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1

A Survey of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in North American River Otters Housed in Zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author

Paige Morabito; Meredith J. Bashaw

2012-01-01

2

A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.  

PubMed

Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated. PMID:22742198

Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

2012-01-01

3

Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

4

Is there a relationship between restricted, repetitive, stereotyped behaviors and interests and abnormal sensory response in children with autism spectrum disorders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age, total RBS-R and Sensory Profile scores revealed significant correlations both prior to

Robin L. Gabriels; John A. Agnew; Lucy Jane Miller; Jane Gralla; Zhaoxing Pan; Edward Goldson; James C. Ledbetter; Juliet P. Dinkins; Elizabeth Hooks

2008-01-01

5

The pathophysiology of restricted repetitive behavior.  

PubMed

Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are heterogeneous ranging from stereotypic body movements to rituals to restricted interests. RRBs are most strongly associated with autism but occur in a number of other clinical disorders as well as in typical development. There does not seem to be a category of RRB that is unique or specific to autism and RRB does not seem to be robustly correlated with specific cognitive, sensory or motor abnormalities in autism. Despite its clinical significance, little is known about the pathophysiology of RRB. Both clinical and animal models studies link repetitive behaviors to genetic mutations and a number of specific genetic syndromes have RRBs as part of the clinical phenotype. Genetic risk factors may interact with experiential factors resulting in the extremes in repetitive behavior phenotypic expression that characterize autism. Few studies of individuals with autism have correlated MRI findings and RRBs and no attempt has been made to associate RRB and post-mortem tissue findings. Available clinical and animal models data indicate functional and structural alterations in cortical-basal ganglia circuitry in the expression of RRB, however. Our own studies point to reduced activity of the indirect basal ganglia pathway being associated with high levels of repetitive behavior in an animal model. These findings, if generalizable, suggest specific therapeutic targets. These, and perhaps other, perturbations to cortical basal ganglia circuitry are mediated by specific molecular mechanisms (e.g., altered gene expression) that result in long-term, experience-dependent neuroadaptations that initiate and maintain repetitive behavior. A great deal more research is needed to uncover such mechanisms. Work in areas such as substance abuse, OCD, Tourette syndrome, Parkinson's disease, and dementias promise to provide findings critical for identifying neurobiological mechanisms relevant to RRB in autism. Moreover, basic research in areas such as birdsong, habit formation, and procedural learning may provide additional, much needed clues. Understanding the pathophysioloy of repetitive behavior will be critical to identifying novel therapeutic targets and strategies for individuals with autism. PMID:21547711

Lewis, Mark; Kim, Soo-Jeong

2009-06-16

6

Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restricted, repetitive behavior, along with deficits in social reciprocity and communication, is diagnostic of autism. Animal models relevant to this domain generally fall into three classes: repetitive behavior associated with targeted insults to the CNS; repetitive behavior induced by pharmacological agents; and repetitive behavior associated with restricted environments and experience. The extant literature provides potential models of the repetitive behavioral

Mark H. Lewis; Yoko Tanimura; Linda W. Lee; James W. Bodfish

2007-01-01

7

The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

2009-01-01

8

Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of…

Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

2008-01-01

9

Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body\\u000a rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior,\\u000a such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of skills. A multiple baseline\\u000a design was used to examine whether multi-component social skills intervention (including

Rachel L. Loftin; Samuel L. Odom; Johanna F. Lantz

2008-01-01

10

The prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat (N = 58), Fragile X (N = 191), Prader-Willi (N = 189), Lowe (N = 56) and Smith-Magenis (N = 42) syndromes and individuals with intellectual disability of heterogeneous aetiology (N = 56). Repetitive behavior was variable across syndromes. Fragile X syndrome scored highly on all subscales. Angelman syndrome demonstrated a significantly lowered probability for most behaviors. Prader-Willi, Cri-du-Chat and Smith-Magenis syndrome evidenced unique profiles of repetitive behavior. There is extreme heterogeneity of repetitive behavior across genetic syndromes, highlighting syndrome specific profiles. PMID:19037716

Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

2008-11-27

11

Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for “higher order” behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research.

McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

12

Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

2008-01-01

13

Neuroligin 1 deletion results in impaired spatial memory and increased repetitive behavior  

PubMed Central

Neuroligins (NLs) are a family of neural cell-adhesion molecules that are involved in excitatory/inhibitory synapse specification. Multiple members of the NL family (including NL1) and their binding partners have been linked to cases of human autism and mental retardation. We have now characterized NL1 deficient mice in autism and mental retardation-relevant behavioral tasks. NL1 KO mice display deficits in spatial learning and memory that correlate with impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation. In addition, NL1 KO mice exhibit a dramatic increase in repetitive, stereotyped grooming behavior, a potential autism-relevant abnormality. This repetitive stereotyped grooming abnormality in NL1 KO mice is associated with a reduced NMDA/AMPA ratio at cortico-striatal synapses. Interestingly, we further demonstrate that the increased repetitive grooming phenotype can be rescued in adult mice by administration of the NMDA receptor partial co-agonist D-cycloserine. Broadly, these data are consistent with a role of synaptic cell-adhesion molecules in general, and neuroligin-1 in particular, in autism, and implicate reduced excitatory synaptic transmission as a potential mechanism and treatment target for repetitive behavioral abnormalities.

Blundell, Jacqueline; Blaiss, Cory A.; Etherton, Mark R.; Espinosa, Felipe; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Walz, Christopher; Bolliger, Marc F.; Sudhof, Thomas C.; Powell, Craig M.

2010-01-01

14

Response monitoring, repetitive behaviour and anterior cingulate abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD)  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing factors to autistic disorders. We investigated whether ACC structure and function during response monitoring were associated with repetitive behaviour in ASD. We compared ACC activation to correct and erroneous antisaccades using rapid presentation event-related functional MRI in 14 control and ten ASD participants. Because response monitoring is the product of coordinated activity in ACC networks, we also examined the microstructural integrity of the white matter (WM) underlying this brain region using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) in 12 control and 12 adult ASD participants. ACC activation and FA were examined in relation to Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised ratings of restricted and repetitive behaviour. Relative to controls, ASD participants: (i) made more antisaccade errors and responded more quickly on correct trials; (ii) showed reduced discrimination between error and correct responses in rostral ACC (rACC), which was primarily due to (iii) abnormally increased activation on correct trials and (iv) showed reduced FA in WM underlying ACC. Finally, in ASD (v) increased activation on correct trials and reduced FA in rACC WM were related to higher ratings of repetitive behaviour. These findings demonstrate functional and structural abnormalities of the ACC in ASD that may contribute to repetitive behaviour. rACC activity following errors is thought to reflect affective appraisal of the error. Thus, the hyperactive rACC response to correct trials can be interpreted as a misleading affective signal that something is awry, which may trigger repetitive attempts at correction. Another possible consequence of reduced affective discrimination between error and correct responses is that it might interfere with the reinforcement of responses that optimize outcomes. Furthermore, dysconnection of the ACC, as suggested by reduced FA, to regions involved in behavioural control might impair on-line modulations of response speed to optimize performance (i.e. speed-accuracy trade-off) and increase error likelihood. These findings suggest that in ASD, structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC compromise response monitoring and thereby contribute to behaviour that is rigid and repetitive rather than flexible and responsive to contingencies. Illuminating the mechanisms and clinical significance of abnormal response monitoring in ASD represents a fruitful avenue for further research.

Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J.S.

2008-01-01

15

Repetitive Behaviors in Autism: Relationships with Associated Clinical Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between repetitive behaviors (RBs) and associated clinical features (i.e., cognitive and adaptive functioning levels, sleep problems, medication use, and other behavioral problems) were examined in two groups (High nonverbal IQ greater than or equal to 97 versus Low nonverbal IQ less than or equal to 56) of children with autism…

Gabriels, Robin L.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Hill, Dina E.; Ivers, Bonnie J.; Goldson, Edward

2005-01-01

16

Abnormal grain growth behavior of an  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a superior high temperature creep strength, the transformation of fine-grained structure to large elongated grains\\u000a by abnormal grain growth is an important process for oxide dispersion strengthened superalloys. The present study investigated\\u000a the abnormal grain growth behavior of TMO-2, an experimental alloy possessing higher creep strength than existing ODS alloys.\\u000a It was found that abnormal grain growth was

K. Mino; Y. G. Nakagawa; A. Ohtomo

1987-01-01

17

fMRI tracks reductions in repetitive behaviors in autism: Two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is characterized by abnormal prefrontal brain activation during cognitive control, a potential biomarker of repetitive behaviors. In this proof-of-principle study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity during an oddball task in two high-functioning males with autism before and after 12 weeks of treatment with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. One participant showed marked

Gabriel S. Dichter; Linmarie Sikich; Steve Mahorney; Jennifer N. Felder; Kristen S. L. Lam; Lauren Turner-Brown; James Bodfish

2010-01-01

18

Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition  

PubMed Central

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

2011-01-01

19

Psychopharmacologic interventions for repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of psychopharmacological treatments for repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in the context of current conceptualizations of this understudied core symptom domain. The available literature on the widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline, are reviewed. In addition to SSRIs, research on effects of other pharmacologic interventions such as divalproex sodium, risperidone, and the neuropeptide oxytocin are presented. To date, data are mixed for interventions commonly prescribed in clinical practice and suggest several areas of investigation in advancing research on the medication management of repetitive behaviors. PMID:18775368

Soorya, Latha; Kiarashi, Jessica; Hollander, Eric

2008-10-01

20

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

2009-01-01

21

Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors: The Proximal and Distal Effects of Affective Variables on Behavioral Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on 2 studies designed to examine the contribution of affective variables on the expression of body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs; e.g., skin picking, nail biting). The first study revealed that persons engaging in a BFRB experienced significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression than those without BFRBs. The second study was conducted to determine if repetitive behaviors were

Ellen J. Teng; Douglas W. Woods; Brook A. Marcks; Michael P. Twohig

2004-01-01

22

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children\\u000a with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment\\u000a Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic\\u000a motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74

Annette V. Joosten; Anita C. Bundy; Stewart L. Einfeld

2009-01-01

23

Repetitive Behavior Profiles in Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although repetitive behaviors are a core diagnostic domain for autism spectrum disorders, research in this area has been neglected. This study had two major aims (1) to provide a detailed characterization of repetitive behaviors in individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and typically developing controls (TD); and (2) to examine whether differences in repetitive behavior profiles could provide

Mikle South; Sally Ozonoff; William M. McMahon

2005-01-01

24

Abnormal N400 word repetition effects in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome  

PubMed Central

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, a neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles (55–200 CGG repeats) of the FMR1 gene, affects many carriers in late-life. Patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome typically have cerebellar ataxia, intranuclear inclusions in neurons and astrocytes, as well as cognitive impairment. Dementia can also be present with cognitive deficits that are as severe as in Alzheimer’s disease, however frontosubcortical type impairment is more pronounced in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. We sought to characterize the P600 and N400 word repetition effects in patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, using an event-related potential word repetition paradigm with demonstrated sensitivity to very early Alzheimer’s disease. We hypothesized that the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome-affected participants with poor declarative verbal memory would have pronounced abnormalities in the P600 repetition effect. In the event-related potential experiment, subjects performed a category decision task whilst an electroencephalogram was recorded. Auditory category statements were each followed by an associated visual target word (50% ‘congruous’ category exemplars, 50% ‘incongruous’ nouns). Two-thirds of the stimuli (category statement–target word pairs) were repeated, either at short-lag (?10–40 s) or long-lag (?100–140 s). The N400 and P600 amplitude data were submitted to split-plot analyses of variance. These analyses of variance showed a highly significant reduction of the N400 repetition effect (F = 22.5, P < 0.001), but not of the P600 repetition effect, in mild fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (n = 32, mean age = 68.7, mean Mini-Mental State Examination score = 26.8). Patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome had significantly smaller late positive amplitude (550–800 ms post-stimulus onset) to congruous words (P = 0.04 for group effect). Reduced P600 repetition effect amplitude was associated with poorer recall within fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome patients (r = 0.66) and across all subjects (r = 0.52). Larger P600 amplitude to new congruous words also correlated significantly with higher free recall scores (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) across all subjects. We found a correlation between the amplitude of late positivity and CGG repeat length in those with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (r = 0.47, P = 0.006). Higher levels of FMR1 mRNA were associated with smaller N400s to incongruous words and larger positive amplitudes (between 300 and 500 ms) to congruous words. In conclusion, event-related potential word repetition effects appear sensitive to the cognitive dysfunction present in patients with mild fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. Their more severe reduction in N400 repetition effect, than P600, is in contrast to the reverse pattern reported in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and incipient Alzheimer’s disease (Olichney et al., 2008).

Chan, Shiaohui; Wong, Ling M.; Schneider, Andrea; Seritan, Andreea; Niese, Adam; Yang, Jin-Chen; Laird, Kelsey; Teichholtz, Sara; Khan, Sara; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi

2010-01-01

25

Behavioral control of abnormal breathing in sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral control of abnormal breathing in sleep was studied to determine if an intervention procedure could reduce apnea duration and also SaO2(blood oxygen) desaturation levels. Sleep apnea patients (n=11) were instructed while awake that tones would be presented in sleep whenever an apnea event occurred. They were told to breathe deeply to the tones and were given practice in doing

Pietro Badia; John Harshfl; Joel Culpepper; Joseph Shaffer

1988-01-01

26

Repetitive behavior profiles in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Although repetitive behaviors are a core diagnostic domain for autism spectrum disorders, research in this area has been neglected. This study had two major aims: (1) to provide a detailed characterization of repetitive behaviors in individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and typically developing controls (TD); and (2) to examine whether differences in repetitive behavior profiles could provide evidence for the external validity of AS separate from HFA. Specifically, it was hypothesized that circumscribed interests would be more prevalent and cause more impairment in the AS group than the HFA group, while the reverse would be true for other categories of repetitive behavior. The parent(s) of 61 children and adolescents (19 with AS, 21 with HFA, and 21 TD) completed two interviews focused specifically on lifetime and current repetitive behavior symptoms. No reliable differences in repetitive behavior between AS and HFA children were found. Results suggested that circumscribed interests differ in developmental course from the three other DSM-IV-TR categories of repetitive behavior. Internal consistency among the four DSM-IV-TR categories of repetitive behavior was high, alpha = .84, providing evidence for a unitary repetitive behaviors factor. The importance of expanding research in the repetitive behavior domain is highlighted as part of the necessary integration of behavioral and neurobiological approaches to understanding the etiology of autism. PMID:15909401

South, Mikle; Ozonoff, Sally; McMahon, William M

2005-04-01

27

Introduction to Tic Disorders, Trichotillomania, and Other Repetitive Behavior Disorders: Behavioral Approaches to Analysis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book represents the most comprehensive collection of information available on the behavioral approach to the assessment and treatment of tic disorders, trichotillomania, and other repetitive behavior disorders. As you read the book, you will notice we addressed a variety of audiences including researchers, practicing clinicians, and persons or parents of persons with the disorders. For example, the treatment manuals

Douglas W. Woods; Raymond G. Miltenberger

28

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.  

PubMed

This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales. Anxiety was a more likely intrinsic motivator than sensory seeking for children with dual diagnoses; the reverse was true for children with intellectual disability only. Escape and gaining a tangible object were the most common extrinsic motivators for those with dual diagnoses and attention and escape for children with intellectual disability. PMID:18839299

Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

2008-10-07

29

Relationships among Repetitive Behaviors, Sensory Features, and Executive Functions in High Functioning Autism.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory processing issues in school-aged children with high functioning autism (HFA). Children with HFA (N = 61) were compared to healthy, typical controls (N = 64) to determine the relationship between these behavioral classes and to examine whether executive dysfunction explained any relationship between the variables. Particular types of repetitive behavior (i.e., stereotypy and compulsions) were related to sensory features in autism; however, executive deficits were only correlated with repetitive behavior. This finding suggests that executive dysfunction is not the shared neurocognitive mechanism that accounts for the relationship between restricted, repetitive behaviors and aberrant sensory features in HFA. Group status, younger chronological age, presence of sensory processing issues, and difficulties with behavior regulation predicted the presence of repetitive behaviors in the HFA group. PMID:21475640

Boyd, Brian A; McBee, Matthew; Holtzclaw, Tia; Baranek, Grace T; Bodfish, James W

2009-10-01

30

Relationships among Repetitive Behaviors, Sensory Features, and Executive Functions in High Functioning Autism  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory processing issues in school-aged children with high functioning autism (HFA). Children with HFA (N = 61) were compared to healthy, typical controls (N = 64) to determine the relationship between these behavioral classes and to examine whether executive dysfunction explained any relationship between the variables. Particular types of repetitive behavior (i.e., stereotypy and compulsions) were related to sensory features in autism; however, executive deficits were only correlated with repetitive behavior. This finding suggests that executive dysfunction is not the shared neurocognitive mechanism that accounts for the relationship between restricted, repetitive behaviors and aberrant sensory features in HFA. Group status, younger chronological age, presence of sensory processing issues, and difficulties with behavior regulation predicted the presence of repetitive behaviors in the HFA group.

Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Holtzclaw, Tia; Baranek, Grace T.; Bodfish, James W.

2009-01-01

31

Subcategories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization…

Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

2013-01-01

32

Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior

Muris, Peter

2006-01-01

33

Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment.  

PubMed

We analysed the relationship between abnormal repetitive behaviour (ARB), the presence/absence of environmental enrichment, and two types of behavioural disinhibition in farmed American mink, Neovison vison. The first type, recurrent perseveration, the inappropriate repetition of already completed responses, was assessed using three indices of excessive response repetition and patterning in a bias-corrected serial two-choice guessing task. The second type, disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, a form of impulsivity, was tested in a locomotive detour task adapted from primate reaching tasks: subjects were required to walk around, rather than directly into, a transparent barrier behind which food was visible. In older adult females, recurrent perseveration positively predicted pre-feeding abnormal repetitive locomotion (ARL) in Non-enriched housing. High-ARL subjects also performed repeated (same-choice) responses more rapidly than low-ARL animals, even when statistically controlling for alternated (different-choice) response latency. Mink performed much less ARL following transfer to Enriched housing, but there was no corresponding change in recurrent perseveration. Thus, elevated recurrent perseveration is not sufficient for frequent ARL; and while captive environments do determine ARL frequency, in mink, they do not necessarily do so by modifying levels of perseveration. Disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, meanwhile, did not predict ARL. In a separate sample of differentially housed young adults, neither type of behavioural disinhibition predicted ARL, and again, whether or not housing was enriched did not affect behavioural disinhibition despite affecting ARL. Thus, the relationship between recurrent perseveration and ARB may only develop with age; longitudinal studies are now required for confirmation. PMID:21466825

Dallaire, Jamie A; Meagher, Rebecca K; Díez-León, María; Garner, Joseph P; Mason, Georgia J

2011-04-02

34

The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

2012-01-01

35

Social Deficits, Stereotypy, and Early Emergence of Repetitive Behavior in the C58/J Inbred Mouse Strain  

PubMed Central

Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect aspects of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by emergence of symptoms early in life, higher prevalence in males, social deficits and abnormal repetitive behavior. Mice from the C57BL/6J inbred strain, which has a similar genetic lineage and physical appearance to C58/J, served as a comparison group. Our results revealed that C58/J mice display elevated activity levels by postnatal day 6, which persist into adulthood. Despite normal olfactory ability, young adult male C58/J mice showed deficits in social approach in the three-chambered choice assay and failed to demonstrate social transmission of food preference. In contrast, female C58/J mice performed similarly to female C57BL/6J mice in both social tests. C58/J mice of both sexes demonstrated abnormal repetitive behaviors, displaying excessive jumping and back flipping in both social and non-social situations. These stereotypies were clearly evident in C58/J pups by postnatal days 20–21, and were also observed in C58/J dams during a test for maternal behavior. Overall, the strain profile for C58/J, including spontaneously developing motor stereotypies emerging early in the developmental trajectory, and social deficits primarily in males, models multiple components of the autism phenotype.

Ryan, Bryce C.; Young, Nancy B.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Bodfish, James W.; Moy, Sheryl S.

2010-01-01

36

A Comparison of Repetitive Behaviors in Aspergers Disorder and High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compared 33 IQ and age matched pairs of individuals with Aspergers Disorder (ASP) and high functioning autism\\u000a (HFA) on measures of repetitive behavior. On the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), the ASP and HFA groups showed\\u000a no differences in RBS-R Intensity score (severity) score or Frequency score (number of problems present). This suggests that\\u000a the two groups

Michael L. Cuccaro; Laura Nations; Jason Brinkley; Ruth K. Abramson; Harry H. Wright; Alicia Hall; John Gilbert; Margaret A. Pericak-Vance

2007-01-01

37

Repetitive Self-Grooming Behavior in the BTBR Mouse Model of Autism is Blocked by the mGluR5 Antagonist MPEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf\\/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high

Jill L Silverman; Seda S Tolu; Charlotte L Barkan; Jacqueline N Crawley

2010-01-01

38

Subcategories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization of RRBs in ASD. Using data from the Simons simplex collection (n = 1,825), we examined the association between scores on the ADI-R and the repetitive behavior scale-revised. Analyses supported the construct validity of RSM and IS subcategories. As in previous studies, IS behaviors showed no relationship with IQ. These findings support the continued use of RRB subcategories, particularly IS behaviors, as a means of creating more behaviorally homogeneous subgroups of children with ASD. PMID:23065116

Bishop, Somer L; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

2013-06-01

39

3D abnormal behavior recognition in power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far most research of human behavior recognition focus on simple individual behavior, such as wave, crouch, jump and bend. This paper will focus on abnormal behavior with objects carrying in power generation. Such as using mobile communication device in main control room, taking helmet off during working and lying down in high place. Taking account of the color and

Zhenhua Wei; Xuesen Li; Jie Su; Jie Lin

2011-01-01

40

Cortical activity and children's rituals, habits and other repetitive behavior: a visual P300 study.  

PubMed

This study examines the link between children's repetitive, ritualistic, behavior and cortical brain activity. Twelve typically developing children between the ages of 6 and 12 years were administered two visual P300, oddball tasks with a 32-electrode electroencephalogram (EEG) system. One of the oddball tasks was specifically designed to reflect sensitivity to asymmetry, a phenomenon common in children and in a variety of disorders involving compulsive behavior. Parents completed the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children's repetitive, compulsive-like behaviors were strongly associated with faster processing of an asymmetrical target stimulus, even when accounting for their P300 latencies on a control task. The research punctuates the continuity between observed brain-behavior links in clinical disorders such as OCD and autism spectrum disorders, and normative variants of repetitive behavior. PMID:21658417

Evans, David W; Maliken, Ashley

2011-05-31

41

Relationships among Repetitive Behaviors, Sensory Features, and Executive Functions in High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory processing issues in school-aged children with high functioning autism (HFA). Children with HFA (N = 61) were compared to healthy, typical controls (N = 64) to determine the relationship between these behavioral classes and to examine whether executive dysfunction…

Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Holtzclaw, Tia; Baranek, Grace T.; Bodfish, James W.

2009-01-01

42

Indirect basal ganglia pathway mediation of repetitive behavior: Attenuation by adenosine receptor agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and common in related neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their clinical importance, underlying mechanisms associated with the expression of these behaviors remain poorly understood. Our lab has previously shown that the rates of spontaneous stereotypy in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were negatively correlated with enkephalin content, a marker of striatopallidal but not striatonigral neurons. To investigate

Yoko Tanimura; Sasha Vaziri; Mark H. Lewis

2010-01-01

43

Fibromyalgic Syndrome: Depression and Abnormal Illness Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports psychological symptoms assessed in 327 patients with fibromyalgia (FS) in a multicenter investigation. Two self-report scales, in their validated Italian translations, were used for screening: the CES-D (the Center of Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) developed at the NIMH for measuring depression and the Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) developed by Pilowsky and Spence. The cutoff point of 23 in the

M. Ercolani; G. Trombini; R. Chattat; C. Cervini; G. Piergiacomi; F. Salaffi; S. Zeni; R. Marcolongo

1994-01-01

44

[Disinhibitory abnormal behavior induced by treatment of Parkinson disease].  

PubMed

The treatment of Parkinson disease has considerably progressed in the last 20 years. However, such treatments results in the adverse event of disinhibitory abnormal behavior, which includes impulse control disorders, punding, and dopamine dysregulation syndrome. Pathological gambling is the most extensively studied among such abnormal behaviors. It has been associated with the use of dopamine agonists and its prevalence increases according to the does of the drugs. The maximum dose of the ergot dopamine agonist pergolide is 1.25 mg/day in Japan, which is a quarter of that used in Western countries. The maximum dose of the non-ergot dopamine agonist, pramipexole is 4.5 mg/day in Japan, which is the same as in Western countries. Pramipexole was launched in 2004 in Japan, and since then cases of pathological gambling associated with dopamine agonists used has been increasing. Because of the excellent health-care system in Japan, patients can easily acquire expensive dopamine agonists. Although the prevalence of these abnormal behaviors has not been studied in Japan, it could be highly proportionate to the amount of dopamine agonists. Disinhibitory abnormal behavior is also induced by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. This technology was approved in 2000 in Japan. The mechanisms by which these behaviors are induced are different between dopamine replacement therapy and deep brain stimulation. Parkinson disease patients and their caregivers occasionally believe the disinhibitory abnormal behavior as arising from the original personality of the patient rather than as an adverse event of treatment. Neurologists should be aware of the occurrence of disinhibitory abnormal behavior in the clinical practice. PMID:22481510

Fujimoto, Ken-Ichi

2012-04-01

45

Pharmacologic Treatment of Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence of Publication Bias  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of serotonin receptor inhibitors (SRIs) for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: Two reviewers searched PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of SRIs for repetitive behaviors in ASD. Our primary outcome was mean improvement in ratings scales of repetitive behavior. Publication bias was assessed by using a funnel plot, the Egger’s test, and a meta-regression of sample size and effect size. RESULTS: Our search identified 5 published and 5 unpublished but completed trials eligible for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of 5 published and 1 unpublished trial (which provided data) demonstrated a small but significant effect of SRI for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in ASD (standardized mean difference: 0.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.07–0.37], z score = 2.87, P < .005). There was significant evidence of publication bias in all analyses. When Duval and Tweedie's trim and fill method was used to adjust for the effect of publication bias, there was no longer a significant benefit of SRI for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in ASD (standardized mean difference: 0.12 [95% confidence interval: –0.02 to 0.27]). Secondary analyses demonstrated no significant effect of type of medication, patient age, method of analysis, trial design, or trial duration on reported SRI efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analysis of the published literature suggests a small but significant effect of SRI in the treatment of repetitive behaviors in ASD. This effect may be attributable to selective publication of trial results. Without timely, transparent, and complete disclosure of trial results, it remains difficult to determine the efficacy of available medications.

