Xin; Wang, Haifei; Teng, Yaoshu; Yu, Daojun; Zhang, Haisheng; Shen, Yi

2014-01-01

182

Alterations in local thyroid hormone signaling in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mouse at younger ages: association with delayed myelination and behavioral abnormalities.  

PubMed

The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains were established through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain based on phenotypic variations of aging and consist of senescence-prone (SAMP) and senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Among them, SAMP8 is considered as a model of neurodegeneration displaying age-associated learning and memory impairment and altered emotional status. Because adult hypothyroidism is one of the common causes of cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders, we examined the possible involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the pathological aging of SAMP8 using the senescence-resistant SAMR1 as control. Although plasma TH levels were similar in both strains, a significant decrease in type 2 deiodinase (D2) gene expression was observed in the SAMP8 hippocampus from 1 to 8 months of age, which led to a 35-50% reductions at the protein level and 20% reduction of its enzyme activity at 1, 3, and 5 months. D2 is responsible for local conversion of thyroxine into transcriptionally active 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), so the results suggest a reduction in T3 level in the SAMP8 hippocampus. Attenuation of local TH signaling was confirmed by downregulation of TH-dependent genes and by immunohistochemical demonstration of delayed and reduced accumulation of myelin basic protein, the expression of which is highly dependent on TH. Furthermore, we found that hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were not age-associated but were characteristic of young SAMP8 before they start showing impairments in learning and memory. Early alterations in local TH signaling may thus underlie behavioral abnormalities as well as the pathological aging of SAMP8. PMID:23224839

Sawano, Erika; Negishi, Takayuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Masami; Tashiro, Tomoko

2013-03-01

183

Modifying Repetitive Verbalizations of Community-Dwelling Patients with AD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on behavior management training given to seven caregivers of a home-dwelling spouse with Alzheimer's disease. Results reveal that trained caregivers were successful at decreasing patient repetitions using written cues. Patients of control subjects showed no systematic changes in behavioral disturbances. Intervention effects lasted for 16…

Bourgeois, Michelle S.; And Others

1997-01-01

184

Repetition Blindness for Rotated Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repetition blindness (RB) is the finding that observers often miss the repetition of an item within a rapid stream of words or objects. Recent studies have shown that RB for objects is largely unaffected by variations in viewpoint between the repeated items. In 5 experiments, we tested RB under different axes of rotation, with different types of…

Hayward, William G.; Zhou, Guomei; Man, Wai-Fung; Harris, Irina M.

2010-01-01

185

Repetitive resonant railgun power supply  

DOEpatents

A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

186

Repetitive resonant railgun power supply  

DOEpatents

A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

1985-06-19

187

Repetition Suppression and Multi-Voxel Pattern Similarity Differentially Track Implicit and Explicit Visual Memory  

PubMed Central

Repeated exposure to a visual stimulus is associated with corresponding reductions in neural activity, particularly within visual cortical areas. It has been argued that this phenomenon of repetition suppression is related to increases in processing fluency or implicit memory. However, repetition of a visual stimulus can also be considered in terms of the similarity of the pattern of neural activity elicited at each exposure—a measure that has recently been linked to explicit memory. Despite the popularity of each of these measures, direct comparisons between the two have been limited, and the extent to which they differentially (or similarly) relate to behavioral measures of memory has not been clearly established. In the present study, we compared repetition suppression and pattern similarity as predictors of both implicit and explicit memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned 20 participants while they viewed and categorized repeated presentations of scenes. Repetition priming (facilitated categorization across repetitions) was used as a measure of implicit memory, and subsequent scene recognition was used as a measure of explicit memory. We found that repetition priming was predicted by repetition suppression in prefrontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal regions; however, repetition priming was not predicted by pattern similarity. In contrast, subsequent explicit memory was predicted by pattern similarity (across repetitions) in some of the same occipitotemporal regions that exhibited a relationship between priming and repetition suppression; however, explicit memory was not related to repetition suppression. This striking double dissociation indicates that repetition suppression and pattern similarity differentially track implicit and explicit learning. PMID:24027275

Chun, Marvin M.; Kuhl, Brice A.

2013-01-01

188

[Repetitive work and psychosomatic complaints].  

PubMed

200 workers of the Swiss watch industry were examined in an interdisciplinary study on the effect of repetitive work on the wellbeing of the worker. Women doing repetitive work with little autonomy complained more often about psychosomatic problems than the male workers doing non-repetitive work. This difference is interpreted as a difference of sexe rather than one of the work situation. However, there is a significant difference in the complaint about nervosity between women being paid monthly and women who were paid by piece or by hour with a premium. PMID:706840

Liebrich, J; Geiger, L; Rupp, M

1978-08-01

189

High repetition rate fiber lasers  

E-print Network

This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

190

Paucity of moderately repetitive sequences  

SciTech Connect

We examined clones of renatured repetitive human DNA to find novel repetitive DNAs. After eliminating known repeats, the remaining clones were subjected to sequence analysis. These clones also corresponded to known repeats, but with greater sequence diversity. This indicates that either these libraries were depleted of short interspersed repeats in construction, or these repeats are much less prevalent in the human genome than is indicated by data from {und Xenopus} or sea urchin studies. We directly investigated the sequence composition of human DNA through traditional renaturation techniques with the goal of estimating the limits of abundance of repetitive sequence classes in human DNA. Our results sharply limit the maximum possible abundance to 1--2% of the human genome. Our estimate, minus the known repeats in this fraction, leaves about 1% (3 {times} 10{sup 7} nucleotides) of the human genome for novel repetitive elements. 2 refs. (MHB)

Schmid, C.W.

1991-01-01

191

On the relationship between persistent delay activity, repetition enhancement and priming  

PubMed Central

Human efficiency in processing incoming stimuli (in terms of speed and/or accuracy) is typically enhanced by previous exposure to the same, or closely related stimuli—a phenomenon referred to as priming. In spite of the large body of knowledge accumulated in behavioral studies about the conditions conducive to priming, and its relationship with other forms of memory, the underlying neuronal correlates of priming are still under debate. The idea has repeatedly been advanced that a major neuronal mechanism supporting behaviorally-expressed priming is repetition suppression, a widespread reduction of spiking activity upon stimulus repetition which has been routinely exposed by single-unit recordings in non-human primates performing delayed-response, as well as passive fixation tasks. This proposal is mainly motivated by the observation that, in human fMRI studies, priming is associated to a significant reduction of the BOLD signal (widely interpreted as a proxy of the level of spiking activity) upon stimulus repetition. Here, we critically re-examine a large part of the electrophysiological literature on repetition suppression in non-human primates and find that repetition suppression is systematically accompanied by stimulus-selective delay period activity, together with repetition enhancement, an increase of spiking activity upon stimulus repetition in small neuronal populations. We argue that repetition enhancement constitutes a more viable candidate for a putative neuronal substrate of priming, and propose a minimal framework that links together, mechanistically and functionally, repetition suppression, stimulus-selective delay activity and repetition enhancement. PMID:25657630

Tartaglia, Elisa M.; Mongillo, Gianluigi; Brunel, Nicolas

2015-01-01

192

Cytogenetic abnormalities and fragile-x syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Autism is a behavioral disorder with impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. About 5–10 % of individuals with autism have 'secondary' autism in which an environmental agent, chromosome abnormality, or single gene disorder can be identified. Ninety percent have idiopathic autism and a major gene has not yet been identified. We have assessed the incidence of chromosome abnormalities and Fragile X syndrome in a population of autistic patients referred to our laboratory. Methods Data was analyzed from 433 patients with autistic traits tested using chromosome analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or molecular testing for fragile X syndrome by Southern and PCR methods. Results The median age was 4 years. Sex ratio was 4.5 males to 1 female [354:79]. A chromosome (cs) abnormality was found in 14/421 [3.33 %] cases. The aberrations were: 4/14 [28%] supernumerary markers; 4/14 [28%] deletions; 1/14 [7%] duplication; 3/14 [21%] inversions; 2/14 [14%] translocations. FISH was performed on 23 cases for reasons other than to characterize a previously identified cytogenetic abnormality. All 23 cases were negative. Fragile-X testing by Southern blots and PCR analysis found 7/316 [2.2 %] with an abnormal result. The mutations detected were: a full mutation (fM) and abnormal methylation in 3 [43 %], mosaic mutations with partial methylation of variable clinical significance in 3 [43%] and a permutation carrier [14%]. The frequency of chromosome and fragile-X abnormalities appears to be within the range in reported surveys (cs 4.8-1.7%, FRAX 2–4%). Limitations of our retrospective study include paucity of behavioral diagnostic information, and a specific clinical criterion for testing. Conclusions Twenty-eight percent of chromosome abnormalities detected in our study were subtle; therefore a high resolution cytogenetic study with a scrutiny of 15q11.2q13, 2q37 and Xp23.3 region should be standard practice when the indication is autism. The higher incidence of mosaic fragile-X mutations with partial methylation compared to FRAXA positive population [50% vs 15–40%] suggests that faint bands and variations in the Southern band pattern may occur in autistic patients. PMID:15655077

Reddy, Kavita S

2005-01-01

193

Unintended imitation in nonword repetition.  

PubMed

Verbal repetition is conventionally considered to require motor-reproduction of only the phonologically relevant content of a perceived linguistic stimulus, while imitation of incidental acoustic properties of the stimulus is not an explicit part of this task. Exemplar-based theories of speech processing, however, would predict that imitation beyond linguistic reproduction may occur in word repetition. Five experiments were conducted in which verbal audio-motor translations had to be performed under different conditions. Nonwords varying in phonemic content, in vocal pitch (F(0)), and in speaking style (schwa-syllable expression) were presented. We experimentally varied the factors response delay (repetition vs. shadowing), intention-to-repeat (repetition vs. pseudo-naming), and phonological load (repetition vs. transformation). The responses of ten healthy participants were examined for phonemic accuracy and for traces of para-phonological imitation. Two aphasic patients with phonological impairments were also included, to find out if lesions to left anterior or posterior perisylvian cortex interfere with imitation. In the healthy participants, significant imitation of both F(0) and phonetic style was observed, with markedly stronger effects for the latter. Strong imitation was also found in an aphasic patient with a lesion to left anterior perisylvian cortex, whereas almost no imitation occurred in a patient with a lesion to the posterior language area. The degree of unintended imitation was modulated by each of the three independent factors introduced here. The results are discussed on the background of cognitive and neurolinguistic theories of imitation. PMID:19811813

Kappes, Juliane; Baumgaertner, Annette; Peschke, Claudia; Ziegler, Wolfram

2009-12-01

194

Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviours in Greek Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study was to examine the factor structure of restricted repetitive behaviours (RRBs) in a sample of 205 Greek individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Results show that the structure of RRBs in this Greek sample can be described using a 2-factor solution. The…

Georgiades, Stelios; Papageorgiou, Vaya; Anagnostou, Evdokia

2010-01-01

195

An electrophysiological analysis of modality-specific aspects of word repetition  

E-print Network

An electrophysiological analysis of modality-specific aspects of word repetition CARRIE A. JOYCE modality changes from study to test. This change was examined here using behavioral were faster for within- than cross-modality repetitions. In contrast, modality influenced recognition

Wagner, Anthony

196

Repetitively pulsed plasma illumination sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic environment created by turbulence in aircraft flight tests demands that illumination sources for high speed photography of munitions drops be extremely rugged. A repetitive pulsed surface discharge system has been developed to provide wide angle illumination in a bomb bay for photography at 250 - 500 Hertz. The lamp has a simple construction suitable for adverse environments and produces 100 mJ of visible light per pulse. The discharge parameters were selected to minimize the size and complexity of the power supply. The system is also capable of operating at high repetition rates; preliminary tests demonstrated 1000 pulses at 1 kHz, 200 pulses at 1.5 kHz, and 13 pulses at 2 kHz. A simple power supply capable of providing several amperes at 450 V is being completed; it will be used to extend the run times and to explore extensions to higher repetition rate.

Root, Robert G.; Falkos, Paul

1997-12-01

197

Multiple autism-like behaviors in a novel transgenic mouse model  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses are behaviorally-based with no defined universal biomarkers, occur at a 1:110 ratio in the population, and predominantly affect males compared to females at approximately a 4:1 ratio. One approach to investigate and identify causes of ASD is to use organisms that display abnormal behavioral responses that model ASD-related impairments. This study describes a novel transgenic mouse, MALTT, which was generated using a forward genetics approach. It was determined that the transgene integrated within a noncoding region on the X chromosome. The MALTT line exhibited a complete repertoire of ASD-like behavioral deficits in all three domains required for an ASD diagnosis: reciprocal social interaction, communication, and repetitive or inflexible behaviors. Specifically, MALTT male mice showed deficits in social interaction and interest, abnormalities in pup and juvenile ultrasonic vocalization communications, and exhibited a repetitive stereotypy. Abnormalities were also observed in the domain of sensory function, a secondary phenotype prevalently associated with ASD. Mapping and expression studies suggested that the Fam46 gene family may be linked to the observed ASD-related behaviors. The MALTT line provides a unique genetic model for examining the underlying biological mechanisms involved in ASD-related behaviors. PMID:21093492

Hamilton, Shannon M.; Spencer, Corinne M.; Harrison, Wilbur R.; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.; Graham, Deanna F.; Daza, Ray A.M.; Hevner, Robert F.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Paylor, Richard

2011-01-01

198

Repetition Blindness Occurs in Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theorists have predicted that repetition blindness (RB) should be absent for nonwords because they do not activate preexisting mental types. The authors hypothesized that RB would be observed for nonwords because RB can occur at a sublexical level. Four experiments showed that RB is observed for word-nonword pairs (noon noof), orthographically…

Harris, Catherine L.; Morris, Alison L.

2004-01-01

199

Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In…

Smith, Bruce

2006-01-01

200

Unintended Imitation in Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verbal repetition is conventionally considered to require motor-reproduction of only the phonologically relevant content of a perceived linguistic stimulus, while imitation of incidental acoustic properties of the stimulus is not an explicit part of this task. Exemplar-based theories of speech processing, however, would predict that imitation…

Kappes, Juliane; Baumgaertner, Annette; Peschke, Claudia; Ziegler, Wolfram

2009-01-01

201

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

202

Autism-Relevant Social Abnormalities and Cognitive Deficits in Engrailed-2 Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

ENGRAILED 2 (En2), a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22829897

Brielmaier, Jennifer; Matteson, Paul G.; Silverman, Jill L.; Senerth, Julia M.; Kelly, Samantha; Genestine, Matthieu; Millonig, James H.

2012-01-01

203

Abnormal electromyographic activity of the urethral sphincter, voiding dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries: a new syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential association between abnormal electromyographic activity--that is, decelerating bursts and complex repetitive discharges--of the urethral sphincter and difficulty in voiding was examined in 57 women with urinary retention. Abnormal electromyographic activity was found in 33. Ultrasonography of the ovaries in 22 of the 33 women showed that 14 had polycystic ovaries. Of the other eight women, two had had

C. J. Fowler; T. J. Christmas; C. R. Chapple; H. F. Parkhouse; R. S. Kirby; H. S. Jacobs

1988-01-01

204

Optogenetic Stimulation of Lateral Orbitofronto-Striatal Pathway Suppresses Compulsive Behaviors  

E-print Network

Dysfunctions in frontostriatal brain circuits have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, including those characterized by the presence of repetitive behaviors. We developed an optogenetic approach to block repetitive, ...

Burguiere, Eric

205

A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm. It is possible that the Y chromosomal abnormality

Aisling Mulligan; Michael Gill; Michael Fitzgerald

2008-01-01

206

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours, Sensory Processing and Cognitive Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the…

Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

2009-01-01

207

How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network.  

PubMed

A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier

2014-06-01

208

PSY 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008  

E-print Network

disorders, dissociative and somatoform disorders, mood disorders, substance abuse and dependence, eating of major behavior disorders. A sampling of the specific topics will include: stress and health, #12;anxiety disorders, gender and sexuality, psychotic disorders, personality disorders, abnormal behavior in childhood

Gallo, Linda C.

209

Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

Moyzis, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

210

Pilot randomized trial demonstrating reversal of obesity-related abnormalities in reward system responsivity to food cues with a behavioral intervention  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Obesity is associated with hyperactivation of the reward system for high-calorie (HC) versus low-calorie (LC) food cues, which encourages unhealthy food selection and overeating. However, the extent to which this hyperactivation can be reversed is uncertain, and to date there has been no demonstration of changes by behavioral intervention. Subjects and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure changes in activation of the striatum for food images at baseline and 6 months in a pilot study of 13 overweight or obese adults randomized to a control group or a novel weight-loss intervention. Results: Compared to controls, intervention participants achieved significant weight loss (?6.3±1.0?kg versus +2.1±1.1?kg, P<0.001) and had increased activation for LC food images with a composition consistent with that recommended in the behavioral intervention at 6 months versus baseline in the right ventral putamen (P=0.04), decreased activation for HC images of typically consumed foods in the left dorsal putamen (P=0.01). There was also a large significant shift in relative activation favoring LC versus HC foods in both regions (P<0.04). Conclusions: This study provides the first demonstration of a positive shift in activation of the reward system toward healthy versus unhealthy food cues in a behavioral intervention, suggesting new avenues to enhance behavioral treatments of obesity. PMID:25177910

Deckersbach, T; Das, S K; Urban, L E; Salinardi, T; Batra, P; Rodman, A M; Arulpragasam, A R; Dougherty, D D; Roberts, S B

2014-01-01

211

Effect of Licofelone-A Dual COX/5-LOX Inhibitor in Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin-Induced Behavioral and Biochemical Abnormalities in Rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of licofelone-a dual cyclooxygenase/5-lipoxygenase (COX/5-LOX) inhibitor in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced cognitive deficit and biochemical abnormalities in rats. ICV-STZ is a widely used model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. In this study, STZ was administered intracerebroventricular (ICV)-bilaterally 3 mg/kg in rats. The STZ-injected rats were treated with different doses of licofelone (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) for 21 days. Cognitive functions were assessed by using Morris water maze and passive avoidance task. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite, reduced glutathione (GSH), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were determined to check oxidative stress and cholinergic function. Cytokine levels (IL-1? and TNF-?) were also determined as markers of neuroinflammation. Administration of STZ caused a significant increase in AChE activity and cognitive dysfunction. Increased oxidative stress and the proinflammatory cytokine levels were also observed following STZ administration in rats. Licofelone treatment attenuated STZ-induced cholinergic hypofunction and cognitive deficit in rats. In addition, licofelone attenuated STZ-induced oxidative stress and elevated cytokine levels. The cognitive enhancement following licofelone administration in STZ rats may be due to its ability to restore cholinergic functions or its antioxidant activity. These observed results suggest the therapeutic potential of dual COX/5-LOX inhibitors in neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. PMID:25204299

Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Sorabh; Prashar, Ashwani; Deshmukh, Rahul

2015-03-01

212

Influence of damage to the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus of rats on the dynamics of short-period fluctuations of normal and abnormal behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intensification of a swimming behavior with an increase in the proportion of active swimming and limitation of the duration\\u000a of immobilization was found in rats following bilateral electrolytic destruction of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus.\\u000a The restructuring of the temporal dynamics of swimming is manifested in a limitation of the rhythmological index of depressivity.\\u000a The animals with ablated

É. B. Arushanyan; A. V. Popov

1995-01-01

213

Neural response suppression predicts repetition priming of spoken words and pseudowords.  