Volkmar, Fred R.; Bloch, Michael H.

2012-01-01

46

Repetitive and Stereotyped Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Second Year of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined repetitive and stereotyped behaviors (RSB) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 50), developmental delays without ASD (DD; n = 25) and typical development (TD, n = 50) between 18 and 24 months of age. Children with ASD demonstrated significantly higher frequency and longer duration of\\u000a RSB with objects, body, and sensory behaviors during a systematic behavior sample than both the DD

Nola Watt; Amy M. Wetherby; Angie Barber; Lindee Morgan

2008-01-01

47

Repetitive and self-injurious behaviors: associations with caudate volume in autism and fragile X syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Following from previous work suggesting that neurobehavioral features distinguish fragile X and idiopathic variants of autism, we investigated the relationships between four forms of repetitive behavior (stereotypy, self-injury, compulsivity, ritual behavior) and caudate nuclei volume in two groups: boys with fragile X syndrome, a subset of whom met criteria for autism, and a comparison group of boys with idiopathic autism. Methods Bilateral caudate nuclei volumes were measured in boys aged 3 to 6 years with fragile X syndrome (n = 41), the subset of boys with fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 16), and boys with idiopathic autism (n = 30). Repetitive behaviors were measured using the Repetitive Behavior Scales-Revised. Results For boys with idiopathic autism, left caudate volume was modestly associated with self-injury, while both compulsive and ritual behaviors showed significant positive correlations with bilateral caudate nuclei volumes, replicating previous results. For boys with fragile X syndrome, there was no such association between caudate volume and compulsive behaviors. However, we did identify significant positive correlations between self-injury total scores and number of self-injury topographies with bilateral caudate nuclei volumes. Conclusions These findings suggest a specific role for the caudate nucleus in the early pathogenesis of self-injurious behavior associated with both idiopathic autism and fragile X syndrome. Results further indicate that the caudate may be differentially associated with compulsive behavior, highlighting the utility of isolating discrete brain-behavior associations within and between subtypes of autism spectrum disorder.

2013-01-01

48

Repetitive Self-Grooming Behavior in the BTBR Mouse Model of Autism is Blocked by the mGluR5 Antagonist MPEP  

PubMed Central

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. These phenotypes offer straightforward behavioral assays for translational investigations of pharmacological compounds. Two suggested treatments for autism were evaluated in the BTBR mouse model. Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, blocks aberrant phenotypes in the Fmr1 mouse model of Fragile X, a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features. Risperidone has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of irritability, tantrums, and self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals. We evaluated the actions of MPEP and risperidone on two BTBR phenotypes, low sociability and high repetitive self-grooming. Open field activity served as an independent control for non-social exploratory activity and motor functions. C57BL/6J (B6), an inbred strain with high sociability and low self-grooming, served as the strain control. MPEP significantly reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, at doses that had no sedating effects on open field activity. Risperidone reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, but only at doses that induced sedation in both strains. No overall improvements in sociability were detected in BTBR after treatment with either MPEP or risperidone. Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism.

Silverman, Jill L; Tolu, Seda S; Barkan, Charlotte L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

2010-01-01

49

Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.  

PubMed

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. These phenotypes offer straightforward behavioral assays for translational investigations of pharmacological compounds. Two suggested treatments for autism were evaluated in the BTBR mouse model. Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, blocks aberrant phenotypes in the Fmr1 mouse model of Fragile X, a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features. Risperidone has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of irritability, tantrums, and self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals. We evaluated the actions of MPEP and risperidone on two BTBR phenotypes, low sociability and high repetitive self-grooming. Open field activity served as an independent control for non-social exploratory activity and motor functions. C57BL/6J (B6), an inbred strain with high sociability and low self-grooming, served as the strain control. MPEP significantly reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, at doses that had no sedating effects on open field activity. Risperidone reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, but only at doses that induced sedation in both strains. No overall improvements in sociability were detected in BTBR after treatment with either MPEP or risperidone. Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism. PMID:20032969

Silverman, Jill L; Tolu, Seda S; Barkan, Charlotte L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

2009-12-23

50

A Placebo Controlled Crossover Trial of Liquid Fluoxetine on Repetitive Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescent Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive behaviors are a core symptom domain in autism that has been linked to alterations in the serotonin system. While the selective serotonin-receptive inhibitor fluvoxamine has been shown to be effective in adults with autism, as yet no published placebo controlled trials with these agents document safety and efficacy in children with autism. This study examines the selective serotonin reuptake

Eric Hollander; Ann Phillips; William Chaplin; Karen Zagursky; Sherie Novotny; Stacey Wasserman; Rupa Iyengar

2005-01-01

51

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the description of RRBs. Research has also identified distinctive subtypes

Susan R. Leekam; Margot R. Prior; Mirko Uljarevic

2011-01-01

52

Cortical activity and children's rituals, habits and other repetitive behavior: A visual P300 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the link between children's repetitive, ritualistic, behavior and cortical brain activity. Twelve typically developing children between the ages of 6 and 12 years were administered two visual P300, oddball tasks with a 32-electrode electroencephalogram (EEG) system. One of the oddball tasks was specifically designed to reflect sensitivity to asymmetry, a phenomenon common in children and in a

David W. Evans; Ashley Maliken

2011-01-01

53

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

2011-01-01

54

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

2013-01-01

55

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised (ADI-R: Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur (1994) were examined in 165 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), 49 children with non-spectrum developmental disorders (DD), and 65 children with typical development (TD) at approximately 2 years of age. A factor…

Richler, Jennifer; Bishop, Somer L.; Kleinke, Jennifer R.; Lord, Catherine

2007-01-01

56

Generativity Abilities Predict Communication Deficits but Not Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate impaired generativity that is thought to mediate repetitive behaviors in autism (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(6):839-849, 1999a). The present study evaluated generativity in children with and without ASD via the use-of-objects task (Turner in J Child Psychol…

Dichter, Gabriel S.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Bodfish, James W.

2009-01-01

57

Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task.  

PubMed

Repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal hand dystonia, can be associated with tasks that require prolonged, repetitive behaviors. Previous studies using animal models of repetitive motion have correlated cortical neuroplastic changes or peripheral tissue inflammation with fine motor performance. However, the possibility that both peripheral and central mechanisms coexist with altered motor performance has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between motor behavior changes associated with repetitive behaviors and both peripheral tissue inflammation and cortical neuroplasticity. A rat model of reaching and grasping involving moderate repetitive reaching with negligible force (MRNF) was used. Rats performed the MRNF task for 2 h/day, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Reach performance was monitored by measuring reach rate/success, daily exposure, reach movement reversals/patterns, reach/grasp phase times, grip strength and grooming function. With cumulative task exposure, reach performance, grip strength and agility declined while an inefficient food retrieval pattern increased. In S1 of MRNF rats, a dramatic disorganization of the topographic forepaw representation was observed, including the emergence of large receptive fields located on both the wrist/forearm and forepaw with alterations of neuronal properties. In M1, there was a drastic enlargement of the overall forepaw map area, and of the cortex devoted to digit, arm-digits and elbow-wrist responses. In addition, unusually low current amplitude evoked digit movements. IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha increased in forearm flexor muscles and tendons of MRNF animals. The increases in IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha negatively correlated with grip strength and amount of current needed to evoke forelimb movements. This study provides strong evidence that both peripheral inflammation and cortical neuroplasticity jointly contribute to the development of chronic repetitive motion disorders. PMID:19686738

Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Barr, Ann E; Strata, Fabrizio; Russier, Michael; Kietrys, David M; Merzenich, Michael M; Byl, Nancy N; Barbe, Mary F

2009-08-15

58

A placebo controlled crossover trial of liquid fluoxetine on repetitive behaviors in childhood and adolescent autism.  

PubMed

Repetitive behaviors are a core symptom domain in autism that has been linked to alterations in the serotonin system. While the selective serotonin-receptive inhibitor fluvoxamine has been shown to be effective in adults with autism, as yet no published placebo controlled trials with these agents document safety and efficacy in children with autism. This study examines the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor liquid fluoxetine in the treatment of repetitive behaviors in childhood and adolescent autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In total, 45 child or adolescent patients with ASD were randomized into two acute 8-week phases in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of liquid fluoxetine. Study design included two randomized 8-week fluoxetine and placebo phases separated by a 4-week washout phase. Outcome measures included measures of repetitive behaviors and global improvement. Low-dose liquid fluoxetine (mean final dose: 9.9+/-4.35 mg/day) was superior to placebo in the treatment of repetitive behaviors by CY-BOCS compulsion scale. The effect size was in the moderate to large range, and the doses used were low. Liquid fluoxetine was only slightly, and not significantly, superior to placebo on CGI autism score partially due to a phase order effect. However, fluoxetine was marginally superior to placebo on a composite measure of global effectiveness. Liquid fluoxetine did not significantly differ from placebo on treatment emergent side effects. Liquid fluoxetine in low doses is more effective than placebo in the treatment of repetitive behaviors in childhood autism. Limitations include small sample size and the crossover design of the study. Further replication and long-term maintenance trials are needed. PMID:15602505

Hollander, Eric; Phillips, Ann; Chaplin, William; Zagursky, Karen; Novotny, Sherie; Wasserman, Stacey; Iyengar, Rupa

2005-03-01

59

A Classroom-Based Antecedent Intervention Reduces Obsessive-Repetitive Behavior in an Adolescent With Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive-repetitive behavior is a core feature of autism and represented the presenting complaint for Robert, a 15-year-old boy with autism. Robert's constant rearrangement of objects interfered with his participation in classroom activities, and this behavior was successfully reduced by providing structured opportunities to select and use preferred leisure activities. Provision of structured leisure opportunities could be conceptualized as an antecedent

Jeff Sigafoos; Vanessa A. Green; Donna Payne; Mark F. OReilly; Giulio E. Lancioni

2009-01-01

60

The Relationship Between Restrictive and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors in individuals with autism and obsessive-compulsive behaviors in parents. We hypothesized that repetitive behaviors in probands with autism would be associated with increased obsessive-compulsive behaviors in parents in sporadic families (1 known case of autism per family and no known history of autism). Parents with clinically significant Y-BOCS scores were more likely

RK Abramson; SA Ravan; HH Wright; K Wieduwilt; CM Wolpert; SA Donnelly; MA Pericak-Vance; ML Cuccaro

2005-01-01

61

Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task  

PubMed Central

Repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal hand dystonia, can be associated with tasks that require prolonged, repetitive behaviors. Previous studies using animal models of repetitive motion have correlated cortical neuroplastic changes or peripheral tissue inflammation with fine motor performance. However, the possibility that both peripheral and central mechanisms coexist with altered motor performance has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between motor behaviour changes associated with repetitive behaviors and both peripheral tissue inflammation and cortical neuroplasticity. A rat model of reaching and grasping involving moderate repetitive reaching with negligible force (MRNF) was used. Rats performed the MRNF task for 2 hrs/day, 3 days/wk for 8 weeks. Reach performance was monitored by measuring reach rate/success, daily exposure, reach movement reversals/patterns, reach/grasp phase times, grip strength and grooming function. With cumulative task exposure, reach performance, grip strength and agility declined while an inefficient food retrieval pattern increased. In S1 of MRNF rats, a dramatic disorganization of the topographic forepaw representation was observed, including the emergence of large receptive fields located on both the wrist/forearm and forepaw with alterations of neuronal properties. In M1, there was a drastic enlargement of the overall forepaw map area, and of the cortex devoted to digit, arm-digits and elbow-wrist responses. In addition, unusually low current amplitude evoked digit movements. IL-1? and TNF-? increased in forearm flexor muscles and tendons of MRNF animals. The increases in IL-1? and TNF-? negatively correlated with grip strength and amount of current needed to evoke forelimb movements. This study provides strong evidence that both peripheral inflammation and cortical neuroplasticity jointly contribute to the development of chronic repetitive motion disorders.

Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Barr, Ann E; Strata, Fabrizio; Russier, Michael; Kietrys, David M; Merzenich, Michael M; Byl, Nancy N; Barbe, Mary F

2009-01-01

62

Standardizing ADOS Domain Scores: Separating Severity of Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors.  

PubMed

Standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores provide a measure of autism severity that is less influenced by child characteristics than raw totals (Gotham et al. in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(5), 693-705 2009). However, these scores combine symptoms from the Social Affect (SA) and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors (RRB) domains. Separate calibrations of each domain would provide a clearer picture of ASD dimensions. The current study separately calibrated raw totals from the ADOS SA and RRB domains. Standardized domain scores were less influenced by child characteristics than raw domain totals, thereby increasing their utility as indicators of Social-Communication and Repetitive Behavior severity. Calibrated domain scores should facilitate efforts to examine trajectories of ASD symptoms and links between neurobiological and behavioral dimensions. PMID:23143131

Hus, Vanessa; Gotham, Katherine; Lord, Catherine

2012-11-11

63

Correlation between physical anomaly and behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: The minor physical anomaly (MPA) is believed to reflect abnormal development of the CNS. The aim is to find incidence of MPA and its behavioral correlates in Down syndrome and to compare these findings with the other causes of intellectual disability and normal population. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty intellectually disabled people attending a tertiary care set-up and from various NGOs are included in the study. The age-matched group from normal population was also studied for comparison. MPA are assessed by using Modified Waldrop scale and behavioral abnormality by Diagnostic assessment scale for severely handicapped (DASH II scale). Results: The Down syndrome group had significantly more MPA than other two groups and most of the MPA is situated in the global head region. There is strong correlation (P < 0.001) between the various grouped items of Modified Waldrop scale. Depression subscale is correlated with anomalies in the hands (P < 0.001), feet and Waldrop total items (P < 0.005). Mania item of DASH II scale is related with anomalies around the eyes (P < 0.001). Self-injurious behavior and total Waldrop score is negatively correlated with global head. Conclusion: Down syndrome group has significantly more MPA and a pattern of correlation between MPA and behavioral abnormalities exists which necessitates a large-scale study.

Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Sanyal, Debasish; Roy, Krishna; Bhattacharyya, Sumita

2010-01-01

64

Developmental Trajectories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Interests in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

This study examined how restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBs) developed over time in a sample of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). One-hundred ninety-two children referred for a diagnosis of autism at age 2 and 22 children with nonspectrum development disorders were evaluated with a battery of cognitive and diagnostic measures at age 2 and subsequently at ages 3, 5, and 9. Factor analysis of the RRB items on the Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised revealed two RRB factors at each wave of data collection, one comprised of ‘repetitive sensorimotor’ (RSM) behaviors and the other of ‘insistence on sameness’ (IS) behaviors. For children with ASD, RSM scores remained relatively high over time, indicating consistent severity, whereas IS scores started low and increased over time, indicating worsening. Having a higher NVIQ at age 2 was associated with milder concurrent RSM behaviors and with improvement in these behaviors over time. There was no relationship between NVIQ at age 2 and IS behaviors. However, milder social/communicative impairment, at age 2 was associated with more severe concurrent IS behaviors. Trajectory analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity in patterns of change over time for both kinds of behaviors. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of RRBs in ASD and other disorders, making prognoses about how RRBs will develop in children with ASD as they get older, and using RRBs to identify ASD phenotypes in genetic studies.

Richler, Jennifer; Huerta, Marisela; Bishop, Somer L.; Lord, Catherine

2010-01-01

65

Synaptic dysfunction and abnormal behaviors in mice lacking major isoforms of Shank3  

PubMed Central

SHANK3 is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. Small microdeletions and point mutations in SHANK3 have been identified in a small subgroup of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. SHANK3 also plays a key role in the chromosome 22q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (Phelan–McDermid syndrome), which includes ASD and cognitive dysfunction as major clinical features. To evaluate the role of Shank3 in vivo, we disrupted major isoforms of the gene in mice by deleting exons 4–9. Isoform-specific Shank3e4–9 homozygous mutant mice display abnormal social behaviors, communication patterns, repetitive behaviors and learning and memory. Shank3e4–9 male mice display more severe impairments than females in motor coordination. Shank3e4–9 mice have reduced levels of Homer1b/c, GKAP and GluA1 at the PSD, and show attenuated activity-dependent redistribution of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors. Subtle morphological alterations in dendritic spines are also observed. Although synaptic transmission is normal in CA1 hippocampus, long-term potentiation is deficient in Shank3e4–9 mice. We conclude that loss of major Shank3 species produces biochemical, cellular and morphological changes, leading to behavioral abnormalities in mice that bear similarities to human ASD patients with SHANK3 mutations.

Wang, Xiaoming; McCoy, Portia A.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Pan, Yanzhen; Je, H. Shawn; Roberts, Adam C.; Kim, Caroline J.; Berrios, Janet; Colvin, Jennifer S.; Bousquet-Moore, Danielle; Lorenzo, Isabel; Wu, Gangyi; Weinberg, Richard J.; Ehlers, Michael D.; Philpot, Benjamin D.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Wetsel, William C.; Jiang, Yong-hui

2011-01-01

66

Generativity Abilities Predict Communication Deficits but not Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate impaired generativity that is thought to mediate repetitive behaviors in autism (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(6):839–849, 1999a). The present study evaluated generativity in children with and without ASD via the use-of-objects task (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(2):189–201, 1999b) and an Animals Fluency Task (Lezak in Neuropsychological assessment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995). Groups differed significantly on two of four metrics from the Animals Fluency Task and two of seven metrics from the Use of Objects task. In the ASD sample, no significant relations were found between generativity and repetitive behaviors. Significant relations were found, however, between performance on the Animals Fluency Task and communication symptoms. Results replicate reports of generativity deficits in ASD and suggest that impaired generativity may reflect communication deficits that are characteristic of the disorder.

Lam, Kristen S. L.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

67

Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

1986-01-01

68

Generativity Abilities Predict Communication Deficits but not Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate impaired generativity that is thought to mediate repetitive\\u000a behaviors in autism (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(6):839–849, 1999a). The present study evaluated generativity in children with and without ASD via the use-of-objects task (Turner in J Child\\u000a Psychol Psychiatry, 40(2):189–201, 1999b) and an Animals Fluency Task (Lezak in Neuropsychological assessment. Oxford

Gabriel S. Dichter; Kristen S. L. Lam; Lauren M. Turner-Brown; Tia N. Holtzclaw; James W. Bodfish

2009-01-01

69

Genome-wide linkage analyses of two repetitive behavior phenotypes in Utah pedigrees with autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that efforts to identify genetic risk markers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would benefit from the analysis of more narrowly defined ASD phenotypes. Previous research indicates that 'insistence on sameness' (IS) and 'repetitive sensory-motor actions' (RSMA) are two factors within the ASD 'repetitive and stereotyped behavior' domain. The primary aim of this study was to

Dale S Cannon; Judith S Miller; Reid J Robison; Michele E Villalobos; Natalie K Wahmhoff; Kristina Allen-Brady; William M McMahon; Hilary Coon

2010-01-01

70

A statistical model examining repetitive criminal behavior in acts of violence.  

PubMed

A simple statistical model for examining repetitive criminal behavior in acts of violence is described. The units, called "parameters," are nonquestionable data concerning environment of the crime, personal properties, and postmortem findings of the victim, obtained by double-blind investigation performed by two forensic pathologists. Parameters shared by two or more criminal acts allegedly committed by the same assailant were compared with the same parameters recorded from 50 or 100 other mutually independent criminal acts committed by other known assailants. This allowed an evaluation of the probability (p) of a crime pattern expressed as a parameter score to recur in mutually independent cases. The distribution of the score, when plotted on a logarithmic scale in all examples, showed an approximately normal distribution. The relation between probability (p), the estimated mean (means), and standard deviation (SD) yielded a normal curve. Different patterns of action by different perpetrators and patterns indicating repetitive behavior could be obtained. The method is applicable during investigation of crimes in which the perpetrator acts in a repetitive manner, as in serial murders. PMID:3605002

Rajs, J; Härm, T; Brodin, U

1987-06-01

71

Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters.

Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

2012-01-01

72

Factor analysis of restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-R.  

PubMed

The current study examined the factor structure of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) in children with autism. Factor extraction procedures of 12 items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) were applied in N = 207 individuals with autism. Two interpretable factors were identified: Factor 1--repetitive sensory motor actions and Factor 2--resistance to change. There was a significant negative correlation between an index of level of adaptive functioning and Factor 1. Intraclass correlations were not significant for either factor in a subset of families with two or more siblings with autism (multiplex). No differences in scores were apparent for either factor when multiplex families and families containing only one affected individual with autism (singleton) were compared. RRB in autism are represented by two distinct factors which may reflect two separate groups within autism. Defining subgroups within autism will allow for reduction of clinical heterogeneity and enhance our ability to dissect the genetic etiology of this complex disorder. PMID:14518620

Cuccaro, Michael L; Shao, Yujan; Grubber, Janet; Slifer, Michael; Wolpert, Chantelle M; Donnelly, Shannon L; Abramson, Ruth K; Ravan, Sarah A; Wright, Harry H; DeLong, G Robert; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

2003-01-01

73

Neuroinflammation and behavioral abnormalities after neonatal terbutaline treatment in rats: implications for autism.  

PubMed

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder presenting before 3 years of age with deficits in communication and social skills and repetitive behaviors. In addition to genetic influences, recent studies suggest that prenatal drug or chemical exposures are risk factors for autism. Terbutaline, a beta2-adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, has been associated with increased concordance for autism in dizygotic twins. We studied the effects of terbutaline on microglial activation in different brain regions and behavioral outcomes in developing rats. Newborn rats were given terbutaline (10 mg/kg) daily on postnatal days (PN) 2 to 5 or PN 11 to 14 and examined 24 h after the last dose and at PN 30. Immunohistochemical studies showed that administration of terbutaline on PN 2 to 5 produced a robust increase in microglial activation on PN 30 in the cerebral cortex, as well as in cerebellar and cerebrocortical white matter. None of these effects occurred in animals given terbutaline on PN 11 to 14. In behavioral tests, animals treated with terbutaline on PN 2 to 5 showed consistent patterns of hyper-reactivity to novelty and aversive stimuli when assessed in a novel open field, as well as in the acoustic startle response test. Our findings indicate that beta2-adrenoceptor overstimulation during an early critical period results in microglial activation associated with innate neuroinflammatory pathways and behavioral abnormalities, similar to those described in autism. This study provides a useful animal model for understanding the neuropathological processes underlying autism spectrum disorders. PMID:17400887

Zerrate, M C; Pletnikov, M; Connors, S L; Vargas, D L; Seidler, F J; Zimmerman, A W; Slotkin, T A; Pardo, C A

2007-03-30

74

Abnormal dynamic behavior in a ferroelectric bilayer film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the Landau–Khalatnikov equation of motion, the switching dynamic behavior (including switching time, hysteresis loop and remanent polarization) of a ferroelectric bilayer film with surface transition layer within each constituent thin film and an interfacial coupling between two thin films has been first studied. The results show that the serious lag phenomenon of the hysteresis loop of the bilayer film occurs due to the strong strength of the interfacial coupling. It is interesting to note that there is a critical point, which is an equilibrium point of two contrary actions of the surface transition layer and interfacial coupling. The abnormal behavior of the switching time and remanent polarization in the bilayer film is attributed to the competition of the surface transition layer and interfacial coupling.

Cui, Lian; Han, Zhiyou; Xu, Quan; Gao, Yukai; Li, Ruiying; Ren, Yandong; Lü, Tianquan

2013-10-01

75

Modified Exposure and Response Prevention to Treat the Repetitive Behaviors of a Child with Autism: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles) remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings.

Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

2011-01-01

76

Feasibility of exposure response prevention to treat repetitive behaviors of children with autism and an intellectual disability: a brief report.  

PubMed

There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility of modifying exposure response prevention, an evidence-based strategy for obsessive-compulsive disorder, to treat the repetitive behaviors found in autism. Five school-aged participants (ages 5-11) diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. Our preliminary findings suggest it is feasible, and potentially efficacious, to modify standard exposure response prevention to treat the specific forms of repetitive behaviors found in individuals with autism and comorbid intellectual disabilities. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these preliminary findings. PMID:21975037

Boyd, Brian A; Woodard, Cooper R; Bodfish, James W

2011-10-05

77

Behavioral Abnormalities Observed in Zfhx2-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Zfhx2 (also known as zfh-5) encodes a transcription factor containing three homeobox domains and 18 Zn-finger motifs. We have reported that Zfhx2 mRNA is expressed mainly in differentiating neurons in the mouse brain and its expression level is negatively regulated by the antisense transcripts of Zfhx2. Although the expression profile of Zfhx2 suggests that ZFHX2 might have a role in a particular step of neuronal differentiation, the specific function of the gene has not been determined. We generated a Zfhx2-deficient mouse line and performed a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests to elucidate the function of ZFHX2. Homozygous Zfhx2-deficient mice showed several behavioral abnormalities, namely, hyperactivity, enhanced depression-like behaviors, and an aberrantly altered anxiety-like phenotype. These behavioral phenotypes suggest that ZFHX2 might play roles in controlling emotional aspects through the function of monoaminergic neurons where ZFHX2 is expressed. Moreover, considering their phenotypes, the Zfhx2-deficient mice may provide a novel model of human psychiatric disorders.

Komine, Yuriko; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamamori, Tetsuo

2012-01-01

78

Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not yet known; however, studies suggest that dysfunction of the immune system affects many children with ASD. Increasing evidence points to dysfunction of the innate immune system including activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages, increases in inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in brain tissue and CSF, and abnormal peripheral monocyte cell function. Dendritic cells are major players in innate immunity and have important functions in the phagocytosis of pathogens or debris, antigen presentation, activation of naïve T cells, induction of tolerance and cytokine/chemokine production. In this study, we assessed circulating frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells (defined as Lin-1(-)BDCA1(+)CD11c(+) and Lin-1(-)BDCA3(+)CD123(-)) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (Lin-1(-)BDCA2(+)CD123(+) or Lin-1(-)BDCA4(+) CD11c(-)) in 57 children with ASD, and 29 typically developing controls of the same age, all of who were enrolled as part of the Autism Phenome Project (APP). The frequencies of dendritic cells and associations with behavioral assessment and MRI measurements of amygdala volume were compared in the same participants. The frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were significantly increased in children with ASD compared to typically developing controls (p<0.03). Elevated frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were positively associated with abnormal right and left amygdala enlargement, severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and increased repetitive behaviors. The frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells were also associated with amygdala volumes as well as developmental regression in children with ASD. Dendritic cells play key roles in modulating immune responses and differences in frequencies or functions of these cells may result in immune dysfunction in children with ASD. These data further implicate innate immune cells in the complex pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:23063420

Breece, Elizabeth; Paciotti, Brian; Nordahl, Christine Wu; Ozonoff, Sally; Van de Water, Judy A; Rogers, Sally J; Amaral, David; Ashwood, Paul

2012-10-11

79

D1 and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists decrease behavioral bout duration, without altering the bout's repeated behavioral components, in a naturalistic model of repetitive and compulsive behavior.  