PubMed

An important method for studying how the brain processes familiar stimuli is to present the same item on more than one occasion and measure how responses change with repetition. Here we use repetition priming in a sparse functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to probe the neuroanatomical basis of spoken word recognition and the representations of spoken words that mediate repetition priming effects. Participants made lexical decisions to words and pseudowords spoken by a male or female voice that were presented twice, with half of the repetitions in a different voice. Behavioral and neural priming was observed for both words and pseudowords and was not affected by voice changes. The fMRI data revealed an elevated response to words compared to pseudowords in both posterior and anterior temporal regions, suggesting that both contribute to word recognition. Both reduced and elevated activation for second presentations (repetition suppression and enhancement) were observed in frontal and posterior regions. Correlations between behavioral priming and neural repetition suppression were observed in frontal regions, suggesting that repetition priming effects for spoken words reflect changes within systems involved in generating behavioral responses. Based on the current results, these processes are sufficiently abstract to display priming despite changes in the physical form of the stimulus and operate equivalently for words and pseudowords. PMID:16859411

Orfanidou, Eleni; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Davis, Matthew H

2006-08-01

214

Increased repetitive behaviours and prolactin responsivity to oral m-chlorophenylpiperazine in adults with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysfunction in three primary behavioural domains: repetitive behaviours, social deficits, and language abnormalities. There is evidence that abnormalities exist in the serotonin (5-HT) system in autism spectrum patients. Furthermore, 5-HT is known to play a role in repetitive and social behaviours. This study examined the effect of m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) on repetitive behaviours and prolactin response in 11 adults with autism or Aspergers disorder and 8 age- and gender-matched healthy controls via randomized double-blind, m-CPP and placebo challenges. The primary outcome measure was an instrument rating six repetitive behaviours: need to know, repeating, ordering, need to tell/ask, self-injury, and touching. Patients with autism spectrum disorders showed a significant increase in repetitive behaviours at end-point following oral m-CPP in comparison to placebo. Additionally subjects with autism spectrum disorders showed a significantly increased prolactin response to m-CPP compared to normal controls, with neither group responding to placebo. This study provides further evidence for altered 5-HT sensitivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, as well as a possible relationship between repetitive behaviours in autism spectrum disorders and abnormalities in the 5-HT system. PMID:15132762

Novotny, Sherie; Hollander, Eric; Phillips, Ann; Allen, Andrea; Wasserman, Stacey; Iyengar, Rupa

2004-09-01

215

Communication Impairments in Mice Lacking Shank1: Reduced Levels of Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Scent Marking Behavior  

E-print Network

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of ...

Wohr, Markus

216

Structurally abnormal human autosomes  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

217

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

218

Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma.  

PubMed

Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

Ng, Thomas Sc; Lin, Alexander P; Koerte, Inga K; Pasternak, Ofer; Liao, Huijun; Merugumala, Sai; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E

2014-01-01

219

Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior.  

PubMed

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824C>T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin. PMID:25343989

Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza; Strandgren, Charlotte; Pernold, Karin; Richard, Thibaud J C; Van Leeuwen, Fred W; Dantuma, Nico P; Damberg, Peter; Hultenby, Kjell; Ulfhake, Brun; Mugnaini, Enrico; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

2015-03-01

220

Autism spectrum disorder as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence from the brain imaging abnormalities in 2-3 years old toddlers.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships in adolescents and adults with ASD, literature is still limited in information about the neurobiology of ASD in the early age of life. Brain images of 50 toddlers with ASD and 28 age, gender, and developmental quotient matched toddlers with developmental delay (DD) (control group) between ages 2 and 3 years were captured using combined magnetic resonance-based structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was applied to assess overall gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and regional alterations were assessed by voxel-based morphometry. DTI was used to investigate the white matter tract integrity. Compared with DD, significant increases were observed in ASD, primarily in global GM and WM volumes and in right superior temporal gyrus regional GM and WM volumes. Higher fractional anisotropy value was also observed in the corpus callosum, posterior cingulate cortex, and limbic lobes of ASD. The converging findings of structural and white matter abnormalities in ASD suggest that alterations in neural-anatomy of different brain regions may be involved in behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with ASD, especially in an early age of 2-3 years old toddlers. PMID:24419870

Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

2014-07-01

221

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

222

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

223

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... age when teeth are forming Poor oral care Porphyria Severe neonatal jaundice Too much fluoride from environmental ... abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history ...

224

Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.  

PubMed

The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

2014-11-19

225

The Spectrum of Neurobehavioral Sequelae after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Mouse Model of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Abstract There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury. PMID:24766454

Plog, Benjamin A.; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L.; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T.; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H.

2014-01-01

226

The spectrum of neurobehavioral sequelae after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury: a novel mouse model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury. PMID:24766454

Petraglia, Anthony L; Plog, Benjamin A; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H

2014-07-01

227

On the Parallel Repetition of Multi-Player Games: The No-Signaling Case  

E-print Network

We consider the natural extension of two-player nonlocal games to an arbitrary number of players. An important question for such nonlocal games is their behavior under parallel repetition. For two-player nonlocal games, it is known that both the classical and the non-signaling value of any game converges to zero exponentially fast under parallel repetition, given that the game is non-trivial to start with (i.e., has classical/non-signaling value game under parallel repetition. For nonlocal games with three or more players, very little is known up to present on their behavior under parallel repetition; this is true for the classical, the quantum and the non-signaling value. In this work, we show a parallel repetition theorem for the non-signaling value of a large class of multi-player games, for an arbitrary number of players. Our result applies to all multi-player games for which all possible combinations of questions have positive probability; this class in particular includes all free games, in which the questions to the players are chosen independently. Specifically, we prove that if the original game has a non-signaling value smaller than 1, then the non-signaling value of the $n$-fold parallel repetition is exponentially small in $n$. Our parallel repetition theorem for multi-player games is weaker than the known parallel repetition results for two-player games in that the rate at which the non-signaling value of the game decreases not only depends on the non-signaling value of the original game (and the number of possible responses), but on the complete description of the game. Nevertheless, we feel that our result is a first step towards a better understanding of the parallel repetition of nonlocal games with more than two players.

Harry Buhrman; Serge Fehr; Christian Schaffner

2014-06-18

228

Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

Anderson, Robyn

2012-01-01

229

GRB Repetition Limits from Current BATSE Observations  

E-print Network

Revised upper limits on gamma-ray burst repetition rates are found using the BATSE 3B and 4B catalogs. A statistical repetition model is assumed in which sources burst at a mean rate but in which BATSE observes bursts randomly from each source.

Jon Hakkila; Charles A. Meegan; Geoffrey N. Pendleton; Michael S. Briggs; John M. Horack; Dieter H. Hartmann; Valerie Connaughton

1997-12-05

230

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a spectrum of neuropathological changes following repetitive brain trauma in athletes and military personnel  

PubMed Central

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive traumatic brain injury experienced in sport and military service. In most instances, the clinical symptoms of the disease begin after a long period of latency ranging from several years to several decades. The initial symptoms are typically insidious, consisting of irritability, impulsivity, aggression, depression, short-term memory loss and heightened suicidality. The symptoms progress slowly over decades to include cognitive deficits and dementia. The pathology of CTE is characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and astrocytes in a pattern that is unique from other tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease. The hyperphosphorylated tau abnormalities begin focally, as perivascular neurofibrillary tangles and neurites at the depths of the cerebral sulci, and then spread to involve superficial layers of adjacent cortex before becoming a widespread degeneration affecting medial temporal lobe structures, diencephalon and brainstem. Most instances of CTE (>85% of cases) show abnormal accumulations of phosphorylated 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein that are partially colocalized with phosphorylated tau protein. As CTE is characterized pathologically by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, by abnormal deposits of phosphorylated tau and by 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein and is associated clinically with behavioral and personality changes, as well as cognitive impairments, CTE is increasingly categorized as an acquired frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Currently, some of the greatest challenges are that CTE cannot be diagnosed during life and the incidence and prevalence of the disorder remain uncertain. Furthermore, the contribution of age, gender, genetics, stress, alcohol and substance abuse to the development of CTE remains to be determined. PMID:24423082

2014-01-01

231

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

232

Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher  

DOEpatents

A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

1997-02-11

233

A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

2008-01-01

234

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

Liu, Taosheng

235

Behaviorism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

Moore, J.

2011-01-01

236

Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... the Internet , kids often spend hours at the computer. So it's important for parents to know about ... to the stress of repetitive motions at the computer or overuse injuries in sports. RSI in kids ...

237

Minor and repetitive head injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in the young, active population and expected to be the third leading cause of death in the whole world until 2020. The disease is frequently referred to as the silent epidemic, and many authors highlight the "unmet medical need" associated with TBI.The term traumatically evoked brain injury covers a heterogeneous group ranging from mild/minor/minimal to severe/non-salvageable damages. Severe TBI has long been recognized to be a major socioeconomical health-care issue as saving young lives and sometimes entirely restituting health with a timely intervention can indeed be extremely cost efficient.Recently it has been recognized that mild or minor TBI should be considered similarly important because of the magnitude of the patient population affected. Other reasons behind this recognition are the association of mild head injury with transient cognitive disturbances as well as long-term sequelae primarily linked to repeat (sport-related) injuries.The incidence of TBI in developed countries can be as high as 2-300/100,000 inhabitants; however, if we consider the injury pyramid, it turns out that severe and moderate TBI represents only 25-30 % of all cases, while the overwhelming majority of TBI cases consists of mild head injury. On top of that, or at the base of the pyramid, are the cases that never show up at the ER - the unreported injuries.Special attention is turned to mild TBI as in recent military conflicts it is recognized as "signature injury."This chapter aims to summarize the most important features of mild and repetitive traumatic brain injury providing definitions, stratifications, and triage options while also focusing on contemporary knowledge gathered by imaging and biomarker research.Mild traumatic brain injury is an enigmatic lesion; the classification, significance, and its consequences are all far less defined and explored than in more severe forms of brain injury.Understanding the pathobiology and pathomechanisms may aid a more targeted approach in triage as well as selection of cases with possible late complications while also identifying the target patient population where preventive measures and therapeutic tools should be applied in an attempt to avoid secondary brain injury and late complications. PMID:25411149

Buki, Andras; Kovacs, Noemi; Czeiter, Endre; Schmid, Kara; Berger, Rachel P; Kobeissy, Firas; Italiano, Domenico; Hayes, Ronald L; Tortella, Frank C; Mezosi, Emese; Schwarcz, Attila; Toth, Arnold; Nemes, Orsolya; Mondello, Stefania

2015-01-01

238

Abnormal verbal event related potentials in mild cognitive impairment and incipient Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

PAPER Abnormal verbal event related potentials in mild cognitive impairment and incipient Alzheimer subsequently converted to probable Alzheimer's disease. The congruous word repetition effect in the group to the memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment and could have value in predicting incipient Alzheimer

Kutas, Marta

239

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C.E.

1995-01-01

240

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins are common genetic disorders in Asia. Thalassemia is not only an important public health\\u000a problem but also a socio-economic problem of many countries in the region. The approach to deal with the thalassemic problem\\u000a is to prevent and control birth of new cases. This requires an accurate identification of the couple at high risk for thalassemia.

Suthat Fucharoen; Pranee Winichagoon

2002-01-01

241

Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?  

PubMed

Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (?1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

2014-10-14

242

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

243

Serial rapists and their victims: reenactment and repetition.  

PubMed

The major finding in this study of 41 serial rapists is the large numbers of reported and unreported victims. For over 1200 attempted and completed rapes, there were 200 convictions. The hidden rapes or earliest nonreported victims of these men as boys and adolescents were identified from their families, their neighborhood, and their schools. Examining the possible link between childhood sexual abuse and criminal behavior in this sample of 41 serial rapists, 56.1% were judged to have at least one forced or exploitive abuse experience in boyhood, as compared to a study of 2,972 college males reporting 7.3% experiencing boyhood sexual abuse. Looking within the abused samples, 56.1% of the rapists reported forced sex, compared to the college sample's 30.4%. Also, the rapist sample revealed higher rates of family member as abuser (48.4%), compared to 22.2% for the college sample. Retrospective reconstruction of the sexual activities and assertive behaviors of these men as boys reveals that 51% of the boys reenact the abuse as a preadolescent with their earliest victims being known to them (48% as neighborhood girls), family (25% as sisters), or girlfriend (25%). The onset of rape fantasies in midadolescence (mean age 16.9) crystalizes the earlier sexually initiated behaviors into juvenile behaviors of spying, fetish burglaries, molestations, and rapes. Repetition of these juvenile behaviors set their criminal patters on strangers--their next group of victims. To reduce victimization, serial rapists need to be identified early and stopped. This means acknowledging and reporting boy sexual abuse. This includes being sensitive to the reenactment behaviors noted in the initiated activities of abused children, which in turn need to be differentiated from peer play. Closer attention needs to be paid to families with incest behavior to insure that younger children are protected. Adolescents showing early repetitive juvenile delinquent behaviors must be assessed for physical and sexual abuse, and intervention must be planned to deal with the victimization. In the investigation and apprehension of serial rapists, law enforcement might pay closer attention to fetish burglaries and the spying, secretive behaviors that serve as the prototype for rape behavior. PMID:3421601

Burgess, A W; Hazelwood, R R; Rokous, F E; Hartman, C R; Burgess, A G

1988-01-01

244

Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population  

SciTech Connect

Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

1995-02-27

245

Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

246

WHAT TRIGGERS ABNORMAL EATING IN BULIMIC AND NONBULIMIC WOMEN? The Role of Dissociative Experiences, Negative Affect, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative experiences and abnormal eating were examined in 92 non-eating-disordered women and 61 age- matched bulimic women. In the nonclinical sample of women, dissociative experiences were associated with abnor- mal eating attitudes and behavior, even after controlling for other forms of psychopathology; furthermore, dissociation mediated the relationships between abnormal eating and sexual abuse, abnormal eating and emotional distress, and abnormal

Sonja Lyubomirsky; Lorie Sousa; Regina C. Casper

247

Automated paleontology of repetitive DNA with REANNOTATE  

PubMed Central

Background Dispersed repeats are a major component of eukaryotic genomes and drivers of genome evolution. Annotation of DNA sequences homologous to known repetitive elements has been mainly performed with the program REPEATMASKER. Sequences annotated by REPEATMASKER often correspond to fragments of repetitive elements resulting from the insertion of younger elements or other rearrangements. Although REPEATMASKER annotation is indispensable for studying genome biology, this annotation does not contain much information on the common origin of fossil fragments that share an insertion event, especially where clusters of nested insertions of repetitive elements have occurred. Results Here I present REANNOTATE, a computational tool to process REPEATMASKER annotation for automated i) defragmentation of dispersed repetitive elements, ii) resolution of the temporal order of insertions in clusters of nested elements, and iii) estimating the age of the elements, if they have long terminal repeats. I have re-annotated the repetitive content of human chromosomes, providing evidence for a recent expansion of satellite repeats on the Y chromosome and, from the retroviral age distribution, for a higher rate of evolution on the Y relative to autosomes. Conclusion REANNOTATE is ready to process existing annotation for automated evolutionary analysis of all types of complex repeats in any genome. The tool is freely available under the GPL at . PMID:19094224

Pereira, Vini

2008-01-01

248

Prenatal screening for chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) contributes significantly to fetal loss during pregnancy, as well as to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to fetal loss decreases as pregnancy continues with an estimated 50% of first trimester spontaneous abortions due to chromosomal abnormalities, but only 5% of stillbirths (after 28 weeks). Prenatal screening for aneuploidy (in particular Down

Lyn Chitty

249

Plasma characteristics of repetitively-pulsed electrical discharges in saline solutions used for surgical procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of plasmas formed by repetitively-pulsed electrical discharges in sodium chloride and barium chloride saline solutions are reported. Spectroscopic observations in conjunction with an analysis of the voltage and current behavior of the discharge lead to a model in which the liquid is vaporized and ionized to form a plasma containing excited water fragments H* and OH* as well as

Jean Woloszko; Kenneth R. Stalder; Ian G. Brown

2002-01-01

250

Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration. PMID:23908629

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

2013-01-01

251

High repetition rate miniature triggered spark switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A miniature triggered spark switch designed to operate at high repetition rates has been constructed. The device, along with associated triggered circuitry, has been incorporated into a simple LC generator which produces an oscillatory discharge at a frequency of 150 MHz. The switch is operated in the pressure range 760 torr-2.6 x 10 to the 3rd torr using commercial dry nitrogen as the working gas. Both brass (70/30) and aluminum (99.95 percent) electrodes were investigated for repetition frequencies as high as 20 kHz and for gas flow rates as high as 8 cu cm/s. The effect of repetition rate on switch jitter and switch breakdown voltage is presented and discussed in terms of gas pressure and flow rate.

Rose, M. F.; Glancy, M. T.

1980-09-01

252

Repetitive foreign body ingestion: ethical considerations.  

PubMed

The treatment of persons who frequently present to the healthcare system following repetitive foreign body ingestion has been addressed in the psychiatric literature. However, there has been little exploration of the ethical considerations regarding the treatment of these patients. The complexity of their medical and psychiatric presentation raises fundamental ethical questions regarding the duty to treat, patient autonomy, justice, and futility. Careful ethical analysis is particularly important in this context, since the frustration that medical professionals may feel in response may lead to false assumptions that can negatively impact patient care. A careful exploration of these questions can increase awareness and understanding, which in turn can lead to improved treatment of patients who repetitively ingest foreign bodies. Care for patients who inflict self-harm, particularly by repetitive foreign body ingestion, is not futile. The patients have a right to treatment and are entitled to resources. Efforts should be made to provide a more comprehensive treatment approach to these patients. PMID:23923808

Lytle, Sarah; Stagno, Susan J; Daly, Barb

2013-01-01

253

Abnormal Leg Muscle Latencies and Relationship to Dyscoordination and Walking Disability after Stroke  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to determine timing characteristics of leg muscle latencies for patients following stroke (>12 months) who had persistent coordination and gait deficits, and to determine the relationships among abnormal latencies, dyscoordination, and gait deficits. We compared nine healthy controls and 27 stroke survivors. Surface electromyography measured activation and deactivation latencies of knee flexor and extensor muscles during a ballistic knee flexion task, consistency of latencies across repetitions, and close coupling between agonist and antagonist muscle latencies. We measured Fugl-Meyer (FM) coordination and the functional gait measure, six minute walk test (6MWT). For stroke subjects, there were significant delays of muscle activation and deactivation, abnormal inconsistency, and abnormal decoupled agonist and antagonist activations. There was good correlation between activation latencies and FM and 6MWT. Results suggest abnormal timing characteristics underlie coordination impairment and dysfunctional gait. These abnormal muscle activation and deactivation timing characteristics are important targets for rehabilitation. PMID:22110973

Daly, Janis J.; Roenigk, Kristen; Cheng, Roger; Ruff, Robert L.

2011-01-01

254

Exploring the Effects of Seated Whole Body Vibration Exposure on Repetitive Asymmetric Lifting Tasks.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This study investigated changes in the physiological and behavioral responses to repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers repeatedly lifted a box (15% of lifter's capacity) positioned in front of them at ankle level to a location on their left side at waist level at the rate of 10 lifts/minute for a period of 60 minutes. Prior to lifting, participants were seated on a vibrating platform for 60 minutes; in one of the two sessions the platform did not vibrate. Overall, the physiological responses assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy signals for the erector spinae muscles decreased significantly over time during the seating and the lifting tasks (p < 0.001). During repetitive asymmetric lifting, behavioral changes included increases in peak forward bending motion, twisting moment and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine. The lateral bending moment of the spine and the duration of each lift decreased significantly over the 60 minutes of repetitive lifting. With exposure to whole body vibration, participants twisted further (p = 0.046) and twisted faster (p = 0.025). These behavioral changes would suggest an increase in back injury risk when repetitive lifting tasks are preceded by whole body vibration exposure. PMID:25264920

Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

2014-09-29

255

A Rare Stapes Abnormality  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

256

A rare stapes abnormality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

257

Repetition Priming and Hyperpriming in Semantic Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from neurologically normal subjects suggests that repetition priming (RP) is independent of semantic processing. Therefore, we may expect patients with a selective deficit to conceptual knowledge to exhibit RP for words regardless of the integrity of their semantic representations. We tested six patients with semantic dementia (SD) on a…

Cumming, T. B.; Graham, K. S.; Patterson, K.

2006-01-01

258

Environmental Applications of Repetitive Pulsed Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

High repetition rate, high reliability and long lifetime are required for pulsed power generators for environmental applications. Also, it is necessary to optimize the pulsed power generator for each environmental application. Recent developments in pulsed power generators are described. In addition, recent research of gaseous phase pollution control using pulsed power, cleaning of lake and dam of algae bloom by

Hidenori Akiyama; Shunsuke Sakai; Takashi Sakugawa; Takao Namihira

259

OCD: Obsessive Consensus Disorder (or Repetitive Consensus)  

E-print Network

OCD: Obsessive Consensus Disorder (or Repetitive Consensus) Danny Dolev Hebrew University dolev personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version is to be published in the Twenty a sequence of multiple consensuses takes place. Executing multiple consensus comes in different flavors

Dolev, Danny

260

CHROMOSOMAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAIZE REPETITIVE SEQUENCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microarray technology used in conjunction with labeled DNA from oat-maize addition (OMA) lines enable chromosomal analysis of the organization and distribution of maize repetitive elements. Each OMA line contains an individual maize chromosome allowing for an analysis of its composition. The probes ...

261

Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment at…

Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

2009-01-01

262

Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

2010-01-01

263

Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

2010-01-01

264

Enhancing Speech Discrimination through Stimulus Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of sequential and alternating repetition on speech-sound discrimination. Method: Typically hearing adults' discrimination of 3 pairs of speech-sound contrasts was assessed at 3 signal-to-noise ratios using the change/no-change procedure. On change trials, the standard and comparison stimuli differ; on no-change…

Holt, Rachael Frush

2011-01-01

265

Repetition increases false recollection in older people.  

PubMed

Aging is accompanied by an increase in false alarms on recognition tasks, and these false alarms increase with repetition in older people (but not in young people). Traditionally, this increase was thought to be due to a greater use of familiarity in older people, but it was recently pointed out that false alarms also have a clear recollection component in these people. The main objective of our study is to analyze whether the expected increase in the rate of false alarms in older people due to stimulus repetition is produced by an inadequate use of familiarity, recollection, or both processes. To do so, we carried out an associative recognition experiment using pairs of words and pairs of images (faces associated with everyday contexts), in which we analyzed whether the repetition of some of the pairs increases the rate of false alarms in older people (compared to what was found in a sample of young people), and whether this increase is due to familiarity or recollection (using a remember-know paradigm). Our results show that the increase in false alarms in older people due to repetition is produced by false recollection, calling into question both dual and single-process models of recognition. Also, older people falsely recollect details of never studied stimuli, a clear case of perceptual illusions. These results are better explained in terms of source-monitoring errors, mediated by people's retrieval expectations. PMID:25330138

Pitarque, Alfonso; Sales, Alicia; Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Algarabel, Salvador

2015-02-01

266

High-Repetition-Rate Femtosecond Yb  

E-print Network

-referenced optical frequency combs, OPO pumping, time-resolved pump-probe studies, CARS spectroscopy, super.hw.ac.uk BENEFITS & APPLICATIONS: Originally developed for semiconductor probing, this compact high-repetition- rate Professor Derryck Reid's group, the ultrafast fibre laser is suitable for use in applications such as self

Painter, Kevin

267

Some future directions for repetitive pulsed power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive pulsed power technology has a lot of potential for growth. After a relatively quiet decade in the 90s, customer interest is increasing. With new interest comes new demands on the technology. Orders of magnitude advances will be needed over the next ten years. This paper speculates where some such improvements may be made. It does not attempt to provide

M. Buttram

2002-01-01

268

Armor materials’ behavior under repetitive dense plasma shots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on the plasma focus device PF-12 have been carried out to investigate changes in the structure of the surface and bulk of tungsten and tungsten doped with 1% lanthanum oxide after repeated powerful deuterium plasma shots (8, 25 and 100). The surface morphology of the targets exposed to plasma streams is analyzed by electron and optical microscopy. Due to the plasma effect, different surface structures, such as wave-like structures, a melted layer, a mesh of microcracks, droplets, craters, crevices and holes, appear. The change of cross-section hardness after a number of shots in different materials is investigated.

Shirokova, V.; Laas, T.; Ainsaar, A.; Priimets, J.; Ugaste, Ü.; Väli, B.; Gribkov, V. A.; Maslyaev, S. A.; Demina, E. V.; Dubrovsky, A. V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Prusakova, M. D.; Mikli, V.

2014-05-01

269

Pharmacological Modulation of Behavioral and Neuronal Correlates of Repetition Priming  

E-print Network

. Thiel,1 Richard N. A. Henson,1,2 John S. Morris,1 Karl J. Friston,1 and Raymond J. Dolan1,3 1Wellcome of learning, and corresponding neuronal activity, has been shown in many explicit learning par- adigms (Caine

Henson, Rik

270

Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities Induced by Prenatal Valproic Acid Exposure in Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

In-utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been known as a potent inducer of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), not only in humans, but also in animals. In addition to the defects in communication and social interaction as well as repetitive behaviors, ASD patients usually suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) problems. However, the exact mechanism underlying these disorders is not known. In this study, we examined the gross GI tract structure and GI motility in a VPA animal model of ASD. On embryonic day 12 (E12), 4 pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subcutaneously injected with VPA (400 mg/kg) in the treatment group, and with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in the control group; the resulting male offspring were analyzed at 4 weeks of age. VPA exposure decreased the thickness of tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis in the stomach and ileum. Other regions such as duodenum, jejunum, and colon did not show a significant difference. In high-resolution microscopic observation, atrophy of the parietal and chief cells in the stomach and absorptive cells in the ileum was observed. In addition, decreased staining of the epithelial cells was observed in the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained ileum section. Furthermore, decreased motility in GI tract was also observed in rat offspring prenatally exposed to VPA. However, the mechanism underlying GI tract defects in VPA animal model as well as the association between abnormal GI structure and function with ASD is yet to be clearly understood. Nevertheless, the results from the present study suggest that this VPA ASD model undergoes abnormal changes in the GI structure and function, which in turn could provide beneficial clues pertaining to the pathophysiological relevance of GI complications and ASD phenotypes. PMID:24386517

Kim, Ji-Woon; Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Ki Chan; Park, Jin Hee; Seung, Hana; Joo, So Hyun; Yang, Sung Min

2013-01-01

271

If you negate, you may forget: negated repetitions impair memory compared with affirmative repetitions.  

PubMed

One of the most robust laws of memory is that repeated activation improves memory. Our study shows that the nature of repetition matters. Specifically, although both negated repetition and affirmative repetition improve memory compared with no repetition, negated repetition hinders memory compared with affirmative repetition. After showing participants different entities, we asked them about features of these entities, leading to either "yes" or "no" responses. Our findings show that correctly negating an incorrect feature of an entity elicits an active forgetting effect compared with correctly affirming its true features. For example, after seeing someone drink a glass of white wine, answering "no" to "was it red wine?" may lead one to greater memory loss of the individual drinking wine at all compared with answering "yes" to "was it white wine?" We find this negation-induced forgetting effect in 4 experiments that differ in (a) the meaning given for the negation, (b) the type of stimuli (visual or verbal), and (c) the memory measure (recognition or free recall). We discuss possible underlying mechanisms and offer theoretical and applied implications of the negation-induced forgetting effect in relation to other known inhibition effects. PMID:24635186

Mayo, Ruth; Schul, Yaacov; Rosenthal, Meytal

2014-08-01

272

Repetition Blindness: An Emergent Property of Inter-Item Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repeating an item in a brief or rapid display usually produces faster or more accurate identification of the item (repetition priming), but sometimes produces the opposite effect (repetition blindness). We present a theory of short-term repetition effects, the "competition hypothesis," which explains these paradoxical outcomes. The central tenet…

Morris, Alison L.; Still, Mary L.; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

273

Hijacking Cortical Motor Output with Repetitive Microstimulation  

PubMed Central

High frequency repetitive microstimulation has been widely used as a method of investigating the properties of cortical motor output. Despite its widespread use, few studies have investigated how activity evoked by high frequency stimulation may interact with the existing activity of cortical cells resulting from natural synaptic inputs. A reasonable assumption might be that the stimulus-evoked activity sums with the existing natural activity. However, another possibility is that the stimulus-evoked firing of cortical neurons might block and replace the natural activity. We refer to this latter possibility as “neural hijacking.” Evidence from analysis of EMG activity evoked by repetitive microstimulation (200 Hz, 500 ms) of primary motor cortex in two rhesus monkeys during performance of a reach-to-grasp task strongly supports the neural hijacking hypothesis. PMID:21917792

Griffin, D.M.; Hudson, H.M.; Belhaj-Sa?f, A.; Cheney, P.D.

2011-01-01

274

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

275

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

276

Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

1998-01-01

277

A repetitively-pulsed, mobile, HPM system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AAI High Power Microwave Source Development Program (HPM) has been actively investigating the design of HPM test systems using relativistic magnetrons with a repetition rate capability. The design and test of a gigawatt-level, S- to C-band, 10-Hz, mobile relativistic magnetron HPM system have been carried out. Mode competition, output-coupling-frequency scaling and injection phase locking in relativistic magnetrons have been

S. T. Spang; D. E. Anderson; K. D. Claborne; R. A. Hill; S. P. Manning; J. A. Pasour; D. M. Rexroad; E. P. Scannell; R. J. Williams; D. A. Woodyard

1989-01-01

278

Phosphor thermometry at high repetition rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilizing the luminescence properties of thermographic phosphors. Typically these ceramic materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Photomultipliers and high-speed camera systems are used to transiently detect the subsequently emitted luminescence decay point wise or two-dimensionally resolved. Based on appropriate calibration measurements, the luminescence lifetime is converted to temperature. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. For the first time, the authors realized a high-speed phosphor thermometry system combining a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterized regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating in terms of heating effects has been investigated. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of one sample per crank angle degree at an engine speed of 1000 rpm. This experiment has proven that high-speed phosphor thermometry is a promising diagnostic tool for the resolution of surface temperature transients.

Fuhrmann, N.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

2013-09-01

279

Repetitive measurements of enhanced pause (Penh).  

PubMed

Enhanced pause (Penh) was first proposed in allergic mice and appeared to be correlated with airway responsiveness. However, some investigators have suggested that there is no theoretical basis for a correlation between Penh and airway resistance. Because the measurement of Penh is a noninvasive procedure, this value may be useful in repetitive measurements, but few researchers have emphasized this aspect. This study aimed to assess the validity of Penh values derived through repetitive measurements of both absolute and ratio Penh values in 10 male C57BL/6 mice on days 0, 3, 7, and 15. Tests of within-subject effects revealed significant differences in both the absolute and ratio Penh values across the different time points. The administration of challenge aerosolized methacholine concentrations of 25, 50, and 100mg/ml resulted in significant differences in the ratio Penh values across the various time points. The findings of the present study indicate that Penh is not a good index for repetitive measurement because the Penh values are significantly influenced by the time at which they are measured. PMID:25462015

Xu, Wei-Hua

2015-01-15

280

Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic  

DOEpatents

Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

2011-03-22

281

Dynamics of Tandem Repetitive Afa-Family Sequences in Triticeae, Wheat-Related Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The Afa-family sequences in wheat-related species, Triticeae, are tandem repetitive sequences of 340 bp. All the analyzed\\u000a Triticeae species carried the sequences in their genomes, though the copy numbers varied about 100-fold among the species.\\u000a The nucleotide fragments amplified by PCR were cloned and sequenced, and their behavior in the evolution of Triticeae was\\u000a analyzed by the neighbor-joining (NJ)

Kiyotaka Nagaki; Hisashi Tsujimoto; Tetsuo Sasakuma

1998-01-01

282

Repetition of educational AIDS advertising affects attitudes.  

PubMed

In educational AIDS campaigns, initiators often use advertisements to warn about the threat of AIDS. The present Internet study (N = 283) tested the assumption of an inverted U-shaped relationship between the number of educational AIDS advertisements in a magazine and the perceived threat of AIDS among different groups (i.e., homosexual men and heterosexual men and women). This expectation was primarily based on signaling theory, which assumes that recipients use repetition frequency as a cue for judgments about the message. Results provided support for the expected inverted U-curve. PMID:21879615

Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

2011-06-01

283

Software reliability: Repetitive run experimentation and modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software experiment conducted with repetitive run sampling is reported. Independently generated input data was used to verify that interfailure times are very nearly exponentially distributed and to obtain good estimates of the failure rates of individual errors and demonstrate how widely they vary. This fact invalidates many of the popular software reliability models now in use. The log failure rate of interfailure time was nearly linear as a function of the number of errors corrected. A new model of software reliability is proposed that incorporates these observations.

Nagel, P. M.; Skrivan, J. A.

1982-01-01

284

Neurological abnormalities in caveolin-1 knock out mice.  

PubMed

Caveolin-1 is the defining structural protein in caveolar vesicles, which regulate signal transduction and cholesterol trafficking in cells. In the brain, cav-1 is highly expressed in neurons and glia, but its function in those cell types is unclear. Mice deficient in cav-1 (CavKO) have been developed to test functional roles for cav-1 in various tissues. However, neurological phenotypes associated with loss of cav-1 in mice have not been evaluated. Here, we report the results of motor and behavioral testing of CavKO mice. We find that mice deficient in cav-1 have reduced brain weight and display a number of motor and behavioral abnormalities. CavKO mice develop neurological phenotypes including clasping, abnormal spinning, muscle weakness, reduced activity, and gait abnormalities. These data suggest that cav-1 is involved in maintaining cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-pontine pathways associated with motor control. PMID:16750274

Trushina, Eugenia; Du Charme, Jordan; Parisi, Joseph; McMurray, Cynthia T

2006-09-15

285

Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

286

Abnormal Cerebral Structure Is Present at Term in Premature Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Long-term studies of the outcome of very prematurely born infants have clearly documented that the majority of such infants have sig- nificant motor, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. How- ever, there is a limited understanding of the nature of the cerebral abnormality underlying these adverse neuro- logic outcomes. Aim. The overall aim of this study was to define quantitatively the

Terrie E. Inder; Simon K. Warfield; Hong Wang; Petra S. Hüppi; Joseph J. Volpe

2005-01-01

287

Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

2008-01-01

288

The Therapeutic Function of the Instructor in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three main types of therapeutic problems which college instructors of abnormal psychology courses may encounter with their students. Students may seek the instructor's assistance in helping a relative or acquaintance or for self-help. Often a student may not seek help but may display pathological behavior. (AM)

Halgin, Richard P.

1982-01-01

289

POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS IN ABNORMAL YOUNG TERNS FROM LONG ISLAND SOUND  

Microsoft Academic Search

THS paper reports the results of preliminary analyses for chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in young terns with visible abnormalities fo.und in a colony on Great Gull Island, 72 ø 07' W, 41 ø 12' N. Analyses are also reported on eight species of fish brought to the colony as food for the young or as part of behavioral displays. Great

HELEN HAYS; ROBERT W. RISEBROUGH

290

Exposure to Repetitive Tasks Induces Motor Changes Related to Skill Acquisition and Inflammation in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study elucidates exposure-response relationships between repetitive tasks, inflammation and motor changes with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Using a rat model of reaching and handle-pulling, we examined effects of performing a high repetition low force (HRLF), low repetition high force (LRHF), or high repetition high force (HRHF) task (2 h/day, 3 days/wk, 12 wks) on reach rate and force, percent success, duration of participation and grip strength. Reach rate and reach force improved with HRLF, and percent success increased in all groups in week 9, and HRLF and HRHF in week 12, indicative of skill acquisition. Duration and grip strength showed force-dependent declines with task performance. A subset of HRHF rats received ibuprofen in weeks 5–12. Ibuprofen significantly improved reach rate, reach force and duration in treated rats, indicative of an inflammatory influence on reach performance. Ibuprofen improved percent successful reaches in week 9, although this increase was not sustained. However, declines in grip strength, a nocifensive behavior, were not prevented by ibuprofen. Examination of cervical spinal cords of untreated and ibuprofen treated HRHF rats showed increased IL-1beta, an inflammatory cytokine, in neurons. These findings suggest that only a preventive intervention could have addressed all motor declines. PMID:22087754

Kietrys, David M.; Barr, Ann E; Barbe, Mary F

2013-01-01

291

Novel self-switched high-repetition-rate HF(DF) laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results obtained from a new class of self- switching, high repetition rate, HF (DF) laser. The laser utilizes a magnetically stabilized longitudinal discharge, transverse to a high velocity gas flow. The gas mixture is pre-mixed, and consists of He, SF6 and H2(D2) in the ratio 1000:9:2 at a total pressure of around 52 torr. A centrifugal fan recirculates the gas and provides a linear flow velocity of 80 ms-1 in the gain region. Permanent magnets provide the stabilizing magnetic field of approximately 1400 Gauss. This magnetic field ensures that the discharge and optic axes are co-linear. The discharge length is 30 cm, and the gas flow channel 0.5 cm in height. Conventional stable resonators were used to extract the laser energy. We show that the self-switching behavior is a result of the negative I-V characteristic in the positive column of a constricted SF6 discharge, coupled with the current limitations imposed by the external electrical circuit. It is found that the switching frequency, and therefore lasing repetition rate, can be controlled via either the applied discharge current or the RC time constant for the external circuit. Higher discharge currents and shorter time constants both result in higher pulse repetition frequencies. We have demonstrated self-switched lasing at repetition rates from 400 Hz up to 17 kHz.