PubMed

Nest building behavior in the pregnant female rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a model for compulsive behavior in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This behavior comprises a cycle of repeated, stereotyped components (collecting straw, entering nest box and depositing the straw there, returning to collect more straw), which itself is repeated 80+ times in a single bout that lasts approximately 50min. The bout, in turn, is repeated if necessary, according to the rabbit's perception of whether or not the nest is finished. We administered SCH23390 (5-100?g/kg; D1/D5 antagonist) or raclopride (0.05-1.0mg/kg; D2/D3 antagonist), subcutaneously to day 28 pregnant female rabbits, 30 or 60min before placing straw inside their home cage. At doses that minimally affected ambulatory behavior in open field (5-12.5?g/kg SCH23390, 0.5-1.0mg/kg raclopride), both antagonists dramatically reduced bout duration while not significantly affecting the initiation of straw carrying behavior, the sequential performance of the individual cycle components, maximum cycle frequency, or the total number of bouts performed. These results point to an important role for dopamine neurotransmission for the prolonged expression of a normal, repetitive and compulsive-like behavior. Moreover, the finding that dopamine receptor antagonists decrease the time spent engaged in repetitive behavior (without significantly altering the form of the repetitive behavior itself) suggests a possible explanation for why neuroleptics can be clinically effective for treating OCD. PMID:22309982

Hoffman, Kurt L; Rueda Morales, Rafael I

2012-01-30

80

Cocaine addiction: from habits to stereotypical-repetitive behaviors and punding.  

PubMed

"Punding" is a stereotypical motor behavior characterized by an intense fascination with repetitive handling and examining of objects. Since its first description in amphetamine and cocaine addicts, data on punding has only derived from studies performed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Punding is classifiable as the most severe form of Repetitive Reward-Seeking Behaviours (RRSB) syndromes. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and phenomelogy of RRSB acutely induced by cocaine in order to determine the prevalence, severity and distinctive features discriminating "punders" from "non-punders". A consecutive sample of 50 cocaine addicts received a clinical psychiatric interview. RRSB diagnosis and severity were assessed using a modified version of a previous published questionnaire designed to identify punding in patients with PD. In the present series, 38% of the cocaine addicts met the proposed diagnostic criteria for a RRSB and 8% were considered punders. Subjects with vs. without RRSB did not differ in terms of sex ratio, age, education, occupation, predisposing habits, duration of cocaine use, hours of sleep, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and concomitant use of other drugs. These results and the observation that in the majority of cases RRSB started soon after first drug intake, strongly suggest that an underlying unknown predisposition led to the development of these behaviors. In conclusion, RRSB and punding is much more common than has been described previously and the resultant social disability is often overlooked. PMID:18378407

Fasano, Alfonso; Barra, Andrea; Nicosia, Paola; Rinaldi, Federica; Bria, Pietro; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Tonioni, Federico

2008-04-18

81

Changes in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors with age: A study of high-functioning adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing literature suggests that while impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue into adulthood, some behavioral symptoms tend to abate with age. However, there is a dearth of research examining changes in ASD symptoms from childhood to adulthood, especially for Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs). We examined age-related changes in RRBs in a sample of 34 high-functioning adults with ASDs

Monali Chowdhury; Betsey A. Benson; Ashleigh Hillier

2010-01-01

82

Evidence for Three Subtypes of Repetitive Behavior in Autism that Differ in Familiality and Association with Other Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism and consist of a variety of behaviors, ranging from motor stereotypies to complex circumscribed interests. The objective of the current study was to examine the structure of RRBs in autism using relevant items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in a sample…

Lam, Kristen S. L.; Bodfish, James W.; Piven, Joseph

2008-01-01

83

Emotion regulation and other psychological models for body-focused repetitive behaviors.  

PubMed

The term body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs) refers to a group of recurrent, problematic, destructive behaviors directed toward the body, including hair-pulling, skin-picking, and nail-biting. Individuals with BFRBs report diminished control over the behavior and a range of physical and psychological sequelae. Recent research on psychological models for BRFBs has investigated the role of emotion regulation (ER), and many authors in this area have conceptualized problematic body-focused behavior as a maladaptive ER mechanism. This article organizes and reviews the empirical research on the ER model for BRFBs. First, the three most common BFRBs are described, as are the conceptualization, phenomenological similarities and covariation, and psychological and physical impact of BFRBs. Next, psychodynamic models and several cognitive-behavioral (CB) models are described. The article focuses on the ER model, including a review of studies of comorbidity in BFRBs, naturalistic and experimental studies, studies of subtypes of BFRBs, and treatment trials. The implications of the findings are discussed and the authors make recommendations for future research. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of psychological models for BFRBs and the limitations of the review. PMID:23792470

Roberts, Sarah; O'Connor, Kieron; Bélanger, Claude

2013-05-17

84

The significance of repetitive hair-pulling behaviors in eating disorders.  

PubMed

We studied the relation between intrusive and repetitive hair pulling, the defining feature of trichotillomania, and compulsive and impulsive features in 1,453 individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. We conducted a series of regression models examining the relative influence of compulsive features associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, compulsive features associated with eating disorders, trait features related to harm avoidance, perfectionism, and novelty seeking, and self harm. A final model with a reduced sample (n = 928) examined the additional contribution of impulsive attributes. One of 20 individuals endorsed hair pulling. Evidence of a positive association with endorsement of compulsive behavior of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum emerged. Hair pulling may be more consonant with ritualistic compulsions than impulsive urges in those with eating disorders. PMID:21365638

Zucker, Nancy; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M; Strober, Michael; Plotnicov, Kathy; Klump, Kelly L; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

2011-01-03

85

The Significance of Repetitive Hair-Pulling Behaviors in Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

We studied the relation between intrusive and repetitive hair-pulling, the defining feature of trichotillomania, and compulsive and impulsive features in 1453 individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. We conducted a series of regression models examining the relative influence of compulsive features associated with obsessive compulsive disorder; compulsive features associated with eating disorders; trait features related to harm avoidance, perfectionism and novelty seeking; and self harm. A final model with a reduced sample (n=928) examined the additional contribution of impulsive attributes. One out of 20 individuals endorsed hair-pulling. Evidence of a positive association with endorsement of compulsive behavior of the obsessive compulsive spectrum emerged. Hair-pulling may be more consonant with ritualistic compulsions than impulsive urges in those with eating disorders.

Zucker, Nancy; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M.; Strober, Michael; Plotnicov, Kathy; Klump, Kelly L.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2013-01-01

86

Altered Behavioral Response to Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonists 7-OH-DPAT and PD 128907 Following Repetitive Amphetamine Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral sensitization, the progressive and enduring enhancement of certain behaviors following repetitive drug use, is mediated in part by dopaminergic pathways. Increased locomotor response to drug treatment, a sensitizable behavior, is modulated by an opposing balance of dopamine receptor subtypes, with D1\\/D2 dopamine receptor stimulation increasing and D3 dopamine receptor activation inhibiting amphetamine-induced locomotion. We hypothesize that tolerance of D3

Neil M Richtand; Jeffrey A Welge; Beth Levant; Aaron D Logue; Scott Hayes; Laurel M Pritchard; Thomas D Geracioti; Lique M Coolen; S Paul Berger

2003-01-01

87

mGluR5-Antagonist Mediated Reversal of Elevated Stereotyped, Repetitive Behaviors in the VPA Model of Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly disabling developmental disorders with a population prevalence of 1–3%. Despite a strong genetic etiology, there are no current therapeutic options that target the core symptoms of ASD. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic signaling, in particular through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) receptors, may contribute to phenotypic deficits and may be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. This study assessed the therapeutic potential of 2-methyl-6-phenylethyl-pyrididine (MPEP), an mGluR5-receptor antagonist, on repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors in the valproic acid (VPA) mouse model of autism. Mice were exposed prenatally on day E13 to VPA and assessed for repetitive self-grooming and marble burying behaviors as adults. Anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were measured in an open-field. VPA-exposed mice displayed increased repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors, consistent with previously published results. Across both marble burying and self-grooming assays, MPEP significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in VPA-treated mice, but had no effect on locomotor activity. These results are consistent with emerging preclinical literature that mGluR5-antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy for core symptoms of autism.

Siegel, Steven J.

2011-01-01

88

The abnormal behavior analysis of single person on the road based on region and behavior features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method to detect whether the behavior of a single person in video sequence is abnormal is proposed. Firstly, after the pre-processing, the background model is gotten based on the Mixture Gaussian Model(GMM), at the same time the shadow is eliminated; then use the color-shape information and the Random Hough Transform (RHT) to abstract the zebra crossing

Wei Wang; Runsheng Wang; Yiwen Chen

2007-01-01

89

Brief Report: The Dopamine-3-Receptor Gene ("DRD3") Is Associated with Specific Repetitive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recently the "DRD3" gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. This risk allele was…

Staal, Wouter G.; de Krom, Mariken; de Jonge, Maretha V.

2012-01-01

90

The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

Richardson, Lolita Lisa

2010-01-01

91

Mitochondrial dysfunction in Pten haplo-insufficient mice with social deficits and repetitive behavior: interplay between Pten and p53.  

PubMed

Etiology of aberrant social behavior consistently points to a strong polygenetic component involved in fundamental developmental pathways, with the potential of being enhanced by defects in bioenergetics. To this end, the occurrence of social deficits and mitochondrial outcomes were evaluated in conditional Pten (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) haplo-insufficient mice, in which only one allele was selectively knocked-out in neural tissues. Pten mutations have been linked to Alzheimer's disease and syndromic autism spectrum disorders, among others. By 4-6 weeks of age, Pten insufficiency resulted in the increase of several mitochondrial Complex activities (II-III, IV and V) not accompanied by increases in mitochondrial mass, consistent with an activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, of which Pten is a negative modulator. At 8-13 weeks of age, Pten haplo-insufficient mice did not show significant behavioral abnormalities or changes in mitochondrial outcomes, but by 20-29 weeks, they displayed aberrant social behavior (social avoidance, failure to recognize familiar mouse, and repetitive self-grooming), macrocephaly, increased oxidative stress, decreased cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity (50%) and increased mtDNA deletions in cerebellum and hippocampus. Mitochondrial dysfunction was the result of a downregulation of p53-signaling pathway evaluated by lower protein expression of p21 (65% of controls) and the CCO chaperone SCO2 (47% of controls), two p53-downstream targets. This mechanism was confirmed in Pten-deficient striatal neurons and, HCT 116 cells with different p53 gene dosage. These results suggest a unique pathogenic mechanism of the Pten-p53 axis in mice with aberrant social behavior: loss of Pten (via p53) impairs mitochondrial function elicited by an early defective assembly of CCO and later enhanced by the accumulation of mtDNA deletions. Consistent with our results, (i) SCO2 deficiency and/or CCO activity defects have been reported in patients with learning disabilities including autism and (ii) mutated proteins in ASD have been found associated with p53-signaling pathways. PMID:22900024

Napoli, Eleonora; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Wong, Sarah; Hung, Connie; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Sakaguchi, Danielle; Angelastro, James; Omanska-Klusek, Alicja; Schoenfeld, Robert; Giulivi, Cecilia

2012-08-10

92

Basal ganglia morphometry and repetitive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

We investigated repetitive and stereotyped behavior (RSB) and its relationship to morphometric measures of the basal ganglia and thalami in 3- to 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 77) and developmental delay without autism (DD; n = 34). Children were assessed through clinical evaluation and parent report using RSB-specific scales extracted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Autism Diagnostic Interview, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. A subset of children with ASD (n = 45), DD (n = 14), and a group of children with typical development (TD; n = 25) were also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Children with ASD demonstrated elevated RSB across all measures compared to children with DD. Enlargement of the left and right striatum, more specifically the left and right putamen, and left caudate, was observed in the ASD compared to the TD group. However, nuclei were not significantly enlarged after controlling for cerebral volume. The DD group, in comparison to the ASD group, demonstrated smaller thalami and basal ganglia regions even when scaled for cerebral volume, with the exception of the left striatum, left putamen, and right putamen. Elevated RSB, as measured by the ADOS, was associated with decreased volumes in several brain regions: left thalamus, right globus pallidus, left and right putamen, right striatum and a trend for left globus pallidus and left striatum within the ASD group. These results confirm earlier reports that RSB is common early in the clinical course of ASD and, furthermore, demonstrate that such behaviors may be associated with decreased volumes of the basal ganglia and thalamus. PMID:21480545

Estes, Annette; Shaw, Dennis W W; Sparks, Bobbi F; Friedman, Seth; Giedd, Jay N; Dawson, Geraldine; Bryan, Matthew; Dager, Stephen R

2011-04-07

93

Neurophysiological, behavioral and morphological abnormalities in the Fabry knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fabry disease (OMIM 301500) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ?-galactosidase gene (GLA). Loss of ?-galactosidase (?-Gal) activity leads to the abnormal accumulation of glycosphingolipids in lysosomes predominantly of vascular endothelial cells. Clinically the disorder presents with angiokeratomas, clouding of the cornea, and renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular complications. In addition, there is an increased incidence

L. G. Rodrigues; M. J. Ferraz; D. Rodrigues; M. Pais-Vieira; D. Lima; R. O. Brady; M. M. Sousa; M. C. Sá-Miranda

2009-01-01

94

Beta-endorphin levels in longtailed and pigtailed macaques vary by abnormal behavior rating and sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent or severe abnormal behavior may be associated with the release of endorphins that positively reinforce the behavior with an opiate euphoria or analgesia. One line of research exploring this association involves the superhormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The products of POMC appear to be dysregulated in some human subjects who exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB). Macaque monkeys have POMC very similar to

Carolyn M. Crockett; Gene P. Sackett; Curt A. Sandman; Aleksandra Chicz-DeMet; Kathleen L. Bentson

2007-01-01

95

Primitive, atypical, and abnormal-psychotic behavior in institutionalized mentally retarded children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five case reports are presented to illustrate primitive, atypical, and abnormal (or psychotic) behaviors, said to constitute the three most common types seen in institutionalized mentally retarded children and adolescents. Behavioral manifestations and specific approaches to management and treatment are related to the histories of 5 boys, ranging in age from 6 to 14 years and representing, respectively, primitive behavior

Frank J. Menolascino

1973-01-01

96

Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior.

Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

2004-01-01

97

Mechanisms of Action Underlying the Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Mood: Behavioral and Brain Imaging Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a set of experiments, we applied 10-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex (MDLFC) to investigate rTMS-induced changes in affective state and neural activity in healthy volunteers. In Experiment 1, we combined 10-Hz rTMS with a speech task to examine rTMS-induced changes in paralinguistic aspects of speech production, an affect-relevant behavior strongly linked to

Jennifer Barrett; Valeria Della-Maggiore; Philippe A Chouinard; Tomáš Paus

2004-01-01

98

Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)|

Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

1984-01-01

99

Age Effects in Animal Models of Abnormal Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Target behaviors in animals that appear analogous to symptoms central to multiple disease processes were investigated. Startle augmentation, hyperactivity and hyperactive components of stereotypy as a function of age was investigated as follows: (1) contr...

M. M. Kilbey

1983-01-01

100

Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

1984-01-01

101

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective

H. G. Brunner; M. Nelen; H. H. Ropers; B. A. van Oost

1993-01-01

102

Abnormal Behavior Associated with a Point Mutation in the Structural Gene for Monoamine Oxidase A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective

H. G. Brunner; M. Nelen; X. O. Breakefield; H. H. Ropers; B. A. van Oost

1993-01-01

103

Repetitive and frightening dreams and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between repetitive and frightening dreams and suicidal tendency in patients with major depression. Depressed patients who reported frequent nightmare (N = 29) and depressed patients who reported dreaming but never nightmares (N = 34) were evaluated using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) suicide subscale to rate

Mehmed Yücel A?argün; Ali Sava? Çilli; Hayrettin Kara; Nevzat Tarhan; Fevzi Kincir; Hüsrev Öz

1998-01-01

104

Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with ASD at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as nonverbal cognitive skills. Increases in receptive and expressive language from age 2 to 3 significantly predicted decreases in RRBs, controlling for age in months, time between visits, and gains in nonverbal cognitive skills. This study contributes to the limited research that has examined early patterns and predictors of RRBs in young children with ASD.

Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

2012-01-01

105

Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

2009-01-01

106

Abnormal motor behavior and vestibular dysfunction in the stargazer mouse mutant.  

PubMed

In stargazer mutant mice, a mutation in the gene encoding stargazin results in absence epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, and a characteristic abnormal motor syndrome. The main goal of the current studies was to characterize the nature and source of the abnormal motor behavior. Because the stargazer motor syndrome resembles that of other rodents with vestibular dysfunction, the motor abnormalities were compared with those of normal mice treated with toxins known to damage the vestibular system. Quantitative open field assessments revealed that the stargazer mice display a motor syndrome very similar to that exhibited by mice with toxin-induced vestibulopathy. However, stargazer mice also displayed several additional behaviors, such as ataxic gait and sustained extensor movements of the neck. In addition, stargazer mice performed worse than mice with toxin-induced vestibulopathy in most standard tests of motor function. Motor function was also impaired on each of four behavioral tests sensitive to vestibular function. Because of the close associations between the vestibular and auditory systems, tests of auditory function were also employed. The stargazer mutants exhibited relatively normal auditory brainstem evoked responses but no apparent acoustic startle reflex. Histological examination of vestibular sensory epithelium at the light and electron microscopic levels confirmed the existence of abnormalities in the stargazer mutants. These results imply a previously unrecognized role for stargazin in the normal functions of the vestibular system and indicate that some, but not all, of the abnormal motor syndrome of stargazer mice can be attributed to vestibular dysfunction. PMID:15283975

Khan, Z; Carey, J; Park, H J; Lehar, M; Lasker, D; Jinnah, H A

2004-01-01

107

Attenuation of Behavioral Abnormalities in Autoimmune Mice by Chronic Soluble Interferon-? Receptor Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

NZB × NZW F1 hybrid (B\\/W) mice develop altered behavior in the elevated plus maze and novel object tasks between 6 and 12 weeks of age in parallel with lupus-like autoimmune disease. To confirm the relationship between disease progression and development of behavioral abnormalities, B\\/W and nonautoimmune NZW mice received chronic treatment with a soluble IFN? receptor (sIFN?R), a treatment

Lisa M. Schrott; Linda S. Crnic

1998-01-01

108

Mice Genetically Depleted of Brain Serotonin Display Social Impairments, Communication Deficits and Repetitive Behaviors: Possible Relevance to Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2)) for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2?/?) showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2?/? mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.

Briggs, Denise I.; Sykes, Catherine E.; Francescutti, Dina M.; Rosenberg, David R.; Kuhn, Donald M.

2012-01-01

109

Abnormal perilesional BOLD signal is not correlated with stroke patients' behavior  

PubMed Central

Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of acute stroke have reported that patients with behavioral deficits show abnormal signal in intact regions of the damaged hemisphere close to the lesion border relative to homologous regions of the patient’s intact hemisphere (causing an interhemispheric imbalance) as well as analogous regions in healthy controls. These effects have been interpreted as demonstrating a causal relationship between the abnormal fMRI signal and the pathological behavior. Here we explore an alternative explanation: perhaps the abnormal Blood-Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal is merely a function of distance from the acute lesion. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined three patients with an acute right hemisphere cortical stroke who did not show any overt behavioral deficits, as well as nine healthy elderly controls. We acquired fMRI data while the participants performed a simple visual orientation judgment task. In patients, we observed an abnormal interhemispheric balance consisting of lower levels of percent signal change in perilesional areas of the damaged hemisphere relative to homologous areas in neurologically healthy controls. This suggests that the physiological changes and corresponding interhemispheric imbalance detected by fMRI BOLD in acute stroke observed close to the lesion border may not necessarily reflect changes in the neural function, nor necessarily influence the individuals’ (e.g., attentional) behavior.

de Haan, Bianca; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

2013-01-01

110

Abnormal resonance behavior of the postural control loop in Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human postural control of upright stance sporadically can show an oscillatory behavior. Based on previous work, we assessed whether an abnormal tendency for such oscillations might contribute to the motor impairments in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated postural control during unperturbed stance in normal control subjects and in PD patients off and under

C. Maurer; T. Mergner; R. J. Peterka

2004-01-01

111

Abnormal perilesional BOLD signal is not correlated with stroke patients' behavior.  

PubMed

Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of acute stroke have reported that patients with behavioral deficits show abnormal signal in intact regions of the damaged hemisphere close to the lesion border relative to homologous regions of the patient's intact hemisphere (causing an interhemispheric imbalance) as well as analogous regions in healthy controls. These effects have been interpreted as demonstrating a causal relationship between the abnormal fMRI signal and the pathological behavior. Here we explore an alternative explanation: perhaps the abnormal Blood-Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal is merely a function of distance from the acute lesion. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined three patients with an acute right hemisphere cortical stroke who did not show any overt behavioral deficits, as well as nine healthy elderly controls. We acquired fMRI data while the participants performed a simple visual orientation judgment task. In patients, we observed an abnormal interhemispheric balance consisting of lower levels of percent signal change in perilesional areas of the damaged hemisphere relative to homologous areas in neurologically healthy controls. This suggests that the physiological changes and corresponding interhemispheric imbalance detected by fMRI BOLD in acute stroke observed close to the lesion border may not necessarily reflect changes in the neural function, nor necessarily influence the individuals' (e.g., attentional) behavior. PMID:24137123

de Haan, Bianca; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

2013-10-16

112

Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Origins of impaired adaptive functioning in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Behavioral disorganization may arise from an abnormal reliance on common combinations between concepts stored in semantic memory. Avolition-apathy may be related to deficits in using goal-related requirements to flexibly plan behavior. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 medicated schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy controls in a novel video paradigm presenting congruous or incongruous objects in real-world activities. All incongruous objects were contextually inappropriate, but the incongruous scenes varied in comprehensibility. Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to less comprehensible incongruous scenes, and larger N400 priming was associated with disorganization severity. A P600 ERP, which may index flexible object-action integration based on goal-related requirements, was abnormally attenuated in patients, and its smaller magnitude was associated with the SANS rating of impersistence at work or school (goal-directed behavior). Thus, distinct neurocognitive abnormalities may underlie disorganization and goal-directed behavior deficits in schizophrenia.

Sitnikova, Tatiana; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R.

2010-01-01

113

Effects of Lentinan on Abnormal Ingestive Behaviors Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamura, R., K. Tanebe, C. Kawanishi, K. Torii and T. Ono. Effects of lentinan on abnormal ingestive behaviors induced by tumor necrosis factor. Physiol Behav 61 (3) 399–410, 1997.— Lentinan (LNT), a ?-glucan derived from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sign., is known to work positively against cachexia in patients with malignant tumors. Because the cachectin\\/tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is supposed to

Ryoi Tamura; Kyoko Tanebe; Chiemi Kawanishi; Kunio Torii; Taketoshi Ono

1997-01-01

114

Lymphocyte Subset Alterations Related to Executive Function Deficits and Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing evidence suggests that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in children with ASD. Eighteen high-functioning (HFA) and 19 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17 years,…

Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S.

2011-01-01

115

Repetitive Series Interrupter II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes work done from May through December, 1976 on the Repetitive Series Interrupter, a hydrogen thyratron modified for switch-opening operation. Parametric studies of tube behavior, particularly of tube voltage drop and current-quenching ...

R. Simon D. V. Turnquist

1977-01-01

116

Maladaptive and Repetitive Behaviors in Children With Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers and clinicians are recognizing that a subgroup of children with Down syndrome (DS) also present with clinically significant impairments in social-communication and restricted patterns of behavior, such as those that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Efforts to better describe the behavioral presentation of children with co-occurring DS and ASD could be useful in developing screening and assessment procedures, which

Susan L. Hepburn; William E. MacLean

2009-01-01

117

Effect of machining residual stresses on the repetitive impact behavior of silicon nitride  

SciTech Connect

Silicon nitride is a candidate valve material for internal combustion engines. Its low density and attractive mechanical properties relative to conventional metallic alloys portend significant improvements in valve performance. The production of valves involves a significant amount of machining, especially grinding. Grinding of ceramic materials may result in surface and subsurface damage in the form of fracture or residual stresses which may affect impact behavior, and consequently, the behavior of silicon nitride ceramic materials as valves. The effects of residual stresses due to grinding on the impact wear behavior of one silicon nitride composition ground under various conditions has been investigated.

Srinivasan, S.; Blau, P.J. (Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6063 (United States)); Bjerke, J.L. (Caterpillar Technical Center, Mossville, Illinois 61552 (United States))

1995-01-01

118

Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.  

PubMed

Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research into implications of gut bacteria, their metabolites and the polyamine system on brain and behavior in laying hens. PMID:23313560

Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

2013-01-08

119

Abnormal behavior of supercooled liquid region in bulk-forming metallic glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metallic glass is often viewed as an amorphous alloy exhibiting a single endothermic reaction in the supercooled liquid region (SCLR, ?Tx=Tx-Tg). Here we discuss the origin and consequences of abnormal behavior of SCLR in various bulk-forming metallic glasses (BMGs). The two-stage-like endothermic reaction in Ni-based, Cu-based, Zr-based, and Mg-based BMGs can originate from the local immiscibility of liquids, which is closely related to chemical heterogeneity in as-cast BMG. These inflections can be attributed to the overlap of the exothermic reaction for the formation and growth of clusters in SCLR. The abnormal behavior of SCLR can be modulated by controlling cooling rate as well as by tailoring alloy composition, with the consequence that the modulated local heterogeneity in these BMGs can lead to enhanced flexibility of the BMGs. This correlation assists in understanding toughening mechanism and in guiding alloy design to alleviate brittleness of BMGs.

Park, E. S.; Na, J. H.; Kim, D. H.

2010-09-01

120

Brain gene expression differences are associated with abnormal tail biting behavior in pigs.  