Harris, Michael R.; Jackson, David J.; Milsom, Philip K.

1998-05-01

292

Variable pulse repetition frequency output from an optically injected solid state laser.  

PubMed

An optically injected solid state laser (OISSL) system is known to generate complex nonlinear dynamics within the parameter space of varying the injection strength of the master laser and the frequency detuning between the master and slave lasers. Here we show that within these complex nonlinear dynamics, a system which can be operated as a source of laser pulses with a pulse repetition frequency (prf) that can be continuously varied by a single control, is embedded. Generation of pulse repetition frequencies ranging from 200 kHz up to 4 MHz is shown to be achievable for an optically injected Nd:YVO4 solid state laser system from analysis of prior experimental and simulation results. Generalizing this to other optically injected solid state laser systems, the upper bound on the repetition frequency is of order the relaxation oscillation frequency for the lasers. The system is discussed in the context of prf versatile laser systems more generally. Proposals are made for the next generation of OISSLs that will increase understanding of the variable pulse repetition frequency operation, and determine its practical limitations. Such variable prf laser systems; both low powered, and, higher powered systems achieved using one or more optical power amplifier stages; have many potential applications from interrogating resonance behaviors in microscale structures, through sensing and diagnostics, to laser processing. PMID:21369300

Kane, D M; Toomey, J P

2011-02-28

293

Investigation of a repetitive pulsed electrothermal thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pulsed electrothermal (PET) thruster with 1000:1 ratio nozzle is tested in a repetitive mode on water propellant. The thruster is driven by a 60J pulse forming network at repetition rates up to 10 Hz (600W). The pulse forming network has a .31 ohm impedance, well matched to the capillary discharge resistance of .40 ohm, and is directly coupled to the thruster electrodes without a switch. The discharge is initiated by high voltage breakdown, typically at 2500V, through the water vapor in the interelectrode gap. Water is injected as a jet through a .37 mm orifice on the thruster axis. Thruster voltage, current and impulse bit are recorded for several seconds at various power supply currents. Thruster to power ratio is typically T/P = .07 N/kW. Tank background pressure precludes direct measurement of exhaust velocity which is inferred from calculated pressure and temperature in the discharge to be about 14 km/sec. Efficiency, based on this velocity and measured T/P is .54 + or - .07. Thruster ablation is zero at the throat and becomes measurable further upstream, indicating that radiative ablation is occurring late in the pulse.

Burton, R. L.; Fleischer, D.; Goldstein, S. A.; Tidman, D. A.; Winsor, N. K.

1986-01-01

294

Pull-production in repetitive remanufacturing  

SciTech Connect

In the past, production activity control practices in most repetitive remanufacturing facilities resembled those used in intermittent production operations. These operations were characterized by large amounts of work-in-process (WIP), frequent work stoppages due to part shortages, excessive overtime, low product velocity, informal scheduling between dependent operations, low employee and management moral, and a lot of wasted time, material, labor, and space. Improvement in production activity control (PAC) methods for repetitive remanufactures has been hampered by uncertainty in: supply of incoming assets, configuration of assets, process times to refurbish assets, and yields in reclamation processes. collectively these uncertainties make shop floor operations seem uncontrollable. However, one United States Army depot has taken on the challenge. Through management supported, cross-functional teams, the Tooele Army Depot has designed and implemented pull-production systems for two of its major products, with several others to follow. This article presents a generalized version of Tooele's pull-production system and highlights design characteristics which are specific to remanufacturing applications.

McCaskey, D.W. Jr.

1992-09-01

295

Pull-production in repetitive remanufacturing  

SciTech Connect

In the past, production activity control practices in most repetitive remanufacturing facilities resembled those used in intermittent production operations. These operations were characterized by large amounts of work-in-process (WIP), frequent work stoppages due to part shortages, excessive overtime, low product velocity, informal scheduling between dependent operations, low employee and management moral, and a lot of wasted time, material, labor, and space. Improvement in production activity control (PAC) methods for repetitive remanufactures has been hampered by uncertainty in: supply of incoming assets, configuration of assets, process times to refurbish assets, and yields in reclamation processes. collectively these uncertainties make shop floor operations seem uncontrollable. However, one United States Army depot has taken on the challenge. Through management supported, cross-functional teams, the Tooele Army Depot has designed and implemented pull-production systems for two of its major products, with several others to follow. This article presents a generalized version of Tooele`s pull-production system and highlights design characteristics which are specific to remanufacturing applications.

McCaskey, D.W. Jr.

1992-09-01

296

Emergent structured transition from variation to repetition in a biologically-plausible model of learning in basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

Often, when animals encounter an unexpected sensory event, they transition from executing a variety of movements to repeating the movement(s) that may have caused the event. According to a recent theory of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), repetition allows the animal to represent those movements, and the outcome, as an action for later recruitment. The transition from variation to repetition often follows a non-random, structured, pattern. While the structure of the pattern can be explained by sophisticated cognitive mechanisms, simpler mechanisms based on dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia (BG) activity are thought to underlie action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006). In this paper we ask the question: can simple BG-mediated mechanisms account for a structured transition from variation to repetition, or are more sophisticated cognitive mechanisms always necessary? To address this question, we present a computational model of BG-mediated biasing of behavior. In our model, unlike most other models of BG function, the BG biases behavior through modulation of cortical response to excitation; many possible movements are represented by the cortical area; and excitation to the cortical area is topographically-organized. We subject the model to simple reaching tasks, inspired by behavioral studies, in which a location to which to reach must be selected. Locations within a target area elicit a reinforcement signal. A structured transition from variation to repetition emerges from simple BG-mediated biasing of cortical response to excitation. We show how the structured pattern influences behavior in simple and complicated tasks. We also present analyses that describe the structured transition from variation to repetition due to BG-mediated biasing and from biasing that would be expected from a type of cognitive biasing, allowing us to compare behavior resulting from these types of biasing and make connections with future behavioral experiments. PMID:24575067

Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

2014-01-01

297

Status of repetitive pulsed power at Sandia National Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-kilojoule repetitive pulsed power technology moved from a laboratory environment into its first commercial application in 1997 as a driver for ion beam surface treatment. Sandia's RHEPP II (Repetitive High energy Pulsed Power), a repetitive 2.5 kJ\\/pulse electron beam accelerator, has supported the development of radiation treatment processes for polymers and elastomers, food products, and high dose-rate effects testing for

L. Schneider; K. Reed; H. Harjes; G. Pena; L. Martinez; M. Harden

1999-01-01

298

Hippocampal control of repetition effects for associative stimuli.  

PubMed

Recent findings suggest that repetition effects interact with episodic memory processes that are putatively supported by the hippocampus. Thus, the formation or refinement of episodic memories may be related to a modulating signal from the hippocampus to the neocortex which leads to sparser or more extended stimulus representations (repetition suppression or enhancement), depending on the type of stimulus and the brain site. This framework suggests that hippocampal activity during the initial presentation of a stimulus correlates with the magnitude of repetition effects. Here, we tested this hypothesis in an fMRI study in which associations between faces and buildings were presented twice. BOLD responses showed repetition suppression in fusiform face area (FFA) and parahippocampal place area (PPA), most likely due to a refinement of existing category representations. Hippocampal activity during the first presentations was correlated with the amount of repetition suppression, in particular in the FFA. Repetition enhancement effects were observed on BOLD responses in posterior parietal cortex, possibly related to the formation of new representations of associative stimuli. The magnitude of parietal BOLD repetition effects depended on successful memory formation. These findings suggest that both repetition enhancement and repetition suppression effects are influenced by a modulating signal from the hippocampus. PMID:24753358

Kremers, Nico A W; Deuker, Lorena; Kranz, Thorsten A; Oehrn, Carina; Fell, Juergen; Axmacher, Nikolai

2014-07-01

299

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-01-01

300

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-08-01

301

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

302

Repetition blindness: the survival of the grouped.  

PubMed

The repetition blindness (RB) effect demonstrates that people often fail to detect the second presentation of an identical object (e.g., Kanwisher, 1987). Grouping of identical items is a well-documented perceptual phenomenon, and this grouping generally facilitates perception. These two effects pose a puzzle: RB impairs perception, while perceptual grouping improves it. Here, we combined these two effects and studied how they interact. In a series of three experiments, we presented repeated items in a simultaneous string, while manipulating the organization of the repeated items in groups within a string. We observed an interaction between RB and grouping that we summarize with a rule that we call "the survival of the grouped": In essence, the ability to group repeated elements protects them from RB. These findings are discussed within the framework of the object file theory. PMID:21811897

Goldfarb, Liat; Treisman, Anne

2011-12-01

303

Treatment of Seizure Disorders and EEG Abnormalities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of seizure disorders EEG epileptiform abnormalities without epilepsy in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is considered within the context of the relationship of epilepsy and epileptiform disorders to language, behavior, and cognition. There is an increased prevalence of both epilepsy and abnormal potentially epileptogenic activity in children with ASD. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the use of anticonvulsants

Roberto Tuchman

2000-01-01

304

Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... IV as “a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age appropriate social rules are violated,” CD may involve serious aggression toward people or the hurting of animals, deliberate destruction of property (vandalism), stealing, running away ...

305

Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

2013-01-01

306

Abnormal movement preparation in task-specific focal hand dystonia.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

Jankowski, Jakob; Paus, Sebastian; Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

2013-01-01

307

Successful Management of Repetitive Urinary Obstruction and Anuria Caused by Double J Stent Calculi Formation after Renal Transplantation  

PubMed Central

This report firstly describes an extremely rare case of repetitive double J stent calculi formation after renal transplantation caused by the antihyperparathyroidism (HPT) drug calcitriol. In 2012, a woman initially presented to our hospital for anuria with lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with allograft hydronephrosis and double J stents obstruction by calculi formation after transplantation and treated with triplicate stents replacements in another hospital without clinical manifestations improvements. Through detailed exploration of medical history, we conclude that the abnormal calculi formation is due to the calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) administration, a drug which can increase renal tubular reabsorption of calcium for treating posttransplant HPT bone disease. After discontinuing calcitriol, the patient was stone-free and had a good recovery without severe complications during the 9-month follow-up. Our novel findings may provide an important clue and approach to managing formidable repetitive double J stent calculi formation in the clinical trial. PMID:25110605

Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xiansheng; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Yifei; Wei, Pengfei; Liang, Chaozhao

2014-01-01

308

[A boy with nail abnormalities].  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

2013-01-01

309

The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases  

PubMed Central

In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number ? known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with ?, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620?±?0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629?±?0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684?±?0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from ? (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait. PMID:23862161

Iosa, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

2013-01-01

310

Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the…

Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

2008-01-01

311

Repetition CSC 1051 Villanova University Dr. Papalaskari 1  

E-print Network

Repetition CSC 1051 Villanova University Dr. Papalaskari 1 CSC 1051 M.A. Papalaskari, Villanova University Repetition CSC 1051 ­ Data Structures and Algorithms I Dr. Mary-Angela Papalaskari Department of Computing Sciences Villanova University Course website: www.csc.villanova.edu/~map/1051/ Some slides

Papalaskari, Mary-Angela

312

Repetitive stepwise rotaxane formation toward programmable molecular arrays.  

PubMed

We present a novel strategy to synthesize multi-molecular arrays in a programmable way by stepwise elongation based on repetition of two-fold rotaxane formation and construction of threads. A cofacially triply stacked porphyrin array was obtained via the repetitive two-fold rotaxane formation. PMID:24136563

Yamada, Yasuyuki; Okada, Masa-aki; Tanaka, Kentaro

2013-12-01

313

First domestic high repetition rate ultrashort pulse laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 7 February 1985, certification tests were conducted on the High Repetition Rate Ultrashort Pulse Laser. Experts at the meeting pointed out that this was China's first prototype high repetition rate ultrashort pulse laser. Its performance is higher than that of similar lasers in this country and is comparable to the advanced standards of foreign products. The energy of the

Lin Guang

1985-01-01

314

High repetition beam kicker with IGBT switching modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kicker power supply with repetition rate of 1 kHz was designed and constructed. Since a conventional thyratron switch cannot be operated with a sufficient lifetime in such a high repetition rate, a new type of a power supply has been developed that employs high power IGBTs as switching modules. In order to realize a simultaneous turn-on of numerous IGBTs

Y. Ishi; Y. Mori; M. Muto; Y. Shirakabe; A. Takagi

2001-01-01

315

Nonword Repetition and Levels of Abstraction in Phonological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Susan Gathercole's Keynote Article (2006) is an impressive summary of the literature on nonword repetition and its relationship to word learning and vocabulary size. When considering research by Mary Beckman, Jan Edwards, and myself, Gathercole speculates that our finding of a stronger relationship between vocabulary measures and repetition

Munson, Benjamin

2006-01-01

316

AUDIO COMPRESSION EXPLOITING REPETITION (ACER): CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS  

E-print Network

AUDIO COMPRESSION EXPLOITING REPETITION (ACER): CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS Stuart Cunningham and Vic of the development of an innovative audio compression system, designed to exploit repetition sequences in audio, and particularly, music. The paper briefly introduces and describes how musical content and structure within audio

Davies, John N.

317

Repetitive calls of juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels ( Spermophilus richardsonii ) communicate response urgency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Richardson's ground squirrels, Spermophilus richardsonii, produce both repetitive and non-repetitive antipredator calls. While many hypotheses have been advanced to explain non-repetitive calls, the function of repetitive calling has received relatively little attention. We presented juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels with a predator model at distances ranging from 1 to 8 m and recorded the subsequent repetitive calls on digital audiotape. The

Kurtis J. Warkentin; Annika T. H. Keeley; James F. Hare

2001-01-01

318

Repetitive sequence families in Alces alces americana.  

PubMed

High-resolution derivative melting was used to obtain detailed distributions of local (G + C) contents in a number of ruminant DNAs. Profiles over low (G + C) regions [20-36% (G + C)] are congruent for all ruminants. This region represents 45-50% of the nuclear DNA content and primarily contains intergenic and intron sequences. The high (G + C) region, where most coding sequences are found [38-68% (G + C)], is marked by satellite bands denoting the presence of transcriptionally inert, tandemly repetitive sequence families. These bands can be analyzed for the abundance, base composition, and sequence divergence of satellite families with relatively high precision. Band patterns are unique to each species; even closely related species can be readily distinguished by their base distribution profiles. Variations in nuclear DNA contents in ruminants, determined by flow cytometry, are primarily due to variations in abundances of these repetitive sequence families. Thus, A. alces (moose) is found to have 8.85 +/- 0.2 pg DNA/cell, 25% more than the average in ruminants, while the base distribution curve indicates the presence of an unusually abundant satellite of 52.6% (G + C). The size (1 kb) and sequence of this satellite corresponds to satellite-I of other cervids, and in consequence it is designated Alces-I. The sequence of a cloned repeat of Alces-I has a length of 968 bp, a (G + C) content of 52.6%, and contributes 35%, or almost 3 million copies to the nuclear DNA, exceeding by approximately 300% the average array size of this repeat family in related cervids. In situ hybridization indicates the repeat is distributed throughout centromeric regions of all 62 acrocentric autosomes. Alces-I has much greater-than-expected numbers of GG, GA, and AG and far fewer numbers of TA and CG duplets, characteristics of all tandem repeats. The sequence is judged to be orthologous with satellite-I sequences from Rangifer tarandus (caribou), Capreolus capreolus (roe deer), Muntiacus muntjac (Chinese muntjac) and Muntiacus reevesi (Indian muntjac), as well as Antilocapra americana (pronghorn), and the bovids Bos taurus and Ovis aries. A tentative tree for the five cervids is in excellent agreement with one proposed on the basis of morphological characteristics. Differences from a consensus sequence indicate transversions exceed transitions by almost twofold, suggesting that substitutions occur randomly, or nearly so. PMID:9115175

Blake, R D; Wang, J Z; Beauregard, L

1997-05-01

319

Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication.  

PubMed

Generation of low-timing-jitter 150 fs pulse trains at 1560 nm with 2 GHz repetition rate is demonstrated by locking a 200 MHz fundamental polarization additive-pulse mode-locked erbium fiber laser to high-finesse external Fabry-Perot cavities. The timing jitter and relative intensity noise of the repetition-rate multiplied pulse train are investigated. PMID:18451952

Chen, Jian; Sickler, Jason W; Fendel, Peter; Ippen, Erich P; Kärtner, Franz X; Wilken, Tobias; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W

2008-05-01

320

Can the Edinburgh Risk of Repetition Scale Predict Repetition of Deliberate Self-Poisoning in an Australian Clinical Setting?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the ability of the Edinburgh Risk of Repetition Scale (ERRS) to identify patients at high risk for repeat deliberate self-poisoning (DSP). A statistically significant relationship between ERRS scores and repetition was observed; however, sensitivity and specificity were low. The ERRS had limited value in identifying patients at high risk of…

Carter, Gregory Leigh; Clover, Kerrie Ann; Bryant, Jennifer Lynn; Whyte, Ian MacGregor

2002-01-01

321

[Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression].  