PubMed

Knowledge about gene expression in animals involved in abnormal behaviors can contribute to the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. This study aimed to explore the motivational background to tail biting, an abnormal injurious behavior and severe welfare problem in pig production. Affymetrix microarrays were used to investigate gene expression differences in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex of pigs performing tail biting, pigs receiving bites to the tail and neutral pigs who were not involved in the behavior. In the hypothalamus, 32 transcripts were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) when tail biters were compared with neutral pigs, 130 when comparing receiver pigs with neutrals, and two when tail biters were compared with receivers. In the prefrontal cortex, seven transcripts were differently expressed in tail biters when compared with neutrals, seven in receivers vs. neutrals and none in the tail biters vs. receivers. In total, 19 genes showed a different expression pattern in neutral pigs when compared with both performers and receivers. This implies that the functions of these may provide knowledge about why the neutral pigs are not involved in tail biting behavior as performers or receivers. Among these 19 transcripts were genes associated with production traits in pigs (PDK4), sociality in humans and mice (GTF2I) and novelty seeking in humans (EGF). These are in line with hypotheses linking tail biting with reduced back fat thickness and explorative behavior. PMID:23146156

Brunberg, E; Jensen, P; Isaksson, A; Keeling, L J

2012-12-07

121

Abnormal increase in the corticomotor output to the affected hand during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex in patients with writer's cramp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fourteen right-handed patients with writer's cramp and 10 right-handed controls, 10 trains of suprathreshold 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were applied over the left primary motor hand area. Each rTMS train lasted for a minute with an intertrain interval of 10 s. The motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the relaxed contralateral first dorsal interosseus muscle.

Hartwig Roman Siebner; Carola Auer; Bastian Conrad

1999-01-01

122

Anxiety and abnormal eating behaviors associated with cyclical readiness testing in a naval hospital active duty population.  

PubMed

Studies of abnormal eating behaviors in active duty military personal have found rates similar to or higher than the general population. We have reviewed these studies and extended the research to examine abnormal eating behaviors in a heterogeneous population at a major military medical center. We found high rates of body dissatisfaction, abnormal eating behaviors, and worry about passing the semiannual personal fitness assessment in both men and women. Abnormal eating behaviors were associated with worrying about the personal fitness assessment, and these measures were associated with body mass index and gender. Our data extend previous research indicating that cyclic or external pressure to maintain body weight within specified standards can produce unsafe eating and dieting behaviors. We recommend changes to the current system to incorporate treatment programs aimed at recognizing and treating eating disorders with a goal of producing more fit and healthy service members. PMID:16173205

Carlton, Janis R; Manos, Gail H; Van Slyke, John A

2005-08-01

123

Executive Function Deficits and Social-Behavioral Abnormality in Mice Exposed to a Low Dose of Dioxin In Utero and via Lactation  

PubMed Central

An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation.

Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

2012-01-01

124

Amelioration of Behavioral Abnormalities in BH4-deficient Mice by Dietary Supplementation of Tyrosine  

PubMed Central

This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-deficient Spr?/? mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr?/? mice. We found that Spr?/? mice display variable ‘open-field’ behaviors, impaired motor functions on the ‘rotating rod’, and dystonic ‘hind-limb clasping’. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr?/? mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr?/? mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in Spr?/? mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr?/? mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

Kwak, Sang Su; Jeong, Mikyoung; Choi, Ji Hye; Kim, Daesoo; Min, Hyesun; Yoon, Yoosik; Hwang, Onyou; Meadows, Gary G.; Joe, Cheol O.

2013-01-01

125

Amelioration of Behavioral Abnormalities in BH4-deficient Mice by Dietary Supplementation of Tyrosine.  

PubMed

This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-deficient Spr (-/-) mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/-) mice. We found that Spr (-/-) mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/-) mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/-) mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in Spr (-/-) mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/-) mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency. PMID:23577163

Kwak, Sang Su; Jeong, Mikyoung; Choi, Ji Hye; Kim, Daesoo; Min, Hyesun; Yoon, Yoosik; Hwang, Onyou; Meadows, Gary G; Joe, Cheol O

2013-04-05

126

On possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behaviors before an earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behaviors before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilzed to characterize the unusual animal behaviors; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15-20 years. As the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f < 1Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f < a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behaviors. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behaviors before an EQ.

Hayakawa, Masashi

2013-04-01

127

Delayed reversal learning and association with repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

An important aspect of successful emotion regulation is the ability to adjust emotional responses to changing environmental cues. Difficulties with such adaptation may underlie both marked symptoms of behavioral inflexibility and frequent severe anxiety in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 29 age- and intelligence quotient-matched controls completed a reversal learning paradigm following partial reinforcement Pavlovian fear conditioning, using a surprising air puff as the unconditioned stimulus. After initial reversal of cue contingencies, where a previously safe cue now predicted the air puff threat, the control group but not the ASD group responded more strongly to the new threat cue. The ASD group showed evidence for reversal learning only during later trials. Reversal learning in the ASD group was significantly negatively correlated with everyday symptoms of behavioral inflexibility but not with everyday anxiety. Understanding shared associations between inflexibility, anxiety, and autism, with regard both to clinical symptoms and neurobiological mechanisms, can provide important markers for better characterizing the substantial heterogeneity across the autism spectrum. PMID:23097376

South, Mikle; Newton, Tiffani; Chamberlain, Paul D

2012-10-24

128

Repetitive Sequences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Repetitive sequences, or repeats, account for a substantial portion of the eukaryotic genomes. These sequences include very different types of DNA with respect to mode of origin, function, structure, and genomic distribution. Two large families of repetitive sequences can be readily recognized, ta...

129

100 Repetitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One hundred repetitions--100 "useful" repetitions. This notion has guided the author's work in alternative education programs for almost 20 years, dealing with the most challenging students, from addicts to conduct-disordered adolescents to traumatized 5th graders. There are no magic tricks. The role of educators is to align with the healthy…

Benson, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

130

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1993-10-22

131

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A.  

PubMed

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression. PMID:8211186

Brunner, H G; Nelen, M; Breakefield, X O; Ropers, H H; van Oost, B A

1993-10-22

132

Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors.  

PubMed

Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis. PMID:15347806

Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; McKnight, Steven L

2004-09-03

133

Neural Basis of Repetition Priming during Mathematical Cognition: Repetition Suppression or Repetition Enhancement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the neural basis of repetition priming (RP) during mathematical cognition. Previous studies of RP have fo- cused on repetition suppression as the basis of behavioral fa- cilitation, primarily using word and object identification and classification tasks. More recently, researchers have suggested associative stimulus-response learning as an alternate model for behavioral facilitation. We examined the neural basis of RP

Valorie N. Salimpoor; Catie Chang; Vinod Menon

2010-01-01

134

GABA progenitors grafted into the adult epileptic brain control seizures and abnormal behavior.  

PubMed

Impaired GABA-mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in many neurologic diseases, including epilepsy, intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. We found that inhibitory neuron transplantation into the hippocampus of adult mice with confirmed epilepsy at the time of grafting markedly reduced the occurrence of electrographic seizures and restored behavioral deficits in spatial learning, hyperactivity and the aggressive response to handling. In the recipient brain, GABA progenitors migrated up to 1,500 ?m from the injection site, expressed genes and proteins characteristic for interneurons, differentiated into functional inhibitory neurons and received excitatory synaptic input. In contrast with hippocampus, cell grafts into basolateral amygdala rescued the hyperactivity deficit, but did not alter seizure activity or other abnormal behaviors. Our results highlight a critical role for interneurons in epilepsy and suggest that interneuron cell transplantation is a powerful approach to halting seizures and rescuing accompanying deficits in severely epileptic mice. PMID:23644485

Hunt, Robert F; Girskis, Kelly M; Rubenstein, John L; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Baraban, Scott C

2013-05-05

135

Genetic manipulation of STEP reverses behavioral abnormalities in a fragile X syndrome mouse model.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and prevailing known genetic basis of autism, is caused by an expansion in the Fmr1 gene that prevents transcription and translation of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP binds to and controls translation of mRNAs downstream of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. Recent work shows that FMRP interacts with the transcript encoding striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP; Ptpn5). STEP opposes synaptic strengthening and promotes synaptic weakening by dephosphorylating its substrates, including ERK1/2, p38, Fyn and Pyk2, and subunits of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and AMPA receptors. Here, we show that basal levels of STEP are elevated and mGluR-dependent STEP synthesis is absent in Fmr1(KO) mice. We hypothesized that the weakened synaptic strength and behavioral abnormalities reported in FXS may be linked to excess levels of STEP. To test this hypothesis, we reduced or eliminated STEP genetically in Fmr1(KO) mice and assessed mice in a battery of behavioral tests. In addition to attenuating audiogenic seizures and seizure-induced c-Fos activation in the periaqueductal gray, genetically reducing STEP in Fmr1(KO) mice reversed characteristic social abnormalities, including approach, investigation and anxiety. Loss of STEP also corrected select nonsocial anxiety-related behaviors in Fmr1(KO) mice, such as light-side exploration in the light/dark box. Our findings indicate that genetically reducing STEP significantly diminishes seizures and restores select social and nonsocial anxiety-related behaviors in Fmr1(KO) mice, suggesting that strategies to inhibit STEP activity may be effective for treating patients with FXS. PMID:22405502

Goebel-Goody, S M; Wilson-Wallis, E D; Royston, S; Tagliatela, S M; Naegele, J R; Lombroso, P J

2012-04-06

136

Parent–child DRD4 genotype as a potential biomarker for oppositional, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the present study was to examine whether a combination of parent-child DRD4 genotypes results in more informative biomarkers of oppositional, separation anxiety, and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on prior research indicating the 7-repeat allele as a potential risk variant, participants were sorted into one of four combinations of parent–child genotypes.

Kenneth D. Gadow; Carla J. DeVincent; Victoria Pisarevskaya; Doreen M. Olvet; Wenjie Xu; Nancy R. Mendell; Stephen J. Finch; Eli Hatchwell

2010-01-01

137

Can Adverse Neonatal Experiences Alter Brain Development and Subsequent Behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-destructive behavior in current society promotes a search for psychobiological factors underlying this epidemic. Perinatal brain plasticity increases the vulnerability to early adverse experiences, thus leading to abnormal development and behavior. Although several epidemiological investigations have correlated perinatal and neonatal complications with abnormal adult behavior, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains rudimentary. Models of early experience, such as repetitive

K. J. S. Anand; Frank M. Scalzo

2000-01-01

138

Abnormal foraging behavior induced by sublethal dosage of imidacloprid in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae).  

PubMed

Although sublethal dosages of insecticide to nontarget insects have never been an important issue, they are attracting more and more attention lately. It has been demonstrated that low dosages of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid may affect honey bee, Apis mellifera L., behavior. In this article, the foraging behavior of the honey bee workers was investigated to show the effects of imidacloprid. By measuring the time interval between two visits at the same feeding site, we found that the normal foraging interval of honey bee workers was within 300 s. However, these honey bee workers delayed their return visit for > 300 s when they were treated orally with sugar water containing imidacloprid. This time delay in their return visit is concentration-dependent, and the lowest effective concentration was found to be 50 microg/liter. When bees were treated with an imidacloprid concentration higher than 1,200 microg/liter, they showed abnormalities in revisiting the feeding site. Some of them went missing, and some were present again at the feeding site the next day. Returning bees also showed delay in their return trips. Our results demonstrated that sublethal dosages of imidacloprid were able to affect foraging behavior of honey bees. PMID:19133451

Yang, E C; Chuang, Y C; Chen, Y L; Chang, L H

2008-12-01

139

Neonatal handling reverses behavioral abnormalities induced in rats by prenatal stress.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to see whether neonatal handling can reverse the behavioral deficits induced in rats by unpredictable prenatal stress. Rats (24) were exposed to random noise and light stress (RS) on a random basis throughout pregnancy. Half the litters of RS and control (C) dams were subjected to neonatal handling (NH), 3' daily for 21 days. Behavioral measures, open field in both sexes and plus maze test in females only were conducted at 1.5-2 months, and spatial lateralization by amphetamine-induced rotation, in females at 3 months. RS caused significant increases in emotionality and timidity (higher incidence of defecation and less time in open arms of plus maze), and a change in directional bias towards the left. NH completely reversed all these behavioral abnormalities in RS rats but had little effect in C. It is concluded that NH can influence postnatal development of brain organisation in the opposite direction to that induced by prenatal stress. PMID:2255733

Wakshlak, A; Weinstock, M

1990-08-01

140

Is instrumental variability abnormally high in children exhibiting ADHD and aggressive behavior?  

PubMed

To test whether instrumental behavior of some children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is more variable than control subjects, the sequences of responses by three groups of children were compared: (i) those diagnosed with ADHD who lived in a residential treatment facility for children demonstrating aggressive behavior; (ii) age-matched children from the same facility who did not have an ADHD diagnosis but who had also demonstrated abnormal levels of aggression; and (iii) normal children from a local school. The experiment consisted of rewarding children for responding in a computer 'game' on two keys of a keyboard during each of three phases. In phase 1, rewards were provided independently of sequence variability (IND). In phase 2, rewards depended upon highly variable sequences of left and right responses. Phase 3 was a return to the IND contingencies. The results showed that sequence variability was higher in the sequence variability (VARY) phase than in the preceding IND phase, but remained high when the contingencies returned to IND, thus replicating previous findings. In none of the phases did the ADHD children respond more variably than the controls. However, ADHD subjects made more off-task responses than did controls. Thus, although the present research showed differences between ADHD and control subjects, there was no evidence to support higher behavioral variability in the ADHD subjects. PMID:9708839

Saldana, L; Neuringer, A

1998-07-01

141

MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776

Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

2008-04-15

142

Familial Associations of Intense Preoccupations, an Empirical Factor of the Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors and Interests Domain of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Clinical heterogeneity of autism likely hinders efforts to find genes associated with this complex psychiatric disorder. Some studies have produced promising results by restricting the sample according to the expression of specific familial factors or components of autism. Previous factor analyses of the restricted, repetitive

Smith, Christopher J.; Lang, Colleen M.; Kryzak, Lauren; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hollander, Eric; Silverman, Jeremy M.

2009-01-01

143

GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish  

SciTech Connect

At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA{sub A}R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 mug/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 mug/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA{sub A}ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p < 0.05) and great (p < 0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatment sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p < 0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA{sub A}R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA{sub A}R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

Facciolo, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rm.facciolo@unical.i [Comparative Neuroanatomy Laboratory, Ecology Department, University of Calabria, 87030 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello [Comparative Neuroanatomy Laboratory, Ecology Department, University of Calabria, 87030 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

2010-02-15

144

Cytogenetic abnormalities and fragile-x syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Autism is a behavioral disorder with impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. About 5–10 % of individuals with autism have 'secondary' autism in which an environmental agent, chromosome abnormality, or single gene disorder can be identified. Ninety percent have idiopathic autism and a major gene has not yet been identified. We have assessed the incidence of

Kavita S Reddy

2005-01-01

145

Restricted Morphological and Behavioral Abnormalities following Ablation of ?-Actin in the Brain  

PubMed Central

The local translation of ?-actin is one mechanism proposed to regulate spatially-restricted actin polymerization crucial for nearly all aspects of neuronal development and function. However, the physiological significance of localized ?-actin translation in neurons has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. To investigate the role of ?-actin in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), we characterized brain structure and function in a CNS-specific ?-actin knock-out mouse (CNS-ActbKO). ?-actin was rapidly ablated in the embryonic mouse brain, but total actin levels were maintained through upregulation of other actin isoforms during development. CNS-ActbKO mice exhibited partial perinatal lethality while survivors presented with surprisingly restricted histological abnormalities localized to the hippocampus and cerebellum. These tissue morphology defects correlated with profound hyperactivity as well as cognitive and maternal behavior impairments. Finally, we also identified localized defects in axonal crossing of the corpus callosum in CNS-ActbKO mice. These restricted defects occurred despite the fact that primary neurons lacking ?-actin in culture were morphologically normal. Altogether, we identified novel roles for ?-actin in promoting complex CNS tissue architecture while also demonstrating that distinct functions for the ubiquitously expressed ?-actin are surprisingly restricted in vivo.

Cheever, Thomas R.; Li, Bin; Ervasti, James M.

2012-01-01

146

Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) which was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction.

Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

2012-01-01

147

Negative allosteric modulation of the mGluR5 receptor reduces repetitive behaviors and rescues social deficits in mouse models of autism.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and fragile X syndrome were long thought to be medically untreatable, on the assumption that brain dysfunctions were immutably hardwired before diagnosis. Recent revelations that many cases of autism are caused by mutations in genes that control the ongoing formation and maturation of synapses have challenged this dogma. Antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5), which modulate excitatory neurotransmission, are in clinical trials for fragile X syndrome, a major genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. About 30% of patients with fragile X syndrome meet the diagnostic criteria for autism. Reasoning by analogy, we considered the mGluR5 receptor as a potential target for intervention in autism. We used BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice, an established model with robust behavioral phenotypes relevant to the three diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism--unusual social interactions, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors--to probe the efficacy of a selective negative allosteric modulator of the mGluR5 receptor, GRN-529. GRN-529 reduced repetitive behaviors in three cohorts of BTBR mice at doses that did not induce sedation in control assays of open field locomotion. In addition, the same nonsedating doses reduced the spontaneous stereotyped jumping that characterizes a second inbred strain of mice, C58/J. Further, GRN-529 partially reversed the striking lack of sociability in BTBR mice on some parameters of social approach and reciprocal social interactions. These findings raise the possibility that a single targeted pharmacological intervention may alleviate multiple diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:22539775

Silverman, Jill L; Smith, Daniel G; Rizzo, Stacey J Sukoff; Karras, Michael N; Turner, Sarah M; Tolu, Seda S; Bryce, Dianne K; Smith, Deborah L; Fonseca, Kari; Ring, Robert H; Crawley, Jacqueline N

2012-04-25

148

Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known…

Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

2012-01-01

149

Serotonergic involvement in the amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in dopamine transporter knockout mice by nicotine.  

PubMed

Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems. First, we observed that the marked hyperactivity displayed by DAT KO mice was reduced by administration of nicotine. This nicotine effect was blocked by pretreatment with the non-specific nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist mecamylamine, or the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Secondly, we examined the effects of nicotine on PPI in DAT KO mice. Treatment with nicotine significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in DAT KO mice. The ameliorating action of nicotine on PPI deficits in DAT KO mice was blocked by mecamylamine, the ?? nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or WAY100635, while the ???? nACh receptor antagonist dihydro-?-erythroidinehydrobromide (DH?E) produced only a non-significant trend toward attenuation of nicotine effects. Finally, we observed that administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also ameliorated the deficit in PPI observed in DAT KO mice. This amelioration was antagonized by pretreatment with WAY100635. These data support the idea that nicotine might ameliorate some of the cognitive dysfunctions found in schizophrenia in a 5-HT1A-dependent fashion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22809709

Uchiumi, Osamu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Asami; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

2012-07-15

150

Effects of indoxacarb concentration and exposure time on onset of abnormal behaviors, morbundity, and death in eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

Onset of abnormal behaviors, morbundity, and death was evaluated in eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), exposed to several concentrations (45, 90, 135, and 180 ppm) of indoxacarb and to several (5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) exposure periods. Abnormal behaviors, morbundity, and death occurred in a predictable sequence: disorientation, ataxia, and morbundity followed by death. In general, higher concentrations and longer exposure periods resulted in faster onset of abnormal behaviors, morbundity, and death. The average onset time of abnormal behaviors, morbundity, and death was faster for groups of termites compared with individuals exposed to similar concentrations and periods of contact. The importance of onset times of abnormal behaviors as another important measure of the toxicity of slow-acting toxicants is discussed. PMID:20568622

Quarcoo, Franklin Y; Appel, Arthur G; Hu, Xing Ping

2010-06-01

151

Repetitive Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury Interacts with Post-Injury Foot Shock Stress to Worsen Social and Depression-Like Behavior in Mice  

PubMed Central

The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning) following brain injury (rcTBI). rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury.

Klemenhagen, Kristen C.; O'Brien, Scott P.; Brody, David L.

2013-01-01

152

Repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury interacts with post-injury foot shock stress to worsen social and depression-like behavior in mice.  

PubMed

The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning) following brain injury (rcTBI). rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury. PMID:24058581

Klemenhagen, Kristen C; O'Brien, Scott P; Brody, David L

2013-09-18

153

Late Prenatal Immune Activation in Mice Leads to Behavioral and Neurochemical Abnormalities Relevant to the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Based on the human epidemiological association between prenatal infection and higher risk of schizophrenia, a number of animal models have been established to explore the long-term brain and behavioral consequences of prenatal immune challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that the vulnerability to specific forms of schizophrenia-related abnormalities is critically influenced by the precise timing of the prenatal immunological insult. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis whether late prenatal immune challenge in mice may induce long-term behavioral and neurochemical dysfunctions primarily associated with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. We found that prenatal exposure to the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (Poly-I:C; 5?mg/kg, i.v.) on gestation day (GD) 17 led to significant deficits in social interaction, anhedonic behavior, and alterations in the locomotor and stereotyped behavioral responses to acute apomorphine (APO) treatment in both male and female offspring. In addition, male but not female offspring born to immune challenged mothers displayed behavioral/cognitive inflexibility as indexed by the presence of an abnormally enhanced latent inhibition (LI) effect. Prenatal immune activation in late gestation also led to numerous, partly sex-specific changes in basal neurotransmitter levels, including reduced dopamine (DA) and glutamate contents in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as reduced ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine contents in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, respectively. The constellation of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities emerging after late prenatal Poly-I:C exposure in mice leads us to conclude that this immune-based experimental model provides a powerful neurodevelopmental animal model especially for (but not limited to) the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

Bitanihirwe, Byron KY; Peleg-Raibstein, Daria; Mouttet, Forouhar; Feldon, Joram; Meyer, Urs

2010-01-01

154

Abnormal magnetic behaviors induced by the antisite phase boundary in La2NiMnO6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ferromagnetic semiconductor La2NiMnO6 (LNMO) has recently received much attention due to its high Curie temperature (TC ~ 280 K), which is close to room temperature. We prepared single-phase LNMO polycrystalline samples and investigated the temperature- and field-dependent magnetic behaviors of bulk LNMO. Between TC and T* = 300 K, we observed upward and downward deviations from the Curie—Weiss law for high and low magnetic fields, respectively. From the electron spin resonance results, we can exclude the existence of the Griffiths phase. On the contrary, our results indicate that the abnormal magnetic behaviors might be induced by antisite phase boundaries with antiferromagnetic interaction.

Zhao, Yue-Lei; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Pan, Li-Qing; Sun, Young

2013-08-01

155

The role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury in Chinese adolescents: a 2-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the follow-up period. Results indicate that while Year 1 depressive symptoms and family invalidation were significantly associated with the occurrence of Year 2 NSSI, Year 1 behavioral impulsivity contributed to both the occurrence and repetition of Year 2 NSSI. Findings of this study suggest that adolescents who display multiple impulsive behaviors may be at particular risk for engaging in repetitive NSSI. Clinical implications of these findings and future research directions were discussed. PMID:21855128

You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

2011-08-19

156

Acute administration of fluoxetine normalizes rapid eye movement sleep abnormality, but not depressive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized rats.  

PubMed

In humans, depression is associated with altered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the exact nature of the relationship between depressive behaviors and sleep abnormalities is debated. In this study, bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was carried out to create a model of depression in rats. The sleep-wake profiles were assayed using a cutting-edge sleep bioassay system, and depressive behaviors were evaluated by open field and forced swimming tests. The monoamine content and monoamine metabolite levels in the brain were determined by a HPLC-electrochemical detection system. OBX rats exhibited a significant increase in REM sleep, especially between 15:00 and 18:00 hours during the light period. Acute treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately abolished the OBX-induced increase in REM sleep, but hyperactivity in the open field test and the time spent immobile in the forced swimming test remained unchanged. Neurochemistry studies revealed that acute administration of fluoxetine increased serotonin (5-HT) levels in the hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain and decreased levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT decreased in almost all regions of the brain. These results indicate that acute administration of fluoxetine can reduce the increase in REM sleep but does not change the depressive behaviors in OBX rats, suggesting that there was no causality between REM sleep abnormalities and depressive behaviors in OBX rats. PMID:22035172

Wang, Yi-Qun; Tu, Zhi-Cai; Xu, Xing-Yuan; Li, Rui; Qu, Wei-Min; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

2011-11-28

157

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Pten Haplo-Insufficient Mice with Social Deficits and Repetitive Behavior: Interplay between Pten and p53  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etiology of aberrant social behavior consistently points to a strong polygenetic component involved in fundamental developmental pathways, with the potential of being enhanced by defects in bioenergetics. To this end, the occurrence of social deficits and mitochondrial outcomes were evaluated in conditional Pten (Phosphatase and tensin homolog) haplo-insufficient mice, in which only one allele was selectively knocked-out in neural tissues.

Eleonora Napoli; Catherine Ross-Inta; Sarah Wong; Connie Hung; Yasuko Fujisawa; Danielle Sakaguchi; James Angelastro; Alicja Omanska-Klusek; Robert Schoenfeld; Cecilia Giulivi

2012-01-01

158

[Hypoxic postconditioning corrects behavioral abnormalities in a model of post-traumatic stress disorder in rats].  

PubMed

Protective effects of the novel technique of hypoxic postconditioning with a hypobaric hypoxia paradigm were studied in "stress-restress" model ofposttraumatic stress disorder in rats. It was shown that repeated (3 times) exposure of rats that survived after severe traumatic stress to mild hypobaric hypoxia (postconditioning mode) efficiently abolished the development of stress-induced anxiety state. Postconditioning had a clear anxiolytic effect both when it was delivered after traumatic stress and after restress, but the intensity of this effect depended on the period ofpathogenesis of the posttraumatic stress disorder, when postconditioning was given. The results indicate that suggested postconditioning model with repetitive mild hypobaric hypoxia exerts potent anxiolytic and stress-protective action. PMID:22891582

Rybnikova, E A; Vorob'ev, M G; Samo?lov, M O

159

?1,6-Fucosyltransferase-deficient Mice Exhibit Multiple Behavioral Abnormalities Associated with a Schizophrenia-like Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that ?1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8)-deficient (Fut8?/?) mice exhibit emphysema-like changes in the lung and severe growth retardation due to dysregulation of TGF-?1 and EGF receptors and to abnormal integrin activation, respectively. To study the role of ?1,6-fucosylation in brain tissue where Fut8 is highly expressed, we examined Fut8?/? mice using a combination of neurological and behavioral tests. Fut8?/? mice exhibited multiple behavioral abnormalities consistent with a schizophrenia-like phenotype. Fut8?/? mice displayed increased locomotion compared with wild-type (Fut8+/+) and heterozygous (Fut8+/?) mice. In particular, Fut8?/? mice showed strenuous hopping behavior in a novel environment. Working memory performance was impaired in Fut8?/? mice as evidenced by the Y-maze tests. Furthermore, Fut8?/? mice showed prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficiency. Intriguingly, although there was no significant difference between Fut8+/+ and Fut8+/? mice in the PPI test under normal conditions, Fut8+/? mice showed impaired PPI after exposure to a restraint stress. This result suggests that reduced expression of Fut8 is a plausible cause of schizophrenia and related disorders. The levels of serotonin metabolites were significantly decreased in both the striatum and nucleus accumbens of the Fut8?/? mice. Likewise, treatment with haloperidol, which is an antipsychotic drug that antagonizes dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors, significantly reduced hopping behaviors. The present study is the first to clearly demonstrate that ?1,6-fucosylation plays an important role in the brain, and that it might be related to schizophrenia-like behaviors. Thus, the results of the present study provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for schizophrenia and related disorders.