PubMed

It has been reported that approximately one third of patients with major depression are medication-resistant. In spite of partial responsiveness to antidepressants, most of the medication-resistant patients remain incompletely remitted without successful social reintegration. Symptom severity could be mild to moderate for many of them due to the incomplete remission, and, thus, electroconvulsive therapy is not applicable for them. However, they usually feel some difficulty performing cognitive behavioral therapy or social rehabilitation training due to residual symptoms such as thought inhibition and hypobulia. Under such conditions, those patients are longing for treatment options complementary to antidepressants, for less painful social reintegration. In October 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States finally approved repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for medication-resistant patients with major depression. The main reason for the FDA approval was that rTMS had shown similar effectiveness (effect size around 0.39 in a recent meta-analysis) to antidepressants for medication-resistant patients without serious adverse effects. TMS is a brain stimulation methodology employing magnetic energy which can penetrate the skull bone without energy decay, and, thus, eddy currents induced by TMS can stimulate cerebral cortices effectively and locally. When TMS is repetitively delivered over several hundreds of pulses within a session, stimulation effects can be observed beyond the stimulation period as aftereffects. Moreover, when a daily rTMS session is repeated over several weeks, rTMS could have antidepressant effects. Clinical trials of rTMS for depression have employed two kinds of rTMS protocol of high-frequency (facilitatory) rTMS over the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) and low-frequency (inhibitory) rTMS over the right DLPFC. Although the antidepressant action of rTMS over DLPFC has not been fully elucidated, the neuronal level hypothesis includes the induction of neuroplasticity and activation of the dopamine system, and the neuronal circuitry level hypothesis includes the activation of the left DLPFC and inhibition of the right DLPFC and (para) limbic system such as the subgenual cingulate cortex and amygdala. On the therapeutic application of rTMS in clinical psychiatry, neuroethics and low invasiveness should be fully considered along with a negative history of punitive electroconvulsive therapy and prefrontal lobotomy. It is important to investigate the neurobiological mechanism of rTMS treatment and to place rTMS in a suitable position within comprehensive treatment algorithms of major depression. PMID:23367835

Nakamura, Motoaki

2012-01-01

322

Sensory abnormalities in focal hand dystonia and non-invasive brain stimulation.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that synchronous and convergent afferent input arising from repetitive motor tasks may play an important role in driving the maladaptive cortical plasticity seen in focal hand dystonia (FHD). This hypothesis receives support from several sources. First, it has been reported that in subjects with FHD, paired associative stimulation produces an abnormal increase in corticospinal excitability, which was not confined to stimulated muscles. These findings provide support for the role of excessive plasticity in FHD. Second, the genetic contribution to the dystonias is increasingly recognized indicating that repetitive, stereotyped afferent inputs may lead to late-onset dystonia, such as FHD, more rapidly in genetically susceptible individuals. It can be postulated, according to the two factor hypothesis that dystonia is triggered and maintained by the concurrence of environmental factors such as repetitive training and subtle abnormal mechanisms of plasticity within somatosensory loop. In the present review, we examine the contribution of sensory-motor integration in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. In addition, we will discuss the role of non-invasive brain stimulation as therapeutic approach in FHD. PMID:25538594

Quartarone, Angelo; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Terranova, Carmen; Milardi, Demetrio; Bruschetta, Daniele; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Girlanda, Paolo

2014-01-01

323

Sensory Abnormalities in Focal Hand Dystonia and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that synchronous and convergent afferent input arising from repetitive motor tasks may play an important role in driving the maladaptive cortical plasticity seen in focal hand dystonia (FHD). This hypothesis receives support from several sources. First, it has been reported that in subjects with FHD, paired associative stimulation produces an abnormal increase in corticospinal excitability, which was not confined to stimulated muscles. These findings provide support for the role of excessive plasticity in FHD. Second, the genetic contribution to the dystonias is increasingly recognized indicating that repetitive, stereotyped afferent inputs may lead to late-onset dystonia, such as FHD, more rapidly in genetically susceptible individuals. It can be postulated, according to the two factor hypothesis that dystonia is triggered and maintained by the concurrence of environmental factors such as repetitive training and subtle abnormal mechanisms of plasticity within somatosensory loop. In the present review, we examine the contribution of sensory-motor integration in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. In addition, we will discuss the role of non-invasive brain stimulation as therapeutic approach in FHD.

Quartarone, Angelo; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Terranova, Carmen; Milardi, Demetrio; Bruschetta, Daniele; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Girlanda, Paolo

2014-01-01

324

[Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and rehabilitation].  

PubMed

NEURO (NovEl intervention Using Repetitive TMS and intensive Occupational therapy) have been recently reported to be clinically beneficial for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. We confirmed the safety and feasibility of the protocol in 1,008 post-stroke patients from different institutions, and identify predictors of the clinical response to the treatment. And in our randomized controlled study of NEURO and constraint-induced movement therapy, NEURO showed the superiority of NEURO relative to constraint-induced movement therapy; NEURO improved the motion of the whole upper limb and resulted. We have investigated the recovery mechanism using electrophysiological examination and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Low-frequency rTMS applied to the non-lesional hemisphere in post-stroke patients significantly decreased the F-wave frequency and amplitude in the affected upper limb, suggesting that this modality has an anti-spastic effect in post-stroke patients. Serial functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that our proposed treatment can induce functional cortical reorganization, leading to motor functional recovery of the affected upper limb. Especially, it seems that neural activation in the lesional hemisphere plays an important role in such recovery in poststroke hemiparetic patients. PMID:24291951

Abo, Masahiro

2013-01-01

325

Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.  

PubMed

Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. PMID:24268321

Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

2014-02-01

326

A chenopod extensin lacks repetitive tetrahydroxyproline blocks  

SciTech Connect

An extensin isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) cell suspension cultures fulfills all criteria for membership of the extensin family save one, notably, lack of the diagnostic pentamer Ser-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp. However, sequence analysis of the major tryptic peptides shows that sugar beet extensin shares a motif in common with tomato extensin P1 but differs by the position of an insertion sequence (X) or (Y) which, in sugar beet, splits the tetrahydroxyproline block: Ser-Hyp-Hyp-(X)-Hyp-Hyp-Thr-Hyp-Val-Tyr-Lys, where (X) is (Val-His-Glu/Lys-Tyr-Pro), while in tomato the insertion sequence (Y) = (Val-Lys-Pro-Tyr-His-Pro) and, when it occurs, immediately follows the tetrahydroxyproline block: Ser-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-(Y)-Thr-Hyp-Val-Tyr-Lys. Based on these data were reinterpret three highly repetitive cDNA sequences, including nodulin N75 from soybean and wound-induced P33 of carrot, as extensins with split tetra(hydroxy)proline blocks.

Li, Xiongbiao; Kieliszewski, M.; Lamport, D.T.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-02-01

327

Normal and abnormal skin color.  

PubMed

The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma corresponds to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. PMID:23522626

Ortonne, J P

2012-12-01

328

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Schizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the adult population worldwide and requires lifelong therapy. Hyperfunction of the\\u000a dopaminergic system has long been hypothesized as the underlying cause of schizophrenia. However, this hypothesis explains\\u000a mostly the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence point to the glutamatergic system and\\u000a suggest that abnormalities in this system may play a crucial role

Yogesh Dwivedi; Ghanshyam N. Pandey

329

Stereotypical behaviors in chimpanzees rescued from the african bushmeat and pet trade.  

PubMed

Many orphaned chimpanzees whose mothers are illegally killed for their meat (bushmeat) in Africa are sold as pets or kept caged at hotels and businesses to attract tourists. As a result of being separated from their mothers and other chimpanzees at an early age, and spending years in impoverished captive conditions, some of these individuals engage in abnormal behaviors, including stereotypically scratching at their flesh and repetitively rocking back and forth. This paper presents case studies of Poco and Safari, two chimpanzees who were rescued by sanctuaries after living alone on display for humans at businesses for the first 7 to 8 years of their lives. Decades after their rescue, they still engage in stereotypical behaviors as a result of the psychological and physical trauma they endured early on. This paper combines data from in depth interviews with caregivers and direct observations of abnormal behaviors to assess psychological distress in captive-living chimpanzees. Our results highlight some lesser known harms of the bushmeat trade and the detrimental life-long consequences that keeping chimpanzees as "pets" can have on their mental health. PMID:25379223

Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M; Kameka, Marjanne; Dube, Ashlynn

2013-03-01

330

Stereotypical Behaviors in Chimpanzees Rescued from the African Bushmeat and Pet Trade  

PubMed Central

Many orphaned chimpanzees whose mothers are illegally killed for their meat (bushmeat) in Africa are sold as pets or kept caged at hotels and businesses to attract tourists. As a result of being separated from their mothers and other chimpanzees at an early age, and spending years in impoverished captive conditions, some of these individuals engage in abnormal behaviors, including stereotypically scratching at their flesh and repetitively rocking back and forth. This paper presents case studies of Poco and Safari, two chimpanzees who were rescued by sanctuaries after living alone on display for humans at businesses for the first 7 to 8 years of their lives. Decades after their rescue, they still engage in stereotypical behaviors as a result of the psychological and physical trauma they endured early on. This paper combines data from in depth interviews with caregivers and direct observations of abnormal behaviors to assess psychological distress in captive-living chimpanzees. Our results highlight some lesser known harms of the bushmeat trade and the detrimental life-long consequences that keeping chimpanzees as “pets” can have on their mental health. PMID:25379223

Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M.; Kameka, Marjanne; Dube, Ashlynn

2012-01-01

331

Central Adaptations to Repetitive Grasping in Healthy Aging  

PubMed Central

Augmented cortical activity during repetitive grasping mitigates repetition-related decrease in cortical efficiency in young adults. It is unclear if similar processes occur with healthy aging. We recorded movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) during 150 repetitive handgrip contractions at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in healthy young (n = 10) and old (n = 10) adults. Repetitions were grouped into two Blocks (Block 1 and 2: repetitions 1–60 and 91–150, respectively) and analyzed separately to assess the effects of aging and block. EMG of the flexor digitorum superficialis and handgrip force were also recorded. No changes in EMG or MVC were observed across blocks for either group. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for MRCPs recorded from mesial (FCz, Cz, CPz) and motor (C1, C3, Cz) electrode sites, with younger adults demonstrating significant increases in MRCP amplitude. Focal MRCP activity in response to repetitive grasping resulted in minimal changes (i.e. Block 1 versus Block 2) in older adults. Central adaptive processes change across the lifespan, showing increasingly less focal activation in older adults during repetitive grasping. Our findings are consistent with previous paradigms demonstrating more diffuse cortical activation during motor tasks in older adults. PMID:21519868

Sirevaag, Erik J.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Earhart, Gammon M.

2011-01-01

332

Is conflict adaptation triggered by feature repetitions? An unexpected finding  

PubMed Central

For decades, cognitive adaptation to response conflict has been considered to be the hallmark of cognitive control. Notwithstanding a vast amount of evidence ruling out low-level interpretations of these findings, disbelief still exists with regard to the underlying cause of the observed effects. Especially when considering cognitive adaptation to unconscious conflict, it is still a matter of debate whether repetitions of features between trials might explain this intriguing finding rather than the involvement of unconscious control. To this purpose, we conducted two masked priming experiments in which four different responses to four different stimuli were required. This allowed us to completely eliminate repetitions of prime and target over consecutive trials. Independent of whether conflicting information was presented clearly visible or almost imperceptible, the results showed an unexpected pattern. Contrary to the regular congruency sequence effect (CSE; i.e., classic Gratton effect), in both experiments the congruency effect increased following incongruent trials. Interestingly, this reversed effect completely disappeared when we eliminated all trials with feature repetitions from the analysis. A third experiment, in which feature repetitions were excluded a priori, showed a small but regular CSE in the error rates only. Given that feature repetitions are theoretically thought to create a regular CSE, our results are not in line with an interpretation in terms of feature repetitions nor with an interpretation in terms of cognitive control. We conclude that examining cognitive adaptation with or without feature repetitions might be more difficult to conceive than is often suggested in the literature.

Lierde, Elke Van; Desender, Kobe; den Bussche, Eva Van

2015-01-01

333

How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Cervical Cancer | How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results What does an abnormal Pap smear mean? A ... are located in your cervix or uterus. These results mean that some of your glandular cells are ...

334

Upper limb repetitive strain injuries in Manitoba.  

PubMed

A review of workers' compensation board (WCB) claims in Manitoba, Canada identified an estimated 382 upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI) claims or 9.3% of all upper limb WCB claims accepted in 1991. Tendonitis and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were the most frequent diagnoses (27.5% and 19.3%, respectively). Rates of RSI were not significantly different by gender and age. RSI claimants had been experiencing symptoms for an average of 8 months prior to filing a compensation claim. While clerical occupations accounted for 13.6% of all upper limb RSI claims, the rates for RSIs in these occupations were low (0.67/1,000 workers), in contrast to occupations with the highest RSI rates: food, beverage, and related processing occupations (14.68/1,000 workers) and fabricating, assembling, and repairing of metal products (9.32/1,000). The highest risk industries were meat and poultry processing-related (23.48/1,000) and the manufacturing of airplanes (9.06/1,000). RSI claims were significantly more costly (+5,569 vs. +2,480, p < 0.0001) and required more time loss (71.4 vs. 33.6 d, p < 0.0001) than similar musculoskeletal non-RSI claims. Similarly, RSI claimants were less likely to return to the same job (67.3% vs. 81.0%, p < 0.0001) than non-RSI claimants. It was concluded that the cost and severity of RSI claims militate for intensified preventive measures. PMID:8892552

Yassi, A; Sprout, J; Tate, R

1996-10-01

335

Compositional Design of Multitolerant Repetitive Byzantine Agreement1  

E-print Network

Arora Department of Computer and Information Science The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA of a repetitive agreement program that o ers two tolerances: (a) it masks the e ects of Byzantine failures and (b

Arora, Anish

336

10 CFR 62.17 - Elimination of repetition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...repetition. 62.17 Section 62.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CRITERIA AND...EMERGENCY ACCESS TO NON-FEDERAL AND REGIONAL LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES Request for a Commission Determination...

2010-01-01

337

Repetition rate multiplication of a femtosecond frequency comb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the progress in the development of two Fabry-Pérot filter cavities for repetition rate multiplication of two femtosecond frequency combs. The optical design of both setups consists of mode matching optics and a resonant cavity for the repetition rate multiplication. In one case, the cavity consists of two dielectric mirrors with near-zero group velocity dispersion and in the other of two silver coated mirrors. We demonstrate multiplication of a 1 GHz repetition rate to 10 GHz for a Ti:Sa femtosecond frequency comb with central wavelength around 820 nm and of 250 MHz repetition rate to 1 GHz for a Er-doped fiber femtosecond frequency comb with central wavelength around 1560 nm.

Lešundák, Adam; Šmíd, Radek; Voigt, Dirk; ?ížek, Martin; van den Berg, Steven; ?íp, Ond?ej

2015-01-01

338

Shortening of Subjective Visual Intervals Followed by Repetitive Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Our previous research demonstrated that repetitive tone stimulation shortened the perceived duration of the preceding auditory time interval. In this study, we examined whether repetitive visual stimulation influences the perception of preceding visual time intervals. Results showed that a time interval followed by a high-frequency visual flicker was perceived as shorter than that followed by a low-frequency visual flicker. The perceived duration decreased as the frequency of the visual flicker increased. The visual flicker presented in one hemifield shortened the apparent time interval in the other hemifield. A final experiment showed that repetitive tone stimulation also shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals. We concluded that visual flicker shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals in the same way as repetitive auditory stimulation shortened the subjective duration of preceding tones. PMID:22194896

Ono, Fuminori; Kitazawa, Shigeru

2011-01-01

339

Fixture tests bellows reliability through repetitive pressure/temperature cycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fixture explores the reliability of bellows used in precision in inertial systems. The fixture establishes the ability of the bellows to withstand repetitive over-stress pressure cycling at elevated temperatures. It is applicable in quality control and reliability programs.

Levinson, C.

1967-01-01

340

Short palindromic repetitive DNA elements in enterobacteria: a survey.  

PubMed

We present a survey of short palindromic repetitive elements in enterobacteria. Seven families are presented. Five were already known (RSA, IRU, 29-bp repeats, BIMEs and boxC), and their properties are updated; in particular, a new composite element is shown to include the formerly identified boxC repeats. Two repetitions, YPAL1 and YPAL2, found primarily in Yersinia, are described here for the first time. PMID:10673002

Bachellier, S; Clément, J M; Hofnung, M

1999-01-01

341

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn

2007-12-10

342

Characterization of the Compressive and Fracture Behavior, as Well as the Residual Tensile Strength of a Polyurethane Foam.  

E-print Network

??Experiments were conducted on polyurethane foam to determine its compressive strength/modulus, relaxation behavior, fracture toughness, as well as residual tensile strength after repetitive compression at… (more)

Zhang, Yanli

2007-01-01

343

Psy 3604 Abnormal Psychology (3 cr.) (call # 12480) Fall 2003 Class Meetings: 2:30-3:45 p.m. TTh, 325 Science Classroom Building  

E-print Network

Psy 3604 Abnormal Psychology (3 cr.) (call # 12480) Fall 2003 Class Meetings: 2:30-3:45 p.m. TTh (Psy 3617, Introduction to Clinical Psychology). Text V. M. Durand & D. H. Barlow. Abnormal Psychology of abnormal behavior. Emphasis will be placed on an empirical view. The bulk of the course will cover

Grove, William M.

344

Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates  

SciTech Connect

The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000?Hz, with 0.5?J per pulse energy output at 25?kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

2014-09-28

345

FMRI repetition suppression for voices is modulated by stimulus expectations.  

PubMed

According to predictive coding models of sensory processing, stimulus expectations have a profound effect on sensory cortical responses. This was supported by experimental results, showing that fMRI repetition suppression (fMRI RS) for face stimuli is strongly modulated by the probability of stimulus repetitions throughout the visual cortical processing hierarchy. To test whether processing of voices is also affected by stimulus expectations, here we investigated the effect of repetition probability on fMRI RS in voice-selective cortical areas. Changing ('alt') and identical ('rep') voice stimulus pairs were presented to the listeners in blocks, with a varying probability of alt and rep trials across blocks. We found auditory fMRI RS in the nonprimary voice-selective cortical regions, including the bilateral posterior STS, the right anterior STG and the right IFC, as well as in the IPL. Importantly, fMRI RS effects in all of these areas were strongly modulated by the probability of stimulus repetition: auditory fMRI RS was reduced or not present in blocks with low repetition probability. Our results revealed that auditory fMRI RS in higher-level voice-selective cortical regions is modulated by repetition probabilities and thus suggest that in audition, similarly to the visual modality, processing of sensory information is shaped by stimulus expectation processes. PMID:23268783

Andics, Attila; Gál, Viktor; Vicsi, Klára; Rudas, Gábor; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

2013-04-01

346

Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H2O2 and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

Ruma, Hosseini, S. H. R.; Yoshihara, K.; Akiyama, M.; Sakugawa, T.; Lukeš, P.; Akiyama, H.

2014-09-01

347

Lower extremity abnormalities in children.  

PubMed

Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal. PMID:12924829

Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

2003-08-01

348

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

349

Cardiac abnormalities in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

Cirrhosis is associated with several circulatory abnormalities. A hyperkinetic circulation characterized by increased cardiac output and decreased arterial pressure and peripheral resistance is typical. Despite this hyperkinetic circulation, some patients with alcoholic cirrhosis have subclinical cardiomyopathy with evidence of abnormal ventricular function unmasked by physiologic or pharmacologic stress. Florid congestive alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops in a small percentage, but the concurrent presence of cirrhosis seems to retard the occurrence of overt heart failure. Even nonalcoholic cirrhosis may be associated with latent cardiomyopathy, although overt heart failure is not observed. Tense ascites is associated with some cardiac compromise, and removing or mobilizing ascitic fluid by paracentesis or peritoneovenous shunting results in short-term increases in cardiac output. Cirrhosis also appears to be associated with a decreased risk of major coronary atherosclerosis and an increased risk of bacterial endocarditis. Small hemodynamically insignificant pericardial effusions may be seen in ascitic patients. The release of atrial natriuretic peptide appears to be unimpaired in cirrhosis, although the kidney may be hyporesponsive to its natriuretic effects. PMID:2690463

Lee, S S

1989-01-01

350

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

351

Decremental Responses to Repetitive Nerve Stimulation in X-Linked Bulbospinal Muscular Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose X-linked bulbospinal muscular atrophy (X-BSMA) is characterized by bulbar and spinal muscular weakness and fasciculations. Although X-BSMA is a motor neuronopathy, there are several reports of myasthenic symptoms or decremental responses to repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS). We report the results of applying the RNS test to 15 patients among 41 with genetically confirmed X-BSMA; these 15 patients complained of fatigue, ease of becoming tired, or early muscular exhaustion. Methods The 3-Hz RNS test was performed on the trapezius, nasalis, orbicularis oculi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and abductor digiti quinti muscles. A decrement greater than 10% was considered abnormal. Additionally, a pharmacologic response to neostigmine was identified in three patients. Results A significant decrement was observed in 67% of patients, and was most common in the trapezius muscle (nine cases). The decrement of the trapezius muscle response ranged from 15.9% to 36.9%. The decrement was inversely correlated with the amplitude of compound muscle action potentials at rest. Neostigmine injection markedly improved the decrement in three patients, who showed noticeable decremental responses to 3-Hz RNS. Conclusions This study shows that myasthenic symptoms and abnormal decremental responses to low-rate RNS are common in X-BSMA. PMID:23346158

Kim, Jee Young; Park, Kee Duk; Kim, Seung-Min

2013-01-01

352

The Repetition of Large-Earthquake Ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey of well-documented repeated fault rupture confirms that some faults have exhibited a ``characteristic'' behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault

Kerry Sieh

1996-01-01

353

White Matter Abnormalities and Animal Models Examining a Putative Role of Altered White Matter in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1% of the population worldwide. Although the dopamine (DA) hypothesis is still keeping a dominant position in schizophrenia research, new advances have been emerging in recent years, which suggest the implication of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will briefly review some of recent human studies showing white matter abnormalities in schizophrenic brains and altered oligodendrocyte-(OL-) and myelin-related genes in patients with schizophrenia and will consider abnormal behaviors reported in patients with white matter diseases. Following these, we will selectively introduce some animal models examining a putative role of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The emphasis will be put on the cuprizone (CPZ) model. CPZ-fed mice show demyelination and OLs loss, display schizophrenia-related behaviors, and have higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex. These features suggest that the CPZ model is a novel animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:22937274

Xu, Haiyun; Li, Xin-Min

2011-01-01

354

Feeding behavior.  

PubMed

Problems related to feeding behavior in horses fall into three main categories: underconsumption, overconsumption, and abnormal consumption. Anorexia may be caused by a variety of diseases and overcome by removing the underlying causes (pain, fever), and physical or chemical stimulation of appetite. "Hypophagia" may be caused by poor dentition, disease, or stress. Again, removal of the cause or stimulation by physical or chemical means may improve intakes. Acute and chronic overconsumption of feeds are reflections of the normal controls (or lack thereof) of feeding in the horse. The only reliable prevention is to limit access to feeds. Abnormal eating behaviors such as pica or coprophagy are usually caused by a dietary imbalance or boredom. Coprophagey, however, is a normal behavior in young foals. Drinking disorders are rare, the only common one being the avoidance of "strange" water. Masking water at home with specific flavors such as peppermint or vinegar may encourage the horse to drink water from other sources to which the "home" flavor has been added. PMID:3492248

Ralston, S L

1986-12-01

355

Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser  

PubMed Central

High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100?GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55?ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7?nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary. PMID:24226153

Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu

2013-01-01

356

Quantifying Repetitive Speech in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child’s echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult’s original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child’s utterances. PMID:23661504

van Santen, Jan P. H.; Sproat, Richard W.; Hill, Alison Presmanes

2013-01-01

357

Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100 GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55 ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7 nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary.

Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu

2013-11-01

358

Spontaneous imitation by children with autism during a repetitive musical play routine.  

PubMed

Joint-attention-type intervention strategies have been identified as effective scaffolds for increasing social engagement in children with autism. Imitating children with autism within child-led social routines has increased children's attention and active participation in social interaction. The current study expands on this research by establishing a musical social milieu using repetitive imitation routines for four children with autism. Results were evaluated using an MPD across three behaviors and four children with an ABAB reversal for one child. Children increased spontaneous imitation of the researcher's models after being imitated with only social reinforcement for increased imitation. However, experimental control was weakened with carry-over effects for two children and failure to fully replicate results across participants and behaviors. The accumulation of evidence from varied studies, despite some mixed results, encourages further study into the effects of imitating children with autism to increase spontaneous social engagement. PMID:19005033

Stephens, Carolyn E

2008-11-01

359

Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests  

PubMed Central

Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review. PMID:12840117

Limdi, J; Hyde, G

2003-01-01

360

Repetition of Deliberate Self-Harm: A Study of the Characteristics and Subsequent Deaths in Patients Presenting to a General Hospital According to Extent of Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repetition of deliberate self-harm (DSH) is common. Some patients repeat multiple times. We have investigated the characteristics of repeaters, and mortality in three groups of DSH patients by repetition status. Data collected by the Oxford Monitoring System for Attempted Suicide were used to examine the pattern of repetition of DSH patients…

Haw, Camilla; Bergen, Helen; Casey, Deborah; Hawton, Keith

2007-01-01

361

Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

2012-01-01

362

Holoprosencephaly due to Numeric Chromosome Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common malformation of the human forebrain. When a clinician identifies a patient with HPE, a routine chromosome analysis is often the first genetic test sent for laboratory analysis in order to assess for a structural or numerical chromosome anomaly. An abnormality of chromosome number is overall the most frequently identified etiology in a patient with HPE. These abnormalities include trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and triploidy, though several others have been reported. Such chromosome number abnormalities are almost universally fatal early in gestation or in infancy. Clinical features of specific chromosome number abnormalities may be recognized by phenotypic manifestations in addition to the HPE. PMID:20104610

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N.; Meck, Jeanne M.; Muenke, Maximilian

2009-01-01

363

Repetitive DNA of Candida albicans: nuclear and mitochondrial components.  

PubMed Central

We report the isolation and analysis of the rapidly reassociating DNA of the pathogenic, dimorphic fungus Candida albicans. Minicot analysis of whole-cell repetitive DNA suggested that a significant portion of this component was mitochondrial DNA. Genomic blot hybridizations in which radioactive whole-cell repetitive DNA was used as a probe revealed eight major EcoRI bands in the molecular weight range resolved by the gel system used. Isolation and analysis of high-purity mitochondrial DNA have shown that five of these bands are of mitochondrial origin. The remaining three bands are of nuclear origin and represent repetitive sequences that are found in the nuclear genome. Attempts to isolate nuclear DNA that was completely free of mitochondrial DNA contamination were unsuccessful. Images PMID:6321443

Wills, J W; Lasker, B A; Sirotkin, K; Riggsby, W S

1984-01-01

364

Multiple cellular mechanisms prevent chromosomal rearrangements involving repetitive DNA  

PubMed Central

Repetitive DNA is present in the eukaryotic genome in the form of segmental duplications, tandem and interspersed repeats, and satellites. Repetitive sequences can be beneficial by serving specific cellular functions (e.g. centromeric and telomeric DNA) and by providing a rapid means for adaptive evolution. However, such elements are also substrates for deleterious chromosomal rearrangements that affect fitness and promote human disease. Recent studies analyzing the role of nuclear organization in DNA repair and factors that suppress non-allelic homologous recombination have provided insights into how genome stability is maintained in eukaryotes. In this review we outline the types of repetitive sequences seen in eukaryotic genomes and how recombination mechanisms are regulated at the DNA sequence, cell organization, chromatin structure, and cell cycle control levels to prevent chromosomal rearrangements involving these sequences. PMID:22494239

George, Carolyn M.; Alani, Eric

2012-01-01

365

Prediction of Muscle Performance During Dynamic Repetitive Exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for predicting human muscle performance was developed. Eight test subjects performed a repetitive dynamic exercise to failure using a Lordex spinal machine. Electromyography (EMG) data was collected from the erector spinae. Evaluation of the EMG data using a 5th order Autoregressive (AR) model and statistical regression analysis revealed that an AR parameter, the mean average magnitude of AR poles, can predict performance to failure as early as the second repetition of the exercise. Potential applications to the space program include evaluating on-orbit countermeasure effectiveness, maximizing post-flight recovery, and future real-time monitoring capability during Extravehicular Activity.

Byerly, D. L.; Byerly, K. A.; Sognier, M. A.; Squires, W. G.

2002-01-01

366

[Neuromuscular abnormalities in critical illness].  

PubMed

The spectrum of neuromuscular disease encountered in today's intensive care units (ICU) has evolved over the last few decades. However, in spite of many studies on neuromuscular disorders complicating critical illness as well as its epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prognosis, several key areas remain unclear. Two main groups are found among these neuromuscular abnormalities. The first group includes primary neuromuscular disorders present on admission to the ICU in which a possible etiology can be identified. Guillain-Barré syndrome and myasthenia gravis are two of the most common diseases admitted to ours units. In the second group, weakness is acquired in the ICU in the absence of preexisting neuromuscular disease. It is believed to reflect illnesses or treatments occurring in the ICU. Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is the most clearly defined neuromuscular complication in this group. However, although we have better knowledge of its clinical, diagnosis, and prognosis features, its pathophysiological substrate has not been fully elucidated. Neuromuscular junction defects and specially myopathies, that frequently coexist with CIP, are the others main causes of acquired weakness in critically ill patients. Advances in understanding of these neuromuscular disorders could have an important impact in terms of developing effective preventive and therapeutic interventions that could help to improve the poor prognosis of these patients. PMID:19406085

Amaya Villar, R; Garnacho-Montero, J; Rincón Ferrari, M D

2009-04-01

367

The XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality.  

PubMed

The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants.Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency.That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. PMID:13969480

BARR, M L; CARR, D H; POZSONYI, J; WILSON, R A; DUNN, H G; JACOBSON, T S; MILLER, J R; LEWIS, M; CHOWN, B

1962-10-27

368

Ultrastructural Differentiation of Abnormal Scars  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim: To evaluate the differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars by biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Method: Over 1000 patients with different types of scars were studied and followed up for a period of 20 years. The histochemical and biochemical analysis with respect to the composition of the extracellular matrix of the dermis was conducted. At the ultrastructural level, collagen deposition and assembly were studied using electron microscopy. The rate of proliferation and metabolic activity of the dermal fibroblasts isolated from the normal skin and scar biopsies were studied to assess the cause of excess matrix deposition in scar tissues. Results: Evaluation of different types of scars showed that both keloid and hypertrophic scars have excess matrix deposition in terms of collagen and proteoglycans. Keloid shows a high amount of acid-soluble collagen. The assembly of collagen fibrils is also abnormal in keloids. Studies on the proliferation and metabolic activity showed that keloid fibroblasts have a higher rate of proliferation and metabolic activity than fibroblasts from hypertrophic scars and normal skin. Finally, keloid fibroblasts show high and intense staining for the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a possible reason for high activity of these fibroblasts. Conclusion: Keloids and hypertrophic scars show distinct ultrastructural patterns of both collagen deposition and assembly. These parameters could be refined by further research, and they would thus serve as a useful tool for surgeons to distinguish different types of scars and adopt suitable therapeutic strategies. PMID:21990984

Meenakshi, J.; Jayaraman, V.; Ramakrishnan, K.M..; Babu, M.

2005-01-01

369

Behavioral training reverses global cortical network dysfunction induced by perinatal antidepressant exposure.  

PubMed

Abnormal cortical circuitry and function as well as distortions in the modulatory neurological processes controlling cortical plasticity have been argued to underlie the origin of autism. Here, we chemically distorted those processes using an antidepressant drug-exposure model to generate developmental neurological distortions like those characteristics expressed in autism, and then intensively trained altered young rodents to evaluate the potential for neuroplasticity-driven renormalization. We found that young rats that were injected s.c. with the antidepressant citalopram from postnatal d 1-10 displayed impaired neuronal repetition-rate following capacity in the primary auditory cortex (A1). With a focus on recovering grossly degraded auditory system processing in this model, we showed that targeted temporal processing deficits induced by early-life antidepressant exposure within the A1 were almost completely reversed through implementation of a simple behavioral training strategy (i.e., a modified go/no-go repetition-rate discrimination task). Degraded parvalbumin inhibitory GABAergic neurons and the fast inhibitory actions that they control were also renormalized by training. Importantly, antidepressant-induced degradation of serotonergic and dopaminergic neuromodulatory systems regulating cortical neuroplasticity was sharply reversed. These findings bear important implications for neuroplasticity-based therapeutics in autistic patients. PMID:25646455

Zhou, Xiaoming; Lu, Jordan Y-F; Darling, Ryan D; Simpson, Kimberly L; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Fang; Yu, Liping; Sun, Xinde; Merzenich, Michael M; Lin, Rick C S

2015-02-17

370

Absence of short period interspersion of repetitive and non-repetitive sequences in the DNA of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

A sensitive search has been made in Drosophila melanogaster DNA for short repetitive sequences interspersed with single copy sequences. Five kinds of measurements all yield the conclusion that there are few short repetitive sequences in this genome: () Comparison of the kinetics of reassociation of short (360 nucleotide) and long (1,830 nucleotide) fragments of DNA; 2) reassociation kinetics of long fragments (2,200 nucleotide) with an excess of short (390 short nucleotide) fragments; 3) measurement of the size of S1 nuclease resistant reassociated repeated sequences; 4) measurement of the hyperchromicity of reassociated repetive fragments as a function of length; 5) direct assay by kinetics of reassociation of the amount of single copy sequence present on 1,200 nucletodie long fragments which also contain repetitive sequences. PMID:820526

Crain, W R; Eden, F C; Pearson, W R; Davidson, E H; Britten, R J

1976-07-30

371

Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

2008-03-01

372

Research Report: Students' knowledge of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to compare whether final year psychology students (n = 26) could answer more items on a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) correctly on abnormal psychology than prospective psychology candidates (n = 77) and final year engineering students (n = 26). The three groups of students completed MCQs in five different fields of abnormal psychology namely; eating disorders,

Adrian Furnham; Bahman Baluch; Fiona Starr

2003-01-01

373

An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

White, Geoffry D.

1977-01-01

374

The present status of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of the content of fifteen representative textbooks in abnormal psychology and seven textbooks in psychiatry. It is found that abnormal psychology is a dumping ground for miscellaneous topics left over from general psychology, including sleep, dreams, suggestion, etc. The most conspicuous defect is the lack of experimental material, of which there is only .8%. Another is the

W. A. Hunt; C. Landis

1935-01-01

375

Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal

Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

2002-01-01

376

Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

Warren, Reed P.; And Others

1986-01-01

377

Ultrastructurally abnormal mitochondria in the pituitary oncocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A pituitary adenoma in a 67-year-old man was characterized by abundant mitochondria and identified as an oncocytoma, which clinically and histologically appeared as a chromophobe adenoma. In addition to the numerous mitochondria within the neoplastic cells, structurally abnormal mitochondria were also present. Compared with other pituitary oncocytomas reported in the literature, abnormally structured mitochondria appear rare among the mitochondrial

H. H. Goebel; F. Schulz; B. Rama

1980-01-01

378

Chromosomal Anomalies in Abnormal Human Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the cytogenetic observations on abnormal human pregnancies (anembryonic pregnancy, early fetal loss, and hydatidiform moles), and to detect the most frequent or typical chromosomal aberration for anembryonic pregnancy and early fetal loss. Study Design: Abnormal pregnancies were divided into three clinical and morphological groups: (a) anembryonic pregnancy; (b) early fetal loss,

1998-01-01

379

Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20

K A Waters; F Everett; D Sillence; E Fagan; C E Sullivan

1993-01-01

380

GENE 4050 BEHAVIOR GENETICS Spring Semester 2007  

E-print Network

of complex behaviors of humans and animals. Current issues in behavior genetics will be discussed: Mendelian of existing evidence for genetic and environmental influence on human/animal behavior. This paper should Beyond Mendel's Laws Chromosomal abnormalities Chapter 3 Chapter 4 3 M 1/22 W 1/24 F 1/26 Animal behavior

Arnold, Jonathan

381

Indigenous Students' Increasing Risk of Grade Repetition in Early Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of school, Preparatory (Prep) to Year 3, in Queensland state schools, of which there is a significant gap in the Australian research literature. Data accessed from the Queensland Government's Department of Education and Training (DET), shows that particular groups of students…

Anderson, Robyn

2012-01-01

382

Fractional Repetition Codes for Repair in Distributed Storage Systems  

E-print Network

We introduce a new class of exact Minimum-Bandwidth Regenerating (MBR) codes for distributed storage systems, characterized by a low-complexity uncoded repair process that can tolerate multiple node failures. These codes consist of the concatenation of two components: an outer MDS code followed by an inner repetition code. We refer to the inner code as a Fractional Repetition code since it consists of splitting the data of each node into several packets and storing multiple replicas of each on different nodes in the system. Our model for repair is table-based, and thus, differs from the random access model adopted in the literature. We present constructions of Fractional Repetition codes based on regular graphs and Steiner systems for a large set of system parameters. The resulting codes are guaranteed to achieve the storage capacity for random access repair. The considered model motivates a new definition of capacity for distributed storage systems, that we call Fractional Repetition capacity. We provide upp...

Rouayheb, Salim El

2010-01-01

383

A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM02.