Fukuda, Tomohiko; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Okayasu, Natsumi; Kameyama, Akihiko; Onogi, Hiroshi; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Kurosawa, Tomoyo; Hao, Yan; Isaji, Tomoya; Tadano, Takeshi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Gu, Jianguo

2011-01-01

160

Influence of TiO2 excess on the sintering behavior and abnormal grain growth of barium titanate ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sintering behavior and abnormal grain growth of BaTiO3 with TiO2 excess were investigated. The BaTiO3 powders used in this study were prepared by conventional calcination of BaCO3 and TiO2. The contents of TiO 2 excess were varied from 0.5 to 3 mol.%. The onset temperatures of the sintering (initial state sintering-3% shrinkage) were lowered with increasing amounts of TiO2

Jong Sun Choi; Ho Gi Kim

1991-01-01

161

The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

2012-01-01

162

Parent-child DRD4 genotype as a potential biomarker for oppositional, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

The primary objective of the present study was to examine whether a combination of parent-child DRD4 genotypes results in more informative biomarkers of oppositional, separation anxiety, and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on prior research indicating the 7-repeat allele as a potential risk variant, participants were sorted into one of four combinations of parent-child genotypes. Owing to the possibility of parent-of-origin effects, analyses were conducted separately for mother-child (MC) and father-child (FC) dyads. Mothers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. Partial eta-squared (?p(2)) was used to determine the magnitude of group differences: 0.01-0.06=small, 0.06-0.14=moderate, and >0.14=large. Analyses indicated that children in MC dyads with matched genotypes had the least (7-/7-) and most (7+/7+) severe mother-rated oppositional-defiant (?p(2)=0.11) and separation anxiety (?p(2)=0.19) symptoms. Conversely, youths in FC dyads with matched genotypes had the least (7-/7-) and most (7+/7+) severe obsessive-compulsive behaviors (?p(2)=0.19) and tics (?p(2)=0.18). Youths whose parents were both noncarriers had less severe tics than peers with at least one parental carrier, and the effect size was large (?p(2)=0.16). There was little evidence that noncarrier children were rated more severely by mothers who were carriers versus noncarriers. Transmission Disequilibrium Test analyses provided preliminary evidence for undertransmission of the 2-repeat allele in youths with more severe tics (p=0.02). Parent genotype may be helpful in constructing prognostic biomarkers for behavioral disturbances in ASD; however, findings are tentative pending replication with larger, independent samples. PMID:20600463

Gadow, Kenneth D; DeVincent, Carla J; Pisarevskaya, Victoria; Olvet, Doreen M; Xu, Wenjie; Mendell, Nancy R; Finch, Stephen J; Hatchwell, Eli

2010-06-26

163

MEG premotor abnormalities in children with Asperger's syndrome: determinants of social behavior?  

PubMed

Children with Asperger's syndrome show deficits in social functioning while their intellectual and language development is intact suggesting a specific dysfunction in mechanisms mediating social cognition. An action observation/execution matching system might be one such mechanism. Recent studies indeed showed that electrophysiological modulation of the "Mu-rhythm" in the 10-12Hz range is weaker when individuals with Asperger's syndrome observe actions performed by others compared to controls. However, electrophysiological studies typically fall short in revealing the neural generators of this activity. To fill this gap we assessed magnetoencephalographic Mu-modulations in Asperger's and typically developed children, while observing grasping movements. Mu-power increased at frontal and central sensors during movement observation. This modulation was stronger in typical than in Asperger children. Source localization revealed stronger sources in premotor cortex, the intraparietal lobule (IPL) and the mid-occipito-temporal gyrus (MOTG) and weaker sources in prefrontal cortex in typical participants compared to Asperger. Activity in premotor regions, IPL and MOTG correlated positively with social competence, whereas prefrontal Mu-sources correlated negatively with social competence. No correlation with intellectual ability was found at any of these sites. These findings localize abnormal Mu-activity in the brain of Asperger children providing evidence which associates motor-system abnormalities with social-function deficits. PMID:23500669

Hauswald, Anne; Weisz, Nathan; Bentin, Shlomo; Kissler, Johanna

2013-02-18

164

Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

165

Neoplastic behavior of chromosomally abnormal clones in New Zealand Black mice.  

PubMed

Old New Zealand Black (NZB) mice frequently develop reticulum-cell sarcoma and clones of aneuploid cells in their spleens. In order to define the relationship between neoplasms and chromosomal abnormalities, the pattern of distribution of aneuploid cells was studied to see if it corresponds to that expected of the malignancy, and chromosomally aberrant or normal spleen cells were transplanted into syngeneic newborn recipients. The results indicate that aneuploid cells arise focally but may disseminate widely in an affected mouse. A strong association was found between spleen-cell aneuploidy in a transplantation donor and both aneuploidy and histological evidence of reticulum-cell sarcoma in young recipients. Chromosomal aberrations in young recipients were always of donor origin. On the basis of these data, it seems likely that aneuploid clones which arise in the spleens of old NZB mice usually are at least potentially neoplastic. PMID:359489

Friedman, J M; Fialkow, P J; Bryant, J; Reddy, A L; Salo, A C

1978-10-15

166

Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice  

PubMed Central

Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and ?-endorphin (?-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems.

Amat, Nurmuhammat; Hoxur, Parida; Ming, Dang; Matsidik, Aynur; Kijjoa, Anake; Upur, Halmurat

2012-01-01

167

Behavior abnormalities and poor school performance due to oral theophylline use.  

PubMed

Studies evaluating adverse effects of oral theophylline on learning and behavior have been performed on children with asthma receiving long-term theophylline therapy. To further differentiate the effects of asthma itself from the drugs used, we evaluated 20 asthmatic children (6 to 12 years of age) who had not received oral bronchodilators for at least 6 months. A double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel format was used with a 4-week theophylline or placebo period preceded by a 2-week baseline. Theophylline serum levels were maintained between 10 to 20 micrograms/mL. During baseline and treatment periods, the child's home and school behavior/performance were monitored independently by their parents and teachers using standardized report forms. A battery of psychologic tests was administered at the end of baseline and treatment periods. Seven children receiving theophylline were noted to have a change in school behavior and/or performance during their 4 weeks on drug compared to baseline, whereas none of the children receiving placebo were noted to be different (P = .004). Thus, the short-term administration of theophylline to asymptomatic asthmatic children not receiving oral bronchodilators can adversely affect school performance and behavior. Because this population represents the majority of asthmatic children, one needs to use theophylline cautiously in this age group, monitor school performance closely, or seek other treatment modalities. PMID:3786037

Rachelefsky, G S; Wo, J; Adelson, J; Mickey, M R; Spector, S L; Katz, R M; Siegel, S C; Rohr, A S

1986-12-01

168

High dose CART peptide induces abnormal EEG activity and behavioral seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters found throughout the nervous system and in the periphery. CART has an important role in the regulation of food intake, anxiety, endocrine function, and in mesolimbic-mediated reward and reinforcement. This short report casts light upon previous descriptions of presumed behavioral seizure and tremor activity following administration of CART into the central nervous

Glenda L. Keating; Michael J. Kuhar; David B. Rye

2008-01-01

169

Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV\\/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least

W. A. Hunt; J. A. Joseph; B. M. Rabin

1989-01-01

170

Cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to evaluate the cognitive, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental function in patients with adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID) and to compare the findings with those of a case control group of patients without ADA-SCID. Study design: Case-matched pairs of patients with ADA-SCID (n = 11) and patients without ADA-SCID who had undergone bone marrow transplantation were

Mary Haslinger Rogers; Rebekah Lwin; Lynette Fairbanks; Bert Gerritsen; Hubert B. Gaspar

2001-01-01

171

Prenatal rapamycin results in early and late behavioral abnormalities in wildtype C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling has been shown to be deregulated in a number of genetic, neurodevelopmental disorders including Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Neurofibromatosis, Fragile X, and Rett syndromes. As a result, mTOR inhibitors, such as rapamycin and its analogs, offer potential therapeutic avenues for these disorders. Some of these disorders-such as Tuberous Sclerosis Complex-can be diagnosed prenatally. Thus, prenatal administration of these inhibitors could potentially prevent the development of the devastating symptoms associated with these disorders. To assess the possible detrimental effects of prenatal rapamycin treatment, we evaluated both early and late behavioral effects of a single rapamycin treatment at embryonic day 16.5 in wildtype C57Bl/6 mice. This treatment adversely impacted early developmental milestones as well as motor function in adult animals. Rapamycin also resulted in anxiety-like behaviors during both early development and adulthood but did not affect adult social behaviors. Together, these results indicate that a single, prenatal rapamycin treatment not only adversely affects early postnatal development but also results in long lasting negative effects, persisting into adulthood. These findings are of importance in considering prenatal administration of rapamycin and related drugs in the treatment of patients with neurogenetic, neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23229624

Tsai, Peter T; Greene-Colozzi, Emily; Goto, June; Anderl, Stefanie; Kwiatkowski, David J; Sahin, Mustafa

2012-12-12

172

Abnormal behavioral and neurotrophic development in the younger sibling receiving less maternal care in a communal nursing paradigm in rats.  

PubMed

Maternal behavior in rodents has been proposed to vary as a function of the external environment and, in turn, adjust offspring's stress and fear responses. Early handling (brief periods of maternal separation during the first two weeks of life) studies and analyses of spontaneously high-caring rat mothers converge to indicate that increased levels of maternal care may reduce offspring emotionality in adulthood. However, the hypothesis that environment-dependent reduction in maternal care correlates with increased offspring vulnerability to pathology has been scarcely investigated. To test this hypothesis we studied maternal care and offspring development in young, adolescent and young-adult Sprague-Dawley rats reared in a communal nursing situation, characterized by two dams delivering their offspring four days apart and communally caring for them until weaning. We show that dams of the first-born litter show increased aggression towards the pregnant female and that offspring belonging to the second-born litter receive less maternal care compared to older cage-mates. Additionally, second-born rats show increased anxiety-related behavior in a plus-maze test in adolescence and adulthood and abnormal developmental trajectories in terms of social interaction and BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus compared to both the first-born litter and to animal facility reared controls. This is the first indication that adverse environments, not requiring experimenter handling, may reduce maternal care and in turn increase offspring's emotionality and modify social behavior and BDNF developmental trajectories. PMID:19762157

Macrì, Simone; Laviola, Giovanni; Leussis, Melanie P; Andersen, Susan L

2009-09-16

173

Abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity, impaired remote spatial memory, and increased D1-mediated dopaminergic signaling in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in the regulation of a diverse population of intracellular messenger systems in the brain. In humans, abnormal NOS\\/nitric oxide metabolism is suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Mice with targeted disruption of the nNOS gene exhibit abnormal behaviors. Here, we

Koichi Tanda; Akinori Nishi; Naoki Matsuo; Kazuo Nakanishi; Nobuyuki Yamasaki; Tohru Sugimoto; Keiko Toyama; Keizo Takao; Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

2009-01-01

174

Delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure abnormalities in youth with a family history of alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high-risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH?). Methods Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH? = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH? youth. Results FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH? youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower reaction times on the delay discounting task. Conclusion Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing, and may act as an intrinsic risk-factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-risk youth.

Herting, Megan M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2011-01-01

175

Repetitive strain injury  

PubMed Central

Pain in the forearm is relatively common in the community. In the workplace forearm pain is associated with work involving frequent repetition, high forces, and prolonged abnormal postures. Nevertheless, other factors are involved in the presentation and the continuation of the pain. Notable among these factors are psychosocial issues and the workplace environment—the attitude to workers and their welfare, the physical conditions, and design of the job. Primary prevention may be effective but active surveillance is important with early intervention and an active management approach. Physical treatments have not been extensively evaluated. In the established case, management should be multidisciplinary, addressing physical aspects of the job but also addressing the "yellow, blue, and black flags" which should be viewed as obstacles to recovery. For the worker "on sick" a dialogue should be established between the worker, the primary care physician, and the workplace. Return to work should be encouraged and facilitated by medical interventions and light duty options. Rehabilitation programmes may be of use in chronic cases.

Helliwell, P; Taylor, W

2004-01-01

176

Acetyl-L-carnitine attenuates homocysteine-induced Alzheimer-like histopathological and behavioral abnormalities.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocystinemia could induce tau protein hyperphosphorylation, ?-amyloid (A?) accumulation, and memory deficits as seen in Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common cause of senile dementia with no effective cure currently. To search for possible treatment for AD, we produced a hyperhomocysteinemia model by vena caudalis injection of homocystine (Hcy) for 2 weeks and studied the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in rats. We found that simultaneous supplement of ALC could improve the Hcy-induced memory deficits remarkably, with attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation and A? accumulation. Supplement of ALC almost abolished the Hcy-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related sites. Supplementation of ALC also suppressed the phosphorylation of ?-amyloid precursor proteins (APP), which may underlie the reduction of A?. Our data suggest that ALC could be a promising candidate for arresting Hcy-induced AD-like pathological and behavioral impairments. PMID:21978079

Zhou, Peng; Chen, Zhuo; Zhao, Ning; Liu, Dan; Guo, Zi-Yuan; Tan, Lu; Hu, Juan; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

2011-10-06

177

Strain background influences neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities in mice expressing the tetracycline transactivator  

PubMed Central

The tet-off system has been widely used to create transgenic models of neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and prion disease. The utility of this system lies in the assumption that the tetracycline transactivator (TTA) acts as an inert control element and does not contribute to phenotypes under study. Here we report that neuronal expression of TTA can affect hippocampal cytoarchitecture and behavior in a strain-dependent manner. While studying neurodegeneration in two tet-off Alzheimer’s disease models, we unexpectedly discovered neuronal loss within the dentate gyrus of single transgenic TTA controls. Granule neurons appeared most sensitive to TTA exposure during postnatal development, and doxycycline treatment during this period was neuroprotective. TTA-induced degeneration could be rescued by moving the transgene onto a congenic C57BL/6J background, and recurred on re-introduction of either CBA or C3H/He backgrounds. Quantitative trait analysis of B6C3 F2 TTA mice identified a region on Chromosome 14 that contains a major modifier of the neurodegenerative phenotype. Although B6 mice were resistant to degeneration, they were not ideal for cognitive testing. F1 offspring of TTA C57BL/6J and 129X1/SvJ, FVB/NJ, or DBA/1J showed improved spatial learning, but TTA expression caused subtle differences in contextual fear conditioning on two of these backgrounds indicating that strain and genotype can interact independently under different behavioral settings. All model systems have limitations that should be recognized and mitigated where possible; our findings stress the importance of mapping the effects caused by TTA alone when working with tet-off models.

Han, Harry J.; Allen, Carolyn C.; Buchovecky, Christie M.; Yetman, Michael J.; Born, Heather A.; Marin, Miguel A.; Rodgers, Shaefali P.; Song, Bryan J.; Lu, Hui-Chen; Justice, Monica J.; Probst, Frank J.; Jankowsky, Joanna L.

2012-01-01

178

Motor abnormalities as a putative endophenotype for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) represent a complex group of behaviorally defined conditions with core deficits in social communication and the presence of repetitive and restrictive behaviors. To date, neuropathological studies have failed to identify pathognomonic cellular features for ASDs and there remains a fundamental disconnection between the complex clinical aspects of ASDs and the underlying neurobiology. Although not listed among the core diagnostic domains of impairment in ASDs, motor abnormalities have been consistently reported across the spectrum. In this perspective article, we summarize the evidence that supports the use of motor abnormalities as a putative endophenotype for ASDs. We argue that because these motor abnormalities do not directly depend on social or linguistic development, they may serve as an early disease indicator. Furthermore, we propose that stratifying patients based on motor development could be useful not only as an outcome predictor and in identifying more specific treatments for different ASDs categories, but also in exposing neurobiological mechanisms.

Esposito, Gianluca; Pasca, Sergiu P.

2013-01-01

179

Behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities after streptococcal exposure: a novel rat model of Sydenham chorea and related neuropsychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and autoimmunity are associated with the onset of a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders in children, with the prototypical disorder being Sydenham chorea (SC). Our aim was to develop an animal model that resembled the behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities of SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Male Lewis rats exposed to GAS antigen exhibited motor symptoms (impaired food manipulation and beam walking) and compulsive behavior (increased induced-grooming). These symptoms were alleviated by the D2 blocker haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, respectively, drugs that are used to treat motor symptoms and compulsions in streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Streptococcal exposure resulted in antibody deposition in the striatum, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and concomitant alterations in dopamine and glutamate levels in cortex and basal ganglia, consistent with the known pathophysiology of SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Autoantibodies (IgG) of GAS rats reacted with tubulin and caused elevated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling in SK-N-SH neuronal cells, as previously found with sera from SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Our new animal model translates directly to human disease and led us to discover autoantibodies targeted against dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat model as well as in SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22534626

Brimberg, Lior; Benhar, Itai; Mascaro-Blanco, Adita; Alvarez, Kathy; Lotan, Dafna; Winter, Christine; Klein, Julia; Moses, Allon E; Somnier, Finn E; Leckman, James F; Swedo, Susan E; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Joel, Daphna

2012-04-25

180

Surface Structure Evolution and Abnormal Wear Behavior of the TiNiNb Alloy under Impact Load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TiNiNb alloy exhibits a linear increase in wear with a number of impacts at the low impact energy density E im of 1.6 J/cm2. However, a change in the volume wear occurs on the wear curve when E im is increased to 2.42 J/cm2. In this case, when the number of impacts N is more than 3 × 105 cycles, the wear rate decreases from 5.8 × 10-6 to 1.9 × 10-6 mm3/cycle, which is only one-half of that under low E im (1.6 J/cm2). It is significant for practical applications because impact energy increases while the wear rate decreases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses show that a large number of amorphous structures are produced on the sample surface at high E im , while no new crystalline phases appear. The abnormal wear behavior of the TiNiNb alloy can be attributed to the excellent wear behavior of amorphous structure and the consumption of impact energy during amorphous structure production.

Zhang, Jianjun; Zhu, Jinhua

2009-05-01

181

Abnormal Behaviors and Microstructural Changes in White Matter of Juvenile Mice Repeatedly Exposed to Amphetamine  

PubMed Central

Amphetamine (AMP) is an addictive CNS stimulant and has been commonly abused by adolescents and young adults, during which period brain white matter is still developing. This study was to examine the effect of a nonneurotoxic AMP on the white matter of juvenile mice. d-AMP (1.0?mg/kg) was given to young male C57BL/6 mice once a day for 21 days. The spatial working memory and locomotion of mice were measured at the end. Then, mice were sacrificed and their brains were processed for morphological analyses to examine the white matter structure and for Western blot analysis to measure three main proteins expressed in mature oligodendrocytes. AMP-treated mice displayed higher locomotion and spatial working memory impairment and showed lower levels of Nogo-A and GST-pi proteins in frontal cortex and lower MBP protein in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. They also had fewer mature oligodendrocytes and weak MBP immunofluorescent staining in the same two brain regions. But the striatum was spared. These results suggest that the late-developing white matter is vulnerable to AMP treatment which is able to increase striatal and cortical dopamine. Both the compromised white matter and increased dopamine may contribute to the observed behavioral changes in AMP-treated mice.

Yang, Hong-Ju; Wang, Lijun; Cheng, Qiang; Xu, Haiyun

2011-01-01

182

Behavioral abnormalities and Parkinson's-like histological changes resulting from Id2 inactivation in mice  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Characterizing dopaminergic neuronal development and function in novel genetic animal models might uncover strategies for researchers to develop disease-modifying treatments for neurologic disorders. Id2 is a transcription factor expressed in the developing central nervous system. Id2?/? mice have fewer dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb and reduced olfactory discrimination, a pre-clinical marker of Parkinson’s disease. Here, we summarize behavioral, histological and in vitro molecular biological analyses to determine whether midbrain dopaminergic neurons are affected by Id2 loss. Id2?/? mice were hyperactive at 1 and 3 months of age, but by 6 months showed reduced activity. Id2?/? mice showed age-dependent histological alterations in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpC) associated with changes in locomotor activity. Reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) expression was observed at early ages in Id2?/? mice and DAT expression was dependent on Id2 expression in an in vitro dopaminergic differentiation model. Evidence of neurodegeneration, including activated caspase-3 and glial infiltration, were noted in the SNpC of older Id2?/? mice. These findings document a novel role for Id2 in the maintenance of midbrain dopamine neurons. The Id2?/? mouse should provide unique opportunities to study the progression of neurodegenerative disorders involving the dopamine system.

Havrda, Matthew C.; Paolella, Brenton R.; Ward, Nora M.; Holroyd, Kathryn B.

2013-01-01

183

Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

2007-01-01

184

Lead-induced neurodegenerative events and abnormal behaviors occur via ORXRergic/GABA(A)Rergic mechanisms in a marine teleost.  

PubMed

The hindering effects of metals and in particular lead (Pb) are representing a growing threat to aquatic organisms such as fish. This observation derives from toxic concentrations of Pb accounting for altered neurophysiological activities of some interesting teleost models like Thalassoma pavo, a fish species highly known for its host-cleaning symbiosis. In this study, the nominal PbNO(3) concentration of 1.6 mg/L was capable of reducing feeding and resting bouts as early as 24 h of exposure while hyperactive swimming episodes were also detected. Such abnormal behaviors were tightly correlated to up-regulated orexin receptor (ORXR) mRNA expression levels in some brain areas such as the lateral thalamic nucleus (+213%) and the optic tectum (+90%) with respect to controls. Interestingly, these transcriptional effects seemed to be attenuated when Pb-exposed fish received either 100 ng/g of ORX-A (-70%) or 0.1 ?g/g of ?-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) agonist muscimol (MUS; -97%) compared to fish exposed to Pb alone. Moreover, a net neurodegenerative process of the different brain areas was reported after Pb exposure as displayed by their marked amino cupric silver stained cells while these cells were devoid of any staining reaction after treatment with MUS only. Conversely, addition of the GABA(A)R antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 ?g/g) moderately (p<0.05) enhanced Pb-dependent behavioral and neurodegenerative actions. Overall, these first indications strongly point to altered ORXR/GABA(A)R interactions during neurotoxic events of a metal that by evoking harmful neurobiological dysfunctions may endanger the survival of commercially valuable fish with eventual repercussions on human health. PMID:23246865

Zizza, Merylin; Giusi, Giuseppina; Crudo, Michele; Canonaco, Marcello; Facciolo, Rosa Maria

2012-11-20

185

Oseltamivir Prescription and Regulatory Actions Vis-?-Vis Abnormal Behavior Risk in Japan: Drug Utilization Study Using a Nationwide Pharmacy Database  

PubMed Central

Background In March 2007, a regulatory advisory was issued in Japan to restrict oseltamivir use in children aged 10-19 years because of safety concerns over abnormal behavior. The effectiveness and validity of regulatory risk minimization actions remain to be reviewed, despite their significant public health implications. To assess the impact of the regulatory actions on prescribing practices and safety reporting. Methodoloy/Prinicpal Findings In this retrospective review of a nationwide pharmacy database, we analyzed 100,344 dispensation records for oseltamivir and zanamivir for the period from November 2006 to March 2009. The time trend in dispensations for these antiviral agents was presented before and after the regulatory actions, contrasted with intensity of media coverage and the numbers of spontaneous adverse reaction reports with regard to antivirals. The 2007 regulatory actions, together with its intense media coverage, reduced oseltamivir dispensation in targeted patients in fiscal year 2008 to 20.4% of that in fiscal year 2006, although influenza activities were comparable between these fiscal years. In contrast, zanamivir dispensation increased approximately nine-fold across all age groups. The number of abnormal behavior reports associated with oseltamivir in children aged 10-19 years decreased from fiscal year 2006 to 2008 (24 to 9 cases); this decline was offset by the increased number of reports of abnormal behavior in children under age 10 (12 to 28 cases). The number of reports associated with zanamivir increased in proportion to increased dispensation of this drug (11 to 114 cases). Conclusions/Significance The 2007 actions effectively reduced oseltamivir prescriptions and the number of reports of abnormal behavior in the targeted group. The observed increase in abnormal behavior reports in oseltamivir patients under age 10 and in zanamivir patients suggests that these patient groups may also be at risk, calling into question the validity of the current discrimination by age and agent (Abstract translation is available in Japanese: Appendix S1).

Urushihara, Hisashi; Doi, Yuko; Arai, Masaru; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Yosuke; Iino, Naoko; Kawamura, Takashi; Kawakami, Koji

2011-01-01

186

Roles of repetitive sequences  

SciTech Connect

The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

Bell, G.I.

1991-01-01

187

Roles of repetitive sequences  

SciTech Connect

The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

Bell, G.I.

1991-12-31

188

Abnormal Eu behavior at formation of H2O- and Cl-bearing fluids during degassing of granite magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important features of REE behavior in the process of decompression degassing of granite melts is the presence of europium anomalies in REE spectrum of forming fluid phase. Negative Eu anomaly in REE spectrum of fluids enriched by chlorine that were formed under high pressures at early stages of degassing relative to REE spectrum of granite melts may take place. Negative Eu anomaly in fluid is replaced by positive one with pressure decrease and decline of Cl concentration in fluid [1, 2]. Observable unique features of europium redistribution between fluid and melt find an explanation in such a fact that Eu in contrast to the other REE under oxidation-reduction conditions, being typical for magmatic process, is present in acidic silica-alumina melts in two valency forms Eu3+ and Eu2+ whereas the dominant form for the other REE in such a melts is (REE)3+ [3, 4]. From the analysis of melt-fluid exchange reactions with participation of two valency forms of europium Eu3+ and Eu2+ follows that the total distribution coefficient of Eu between fluid and melt D(Eu)f-m is equal as a first approximation to [5, 6]: D(Eu)f-m = a1? [C(Cl)f]3 + a2 (1 - ?)[C(Cl)f]2, where C(Cl)f - the concentration of Cl in fluid, ? = Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+), i.e. fraction of Eu3+ from the general amount of europium in the melt, and, a1anda2- constants that can be approximately estimated from empirical data upon Eu fluid/melt distribution. The equation given allows to estimate the influence of oxidizing condition of europium on sign and size of Eu anomaly, which is expressed by Eu/Eu# ratio, where Eu is real concentration of europium in fluid being in equilibrium with melt with constant Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+) ratio, and Eu# is possible "virtual" concentration of europium that could be in the same fluid provided that all europium as other REE as well were exclusively present in trivalent form. The sign and size of Eu anomaly in fluid depends upon Cl concentration in fluid and Eu3+/Eu2+ ratio in melt. The abnormal behavior of Eu shows itself the stronger, the lower fO2and, accordingly, the more fraction of Eu2+is present in melt. The work is supported of the Geosciences Department of the Russian Academy of Science (the program 2- 2010) and RFBR (grant 08-05-00022). References [1] Reed M.J., Candela Ph.A., Piccoli Ph.M. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 2000. V. 140. P. 251-262. [2] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Vestnik Otd. Nauk Zemle RAN, No 1(25)'2007 URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2007/informbul-1_2007/term-30e.pdf [3] Drake M.J. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 1975. V. 39. P. 55-64. [4] Wilke M. Behrens H. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 1999. V. 137. P. 102-114. [5] Lukanin O.A. Vestnik Otd. Nauk o Zemle RAN, No 1(26)'2008. URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2008/informbul-1_2008/magm-20e.pdf [6] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Geochemistry International, 2010 (in press)

Lukanin, Oleg

2010-05-01

189

Abnormal posturing  

MedlinePLUS

People with abnormal posturing almost always have reduced consciousness. Anyone who shows symptoms of abnormal posturing should ... Elsevier; 2008:chap 5. Bleck T. Levels of consciousness and attention. In: Goetz, CG, ed. Textbook of ...

190

Walking abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Many different types of walking problems occur without ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...

191

Repetition Priming in Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target…

Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

2008-01-01

192

Repetition through Successive Approximations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted in an attempt to provide an alternative to the long-established method of tape listening and repetition drills, a method that has had disappointing results. It is suggested that the rate of speed of phonic presentation is not commensurate with the rate of comprehension. The proposed method seeks to prevent cognitive…

Littell, Katherine M.

193

Novel porcine repetitive elements  

PubMed Central

Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI). These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute), covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

Wiedmann, Ralph T; Nonneman, Dan J; Keele, John W

2006-01-01

194

Cause and Consequence: Mitochondrial Dysfunction Initiates and Propagates Neuronal Dysfunction, Neuronal Death and Behavioral Abnormalities in Age Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and accumulation of abnormal proteins. Within the cell, the mitochondria appears to be a dominant site for initiation and propagation of disease processes. Shifts in metabolism in response to mild metabolic perturbations may decrease the threshold for irreversible injury in response to ordinarily sub lethal metabolic insults. Mild impairment of metabolism accrue from and lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS change cell signaling via post transcriptional and transcriptional changes. The cause and consequences of mild impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is one focus of this review. Many experiments in tissues from humans support the notion that oxidative modification of the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) compromises neuronal energy metabolism and enhance ROS production in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). These data suggest that cognitive decline in AD derives from the selective tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle abnormalities. By contrast in Huntington’s Disease (HD), a movement disorder with cognitive features distinct form AD, complex II + III abnormalities may dominate. These distinct mitochondrial abnormalities culminate in oxidative stress, energy dysfunction, and aberrant homeostasis of cytosolic calcium. Cytosolic calcium, elevations even only transiently, leads to hyperactivity of a number of enzymes. One calcium activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological import in HD and AD is transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is a cross linking enzymes that can modulate transcrption, inactivate metabolic enzymes, and cause aggregation of critical proteins. Recent data indicate that TGase can silence expression of genes involved in compensating for metabolic stress. Altogether, our results suggest that increasing KGDHC via inhibition of TGase or via a host of other strategies to be described would be effective therapeutic approaches in age associated neurodegenerative diseases.

Gibson, Gary E.; Starkov, Anatoly; Blass, John P.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Beal, M. Flint

2009-01-01

195

Recurrent reciprocal 1q21.1 deletions and duplications associated with microcephaly or macrocephaly and developmental and behavioral abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Chromosome region 1q21.1 contains extensive and complex low-copy repeats, and copy number variants (CNVs) in this region have recently been reported in association with congenital heart defects1, developmental delay2,3, schizophrenia and related psychoses4,5. We describe 21 probands with the 1q21.1 microdeletion and 15 probands with the 1q21.1 microduplication. These CNVs were inherited in most of the cases in which parental studies were available. Consistent and statistically significant features of microcephaly and macrocephaly were found in individuals with micro-deletion and microduplication, respectively. Notably, a paralog of the HYDIN gene located on 16q22.2 and implicated in autosomal recessive hydrocephalus6 was inserted into the 1q21.1 region during the evolution of Homo sapiens7; we found this locus to be deleted or duplicated in the individuals we studied, making it a probable candidate for the head size abnormalities observed. We propose that recurrent reciprocal microdeletions and microduplications within 1q21.1 represent previously unknown genomic disorders characterized by abnormal head size along with a spectrum of developmental delay, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. These phenotypes are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity.

Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Berg, Jonathan S; Scaglia, Fernando; Belmont, John; Bacino, Carlos A; Sahoo, Trilochan; Lalani, Seema R; Graham, Brett; Lee, Brendan; Shinawi, Marwan; Shen, Joseph; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Pursley, Amber; Lotze, Timothy; Kennedy, Gail; Lansky-Shafer, Susan; Weaver, Christine; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Grebe, Theresa A; Arnold, Georgianne L; Hutchison, Terry; Reimschisel, Tyler; Amato, Stephen; Geragthy, Michael T; Innis, Jeffrey W; Obersztyn, Ewa; Nowakowska, Beata; Rosengren, Sally S; Bader, Patricia I; Grange, Dorothy K; Naqvi, Sayed; Garnica, Adolfo D; Bernes, Saunder M; Fong, Chin-To; Summers, Anne; Walters, W David; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita

2009-01-01

196

Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these behavioral

Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

2011-01-01

197

Loss of MeCP2 in aminergic neurons causes cell-autonomous defects in neurotransmitter synthesis and specific behavioral abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome (RTT) is characterized by specific motor, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. Because several of these abnormalities occur in other disease states associated with alterations in aminergic neurotransmitters, we investigated the contribution of such alterations to RTT pathogenesis. We found that both individuals with RTT and Mecp2-null mice have lower-than-normal levels of aminergic metabolites and content. Deleting Mecp2 from either TH-positive dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons or PET1-positive serotonergic neurons in mice decreased corresponding neurotransmitter concentration and specific phenotypes, likely through MeCP2 regulation of rate-limiting enzymes involved in aminergic neurotransmitter production. These data support a cell-autonomous, MeCP2-dependent mechanism for the regulation of aminergic neurotransmitter synthesis contributing to unique behavioral phenotypes.

Samaco, Rodney C.; Mandel-Brehm, Caleigh; Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Ward, Christopher S.; Fyffe-Maricich, Sharyl L.; Ren, Jun; Hyland, Keith; Thaller, Christina; Maricich, Stephen M.; Humphreys, Peter; Greer, John J.; Percy, Alan; Glaze, Daniel G.; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Neul, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

198

Constructive and Unconstructive Repetitive Thought  

PubMed Central

The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive preparation and anticipatory planning, (c) recovery from depression, and (d) uptake of health-promoting behaviors. Several potential principles accounting for these distinct consequences of RT are identified within this review: (a) the valence of thought content, (b) the intrapersonal and situational context in which RT occurs, and (c) the level of construal (abstract vs. concrete processing) adopted during RT. Of the existing models of RT, it is proposed that an elaborated version of the control theory account provides the best theoretical framework to account for its distinct consequences.

Watkins, Edward R.

2008-01-01

199

A pdf Neuropeptide Gene Mutation and Ablation of PDF Neurons Each Cause Severe Abnormalities of Behavioral Circadian Rhythms in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which circadian pacemaker systems transmit timing information to control behavior are largely unknown. Here, we define two critical features of that mechanism in Drosophila. We first describe animals mutant for the pdf neuropeptide gene, which is expressed by most of the candidate pacemakers (LNv neurons). Next, we describe animals in which pdf neurons were selectively ablated. Both

Susan C. P. Renn; Jae H. Park; Michael Rosbash; Jeffrey C. Hall; Paul H. Taghert

1999-01-01

200

Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these…

Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

2011-01-01

201

Craniofacial Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

202

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... only. Girls may carry the abnormal gene that causes these disorders but not show the actual disease. (Examples of this problem include hemophilia, color blindness, and the common forms of muscular ...

203

Expertise reduces neural cost but does not modulate repetition suppression  

PubMed Central

The extent to which repetition suppression is modulated by expertise is currently unknown. We used event-related fMRI to test whether architecture students would respond faster to buildings and would exhibit stronger repetition suppression in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and parahippocampa cortex (PHC) than students from other disciplines. Behaviorally, we found shorter response latencies with target repetition in all subjects. Moreover, the repetition of targets and distracters was associated with decreased neural responses in the FG and PHC in all subjects. In control, but not in architecture students, reaction times during the first repetition of the target were correlated with activation in the cuneus, lingual gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, indicating that the non-experts had to recruit additional regions in order to perform the task. Our findings suggest that due to their expertise, architects were able to encode and detect building stimuli at a lower neural cost.

Wiesmann, Martin; Ishai, Alumit

2010-01-01

204

Origin of the abnormal behavior of contact resistance in Ohmic contacts to laser-irradiated n-type GaN  

SciTech Connect

Abnormal behavior of contact resistance with annealing in Ohmic contacts to laser-irradiated n-GaN is investigated. Ti/Al contacts on as-grown n-GaN shows no change in contact resistivity with annealing at the temperature range of 100-400 deg. C. However, the annealing results in the significant increase in contact resistivity in the contacts on laser-irradiated n-GaN. Synchrotron radiation photoemission study reveals the reduction of the concentration of donor-like N vacancies near the surface by the annealing. These results suggest that preventing the annihilation of N vacancies in the laser-irradiated n-GaN is important in improving the performance of vertical-structure GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off.

Jang, Ho Won; Lee, Jong-Lam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate Institute of Advanced Materials Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-04

205

Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702.

Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

2007-01-01

206

Do GluA1 knockout mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities relevant to the negative or cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder?  

PubMed Central

The glutamate system has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic illnesses, including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We recently found that knockout (KO) mice lacking the AMPA GluA1 subunit displayed behavioral abnormalities relevant to some of the positive symptoms of these disorders. Here we phenotyped GluA1 KO mice for behavioral phenotypes pertinent to negative and cognitive/executive symptoms. GluA1 KO mice were tested for conspecific social interactions, the acquisition and extinction of an operant response for food-reward, operant-based pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning, and impulsive choice in a delay-based cost/benefit decision-making T-maze task. Results showed that GluA1 KO mice engaged in less social interaction than wildtype (WT) controls when tested in a non-habituated, novel environment, but, conversely, displayed more social interaction in a well habituated, familiar environment. GluA1 KO mice were faster to acquire an operant stimulus-response for food reward than WT and were subsequently slower to extinguish the response. Genotypes showed similar pairwise discrimination learning and reversal, although GluA1 KO mice made fewer errors during early reversal. GluA1 KO mice also displayed increased impulsive choice, being less inclined to choose a delayed, larger reward when given a choice between this and a smaller, immediate reward, compared to WT mice. Finally, sucrose preference did not differ between genotypes. Collectively, these data add to the growing evidence that GluA1 KO mice display at least some phenotypic abnormalities mimicking those found in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Although these mice, like any other single mutant line, are unlikely to model the entire disease, they may nevertheless provide a useful tool for studying the role of GluA1 in certain aspects of the pathophysiology of major psychotic illness.

Barkus, Chris; Feyder, Michael; Graybeal, Carolyn; Wright, Tara; Wiedholz, Lisa; Izquierdo, Alicia; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Schmitt, Wolfram; Sanderson, David J.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Sprengel, Rolf; Bannerman, David; Holmes, Andrew

2011-01-01

207

Abnormal Diffusion Behavior of Zn in Cu/Sn-9 wt.%Zn/Cu Interconnects During Liquid-Solid Electromigration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion behavior of Zn atoms and the interfacial reaction in Cu/Sn-9 wt.%Zn/Cu interconnects undergoing liquid-solid electromigration were investigated under a current density of 5.0 × 103 A/cm2 at 230°C. A reverse polarity effect was revealed, in which the interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the cathode grew continuously and were remarkably thicker than those at the anode. This behavior resulted from the directional migration of Zn atoms from the anode towards the cathode, which was induced by the positive effective charge number ( Z *) of the Zn atoms rather than by back-stress. Consequently, at the anode, dissolution and massive spalling of the Cu-Zn IMCs occurred, and the depletion of Zn atoms resulted in the transformation of initial interfacial Cu5Zn8 IMC into (Cu6Sn5 + CuZn); at the cathode, the interfacial Cu5Zn8 IMC gradually transformed into (Cu5Zn8 + CuZn); in the solder, the Zn content reduced continuously from 9 wt.% to 0.9 wt.%. A growth model is proposed to explain the reverse polarity effect, and the average Z * of Zn atoms in Cu5Zn8 was calculated to be +0.25 using this model.

Huang, M. L.; Zhou, Q.; Zhao, N.; Zhang, Z. J.

2013-10-01

208

Abnormal Plasminogen  

PubMed Central

A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen. Images

Aoki, Nobuo; Moroi, Masaaki; Sakata, Yoichi; Yoshida, Nobuhiko; Matsuda, Michio

1978-01-01

209

Repetition suppression versus enhancement--it's quantity that matters.  

PubMed

Upon repetition, certain stimuli induce reduced neural responses (i.e., repetition suppression), whereas others evoke stronger signals (i.e., repetition enhancement). It has been hypothesized that stimulus properties (e.g., visibility) determine the direction of the repetition effect. Here, we show that the very same stimuli can induce both repetition suppression and enhancement, whereby the only determining factor is the number of repetitions. Repeating the same, initially novel low-visible pictures of scenes for up to 5 times enhanced the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in scene-selective areas, that is, the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS), presumably reflecting the strengthening of the internal representation. Additional repetitions (6-9) resulted in progressively attenuated neural responses indicating a more efficient representation of the now familiar stimulus. Behaviorally, repetition led to increasingly faster responses and higher visibility ratings. Novel scenes induced the largest BOLD response in the PPA and also higher activity in yet another scene-selective region, the retrospenial cortex (RSC). We propose that 2 separable processes modulate activity in the PPA: one process optimizes the internal stimulus representation and involves TOS and the other differentiates between familiar and novel scenes and involves RSC. PMID:22314047

Müller, Notger G; Strumpf, H; Scholz, M; Baier, B; Melloni, L

2012-02-07

210

Diacylglycerol Kinase ? Knockout Mice Exhibit Attention-Deficit Behavior and an Abnormal Response on Methylphenidate-Induced Hyperactivity  

PubMed Central

Background Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGK? is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGK? knockout (KO) mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density), hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGK? KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGK? in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methodology/Principal Findings DGK? KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.). In the open field test, DGK? KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p.), but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGK? KO mice. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that DGK? KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGK? KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGK? has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum.

Ishisaka, Mitsue; Kakefuda, Kenichi; Oyagi, Atsushi; Ono, Yoko; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Hara, Hideaki

2012-01-01

211

Brain growth rate abnormalities visualized in adolescents with autism.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093

Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G

2011-10-20

212

Deletion of densin-180 results in abnormal behaviors associated with mental illness and reduces mGluR5 and DISC1 in the postsynaptic density fraction.  

PubMed

Densin is an abundant scaffold protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that forms a high-affinity complex with ?CaMKII and ?-actinin. To assess the function of densin, we created a mouse line with a null mutation in the gene encoding it (LRRC7). Homozygous knock-out mice display a wide variety of abnormal behaviors that are often considered endophenotypes of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. At the cellular level, loss of densin results in reduced levels of ?-actinin in the brain and selective reduction in the localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction, whereas the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors and other prominent PSD proteins are unchanged. In addition, deletion of densin results in impairment of mGluR- and NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression, alters the early dynamics of regulation of CaMKII by NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and produces a change in spine morphology. These results indicate that densin influences the function of mGluRs and CaMKII at synapses and contributes to localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction. They are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations that disrupt the organization and/or dynamics of postsynaptic signaling complexes in excitatory synapses can cause behavioral endophenotypes of mental illness. PMID:22072671

Carlisle, Holly J; Luong, Tinh N; Medina-Marino, Andrew; Schenker, Leslie; Khorosheva, Eugenia; Indersmitten, Tim; Gunapala, Keith M; Steele, Andrew D; O'Dell, Thomas J; Patterson, Paul H; Kennedy, Mary B

2011-11-01

213

Transplantation of Melanocytes Obtained from the Skin Ameliorates Apomorphine-Induced Abnormal Behavior in Rodent Hemi-Parkinsonian Models  

PubMed Central

Tyrosinase, which catalyzes both the hydroxylation of tyrosine and consequent oxidation of L-DOPA to form melanin in melanocytes, is also expressed in the brain, and oxidizes L-DOPA and dopamine. Replacement of dopamine synthesis by tyrosinase was reported in tyrosine hydroxylase null mice. To examine the potential benefits of autograft cell transplantation for patients with Parkinson’s disease, tyrosinase-producing cells including melanocytes, were transplanted into the striatum of hemi-parkinsonian model rats or mice lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine. Marked improvement in apomorphine-induced rotation was noted at day 40 after intrastriatal melanoma cell transplantation. Transplantation of tyrosinase cDNA-transfected hepatoma cells, which constitutively produce L-DOPA, resulted in marked amelioration of the asymmetric apomorphine-induced rotation in hemi-parkinsonian mice and the effect was present up to 2 months. Moreover, parkinsonian mice transplanted with melanocytes from the back skin of black newborn mice, but not from albino mice, showed marked improvement in the apomorphine-induced rotation behavior up to 3 months after the transplantation. Dopamine-positive signals were seen around the surviving transplants in these experiments. Taken together with previous studies showing dopamine synthesis and metabolism by tyrosinase, these results highlight therapeutic potential of intrastriatal autograft cell transplantation of melanocytes in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Asanuma, Masato; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Diaz-Corrales, Francisco J.; Higashi, Youichirou; Namba, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Norio

2013-01-01

214

Repetitions and cycles in stratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic sections show repetitions of similar or identical conditions on all scales from millimeters to many hundreds of meters, representing time intervals from possibly seconds to many millions of years. Any such repetitions have been called cycles. To understand the reason why cycles occur, a time scale is essential. Beds can be with or without time information: the latter are

W. Schwarzacher

2000-01-01

215

Repetition priming: Is music special?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using short and long contexts, the present study investigated musical priming effects that are based on chord repetition and harmonic relatedness. A musical target (a chord) was preceded by either an identical prime or a different but harmonically related prime. In contrast to words, pictures, and environmental sounds, chord processing was not facilitated by repetition. Experiments 1 and 2 using

E. Bigand; B. Tillmann; B. Poulin-Charronnat; D. Manderlier

2005-01-01

216

Repetitive resonant railgun power supply  

DOEpatents

A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

217

Absence of CNTNAP2 leads to epilepsy, neuronal migration abnormalities and core autism-related deficits  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Although many genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been identified, the biological mechanism(s) remain unclear. Mouse models based on human disease-causing mutations provide the potential for understanding gene function and novel treatment development. Here we characterize a mouse knockout of the Cntnap2 gene, which is strongly associated with ASD and allied neurodevelopmental disorders. Cntnap2?/? mice show deficits in the three core ASD behavioral domains, as well as hyperactivity and epileptic seizures, as has been reported in humans with CNTNAP2 mutations. Neuropathological and physiological analyses of these mice before the onset of seizures reveal neuronal migration abnormalities, reduced number of interneurons and abnormal neuronal network activity. In addition, treatment with the FDA approved drug risperidone, ameliorates the targeted repetitive behaviors in the mutant mice. These data demonstrate a functional role for CNTNAP2 in brain development and provide a new tool for mechanistic and therapeutic research in ASD.

Penagarikano, Olga; Abrahams, Brett S.; Herman, Edward I.; Winden, Kellen C.; Gdalyahu, Amos; Dong, Hongmei; Sonnenblick, Lisa I.; Gruver, Robin; Almajano, Joel; Bragin, Anatol; Golshani, Peyman; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.; Peles, Elior; Geschwind, Daniel H.

2012-01-01

218

Absence of CNTNAP2 leads to epilepsy, neuronal migration abnormalities, and core autism-related deficits.  

PubMed

Although many genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been identified, the biological mechanism(s) remain unclear. Mouse models based on human disease-causing mutations provide the potential for understanding gene function and novel treatment development. Here, we characterize a mouse knockout of the Cntnap2 gene, which is strongly associated with ASD and allied neurodevelopmental disorders. Cntnap2(-/-) mice show deficits in the three core ASD behavioral domains, as well as hyperactivity and epileptic seizures, as have been reported in humans with CNTNAP2 mutations. Neuropathological and physiological analyses of these mice before the onset of seizures reveal neuronal migration abnormalities, reduced number of interneurons, and abnormal neuronal network activity. In addition, treatment with the FDA-approved drug risperidone ameliorates the targeted repetitive behaviors in the mutant mice. These data demonstrate a functional role for CNTNAP2 in brain development and provide a new tool for mechanistic and therapeutic research in ASD. PMID:21962519

Peñagarikano, Olga; Abrahams, Brett S; Herman, Edward I; Winden, Kellen D; Gdalyahu, Amos; Dong, Hongmei; Sonnenblick, Lisa I; Gruver, Robin; Almajano, Joel; Bragin, Anatol; Golshani, Peyman; Trachtenberg, Joshua T; Peles, Elior; Geschwind, Daniel H

2011-09-30

219

Brief report: exploring the relationship between sensory processing and repetitive behaviours in Williams Syndrome.  

PubMed

This study explored the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours in children with Williams Syndrome (WS; n = 21). This is a novel investigation bringing together two clinical phenomena for the first time in this neuro-developmental disorder. Parents completed the Sensory Profile (Short Form; Dunn in The sensory profile manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation, 1999) and the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (Turner 1995). A significant correlation was evident between the total scores on each of these measures; suggesting that children with WS who exhibit increased sensory processing abnormalities also display a higher number of repetitive behaviours. Further exploratory analyses of subscales of the measures indicated potentially important relationships that suggest a role for arousal regulation in the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours in WS. PMID:22677930

Riby, Deborah M; Janes, Emily; Rodgers, Jacqui

2013-02-01

220

Restricted and repetitive behaviours, sensory processing and cognitive style in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the Embedded Figures Test (EFT), and their parents the Short Sensory Profile and Childhood Routines Inventory. Significant correlations were found between degree of sensory abnormalities and amount of restricted and repetitive behaviours reported. Repetitive behaviours, age and IQ significantly predicted completion time on the EFT. The results suggest a cognitive link between an individual's detail-focused cognitive style and their repetitiveness. No such relationship was found with sensory processing abnormalities, which may arise at a more peripheral level of functioning. PMID:19015969

Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

2008-11-18

221

Repetition suppression of faces is modulated by emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-unit recordings and functional brain imaging studies have shown reduced neural responses to repeated stimuli in the visual cortex. By using event-related functional MRI, we compared the activation evoked by repetitions of neutral and fearful faces, which were either task relevant (targets) or irrelevant (distracters). We found that within the inferior occipital gyri, lateral fusiform gyri, superior temporal sulci, amygdala, and the inferior frontal gyri/insula, targets evoked stronger responses than distracters and their repetition was associated with significantly reduced responses. Repetition suppression, as manifested by the difference in response amplitude between the first and third repetitions of a target, was stronger for fearful than neutral faces. Distracter faces, regardless of their repetition or valence, evoked negligible activation, indicating top-down attenuation of behaviorally irrelevant stimuli. Our findings demonstrate a three-way interaction between emotional valence, repetition, and task relevance and suggest that repetition suppression is influenced by high-level cognitive processes in the human brain. face perception | functional MRI

Ishai, Alumit; Pessoa, Luiz; Bikle, Philip C.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

2004-06-01

222

Huntingtin-associated Protein-1 Deficiency in Orexin-producing Neurons Impairs Neuronal Process Extension and Leads to Abnormal Behavior in Mice*  

PubMed Central

Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (Hap1) is a neuronal protein that associates with huntingtin, the Huntington disease protein. Although Hap1 and huntingtin are known to be involved in intracellular trafficking, whether and how the impairment of Hap1-associated trafficking leads to neurological pathology and symptoms remain to be seen. As Hap1 is enriched in neuronal cells in the brain, addressing this issue is important in defining the role of defective intracellular trafficking in the selective neuropathology associated with Hap1 dysfunction. Here, we find that Hap1 is abundantly expressed in orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons (orexin neurons), which are distinctly distributed in the hypothalamus and play an important role in the regulation of feeding and behavior. We created conditional Hap1 knock-out mice to selectively deplete Hap1 in orexin neurons via the Cre-loxP system. These mice show process fragmentation of orexin neurons and reductions in food intake, body weight, and locomotor activity. Sucrose density gradient fractionation reveals that loss of Hap1 in the mouse brain also reduces the distribution of trafficking protein complexes and cargo proteins in the fractions that are enriched in synaptosomes. These results suggest that Hap1 is critical for the transport of multiple proteins to the nerve terminals to maintain the integrity of neuronal processes and that selective disruption of the processes of orexin neurons can cause abnormal feeding and locomotor activity.

Lin, Yung-Feng; Xu, Xingshun; Cape, Austin; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

2010-01-01

223

Repetitively pumped electron beam device  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an apparatus for producing fast, repetitive pulses of controllable length of an electron beam by phased energy storage in a transmission line of length matched to the number of pulses and specific pulse lengths desired. 12 figs.

Schlitt, L.G.

1979-07-24

224

High Repetition Rate Chemical Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydrogen fluoride (HF) chemical laser with an active medium 10 cm in length was constructed for operation at high pulse repetition rates using transverse excitation. The device employed 29 resistively loaded electrodes; open-cycle operation was achieved...

T. V. Jacobson G. H. Kimbell A. R. Lambert D. R. Snelling

1973-01-01

225

Directed PCR-free engineering of highly repetitive DNA sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A)) tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products. Results For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays. Conclusion Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.

2011-01-01

226

Variation, Repetition, And Choice  

PubMed Central

Experiment 1 investigated the controlling properties of variability contingencies on choice between repeated and variable responding. Pigeons were exposed to concurrent-chains schedules with two alternatives. In the REPEAT alternative, reinforcers in the terminal link depended on a single sequence of four responses. In the VARY alternative, a response sequence in the terminal link was reinforced only if it differed from the n previous sequences (lag criterion). The REPEAT contingency generated low, constant levels of sequence variation whereas the VARY contingency produced levels of sequence variation that increased with the lag criterion. Preference for the REPEAT alternative tended to increase directly with the degree of variation required for reinforcement. Experiment 2 examined the potential confounding effects in Experiment 1 of immediacy of reinforcement by yoking the interreinforcer intervals in the REPEAT alternative to those in the VARY alternative. Again, preference for REPEAT was a function of the lag criterion. Choice between varying and repeating behavior is discussed with respect to obtained behavioral variability, probability of reinforcement, delay of reinforcement, and switching within a sequence.

Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele; Lattal, Kennon A; dos Santos, Cristiano V; Matos, Ricardo A

2005-01-01

227

Alterations in local thyroid hormone signaling in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mouse at younger ages: Association with delayed myelination and behavioral abnormalities  

PubMed Central

The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains were established through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain based on phenotypic variations of aging and consist of senescence-prone (SAMP) and senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Among them, SAMP8 is considered as a model of neurodegeneration displaying age-associated learning and memory impairment and altered emotional status. Because adult hypothyroidism is one of the common causes of cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders, we examined the possible involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the pathological aging of SAMP8 using the senescence-resistant SAMR1 as control. Although plasma TH levels were similar in both strains, a significant decrease in type 2 deiodinase (D2) gene expression was observed in the SAMP8 hippocampus from 1 to 8 months of age, which led to a 35–50% reductions at the protein level and 20% reduction of its enzyme activity at 1, 3, and 5 months. D2 is responsible for local conversion of thyroxine into transcriptionally active 3,5,3?-triiodothyronine (T3), so the results suggest a reduction in T3 level in the SAMP8 hippocampus. Attenuation of local TH signaling was confirmed by downregulation of TH-dependent genes and by immunohistochemical demonstration of delayed and reduced accumulation of myelin basic protein, the expression of which is highly dependent on TH. Furthermore, we found that hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were not age-associated but were characteristic of young SAMP8 before they start showing impairments in learning and memory. Early alterations in local TH signaling may thus underlie behavioral abnormalities as well as the pathological aging of SAMP8. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sawano, Erika; Negishi, Takayuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Masami; Tashiro, Tomoko

2013-01-01

228

Repetitive readout effect of a polarization echo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repetitive readout effect of a polarization echo has been experimentally studied, using LiNbO3 powder. The repetitive reading-pulse application causes the readout echo height to increase and to be saturated at certain repetitive reading times. The effect is affected by the writing-pulse-application repetition times.

T. Kimura; K. Onuki; S. Yoshikawa

1979-01-01

229

Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. CONCLUSION: Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management.

O'Neil, B. A.; Forsythe, M. E.; Stanish, W. D.

2001-01-01

230

Repetition blindness in schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

Repetition blindness is the failure to report the detection of repeated items in rapid visually presented lists. It can be explained in terms of either a processing limitation or an active inhibitory process. In two studies conducted in either English or German language we set out to induce repetition blindness under various conditions in a total of 47 control subjects and 30 schizophrenic patients. The patients displayed the phenomenon to at least the same degree as normal control subjects. These results render unlikely accounts of repetition blindness which involve processes known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenic patients. Moreover, the study provides an example of how the performance of schizophrenic patients can constrain theories of normal cognition. PMID:9728732

Kammer, T; Saleh, F; Oepen, G; ManschreckT; Seyyedi, S; Kanwisher, N; Furmanski, C; Spitzer, M

1998-01-01

231

Reliability of CoolMOS™ under extremely hard repetitive electrical working conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers deals with the behavior of CoolMOS transistors under extremely hard repetitive working conditions like transient avalanche and short-circuit operations. The repetition of these severe working operations is responsible for the devices ageing and results unavoidably in the components failures. A long term campaign of experimental tests was made in order to determine the number of hard working operations

F. Saint-Eve; S. Lefebvre; Z. Khatir

2003-01-01

232

Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviours in Greek Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main objective of this study was to examine the factor structure of restricted repetitive behaviours (RRBs) in a sample of 205 Greek individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Results show that the structure of RRBs in this Greek sample can be described using a 2-factor solution. The…

Georgiades, Stelios; Papageorgiou, Vaya; Anagnostou, Evdokia

2010-01-01

233

Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In…

Smith, Bruce

2006-01-01

234

The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on dystonia: a clinical and pathophysiological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dystonia is characterized by sustained muscle contraction, which frequently causes repetitive, twisting movements or abnormal posture. The precise pathophysiological mechanisms of dystonia are still unknown. Several studies did demonstrate that, although motor cortex hyperexcitability appears to be responsible for abnormal co-contraction and overflow to adjacent muscles, plasticity mechanisms and integrative sensorimotor processing are also likely to be involved in this

L. Tyvaert; E. Houdayer; H. Devanne; C. Monaca; F. Cassim; P. Derambure

2006-01-01

235

Abnormal behavior of fluorescence quenching of gramicidin A in phase transition of lipid vesicles by hypocrellin B—Does an electron transfer inverted region exist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence of gramicidin A(GA) in lipid bilayer may be quenched by Hypocrellin B. When the phospholipids undergo a phase\\u000a transition from gel to liquid crystalline phase, the reaction rate decreases unusually. This phenomenon has been analyzed\\u000a by Marcus’ photoinduced electron theory, and an electron transfer inverted region hypothesis is proposed, which may adequately\\u000a explain this abnormal phenomenon.

Jiachang Yue; Yeping Li; Yaxian Su; Kechun Lin

1999-01-01

236

Mice Lacking the Serotonin Transporter Exhibit 5HT1A Receptor-Mediated Abnormalities in Tests for Anxiety-like Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) regulates serotonergic neurotransmission via clearance of extracellular serotonin. Abnormalities in 5-HTT expression or function are found in mood and anxiety disorders, and the 5-HTT is a major target for antidepressants and anxiolytics. The 5-HTT is further implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders by evidence that genetic variation in the promoter region of the HTT (SLC6A4)

Andrew Holmes; Rebecca J Yang; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Jacqueline N Crawley; Dennis L Murphy

2003-01-01

237

Detecting, grouping, and structure inference for invariant repetitive patterns in images.  

PubMed

The efficient and robust extraction of invariant patterns from an image is a long-standing problem in computer vision. Invariant structures are often related to repetitive or near-repetitive patterns. The perception of repetitive patterns in an image is strongly linked to the visual interpretation and composition of textures. Repetitive patterns are products of both repetitive structures as well as repetitive reflections or color patterns. In other words, patterns that exhibit near-stationary behavior provide rich information about objects, their shapes, and their texture in an image. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for repetitive pattern detection and grouping. The algorithm follows the classical region growing image segmentation scheme. It utilizes a mean-shift-like dynamic to group local image patches into clusters. It exploits a continuous joint alignment to: 1) match similar patches, and 2) refine the subspace grouping. We also propose an algorithm for inferring the composition structure of the repetitive patterns. The inference algorithm constructs a data-driven structural completion field, which merges the detected repetitive patterns into specific global geometric structures. The result of higher level grouping for image patterns can be used to infer the geometry of objects and estimate the general layout of a crowded scene. PMID:23481858

Cai, Yunliang; Baciu, George

2013-06-01

238

Minicolumnar abnormalities in autism.  

PubMed

Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The patient population consisted of six age-matched pairs of patients (DSM-IV-TR and ADI-R diagnosed) and controls. Digital micrographs were taken from cortical areas S1, 4, 9, and 17. The image analysis produced estimates of minicolumnar width (CW), mean interneuronal distance, variability in CW (V (CW)), cross section of Nissl-stained somata, boundary length of stained somata per unit area, and the planar convexity. On average CW was 27.2 microm in controls and 25.7 microm in autistic patients (P = 0.0234). Mean neuron and nucleolar cross sections were found to be smaller in autistic cases compared to controls, while neuron density in autism exceeded the comparison group by 23%. Analysis of inter- and intracluster distances of a Delaunay triangulation suggests that the increased cell density is the result of a greater number of minicolumns, otherwise the number of cells per minicolumns appears normal. A reduction in both somatic and nucleolar cross sections could reflect a bias towards shorter connecting fibers, which favors local computation at the expense of inter-areal and callosal connectivity. PMID:16819561

Casanova, Manuel F; van Kooten, Imke A J; Switala, Andrew E; van Engeland, Herman; Heinsen, Helmut; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Hof, Patrick R; Trippe, Juan; Stone, Janet; Schmitz, Christoph

2006-07-04

239

Brief Report: Exploring the Relationship between Sensory Processing and Repetitive Behaviours in Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours in children with Williams Syndrome (WS; n = 21). This is a novel investigation bringing together two clinical phenomena for the first time in this neuro-developmental disorder. Parents completed the Sensory Profile (Short Form; Dunn in The…

Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Rodgers, Jacqui

2013-01-01

240

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours, Sensory Processing and Cognitive Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the…

Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

2009-01-01

241

The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition  

PubMed Central

Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form.

2012-01-01

242

Autism-relevant social abnormalities and cognitive deficits in engrailed-2 knockout mice.  

PubMed

ENGRAILED 2 (En2), a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22829897

Brielmaier, Jennifer; Matteson, Paul G; Silverman, Jill L; Senerth, Julia M; Kelly, Samantha; Genestine, Matthieu; Millonig, James H; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Crawley, Jacqueline N

2012-07-19

243

Autism-Relevant Social Abnormalities and Cognitive Deficits in Engrailed-2 Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

ENGRAILED 2 (En2), a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders.

Brielmaier, Jennifer; Matteson, Paul G.; Silverman, Jill L.; Senerth, Julia M.; Kelly, Samantha; Genestine, Matthieu; Millonig, James H.

2012-01-01

244

Pressure rig for repetitive casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

Vasquez, Peter; Hutto, William R.; Philips, Albert R.

1989-09-01

245

From anxiety to autism: spectrum of abnormal social behaviors modeled by progressive disruption of inhibitory neuronal function in the basolateral amygdala in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Social behaviors are disrupted in several psychiatric disorders. The amygdala is a key brain region involved in social behaviors,\\u000a and amygdala pathology has been implicated in disease states ranging from social anxiety disorder to autism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To test the effects of progressive disruption of the inhibitory function within the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA)\\u000a on conspecific social interaction in rats

William A. Truitt; Tammy J. Sajdyk; Amy D. Dietrich; Brandon Oberlin; Christopher J. McDougle; Anantha Shekhar

2007-01-01

246

Tooth - abnormal shape  

MedlinePLUS

Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. Abnormally shaped teeth can result from many different conditions. Specific diseases can have a profound effect ...

247

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... ocular problem. What are some of the ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Eye misalignment: Sometimes when ... asymmetry. What are some of the non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the ...

248

Effects of Repetitive Motor Training on Movement Representations in Adult Squirrel Monkeys: Role of Use versus Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current evidence indicates that repetitive motor behavior during motor learning paradigms can produce changes in representational organization in motor cortex. In a previous study, we trained adult squirrel monkeys on a repetitive motor task that required the retrieval of food pellets from a small-diameter well. It was found that training produced consistent task-related changes in movement representations in primary motor

Erik J. Plautz; Garrett W. Milliken; Randolph J. Nudo

2000-01-01

249

Cognitive Deficit, Learning Difficulties, Severe Behavioral Abnormalities and Healed Cleft Lip in a Patient with a 1.2-Mb Distal Microduplication at 22q11.2  

PubMed Central

The 22q11.2 duplication syndrome has been recently characterized as a new entity with features overlapping the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Most 22q11.2 duplications represent reciprocal events of the typical 3-Mb deletions extending between low copy repeat (LCR) 22-A and LCR22-D. It has been suggested that the clinical manifestations observed in patients with 22q11.2 microduplications may range from milder phenotypes to multiple severe defects, and this variability could be responsible for many undetected cases. Here, we report on a patient with a 1.2-Mb microduplication at 22q11.2 spanning LCR22-F and LCR22-H which harbor the SMARCB1 and SNRPD3 genes. The patient presented healed cleft lip, mild facial dysmorphism, cognitive deficit, and delayed language development associated with severe behavioral problems including learning difficulties and aggressive behavior.

Ribeiro-Bicudo, L.A.; de Campos Legnaro, C.; Gamba, B.F.; Candido Sandri, R.M.; Richieri-Costa, A.

2013-01-01

250

Cognitive deficit, learning difficulties, severe behavioral abnormalities and healed cleft lip in a patient with a 1.2-mb distal microduplication at 22q11.2.  

PubMed

The 22q11.2 duplication syndrome has been recently characterized as a new entity with features overlapping the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Most 22q11.2 duplications represent reciprocal events of the typical 3-Mb deletions extending between low copy repeat (LCR) 22-A and LCR22-D. It has been suggested that the clinical manifestations observed in patients with 22q11.2 microduplications may range from milder phenotypes to multiple severe defects, and this variability could be responsible for many undetected cases. Here, we report on a patient with a 1.2-Mb microduplication at 22q11.2 spanning LCR22-F and LCR22-H which harbor the SMARCB1 and SNRPD3 genes. The patient presented healed cleft lip, mild facial dysmorphism, cognitive deficit, and delayed language development associated with severe behavioral problems including learning difficulties and aggressive behavior. PMID:24167465

Ribeiro-Bicudo, L A; de Campos Legnaro, C; Gamba, B F; Candido Sandri, R M; Richieri-Costa, A

2013-08-17

251

Digit Repetition in Learning-Disabled Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated digit repetition performance in learning-disabled children in an effort to assess its clinical and theoretical significance. Clincally, learning-disabled children (N=100) had a higher than expected incidence of large verbal-performance discrepancies, although mean overall digit repetition performance did not differ appreciably from…

Black, F. William

1983-01-01

252

Repetitive group sampling procedure for variables inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the concept of repetitive group sampling (RGS) for variables inspection. The repetitive group sampling plan for variables inspection will be useful when testing is costly and destructive. The advantages of the variables RGS plan over variables single sampling plan, variables double sampling plan and attributes RGS plan are discussed. Tables are also constructed for the selection of

S. Balamurali; Chi-hyuck Jun

2006-01-01

253

Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

Anderson, Robyn

2012-01-01

254

The Developmental Trajectory of Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In line with the original presentation of nonword repetition as a measure of phonological short-term memory (Gathercole & Baddeley, 1989), the theoretical account Gathercole (2006) puts forward in her Keynote Article focuses on phonological storage as the key capacity common to nonword repetition and vocabulary acquisition. However, evidence that…

Chiat, Shula

2006-01-01

255

Serial Position Effects in Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research has emphasized the linkage between performance in immediate serial recall of lists, nonword repetition, and word learning. Recently, it has been reported that primacy and recency effects are obtained in repetition of individual syllables within nonwords (Gupta, in press). Five experiments examined whether such…

Gupta, P.; Lipinski, J.; Abbs, B.; Lin, P.H.

2005-01-01

256

Signal Detection Analyses of Repetition Blindness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments used a signal detection model to demonstrate that repetition blindness (N. Kanwisher, 1987) reflects a reduction in sensitivity (d ?) for the detection of repeated compared with unrepeated visual targets. In Experiment 1, repetition blindness (RB) was found for rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) letter sequences, whether the visual targets were specified by category membership (vowels) or as

Nancy G. Kanwisher; Jin Woo Kim; Thomas D. Wickens

1996-01-01

257

Repetition and the Power of Simplicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

My art consists of the repetition of patterns, shapes, numbers, text, and found objects that communicate concepts in language, science, and math as art. My work addresses aesthetic and formal aspects of the art itself and embraces the process and experience of creating. I use repetition of lines and shapes to create a complex mass of infinite amounts of shapes,

Peter Barnitz

2011-01-01

258

Brand Familiarity and Advertising Repetition Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial communication task for unknown brands is to build the knowledge in consumers' minds necessary to become established. However, communication effectiveness may depend on prior familiarity of the advertised brand. The findings of two experiments using television ads and computer Internet ads revealed that brand familiarity influenced repetition effectiveness. In particular, repetition of advertising attributed to an unfamiliar brand

2003-01-01

259

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury.  

PubMed

Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed dementia pugilistica, and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review 48 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 profession althletes, 1 football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes, parkinsonism, and speech and gait abnormalities. Neuropathologically, CTE is characterized by atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem, with ventricular dilatation and a fenestrated cavum septum pellucidum. Microscopically, there are extensive tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles, and spindle-shaped and threadlike neurites throughout the brain. The neurofibrillary degeneration of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies by preferential involvement of the superficial cortical layers, irregular patchy distribution in the frontal and temporal cortices, propensity for sulcal depths, prominent perivascular, periventricular, and subpial distribution, and marked accumulation of tau-immunoreactive astrocytes. Deposition of beta-amyloid, most commonly as diffuse plaques, occurs in fewer than half the cases. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a neuropathologically distinct slowly progressive tauopathy with a clear environmental etiology. PMID:19535999

McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Hedley-Whyte, E Tessa; Gavett, Brandon E; Budson, Andrew E; Santini, Veronica E; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A; Stern, Robert A

2009-07-01

260

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury  

PubMed Central

Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed “dementia pugilistica” and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review the 47 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 professional athletes: one football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes, Parkinsonism, and speech and gait abnormalities. Neuropathologically, CTE is characterized by atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem, with ventricular dilatation and a fenestrated cavum septum pellucidum. Microscopically, there are extensive tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles, and spindle-shaped and threadlike neurites throughout the brain. The neurofibrillary degeneration of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies by preferential involvement of the superficial cortical layers, irregular, patchy distribution in the frontal and temporal cortices, propensity for sulcal depths, prominent perivascular, periventricular and subpial distribution, and marked accumulation of tau-immunoreactive astrocytes. Deposition of beta amyloid, most commonly as diffuse plaques, occurs in fewer than half the cases. CTE is a neuropathologically distinct, slowly progressive tauopathy with a clear environmental etiology.

McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Gavett, Brandon E.; Budson, Andrew E.; Santini, Veronica E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Stern, Robert A.

2009-01-01

261

Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher  

DOEpatents

A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

1997-02-11

262

Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

Saville, Kirt

2011-01-01

263

Mitochondrial abnormalities in temporal lobe of autistic brain.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consists of a group of complex developmental disabilities characterized by impaired social interactions, deficits in communication and repetitive behavior. Multiple lines of evidence implicate mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. In postmortem BA21 temporal cortex, a region that exhibits synaptic pathology in ASD, we found that compared to controls, ASD patients exhibited altered protein levels of mitochondria respiratory chain protein complexes, decreased Complex I and IV activities, decreased mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme SOD2, and greater oxidative DNA damage. Mitochondrial membrane mass was higher in ASD brain, as indicated by higher protein levels of mitochondrial membrane proteins Tom20, Tim23 and porin. No differences were observed in either mitochondrial DNA or levels of the mitochondrial gene transcription factor TFAM or cofactor PGC1?, indicating that a mechanism other than alterations in mitochondrial genome or mitochondrial biogenesis underlies these mitochondrial abnormalities. We further identified higher levels of the mitochondrial fission proteins (Fis1 and Drp1) and decreased levels of the fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) in ASD patients, indicating altered mitochondrial dynamics in ASD brain. Many of these changes were evident in cortical pyramidal neurons, and were observed in ASD children but were less pronounced or absent in adult patients. Together, these findings provide evidence that mitochondrial function and intracellular redox status are compromised in pyramidal neurons in ASD brain and that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs during early childhood when ASD symptoms appear. PMID:23333625

Tang, Guomei; Gutierrez Rios, Puri; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Akman, Hasan Orhan; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Tanji, Kurenai; Dwork, Andrew; Schon, Eric A; Dimauro, Salvatore; Goldman, James; Sulzer, David

2013-01-17

264

A systematic approach to repetitive failures  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a model of a systematic approach to address and correct repetitive failures. In this context, repetitive failures are the recurring inability of a system, subsystem, structure, or component to perform its intended function. The report presents a systematic method for identifying repetitive failures, selecting the failures to be investigated, determining root cause, selecting corrective actions for implementation, and monitoring of subsequent system/component performance. Appendix A provides an example of the use of this methodology at an operating nuclear generating station. 4 figs.

Odland, D.J. (Sonalysts, Inc., Waterford, CT (USA))

1991-02-01

265

Multiple Forms of Learning Yield Temporally Distinct Electrophysiological Repetition Effects  

PubMed Central

Prior experience with a stimulus leads to multiple forms of learning that facilitate subsequent behavior (repetition priming) and neural processing (repetition suppression). Learning can occur at the level of stimulus-specific features (stimulus learning), associations between stimuli and selected decisions (stimulus–decision learning), and associations between stimuli and selected responses (stimulus–response learning). Although recent functional magnetic resonance imaging results suggest that these distinct forms of learning are associated with repetition suppression (neural priming) in dissociable regions of frontal and temporal cortex, a critical question is how these different forms of learning influence cortical response dynamics. Here, electroencephalography (EEG) measured the temporal structure of neural responses when participants classified novel and repeated stimuli, using a design that isolated the effects of distinct levels of learning. Event-related potential and spectral EEG analyses revealed electrophysiological effects due to stimulus, stimulus–decision, and stimulus–response learning, demonstrating experience-dependent cortical modulation at multiple levels of representation. Stimulus-level learning modulated cortical dynamics earlier in the temporal-processing stream relative to stimulus–decision and stimulus–response learning. These findings indicate that repeated stimulus processing, including the mapping of stimuli to decisions and actions, is influenced by stimulus-level and associative learning mechanisms that yield multiple forms of experience-dependent cortical plasticity.

Badre, David; Wagner, Anthony D.

2010-01-01

266

Pathophysiological Tissue Changes Associated With Repetitive Movement: A Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) represent approximately one third of workers’ compensation costs in US private industry, yet estimates of acceptable exposure levels for forceful and repetitive tasks are imprecise, in part, due to lack of measures of tissue injury in humans. In this review, the authors discuss the scope of upper-extremity WMSDs, the relationship between repetition rate and forcefulness of reaching tasks and WMSDs, cellular responses to injury in vivo and in vitro, and animal injury models of repetitive, forceful tasks. The authors describe a model using albino rats and present evidence related to tissue injury and inflammation due to a highly repetitive reaching task. A conceptual schematic for WMSD development and suggestions for further research are presented. Animal models can enhance our ability to predict risk and to manage WMSDs in humans because such models permit the direct observation of exposed tissues as well as motor behavior.

Barr, Ann E; Barbe, Mary F

2006-01-01

267

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for ALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of brain can modulate cortical neurotransmission, a novel paradigm of repetitive stimulation termed continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) produces a pronounced and prolonged suppression of motor cortex excitability. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate whether cTBS of motor cortex could have any beneficial effect in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We performed

Vincenzo Di Lazzaro; Michele Dileone; Fabio Pilato; Paolo Profice; Federico Ranieri; Gabriella Musumeci; Francesco Angelucci; Mario Sabatelli; Pietro A. Tonali

2006-01-01

268

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

269

Prevalence and Psychological Correlates of Occasional and Repetitive Deliberate Self-harm in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence and the asso- ciated psychological and social factors of occasional and repetitive deliberate self-harming behavior in adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional self-report survey. Setting: One hundred twenty-one schools in Germany. Participants: A representative sample of 5759 ninth- grade students was studied between 2004 and 2005. Outcome Measures: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behaviors, emotional and behavioral problems

Romuald Brunner; Peter Parzer; Johann Haffner; Rainer Steen; Jeanette Roos; Martin Klett; Franz Resch

2007-01-01

270

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours, Sensory Processing and Cognitive Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence\\u000a of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine\\u000a children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the Embedded Figures Test (EFT), and their\\u000a parents the Short Sensory

Yu-Han Chen; Jacqui Rodgers; Helen McConachie

2009-01-01

271

Relationship between redistribution on exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and repetitive ventricular premature beats in patients with recent myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between myocardial ischemia detected by exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and repetitive ventricular premature beats (VPBs) during ambulatory monitoring was evaluated in 57 patients with recent myocardial infarction. Multivariate analysis was performed to obtain the relatively important factor related to repetitive VPBs with the use of the following variables: age, redistribution, left ventricular ejection fraction, serum potassium and magnesium concentration, QRS score, left ventricular aneurysm, and the number of diseased vessels. Thirty-five patients had redistribution, but only three of them had repetitive VPBs during exercise testing. The average heart rate before 79% of 398 episodes of repetitive VPBs during ambulatory monitoring was in the range of 56 to 70/min. These data indicate that most of repetitive VPBs during ambulatory monitoring were not provoked by exercise-induced acute myocardial ischemia. However, redistribution was found to be an important factor associated with repetitive VPBs. The electrical abnormality relating to a substrate characterized by chronic reversible ischemia may explain the association between redistribution and repetitive VPBs.

Tsuji, H.; Iwasaka, T.; Sugiura, T.; Shimada, T.; Nakamori, H.; Kimura, Y.; Inada, M. (Kansai Medical Univ., Osaka, (Japan))

1991-06-01

272

Subjective Duration Distortions Mirror Neural Repetition Suppression  

PubMed Central

Background Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context – that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M.

2012-01-01

273

Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories Repetitive and rigid behaviour is one of the core symptoms of autism, a severe and lifelong child psychiatric disorder. Although repetitive behaviour symptoms often form a significant impairment for affected individuals, systematic study of the phenomenology and in particular the neurobiology of repetitive behaviour has been lacking. In this thesis we address

M. J. G. Langen

2009-01-01

274

Manipulating Articulatory Demands in Non-Word Repetition: A "Late-8" Non-Word Repetition Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper was to examine the psychometric properties of a non-word repetition task (NRT), the Late-8 Non-word Repetition Task (L8NRT). This task was designed similarly to the NRT, but contains only Late-8 consonants to increase articulatory demands and avoid ceiling effects in studies with adolescents and adults. Thirty college…

Moore, Michelle W.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Dollaghan, Christine A.

2010-01-01

275

Neuroimaging Evidence for Processes Underlying Repetition of Ignored Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Prolonged response times are observed with targets having been presented as distractors immediately before, called negative priming effect. Among others, inhibitory and retrieval processes have been suggested underlying this behavioral effect. As those processes would involve different neural activation patterns, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study including 28 subjects was conducted. Two tasks were used to investigate stimulus repetition effects. One task focused on target location, the other on target identity. Both tasks are known to elicit the expected response time effects. However, there is less agreement about the relationship of those tasks with the explanatory accounts under consideration. Based on within-subject comparisons we found clear differences between the experimental repetition conditions and the neutral control condition on neural level for both tasks. Hemodynamic fronto-striatal activation patterns occurred for the location-based task favoring the selective inhibition account. Hippocampal activation found for the identity-based task suggests an assignment to the retrieval account; however, this task lacked a behavioral effect.

Bauer, Eva; Gebhardt, Helge; Ruprecht, Christoph; Gallhofer, Bernd; Sammer, Gebhard

2012-01-01

276

Chromatin diminution in the copepod Mesocyclops edax: elimination of both highly repetitive and nonhighly repetitive DNA.  