Wang, Guangqiang; Wang, Jianguo; Tong, Changjiang; Li, Xiaoze; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Shuang; Lu, Xicheng

2013-04-01

384

Context-Dependent Repetition Effects on Recognition Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One widely acknowledged way to improve our memory performance is to repeatedly study the to be learned material. One aspect that has received little attention in past research regards the context sensitivity of this repetition effect, that is whether the item is repeated within the same or within different contexts. The predictions of a…

Opitz, Bertram

2010-01-01

385

Repetitions in Words--Part III Narad Rampersad  

E-print Network

into finitely many sets, then one set contains arbitrarily large arithmetic progressions. #12;Subsequences w = w in a subsequence indexed by an arithmetic progression. #12;Repetitions in arithmetic progressions Theorem (Carpi alphabet that avoids (1 + 1/pm )-powers in arithmetic progressions of all differences, except those

Liège, Université de

386

Transfer in Artificial Grammar Learning: The Role of Repetition Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors report 2 experiments that investigated the sources of information used in transfer and nontransfer tasks in artificial grammar learning. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 2 types of information about repeating elements were crucial for performance in both tasks: information about the repetition of adjacent…

Lotz, Anja; Kinder, Annette

2006-01-01

387

Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

388

A new method for finding approximate repetitions in DNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching for approximate repetitions in a DNA sequence has been an important topic in gene analysis. One of the problems in the study is that because of the varying lengths of patterns, the similarity between patterns cannot be judged accurately if we use only the concept of ED (Edit Distance). In this paper we shall make effort to define a

Yajun Jiang; Zhenlun Yang; Zengrong Zhan

2010-01-01

389

Computational Modeling of Brain Dynamics during Repetitive Head Motions  

E-print Network

Computational Modeling of Brain Dynamics during Repetitive Head Motions Igor Szczyrba School motions in traumatic scenarios that are as- sociated with severe brain injuries. Our results are based on the linear Kelvin-Voigt brain injury model, which treats the brain matter as a viscoelastic solid, and on our

Burtscher, Martin

390

Pinniped Phylogeny Enlightened by Molecular Hybridizations Using Highly Repetitive DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four non-cross-hybridizing, highly repetitive DNA components of the Weddell seal were cloned and used for Southern blot hybridizations in order to clarify pinniped phylogeny. Each of the components was present and possessed the identical fragment length in all pinnipeds, representing true seals, walrus, and sea lions. Three of the four components also hybridized to fragments of the same length in

Bengt Widegren

391

Forward and Backward Repetition Blindness in Speed and Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repetition blindness (RB) was investigated in a new paradigm in which effects could stem from items preceding or following a target. Speeded-response tasks in which 3 critical items (C1, C2, and C3) were sequentially presented on each trial. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to judge whether C2 (the target) was present on each trial.…

Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2009-01-01

392

Orientation-Invariant Object Recognition: Evidence from Repetition Blindness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation.…

Harris, Irina M.; Dux, Paul E.

2005-01-01

393

Repetitive thought impairs sleep quality: an experience sampling study.  

PubMed

Although previous research has suggested that presleep negative cognitive activities are associated with poor sleep quality, there is little evidence regarding the association between negative thoughts and sleep in real-life settings. The present study used experience sampling and long-term sleep monitoring with actigraphy to investigate the relationships among negative repetitive thought, mood, and sleep problems. During a 1-week sampling period, 43 undergraduate students recorded their thought content and mood eight times a day at semirandom intervals. In addition to these subjective reports, participants wore actigraphs on their wrists in order to measure sleep parameters. Analyses using multilevel modeling showed that repetitive thought in the evening was significantly associated with longer sleep-onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency, and reduced total sleep time. Furthermore, impaired sleep quality was significantly associated with reduced positive affect the next morning, and decreased positive affect was indirectly associated with increased repetitive thought in the evening. These findings suggest the existence of a self-reinforcing cycle involving repetitive thought, mood, and impaired sleep quality, highlighting the importance of cognitive and emotional factors in enhancement and maintenance of good-quality sleep. PMID:24411116

Takano, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanno, Yoshihiko

2014-01-01

394

Electrophysiological Evidence for Size Invariance in Masked Picture Repetition Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment examined invariance in object representations through measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) to pictures in a masked repetition priming paradigm. Pairs of pictures were presented where the prime was either the same size or half the size of the target object and the target was either presented in a normal orientation or was a…

Eddy, Marianna D.; Holcomb, Phillip J.

2009-01-01

395

A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2013-04-15

396

Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi-gigahertz repetition rate  

E-print Network

Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi- gigahertz repetition rate Oliver D. Sieber,* Valentin J@phys.ethz.ch Abstract: We present a femtosecond vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL, for which the laser mode area on SESAM and VECSEL are similar and do not significantly change

Keller, Ursula

397

Process of labeling specific chromosomes using recombinant repetitive DNA  

DOEpatents

Chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family members and consensus sequences of the repetitive DNA families for the chromosome preferential sequences. The selected low homology regions are then hybridized with chromosomes to determine those low homology regions hybridized with a specific chromosome under normal stringency conditions.

Moyzis, R.K.; Meyne, J.

1988-02-12

398

Repetitive stress injury: diagnosis or self-fulfilling prophecy?  

PubMed

* The vague definitions of so-called repetitive stress injuries are indicative of the fact that scientific studies have failed to show that repetitive motion causes injury. * Given the uncertainty about causation, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) is a more readily accepted term to describe these phenomena. * There is little doubt that most ergonomic interventions increase comfort in the work environment, which is of great benefit to the worker. Many proponents of ergonomics assert that the elimination of certain risk factors related to force, repetition, and posture can prevent or even cure work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity. However, there is little scientific support for this position. * Undue reliance on ergonomics to treat musculoskeletal disorders, to the exclusion of proper diagnosis and attention to medical and health risk factors, can have adverse consequences for the patient. * Science rather than politics and public policy should determine what causes injury and disease. * The failure of numerous plaintiffs in litigation regarding repetitive stress injury due to use of computer keyboards is important because, when judges and lay jurors were presented with both sides of the issue, they rejected these claims in a forum (the judicial system) that traditionally compensates individuals bringing so-called mass-tort cases. PMID:11005523

Szabo, R M; King, K J

2000-09-01

399

Exact Repetition as Input Enhancement in Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on two studies on input enhancement used to support learners' selection of focus of attention in Spanish second language listening material. Input consisted of video recordings of dialogues between native speakers. Exact repetition and speech rate reduction were examined for effect on comprehension, acquisition of decoding strategies, and…

Jensen, Eva Dam; Vinther, Thora

2003-01-01

400

Compact, repetitive, pulsed power generators based on transmission line transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and construction of a compact, repetitive pulsed power generator which is based on the use of a transmission line transformer built from a stack of low impedance striplines.The transformer is driven from a Blumlein pulse forming line, which is constructed from an array of barium titanate dielectric tiles and switched by four thyratrons connected in

C. R. Wilson; G. A. Erickson; P. W. Smith

1989-01-01

401

Status Of The Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

High average power pulse compression systems are being considered for use in several applications. The Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) system will consist of a 7 stage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an e-beam diode load. It is being designed to deliver 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60 ns FWHM,

H. C. Harjes; K. J. Penn; K. W. Reed; C. R. McClenahan; G. E. Laderach; R. W. Wavrik; J. Adcock; M. Butler; G. A. Mann; L. Martinez; F. A. Morgan; G. J. Weber; E. L. Neau

1991-01-01

402

Piriform Spider Silk Sequences Reveal Unique Repetitive Elements  

PubMed Central

Orb-weaving spider silk fibers are assembled from very large, highly repetitive proteins. The repeated segments contain, in turn, short, simple repetitive amino acid motifs that account for the physical and mechanical properties of the assembled fiber. Of the six orb-weaver silk fibroins, the piriform silk that makes the attachment discs, which lashes the joints of the web and attaches dragline silk to surfaces has not been previously characterized. Piriform silk protein cDNAs were isolated from phage libraries of three species, A. trifasciata, N. clavipes, and N. cruentata. The deduced amino acid sequences from these genes revealed two new repetitive motifs: an alternating proline motif where every other amino acid is proline, and a glutamine-rich motif of 6 to 8 amino acids. Similar to other spider silk proteins, the repeated segments are large (>200 amino acids) and highly homogenized within a species. There is also substantial sequence similarity across the genes from the three species with particular conservation of the repetitive motifs. Northern blot analysis revealed that the messenger RNA is larger than 11kb and is expressed exclusively in the piriform glands of the spider. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal regions of the new proteins with published spidroins robustly shows that the pirifom sequences form an ortholog group. PMID:20954740

Perry, David J.; Bittencourt, Daniela; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica; Rech, Elibio L.; Lewis, Randolph V.

2010-01-01

403

10 CFR 52.8 - Combining licenses; elimination of repetition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...repetition. (a) An applicant for a license under this part may combine in its application several applications for different kinds...references are clear and specific. (c) The Commission may combine in a single license the activities of an applicant which...

2013-01-01

404

10 CFR 52.8 - Combining licenses; elimination of repetition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...repetition. (a) An applicant for a license under this part may combine in its application several applications for different kinds...references are clear and specific. (c) The Commission may combine in a single license the activities of an applicant which...

2011-01-01

405

New Repetitive Bipolar Solid-State Marx Type Modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad circuit topology for bipolar or unipolar high-voltage repetitive pulse power applications is proposed. This circuit constitutes a merging version of the negative and positive solid-state Marx modulator concepts, which take advantage of the intensive use of semiconductor devices to increase the performance of the classic circuit. The flexibility of the proposed modular circuit enables the operation with negative

L. M. Redondo; H. Canacsinh; J. F. Silva

2008-01-01

406

Some stereotypic behaviors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are correlated with both perseveration and the ability to cope with acute stressors  

PubMed Central

The most prevalent sub-group of abnormal repetitive behaviors among captive animals is that of stereotypies. Previous studies have demonstrated some resemblance between stereotypy in captive animals and in humans, including the involvement of neurological malfunctions that lead to the expression of stereotypies. This malfunction can be evaluated through the use of neuropsychological tasks that assess perseveration as implying a failure of the basal ganglia (BG) to operate properly. Other studies, in contrast, have suggested that stereotypies are the product of neurologically intact individuals reacting to the abnormal nature of their surroundings, and are possibly characterized by an adaptive feature that enables the subject to cope with such adversity. Employing neuropsychological tests and also measuring the levels of fecal corticoids in captive rhesus macaques, we tested the hypothesis that stereotypies are related both to brain pathology and to a coping mechanism with stress, resembling accounts by autistic individuals exhibiting basal ganglia malfunction, and who report a sense of relief when performing stereotypies. Self-directed and fine-motor stereotypies exhibited by the monkeys were positively correlated with perseveration, suggesting BG malfunction; while self-directed stereotypies were also negatively correlated with an increase in fecal corticoids following a stress challenge, suggesting a related coping mechanism. We therefore suggest that not all repetitive, unvarying, and apparently functionless behaviors should be regarded as one homogeneous group of stereotypic behaviors; and that, reflecting reports from autistic individuals, self-directed stereotypies in captive rhesus monkeys are related both to brain pathology, and to an adaptive mechanism that allows those that express them to better cope with acute stressors. PMID:22366267

Pomerantz, Ori; Paukner, Annika; Terkel, Joseph

2013-01-01

407

Pten haploinsufficient mice show broad brain overgrowth but selective impairments in autism-relevant behavioral tests.  

PubMed

Accelerated head and brain growth (macrocephaly) during development is a replicated biological finding in a subset of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the relationship between brain overgrowth and the behavioral and cognitive symptoms of ASD is poorly understood. The PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway regulates cellular growth; several genes encoding negative regulators of this pathway are ASD risk factors, including PTEN. Mutations in PTEN have been reported in individuals with ASD and macrocephaly. We report that brain overgrowth is widespread in Pten germline haploinsufficient (Pten(+/-)) mice, reflecting Pten mRNA expression in the developing brain. We then ask if broad brain overgrowth translates into general or specific effects on the development of behavior and cognition by testing Pten(+/-) mice using assays relevant to ASD and comorbidities. Deficits in social behavior were observed in both sexes. Males also showed abnormalities related to repetitive behavior and mood/anxiety. Females exhibited circadian activity and emotional learning phenotypes. Widespread brain overgrowth together with selective behavioral impairments in Pten(+/-) mice raises the possibility that most brain areas and constituent cell types adapt to an altered trajectory of growth with minimal impact on the behaviors tested in our battery; however, select areas/cell types relevant to social behavior are more vulnerable or less adaptable, thus resulting in social deficits. Probing dopaminergic neurons as a candidate vulnerable cell type, we found social behavioral impairments in mice with Pten conditionally inactivated in dopaminergic neurons that are consistent with the possibility that desynchronized growth in key cell types may contribute to ASD endophenotypes. PMID:24497577

Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Page, Damon T

2014-07-01

408

Risk factors for hand?wrist disorders in repetitive work  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the risk of hand?wrist disorders related to repetitive movements, use of hand force and wrist position in repetitive monotonous work. Methods Using questionnaires and physical examinations, the prevalence and incidence of hand?wrist pain and possible extensor tendonitis (wrist pain and palpation tenderness) were determined in 3123 employees in 19 industrial settings. With the use of questionnaires and video recordings of homogenous work tasks number of wrist movements, hand force requirements and wrist position were analysed as risk factors for hand?wrist disorders, controlling for potential personal and psychosocial confounders. All participants were re?examined three times during a follow?up period of three years. Results Force but not repetition and position was related to hand?wrist pain and possible tendonitis in the baseline analyses showing an exposure?response pattern. Odds ratios for the risk of hand pain was 1.7 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.2) and for possible tendonitis 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.3). There was no significant interaction between the ergonomic factors. In the follow?up analyses force remained a risk factor for hand pain (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8) and for possible tendonitis (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 6.8). Repetition was also a risk factor for the onset of hand?wrist pain (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.3). Conclusions Increasing levels of force were associated with prevalent and incident hand?wrist pain and possible extensor tendonitis. The results for repetition were less consistent. Working with the hand in a non?neutral position could not be identified as a risk factor. PMID:17387137

Thomsen, J F; Mikkelsen, S; Andersen, J H; Fallentin, N; Loft, I P; Frost, P; Kaergaard, A; Bonde, J P; Overgaard, E

2007-01-01

409

Object Repetition Leads to Local Increases in the Temporal Coordination of Neural Responses  

PubMed Central

Experience with visual objects leads to later improvements in identification speed and accuracy (“repetition priming”), but generally leads to reductions in neural activity in single-cell recording studies in animals and fMRI studies in humans. Here we use event-related, source-localized MEG (ER-SAM) to evaluate the possibility that neural activity changes related to priming in occipital, temporal, and prefrontal cortex correspond to more temporally coordinated and synchronized activity, reflected in local increases in the amplitude of low-frequency activity fluctuations (i.e. evoked power) that are time-locked to stimulus onset. Subjects (N = 17) identified pictures of objects that were either novel or repeated during the session. Tests in two separate low-frequency bands (theta/alpha: 5–15 Hz; beta: 15–35 Hz) revealed increases in evoked power (5–15 Hz) for repeated stimuli in the right fusiform gyrus, with the earliest significant increases observed 100–200?ms after stimulus onset. Increases with stimulus repetition were also observed in striate/extrastriate cortex (15–35 Hz) by 200–300?ms post-stimulus, along with a trend for a similar pattern in right lateral prefrontal cortex (5–15 Hz). Our results suggest that experience-dependent reductions in neural activity may affect improved behavioral identification through more coordinated, synchronized activity at low frequencies, constituting a mechanism for more efficient neural processing with experience. PMID:20463867

Gilbert, Jessica R.; Gotts, Stephen J.; Carver, Frederick W.; Martin, Alex

2010-01-01

410

Investigation of the potential for vascular bubble formation in a repetitively diving dolphin.  

PubMed

The production of venous gas emboli (VGE) resulting from altered dive behavior is postulated as contributing to the stranding of beaked whales exposed to mid-frequency active sonar. To test whether nitrogen gas uptake during repetitive breath-hold diving is sufficient for asymptomatic VGE formation in odontocetes, a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus Montagu) was trained to perform 10-12 serial dives with 60 s surface intervals to depths of 30, 50, 70 or 100 m. The dolphin remained at the bottom depth for 90 s on each dive. Doppler and/or two-dimensional imaging ultrasound did not detect VGE in the portal and brachiocephalic veins following a dive series. Van Slyke analyses of serial, post-dive blood samples drawn from the fluke yielded blood nitrogen partial pressure (P(N(2))) values that were negligibly different from control samples. Mean heart rate (HR; +/-1 s.d.) recorded during diving was 50+/-3 beats min(-1) and was not significantly different between the 50, 70 and 100 m dive sessions. The absence of VGE and elevated blood P(N(2)) during post-dive periods do not support the hypothesis that N(2) supersaturation during repetitive dives contributes to VGE formation in the dolphin. The diving HR pattern and the presumed rapid N(2) washout during the surface-interval tachycardia probably minimized N(2) accumulation in the blood during dive sessions. PMID:20008362

Houser, D S; Dankiewicz-Talmadge, L A; Stockard, T K; Ponganis, P J

2010-01-01

411

[Cloning and analysis of highly repetitive sequence fragments from takin (Budorcas taxicolor)].  

PubMed

Takin (Budorcas taxicolor) is a large animal living in China and other adjacent countries, which belongs to Bovidae of Artiodactyla. The anatomy, morphology and behavior of takin are between species of the subfamily Bovinae and Caprinae. It is now in a separated genus or in the same genus with muskox (Ovibos moschatus). To gain insight into the evolution of takin, we purified and cloned its highly repetitive BamHI fragments from the genomic DNA. The sequences of three fragments were highly homologous, indicative of units of a large repetitive DNA arrays. Southern hybridization using these fragments as probes showed identical patterns among individuals in both the same and different subspecies, implying conserved sequences and distributions of the BamHI clusters in takin genome. Sequence comparison with 1.714 and 1.715 satellite DNA of other species in Bovidae supports that takin has a closer relationship with the subfamily Caprinae than with Bovinae. It also suggests that these BamHI fragments may represent repeat units of the centromeric satellite DNA of takin. PMID:15344315

Qian, Min; Dou, Zhen; Gu, Yong Xi; Zhang, Qin; Lu, Run Long; Zhu, Xue Liang

2002-03-01

412

Electrophysiological abnormalities in the transplanted human heart.  

PubMed Central

Fourteen relatively long term survivors of cardiac transplantation underwent systematic electrophysiological evaluation and ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Six patients had prolonged conduction intervals during sinus rhythm. Sinus node function could be assessed in all donor atria and in 10 recipient atria. Sinus node recovery times were prolonged in four of the donor atria and in six recipient atria. In the donor atria abnormalities of sinus node automaticity were invariably associated with abnormalities of sinoatrial conduction. Four patients showed functional duality of atrioventricular nodal conduction during programmed extrastimulation, but no patient developed re-entrant arrhythmia. During ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring no pronounced tachyarrhythmias were recorded. Three patients showed abnormalities of sinus node impulse formation. All three patients had abnormal sinus node recovery times during their electrophysiological study. Long term survivors of cardiac transplantation have a high incidence of electrophysiological abnormalities. Abnormalities of donor sinus node function are probably of clinical significance. The clinical significance of abnormalities detected within the atrioventricular conduction system of the denervated heart remains to be elucidated. PMID:6360191

Bexton, R S; Nathan, A W; Hellestrand, K J; Cory-Pearce, R; Spurrell, R A; English, T A; Camm, A J

1983-01-01

413

Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions  

PubMed Central

Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

2012-01-01

414

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

415

Abnormal dermatoglyphics in absence of thumb.  

PubMed

Dermatoglyphics of six patients with absence of thumb are described. Two specific abnormal configurations were seen in the palmar area. In the first, there was no axial triradius and the course of the ridges in the proximal part of the palm was transversal. In the second, a peculiar distal loop on the radial border was present with a palmar triradius. These abnormal patterns are probably due to the absence of a thenar volar pad or the presence of an abnormal one when the ridges are formed. PMID:7170953

Borbolla, L

1982-01-01

416

Genome wide survey, discovery and evolution of repetitive elements in three Entamoeba species.  

E-print Network

Background: Identification and mapping of repetitive elements is a key step for accurate gene prediction and overall structural annotation of genomes. During the assembly and annotation of three highly repetitive amoeba ...

Lorenzi, Hernan

417

High voltage repetitive pulsed nanosecond discharges as a selective source of reactive species  

E-print Network

High voltage nanosecond duration discharges can be used in a repetitive manner to create a sustained pool of short lived excited species and ions and long-lived radicals in a gas. Although the suitability of the Repetitive ...

Guerra García, Carmen

2011-01-01

418

Imagining the Words of Others: Public Memory and Ceremonial Repetition in American Public Discourse  

E-print Network

the effectiveness and dominant strategies of ceremonial repetition different eras of American public discourse. These examples include the rhetorical invocation of a text within the discursive space of repetition, illustrated in Frederick Douglass’s August First...

Gaffey, Adam

2013-05-07

419

Repetitive firing properties of developing rat brainstem motoneurones.  

PubMed

1. The repetitive firing properties of neonatal and adult rat hypoglossal motoneurones (HMs) were investigated in a brainstem slice preparation. Neonatal HMs could be classified into two main groups: (1) neurones with a decrementing or adapting firing pattern (type D); exhibiting an early and a late phase; and (2) neurones with an incrementing or accelerating firing pattern (type I). 2. The pattern of repetitive firing changed markedly during development. While most HMs recorded from young rats (< postnatal day (P) 4) were type D, the majority of HMs recorded during the second postnatal week were type I. In adults (> P21), nearly all HMs had a decrementing firing pattern, characterized by a brief period of adaptation and high steady-state firing rates. 3. The calcium-dependent after-hyperpolarization (AHP) was shortest in type I neonatal HMs, and decreased in amplitude during trains of action potentials (APs). In type D neurones, these same trains caused a slight enhancement of AHP amplitude. In adult HMs, with a decrementing firing pattern, trains of APs also caused summation of the AHP. 4. Type D neonatal HMs showed a progressive prolongation of the AP during repetitive firing. In contrast, type I neonatal HMs had almost no change in AP duration. In adult HMs the AP was short and experienced only a modest increase in duration during fast repetitive firing. 5. The function relating steady-state firing frequency to injected current (f-I curve) was linear. The mean steady-state f-I slope was significantly higher in neonates than in adults (approximately 30 vs. approximately 20 Hz nA-1), and was weakly correlated with input resistance. The f-I slope was negatively correlated with AHP duration in neonatal HMs only. In addition, for a given AHP duration the slope was higher in neonatal HMs. 6. Two threshold behaviours were observed among neonatal HMs: (a) a progressive rhythmic firing threshold, and (b) a sudden transition from subthreshold to regular repetitive firing. Current threshold for repetitive firing was strongly correlated with cell input conductance. Type I neonatal HMs had higher minimal steady firing rates (fmin) than type D HMs. In neonates, fmin was strongly correlated with AHP duration. Adult HMs showed a weaker correlation between these two parameters, and fmin was higher than predicted by AHP duration. 7. In summary, HMs responded to depolarizing current pulses with different firing patterns during postnatal development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7473235

Viana, F; Bayliss, D A; Berger, A J

1995-08-01

420

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applications normalized prefrontal dysfunctions and cognitive-related metabolic profiling in aged mice.  

PubMed

Chronic high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has recently received increasing interests as a therapeutic procedure for neurodegenerative diseases. To identify the metabolism mechanism underlying the improving effects of rTMS, we observed that high frequency (25Hz) rTMS for 14 days could reverse the decline of the performance of the passive avoidance task in aged mice. We further investigated the metabolite profiles in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in those mice and found that rTMS could also reverse the metabolic abnormalities of gamma-aminobutyric acid, N-acetyl aspartic, and cholesterol levels to the degree similar to the young mice. These data suggested that the rTMS could ameliorate the age-related cognitive impairment and improving the metabolic profiles in PFC, and potentially can be used to improve cognitive decline in the elderly. PMID:24278445

Wang, Hualong; Geng, Yuan; Han, Bing; Qiang, Jing; Li, Xiaoli; Sun, Meiyu; Wang, Qian; Wang, Mingwei

2013-01-01

421

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Applications Normalized Prefrontal Dysfunctions and Cognitive-Related Metabolic Profiling in Aged Mice  

PubMed Central

Chronic high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has recently received increasing interests as a therapeutic procedure for neurodegenerative diseases. To identify the metabolism mechanism underlying the improving effects of rTMS, we observed that high frequency (25Hz) rTMS for 14 days could reverse the decline of the performance of the passive avoidance task in aged mice. We further investigated the metabolite profiles in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in those mice and found that rTMS could also reverse the metabolic abnormalities of gamma-aminobutyric acid, N-acetyl aspartic, and cholesterol levels to the degree similar to the young mice. These data suggested that the rTMS could ameliorate the age-related cognitive impairment and improving the metabolic profiles in PFC, and potentially can be used to improve cognitive decline in the elderly. PMID:24278445

Wang, Hualong; Geng, Yuan; Han, Bing; Qiang, Jing; Li, Xiaoli; Sun, Meiyu; Wang, Qian; Wang, Mingwei

2013-01-01

422

Repetitive Nanosecond-Pulse Breakdown in Tip–Plane Gaps of Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive pulsed power is becoming an important area of high-power technology. Dielectric failure data concerning electrical insulation play a basic role, but breakdown has been inadequately studied for the repetitive nanosecond-pulse conditions. This paper is concerned with the breakdown characteristics of tip-plane gas gaps under repetitive burst conditions at variant repetition rates (rep-rates) and diverse gap distances. The relationship among

Tao Shao; Guangsheng Sun; Ping Yan; Shichang Zhang

2006-01-01

423

Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

1979-01-01

424

ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

425

Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus  

MedlinePLUS

... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Women's Health Issues Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position ... Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Women's Health Issues Biology of ...

426

Ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry with a 0.5 MHz pulse repetition rate nanosecond laser  

PubMed Central

In vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has great potential for detecting disease-associated biomarkers in blood and lymph flow, as well as real-time control of the efficacy of photothermal (PT) and other therapies through the counting of circulating abnormal objects. We report on a high speed PAFC with a Yb-doped fiber laser having a 0.5-MHz pulse repetition rate at a wavelength of 1064 nm, pulse width of 10 ns, and energy up to 100 µJ. This is the first biomedical application of PA and PT techniques operating at the highest pulse repetition rate of nanosecond lasers that provide 100-fold enhancement in detection speed of carbon nanotube clusters, as well as real-time monitoring of the flow velocity of individual targets through the width of PA signals. The laser pulse rate limits for PT and PA techniques depending on the sizes of laser beam and targets and flow velocity are discussed. We propose time-overlapping mode and generation of periodic nano- and microbubbles as PA-signal and PT-therapy amplifiers, including discrimination of small absorbing targets among large ones. Taking into account the relatively low level of background signals from most biotissues at 1064 nm, our data suggest that a nanosecond Yb-doped fiber laser operating at high pulse repetition rate could be a promising optical source for time-resolved PA and PT cytometry, imaging, microscopy, and therapy, including detection of nanoparticles and cells flowing at velocities up to 2.5 m/s. PMID:20588705

Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

2010-01-01

427

Abnormal white matter microstructure in children with sensory processing disorders.  

PubMed

Sensory processing disorders (SPD) affect 5-16% of school-aged children and can cause long-term deficits in intellectual and social development. Current theories of SPD implicate primary sensory cortical areas and higher-order multisensory integration (MSI) cortical regions. We investigate the role of white matter microstructural abnormalities in SPD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI was acquired in 16 boys, 8-11 years old, with SPD and 24 age-, gender-, handedness- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls. Behavior was characterized using a parent report sensory behavior measure, the Sensory Profile. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to detect significant group differences in white matter integrity and to determine if microstructural parameters were significantly correlated with behavioral measures. Significant decreases in FA and increases in MD and RD were found in the SPD cohort compared to controls, primarily involving posterior white matter including the posterior corpus callosum, posterior corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiations. Strong positive correlations were observed between FA of these posterior tracts and auditory, multisensory, and inattention scores (r = 0.51-0.78; p < 0.001) with strong negative correlations between RD and multisensory and inattention scores (r = - 0.61-0.71; p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate reduced white matter microstructural integrity in children with SPD. We find that the disrupted white matter microstructure predominantly involves posterior cerebral tracts and correlates strongly with atypical unimodal and multisensory integration behavior. These findings suggest abnormal white matter as a biological basis for SPD and may also distinguish SPD from overlapping clinical conditions such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:24179836

Owen, Julia P; Marco, Elysa J; Desai, Shivani; Fourie, Emily; Harris, Julia; Hill, Susanna S; Arnett, Anne B; Mukherjee, Pratik

2013-01-01

428

Detecting Botnet Activities Based on Abnormal DNS traffic  

E-print Network

IThe botnet is considered as a critical issue of the Internet due to its fast growing mechanism and affect. Recently, Botnets have utilized the DNS and query DNS server just like any legitimate hosts. In this case, it is difficult to distinguish between the legitimate DNS traffic and illegitimate DNS traffic. It is important to build a suitable solution for botnet detection in the DNS traffic and consequently protect the network from the malicious Botnets activities. In this paper, a simple mechanism is proposed to monitors the DNS traffic and detects the abnormal DNS traffic issued by the botnet based on the fact that botnets appear as a group of hosts periodically. The proposed mechanism is also able to classify the DNS traffic requested by group of hosts (group behavior) and single hosts (individual behavior), consequently detect the abnormal domain name issued by the malicious Botnets. Finally, the experimental results proved that the proposed mechanism is robust and able to classify DNS traffic, and effi...

Manasrah, Ahmed M; Abouabdalla, Omar Amer; Ramadass, Sureswaran

2009-01-01

429

Effects of Material Emotional Valence on the Time Course of Massive Repetition Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning through repetition is a fundamental form and also an effective method of language learning critical for achieving proficient and automatic language use. Massive repetition priming as a common research paradigm taps into the dynamic processes involved in repetition learning. Research with this paradigm has so far used only emotionally…

Hu, Zhiguo; Liu, Hongyan; Zhang, John X.

2010-01-01

430

Repetitive Behaviour in Children with High Functioning Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were compared on a range of repetitive behaviours. Parents reported similar levels of sameness behaviour and repetitive movements in the clinical groups, although children with OCD engaged in more repetitive behaviour focussed around routines and…

Zandt, Fiona; Prior, Margot; Kyrios, Michael

2007-01-01

431

Don't Throw out the Baby with the Bathwater: Verbal Repetition, Mnemonics, and Active Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of using verbal repetition and first-letter acronyms to teach a common marketing framework was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 345 undergraduate students were exposed to the framework using one of four conditions: control, verbal repetition, acronym, and verbal repetition plus acronym in a traditional learning…

Saber, Jane Lee; Johnson, Richard D.

2008-01-01

432

Relationships between Nonword Repetition Accuracy and Other Measures of Linguistic Development in Children with Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research has documented effects of phonotactic probability on young children's nonword repetition. This study extends this research in 2 ways. First, it compares nonword repetitions by 40 young children with phonological disorders with those by 40 same-age peers with typical phonological development on a nonword repetition task…

Munson, Benjamin; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

2005-01-01

433

High repetition rate pulsed power generator using IGBTs and magnetic pulse compression circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, all solid-state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed to be used for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and pulse ozonizer. Requirements of these applications are repetitive fast rise time pulsed power. Recently, semiconductor power device technology

T. Sakugawa; K. Kouno; K. Kawamoto; H. Akiyama; K. Suematsu; A. Kouda; M. Watanabe

2009-01-01

434

Removal of default state-associated inhibition during repetition priming improves response articulation.  

PubMed

Behavior is a product of both the stimuli encountered and the current internal state. At the level of the nervous system, the internal state alters the biophysical properties of, and connections between, neurons establishing a "network state." To establish a network state, the nervous system must be altered from an initial default/resting state, but what remains unclear is the extent to which this process represents induction from a passive default state or the removal of suppression by an active default state. We use repetition priming (a history-dependent improvement of behavioral responses to repeatedly encountered stimuli) to determine the cellular mechanisms underlying the transition from the default to the primed network state. We demonstrate that both removal of active suppression and induction of neuron excitability changes each contribute separately to the production of a primed state. The feeding system of Aplysia californica displays repetition priming via an increase in the activity of the radula closure neuron B8, which results in increased bite strength with each motor program. We found that during priming, B8 received progressively less inhibitory input from the multifunctional neurons B4/5. Additionally, priming enhanced the excitability of B8, but the rate at which B8 activity increased as a result of these changes was regulated by the progressive removal of inhibitory input. Thus, the establishment of the network state involves the induction of processes from a rested state, yet the consequences of these processes are conditional upon critical gating mechanisms actively enforced by the default state. PMID:23223294

Dacks, Andrew M; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

2012-12-01

435

Coreference and Lexical Repetition: Mechanisms of Discourse Integration  

PubMed Central

The use of repeated expressions to establish coreference allows an investigation of the relationship between basic processes of word recognition and higher-level language processes that involve the integration of information into a discourse model. In two experiments on reading, we used eye tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether repeated expressions that are coreferential within a local discourse context show the kind of repetition priming that is shown in lists of words. In both experiments, effects of lexical repetition were modulated by effects of local discourse context that arose from manipulations of the linguistic prominence of the antecedent of a coreferentially repeated name. These results are interpreted within the context of discourse prominence theory, which suggests that processes of coreferential interpretation interact with basic mechanisms of memory integration during the construction of a model of discourse. PMID:17848036

Ledoux, Kerry; Gordon, Peter C.; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2006-01-01

436

High repetition rate plasma mirror device for attosecond science  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an active solid target positioning device for driving plasma mirrors with high repetition rate ultra-high intensity lasers. The position of the solid target surface with respect to the laser focus is optically monitored and mechanically controlled on the nm scale to ensure reproducible interaction conditions for each shot at arbitrary repetition rate. We demonstrate the target capabilities by driving high-order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors produced on glass targets with a near-relativistic intensity few-cycle pulse laser system operating at 1 kHz. During experiments, residual target surface motion can be actively stabilized down to 47?nm (root mean square), which ensures sub-300-as relative temporal stability of the plasma mirror as a secondary source of coherent attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation in pump-probe experiments.

Borot, A.; Douillet, D.; Iaquaniello, G.; Lefrou, T.; Lopez-Martens, R. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Audebert, P.; Geindre, J.-P. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2014-01-15

437

High power repetitive TEA CO2 pulsed laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high power repetitive spark-pin UV-preionized TEA CO2 laser system is presented. The discharge for generating laser pulses is controlled by a rotary spark switch and a high voltage pulsed trigger. Uniform glow discharge between two symmetrical Chang-electrodes is realized by using an auto-inversion circuit. A couple of high power axial-flow fans with the maximum wind speed of 80 m/s are used for gas exchange between the electrodes. At a repetitive operation, the maximum average output laser power of 10.4 kW 10.6 ?m laser is obtained at 300 Hz, with an electro-optical conversion efficiency of 15.6%. At single pulsed operation, more pumping energy and higher gases pressures can be injected, and the maximum output laser energy of 53 J is achieved.

Yang, Guilong; Li, Dianjun; Xie, Jijiang; Zhang, Laiming; Chen, Fei; Guo, Jin; Guo, Lihong

2012-07-01

438

High repetition rate plasma mirror device for attosecond science.  

PubMed

This report describes an active solid target positioning device for driving plasma mirrors with high repetition rate ultra-high intensity lasers. The position of the solid target surface with respect to the laser focus is optically monitored and mechanically controlled on the nm scale to ensure reproducible interaction conditions for each shot at arbitrary repetition rate. We demonstrate the target capabilities by driving high-order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors produced on glass targets with a near-relativistic intensity few-cycle pulse laser system operating at 1 kHz. During experiments, residual target surface motion can be actively stabilized down to 47?nm (root mean square), which ensures sub-300-as relative temporal stability of the plasma mirror as a secondary source of coherent attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation in pump-probe experiments. PMID:24517742

Borot, A; Douillet, D; Iaquaniello, G; Lefrou, T; Audebert, P; Geindre, J-P; Lopez-Martens, R

2014-01-01

439

Visuoperceptual repetition priming and progression of parkinsonian signs in aging  

PubMed Central

Parkinsonian signs in older persons are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, however there is limited information about factors which predict progression of these signs. Using generalized linear models, we examined the association between efficiency in visuoperceptual and conceptual processing, measured by repetition priming, and rate of change in parkinsonian signs in a large sample of older persons without cognitive impairment or Parkinson’s disease. Subjects with better visuoperceptual priming, measured by threshold word-identification and word-stem completion, at study baseline, progressed more slowly during follow-up of up to 11 years. Conceptual priming was not associated with change in parkinsonian signs. The findings demonstrate that individual differences in visuoperceptual efficiency, measured by repetition priming, occur in older persons without cognitive impairment and predict important changes in motor function. Reduced visuoperceptual priming in aging may be an early signal of vulnerability in a corticostrial circuit that contributes to sensorimotor integration. PMID:17709154

Fleischman, Debra A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Bienias, Julia L.; Bennett, David A.

2009-01-01

440

Closed cycle high-repetition-rate pulsed HF laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of a closed cycle high repetition rate HF laser is described. A short pulse, glow discharge is formed in a 10 SF6:1 H2 gas mixture at a total pressure of approximately 110 torr within a 15 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm3 volume. Transverse, recirculated gas flow adequate to enable repetitive operation up to 3 kHz is imposed by a centrifugal fan. The fan also forces the gas through a scrubber cell to eliminate ground state HF from the gas stream. An automated gas make-up system replenishes spent gas removed by the scrubber. Typical mean laser output powers up to 3 W can be maintained for extended periods of operation.

Harris, Michael R.; Morris, A. V.; Gorton, Eric K.

1997-04-01