PubMed

Chromatin diminution, a developmentally regulated process of DNA elimination, is found in numerous eukaryotic species. In the copepod Mesocyclops edax, some 90% of its genomic DNA is eliminated during the differentiation of embryonic cells into somatic cells. Previous studies have shown that the eliminated DNA contains highly repetitive sequences. Here, we sequenced DNA fragments from pre- and postdiminution cells to determine whether nonhighly repetitive sequences are also eliminated during the process of chromatin diminution. Comparative analyses of these sequences, as well as the sequences eliminated from the genome of the copepod Cyclops kolensis, show that they all share similar abundances of tandem repeats, dispersed repeats, transposable elements, and various coding and noncoding sequences. This suggests that, in the chromatin diminution observed in M. edax, both highly repetitive and nonhighly repetitive sequences are eliminated and that there is no bias in the type of nonhighly repetitive DNA being eliminated. PMID:23379333

McKinnon, Christian; Drouin, Guy

2013-01-01

277

Repetitive foreign body ingestion: ethical considerations.  

PubMed

The treatment of persons who frequently present to the healthcare system following repetitive foreign body ingestion has been addressed in the psychiatric literature. However, there has been little exploration of the ethical considerations regarding the treatment of these patients. The complexity of their medical and psychiatric presentation raises fundamental ethical questions regarding the duty to treat, patient autonomy, justice, and futility. Careful ethical analysis is particularly important in this context, since the frustration that medical professionals may feel in response may lead to false assumptions that can negatively impact patient care. A careful exploration of these questions can increase awareness and understanding, which in turn can lead to improved treatment of patients who repetitively ingest foreign bodies. Care for patients who inflict self-harm, particularly by repetitive foreign body ingestion, is not futile. The patients have a right to treatment and are entitled to resources. Efforts should be made to provide a more comprehensive treatment approach to these patients. PMID:23923808

Lytle, Sarah; Stagno, Susan J; Daly, Barb

2013-01-01

278

Nonword Repetition in Children and Adults: Effects on Movement Coordination  

PubMed Central

Hearing and repeating novel phonetic sequences, or novel nonwords, is a task that taps many levels of processing, including auditory decoding, phonological processing, working memory, speech motor planning and execution. Investigations of nonword repetition abilities have been framed within models of psycholinguistic processing, while the motor aspects, which also are critical for task performance, have been largely ignored. We focused our investigation on both the behavioral and speech motor performance characteristics of this task as performed in a learning paradigm by 9- and-10 year-old children and young adults. Behavioral (percent correct productions) and kinematic (movement duration, lip aperture variability -an index of the consistency of inter-articulator coordination on repeated trials) measures were obtained in order to investigate the short-term (Day 1, first 5 vs. next 5 trials) and longer-term (Day 1 vs. Day 2, first 5 vs. next 5 trials) changes associated with practice within and between sessions. Overall, as expected, young adults showed higher levels of behavioral accuracy and greater levels of coordinative consistency than the children. Both groups, however, showed a learning effect, such that in general, later Day 1 trials and Day 2 trials were shorter in duration and more consistent in coordination patterns than Day 1 early trials. Phonemic complexity of the nonwords had a profound effect on both the behavioral and speech motor aspects of performance. The children showed marked learning effects on all nonwords that they could produce accurately, while adults’ performance improved only when challenged by the more complex nonword stimuli in the set. The findings point to a critical role for speech motor processes within models of nonword repetition and suggest that young adults, similar to children, show short- and longer-term improvements in coordinative consistency with repeated production of complex nonwords. There is also a clear developmental change in nonword production performance, such that less complex novel sequences elicit changes in speech motor performance in children, but not in adults.

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Smith, Anne; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Weber-Fox, Christine

2009-01-01

279

Model for repetitive cycles of large earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

The theory of the fusion of small cracks into large ones reproduces certain features also observed in the clustering of earthquake sequences. By modifying our earlier model to take into account the stress release associated with the occurrence of large earthquakes, we obtain repetitive periodic cycles of large earthquakes. A preliminary conclusion is that a combination of the stress release or elastic rebound mechanism plus time delays in the fusion process are sufficient to destabilize the crack populations and, ultimately, give rise to repetitive episodes of seismicity.

Newman, W.I.; Knopoff, L.

1983-04-01

280

The Effects of Delayed Reinforcement on Variability and Repetition of Response Sequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments examined the effects of delays to reinforcement on key peck sequences of pigeons maintained under multiple schedules of contingencies that produced variable or repetitive behavior. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4, in the repeat component only the sequence right-right-left-left earned food, and in the vary component four-response…

Odum, Amy L.; Ward, Ryan D.; Burke, K. Anne; Barnes, Christopher A.

2006-01-01

281

Learning Words over Time: The Role of Stimulus Repetition in Mutual Exclusivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the second year of life, infants develop a preference to attach novel labels to novel objects. This behavior is commonly known as "mutual exclusivity" (Markman, 1989). In an intermodal preferential looking experiment with 19.5- and 22.5-month-olds, stimulus repetition was critical for observing mutual exclusivity. On the first occasion…

Mather, Emily; Plunkett, Kim

2009-01-01

282

Recent Developments of Repetitive Pulsed Power Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important issues in pulsed power generation is the voltage multiplication. In recent years, several new technologies for voltage multiplication have been developed for compact, repetitive pulsed power generation. This paper summarizes the results of the researches carried out recently on voltage multiplication by using (1) saturable capacitor, (2) compact Marx circuit, and (3) semiconductor opening switch.

Jiang, Weihua

283

Sleep Deprivation and Performance: Aging and Repetition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects on performance across forty eight hours (including two night of sleep loss) were studied. The experimental variables were subject age and repetition of deprivation periods. Six 18-22 year old subjects were subjected to five repeated 48 h sessi...

W. B. Webb

1983-01-01

284

Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

2010-01-01

285

Repetition Blindness: Perception or Memory Failure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetition blindness (RB) is the failure to report a repeated item when reporting all of the elements from a rapidly displayed sequence of visually presented items. N. Kanwisher (1987) has characterized RB as a perceptual problem. Experiments 1 and 4 manipulated the order of report of the repeated items. Experiments 2–4 employed tasks other than full report that should still

Clark Fagot; Harold Pashler

1995-01-01

286

Matriculation Research Report: Course Repetition Data & Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to concerns that its policy on class repetition was not promoting student success, California's College of the Canyons (CoC) undertook a project to analyze student course-taking patterns and make recommendations to modify the policy. Existing college policy did not follow Section 58161 of the State Educational Code that allows colleges to…

Gerda, Joe

287

Enhancing Speech Discrimination through Stimulus Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To evaluate the effects of sequential and alternating repetition on speech-sound discrimination. Method: Typically hearing adults' discrimination of 3 pairs of speech-sound contrasts was assessed at 3 signal-to-noise ratios using the change/no-change procedure. On change trials, the standard and comparison stimuli differ; on no-change…

Holt, Rachael Frush

2011-01-01

288

Dissonant Forms of "Memorising" and "Repetition."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the phenomenon of dissonant forms of memorizing and repetition from both location and structural perspectives. Attention is drawn to clear evidence that supports, in particular, an argument in favor of gender-response differences in both location and structural dissonance. Also illustrates how the isolation of dissonant response patterns…

Meyer, Jan H. F.; Shanahan, Martin P.

2003-01-01

289

A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics  

PubMed Central

Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non-functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression, and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome re-arrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins. Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space.

Casa, Valentina; Gabellini, Davide

2012-01-01

290

Experimental models of repetitive brain injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs in a significant portion of trauma patients, especially in specific populations, such as child abuse victims or athletes involved in contact sports (e.g. boxing, football, hockey, and soccer). A continually emerging hypothesis is that repeated mild injuries may cause cumulative damage to the brain, resulting in long-term cognitive dysfunction. The growing attention to this

John T. Weber

2007-01-01

291

Testing the Ecological Validity of Repetitive Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can one trust experiments conducted with repeti- tive speech to represent normal language behaviour? We compare the spectra of repetitive productions of phrases with the same phrases read from a ran- domised list. We use a data-driven spectral distor- tion measure that is trained to respond to linguisti- cally relevant differences: it is based on a classifier that separates sounds

Greg Kochanski; Christina Orphanidou

2007-01-01

292

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

293

High repetition tokamak CSTN--II  

SciTech Connect

By employing a condenser system charging up at high speed with a triac switch, a stable tokamak discharge with a high repetition rate was achieved. A good reproducibility of the tokamak discharge made detailed measurements of spatial distribution of plasma and wave parameters possible, with a sampling technique. Basic studies on waves and particle transport in a tokamak configuration are possible with this system.

Ushigusa, K.; Hayashi, T.; Takamura, S.; Okuda, T.

1983-12-01

294

Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

2010-01-01

295

Repetition priming and hyperpriming in semantic dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from neurologically normal subjects suggests that repetition priming (RP) is independent of semantic processing. Therefore, we may expect patients with a selective deficit to conceptual knowledge to exhibit RP for words regardless of the integrity of their semantic representations. We tested six patients with semantic dementia (SD) on a lexical decision task that incorporated four different lags between first

T. B. Cumming; K. S. Graham; K. Patterson

2006-01-01

296

Pressure wave charged repetitively pulsed gas laser  

DOEpatents

A repetitively pulsed gas laser in which a system of mechanical shutters bracketing the laser cavity manipulate pressure waves resulting from residual energy in the cavity gas following a lasing event so as to draw fresh gas into the cavity and effectively pump spent gas in a dynamic closed loop.

Kulkarny, Vijay A. (Redondo Beach, CA)

1982-01-01

297

The Neurobiology of Freud's Repetition Compulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops a hypothesis regarding how the processes of neurological development could underlie the enactment of Freud's Repetition Compulsion. Drawing largely on Allan Schore's work in infant neurodevelopment as it relates to the mother and Joseph LeDoux's study in fear and implicit emotional memory, the paper outlines the mechanisms of neurological growth and operation. It builds a case for

Denise K. Shull

298

Industrial repetitive-pulse CO2 laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of a repetitive-pulse CO2 laser are given and its construction is described. The energy characteristics of the radiation and the shape of the laser pulse have been investigated as a function of the composition and pressure of the mixture. The aspects of the design approaches are considered: the implementation of rotation in vacuum by means of magnetic clutches,

V. Z. Gofman; V. V. Dembovetsky; Vladimir G. Niziev; M. N. Tarasov

2000-01-01

299

Some future directions for repetitive pulsed power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive pulsed power technology has a lot of potential for growth. After a relatively quiet decade in the 90s, customer interest is increasing. With new interest comes new demands on the technology. Orders of magnitude advances will be needed over the next ten years. This paper speculates where some such improvements may be made. It does not attempt to provide

M. Buttram

2002-01-01

300

Superionic Conductors as Fast, Repetitive Opening Switches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of superionic conductors, in particular Ag13I9W2O8, as fast, repetitive, optically triggered opening switches for power conditioning applications in spacecraft has been investigated. It was found, unexpectedly, that serious shelf-life degradation ...

J. Scott

1988-01-01

301

Monitoring Progress of Repetitive Construction Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction projects often contain multiple units whose activities repeat from unit to unit, so called repetitive construction. Those projects include housing projects, high- rise building projects, highways, pipeline network, tunnels, railways and airport runways. Such projects require a special method for schedule a project without interrupted usage of resources. In addition, progress monitoring requires tools that can present the status

Benjaporn SRISUWANKAN

302

Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN)

Laura A. Thomas; Kevin S. LaBar

2005-01-01

303

Repetitive Switching for an Electromagnetic Rail Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous testing on a repetitive opening switch for inductive energy storage has proved the feasibility of the rotary switch concept. The concept consists of a rotating copper disk (rotor) with a pie-shaped insulator section and brushes which slide along ...

J. M. Gruden

1983-01-01

304

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to the…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

305

Repetitive switching for an electromagnetic rail gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous testing on a repetitive opening switch for inductive energy storage has proved the feasibility of the rotary switch concept. The concept consists of a rotating copper disk (rotor) with a pie-shaped insulator section and brushes which slide along each of the rotor surfaces. While on top of the copper surface, the brushes and rotor conduct current allowing the energy

J. M. Gruden

1983-01-01

306

Ocular Effects of Repetitive Laser Pulses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An argon-ion laser was used to investigate the ocular effects of repetitive laser pulses on rhesus monkeys. The primate eyes were irradiated by trains of pulses held constant at 10 milliseconds, and the duration of the trains was kept uniform at 0.5 sec. ...

C. H. Skeen G. G. Garza J. H. Tips M. G. Smith W. R. Bruce

1972-01-01

307

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

308

Adrenal activity and anxiety-like behavior in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).  

PubMed

Due to its complexity, in combination with a lack of scientific reports, fur-chewing became one of the most challenging behavioral problems common to captive chinchillas. In the last years, the hypothesis that fur-chewing is an abnormal repetitive behavior and that stress plays a role in its development and performance has arisen. Here, we investigated whether a relationship existed between the expression and intensity of fur-chewing behavior, elevated urinary cortisol excretion and anxiety-related behaviors. Specifically, we evaluated the following parameters in behaviorally normal and fur-chewing animals of both sexes: (1) mean concentrations of urinary cortisol metabolites and (2) anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus-maze test. Urinary cortisol metabolites were higher only in females that expressed the most severe form of the fur-chewing behavior (P?0.05). Likewise, only fur-chewing females exhibited increased (P?0.05) anxiety-like behaviors associated with the elevated plus-maze test. Overall, these data provided additional evidence to support the concept that fur-chewing is a manifestation of physiological stress in chinchilla, and that a female sex bias exists in the development of this abnormal behavior. PMID:22504323

Ponzio, Marina F; Monfort, Steven L; Busso, Juan Manuel; Carlini, Valeria P; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

2012-04-05

309

Electrocardiographic manifestations: electrolyte abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because myocyte depolarization and repolarization depend on intra- and extracellular shifts in ion gradients, abnormal serum electrolyte levels can have profound effects on cardiac conduction and the electrocardiogram (EKG). Changes in extracellular potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels can change myocyte membrane potential gradients and alter the cardiac action potential. These changes can result in incidental findings on the 12-lead EKG

Deborah B Diercks; George M Shumaik; Richard A Harrigan; William J Brady; Theodore C Chan

2004-01-01

310

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. In women of childbearing age, a methodical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation may enable the physician to rule out causes such as pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, medications, iatro- genic causes, systemic conditions, and obvious genital tract pathology. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (anovulatory or ovulatory) is diagnosed by

JANET R. ALBERS; SHARON K. HULL; ROBERT M. WESLEY

311

What is abnormal psychology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of the mental pathology that underlies the symptomatology of psychiatric diseases. It is general when the symptoms studied are common to a number of diseases; and special, when the symptoms studied are idiopathic to particular diseases.

A. E. Davies

1931-01-01

312

Character and abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Character may be defined in terms of ethically effective organization of all the forces of an individual. Such a definition takes account of modern ethical conceptions and seems to express the fundamental interest of all students of abnormal psychology. It serves to distinguish character from other aspects of personality.

W. S. Taylor

1926-01-01

313

Pigment abnormalities in flatfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigment abnormalities have been reported to occur on both sides of flatfish. Hypomelanosis or pseudo-albinism, characterized by white patches or areas devoid of normal pigmentation on the ocular surface of the skin, is common in both wild and hatchery reared flatfish. The blind side may display hypermelanosis in the form of dark spots, known as ambicoloration of the skin. The

Arietta Venizelos; Daniel D Benetti

1999-01-01

314

ABNORMALITY, NORMALITY AND HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideally, each participant in psychotherapy should be accepted as a unique individual with no reference to diagnosis. Most forms of psychotherapy are limited by assumptions about abnormality that focus on pathology while ignoring the potential for growth that exists in all. Effective psychotherapy requires respect for human complexity. Each person needs to be perceived as embodying a unique balance of

LUCIEN A. BUCK

1990-01-01

315

Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Modulates Evoked-Gamma Frequency Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  

PubMed Central

Introduction It has been reported that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have abnormal reactions to the sensory environment and visuo-perceptual abnormalities. Electrophysiological research has provided evidence that gamma band activity (30-80 Hz) is a physiological indicator of the co-activation of cortical cells engaged in processing visual stimuli and integrating different features of a stimulus. A number of studies have found augmented and indiscriminative gamma band power at early stages of visual processing in ASD; this may be related to decreased inhibitory processing and an increase in the ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition. Low frequency or ‘slow’ (?1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits. Methods We wanted to test the hypothesis of gamma band abnormalities at early stages of visual processing in ASD by investigating relative evoked (i.e. ~ 100 ms) gamma power in 25 subjects with ASD and 20 age-matched controls using Kanizsa illusory figures. Additionally, we wanted to assess the effects of 12 sessions of bilateral ‘slow’ rTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on evoked gamma activity using a randomized controlled design. Results In individuals with ASD evoked gamma activity was not discriminative of stimulus type, whereas in controls early gamma power differences between target and non-target stimuli were highly significant. Following rTMS individuals with ASD showed significant improvement in discriminatory gamma activity between relevant and irrelevant visual stimuli. We also found significant improvement in the responses on behavioral questionnaires (i.e., irritability, repetitive behavior) as a result of rTMS. Conclusion We proposed that ‘slow’ rTMS may have increased cortical inhibitory tone which improved discriminatory gamma activity at early stages of visual processing. rTMS has the potential to become an important therapeutic tool in ASD treatment and has shown significant benefits in treating core symptoms of ASD with few, if any side effects.

Baruth, Joshua M.; Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Horrell, Tim; Mathai, Grace; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

2010-01-01

316

Repetition probability does not affect fMRI repetition suppression for objects.  

PubMed

Previously several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies point toward the role of perceptual expectations in determining adaptation or repetition suppression (RS) in humans. These studies showed that the probability of repetitions of faces within a block influences the magnitude of adaptation in face-related areas of the human brain (Summerfield et al., 2008). However, a current macaque single-cell/local field potential (LFP) recording study using objects as stimuli found no evidence for the modulation of the neural response by the repetition probability in the inferior temporal cortex (Kaliukhovich and Vogels, 2010). Here we examined whether stimulus repetition probability affects fMRI repetition suppression for nonface object stimuli in the human brain. Subjects were exposed to either two identical [repetition trials (RTs)] or two different [alternation trials (ATs)] object stimuli. Both types of trials were presented blocks consisting of either 75% [repetition blocks (RBs)] or 25% [alternation blocks (ABs)] of RTs. We found strong RS, i.e., a lower signal for RTs compared to ATs, in the object sensitive lateral occipital cortex as well as in the face-sensitive occipital and fusiform face areas. More importantly, however, there was no significant difference in the magnitude of RS between RBs and ABs in each of the areas. This is in agreement with the previous monkey single-unit/LFP findings and suggests that RS in the case of nonface visual objects is not modulated by the repetition probability in humans. Our results imply that perceptual expectation effects vary for different visual stimulus categories. PMID:23739977

Kovács, Gyula; Kaiser, Daniel; Kaliukhovich, Dzmitry A; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán; Vogels, Rufin

2013-06-01

317

Physical and Social Impairment in Persons With Repetitive Behavior Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we reviewed a variety of harmful medical and non medical problems associated with tic disorders, trichotillomania,\\u000a and other RBDs. We also attempted to explain the potential etiology of the concerns, and discussed possible strategies for\\u000a their clinical management. Although this chapter summarized the extant research on these topics, it is clear that the lines\\u000a of investigation are

Douglas W. Woods; Patrick C. Friman; Ellen J. Teng

318

Stimulus repetition probability does not affect repetition suppression in macaque inferior temporal cortex.  

PubMed

Recent human functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (Summerfield C, Trittschuh EH, Monti JM, Mesulam MM, Egner T. 2008. Neural repetition suppression reflects fulfilled perceptual expectations. Nat Neurosci. 11:1004-1006.) showed that adaptation or repetition suppression is affected by contextual factors related to perceptual expectations, suggesting that adaptation results from a fulfillment of perceptual expectation or a reduction in prediction error. This view contrasts with the bottom-up fatigue or sharpening mechanisms of adaptation proposed in single-cell studies. We examined whether stimulus repetition probability affects adaptation of spiking activity and local field potentials (LFPs) in macaque inferior temporal (IT) cortex, using a protocol similar to that of Summerfield et al. Monkeys were exposed to 2 randomly interleaved trials, each consisting of either 2 identical (rep trial) or 2 different stimuli (alt trial). Trials were presented in repetition (rep) blocks consisting of 75% of rep trials and 25% of alt trials or in alternation (alt) blocks having opposite repetition probabilities. For both spiking and LFP activities, the stimulus-selective adaptation did not differ significantly between rep and alt blocks. The number of preceding rep or alt trials and the trial position within a block did not affect adaptation. This absence of any effect of stimulus repetition probability on adaptation suggests that adaptation in IT is not caused by contextual factors related to perceptual expectation. PMID:21097993

Kaliukhovich, Dzmitry A; Vogels, Rufin

2010-11-22

319

The hot-hand fallacy in cognitive control: repetition expectancy modulates the congruency sequence effect.  

PubMed

In this study, the role of expectancies in cognitive control was tested. On the basis of the original interpretation of the congruency sequence effect (Gratton, Coles, & Donchin, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121:480-506, 1992), we sought evidence for a repetition bias steering attentional control. In a series of four Stroop experiments, we investigated how participants' explicit predictions about the upcoming (in)congruency proactively influenced subsequent Stroop performance. Similar to the fallacious "hot-hand" belief in gambling, repeating stimulus events were overpredicted, as participants consistently expected more repetitions of the congruency level than the actual presented number of congruency-level repetitions (50 %). Moreover, behavioral adjustments (i.e., a congruency sequence effect) were only found when participants anticipated a congruency-level repetition, whereas no modulation of the Stroop effect was found following alternation predictions. We propose that proactive control processes in general, and repetition expectancy in particular, should be given more attention in current theorizing and modeling of cognitive control, which is characterized by an emphasis on reactive, conflict-induced control adjustments. PMID:23371807

Duthoo, Wout; Wühr, Peter; Notebaert, Wim

2013-08-01

320

Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

2013-01-01

321

Repetitive Elements in Genomes of Parasitic Protozoa  

PubMed Central

Repetitive DNA elements have been a part of the genomic fauna of eukaryotes perhaps since their very beginnings. Millions of years of coevolution have given repeats central roles in chromosome maintenance and genetic modulation. Here we review the genomes of parasitic protozoa in the context of the current understanding of repetitive elements. Particular reference is made to repeats in five medically important species with ongoing or completed genome sequencing projects: Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Giardia lamblia. These organisms are used to illustrate five thematic classes of repeats with different structures and genomic locations. We discuss how these repeat classes may interact with parasitic life-style and also how they can be used as experimental tools. The story which emerges is one of opportunism and upheaval which have been employed to add genetic diversity and genomic flexibility.

Wickstead, Bill; Ersfeld, Klaus; Gull, Keith

2003-01-01

322

Repetitive Dispersed Emic Waves Observed By Polar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Polar satellite has proven to be an excellent laboratory for a detailed analysis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. The complete three-dimensional elec- tric and magnetic field vectors can be determined by the Electric Field Instrument (EFI) and Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) onboard Polar. Here we report on new types of repetitive, dispersed EMIC wave bursts observed by Polar typically near the plasmapause. In some cases, simultaneous Pc1 pearls are observed on ground. The Polar bursts repeat with a varying repetition period of about 30 and 120 seconds. Most interestingly, the subsequent bursts of an event are clearly dispersed and have nearly identical dispersion slopes. This feature is very problematic for the bouncing wave packet theory of Pc1 pearls. We will present these wave events and discuss their prop- erties and possible ways of interpretation

Niskala, K.; Mursula, K.; Mozer, F.; Russell, C. T.

323

Interactions between task repetition and psychosocial factors.  

PubMed

Psychosocial factors, individual factors, workplace requirements, and workplace organizational factors have all been reported as being associated with the risk of musculoskeletal disorders [11]. Huang, Feuerstein, and Sauter [5] described the various concepts and models proposed to link occupational stress and work-related upper extremity disorders, as well as the difficulty in verifying the suggested linkages. Huang et al. [5] suggested that decomposing a complex model would be an appropriate method to begin the investigations of the proposed models. Task repetition is a workplace requirement that is considered a potential risk factor for cumulative trauma and its relationship to psychosocial factors was investigated. The study found only weak to no statistically significant relationship between task repetition and reported psychosocial factors of job stress in workers in Taiwan. PMID:22317075

Riley, Michael W; Hung, Yu-Ting; Wang, Mao-Jiun; Lin, Yueh-Ling; Blunk, Jessica C

2012-01-01

324

Repetition blindness: perception or memory failure?  

PubMed

Repetition blindness (RB) is the failure to report a repeated item when reporting all of the elements from a rapidly displayed sequence of visually presented items. N. Kanwisher (1987) has characterized RB as a perceptual problem. Experiments 1 and 4 manipulated the order of report of the repeated items. Experiments 2-4 employed tasks other than full report that should still have shown RB according to a perceptual hypothesis, but none was found. In Experiment 5, RB was found when one of the repetitions was spoken and the other was presented visually; this RB could be localized to retrieval processes. RB appears to reflect processes and strategies peculiar to full report from rapid displays rather than any fundamental perceptual limitation and might be the same as the Ranschburg effect found in immediate recall tasks. PMID:7714472

Fagot, C; Pashler, H

1995-04-01

325

Verbal repetitions and echolalia in Alzheimer's discourse.  

PubMed

This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be explained through an analysis of their formal linguistic aspects, such as intonational-prosodic and enunciative-syntactic features. The analysis shows that the description of echolalic repetitions in these terms can help find parameters for the description of the linguistic and communicative characteristics of AD. This analysis even shows how a previous speech turn serves as a base for the elaboration of the next turn by the participant with AD. It also contributes to the understanding of echolalic productions in AD. PMID:20964503

Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

2010-11-01

326

Plug in repetitive control for industrial robotic manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of plug-in repetitive control on the direct drive axis of a prototype GMF A500 robot is considered. Plug-in repetitive control was developed and implemented using an IBM AT. A multirate sampling algorithm was designed to reduce the memory requirements of repetitive control. A microcontroller board based on the Intel 8096 was designed so that plug-in repetitive control could

C. Cosner; G. Anwar; M. Tomizuka

1990-01-01

327

Repetition rates in heavy ion beam driven fusion reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limits on the cavity gas density required for beam propagation and condensation times for material vaporized by target explosions can determine the maximum repetition rate of Heavy Ion Beam (HIB) driven fusion reactors. If the ions are ballistically focused onto the target, the cavity gas must have a density below roughly 10-4 torr (3×1012 cm-3) at the time of propagation; other propagation schemes may allow densities as high as 1 torr or more. In some reactor designs, several kilograms of material may be vaporized off of the target chamber walls by the target generated x-rays, raising the average density in the cavity to 100 tor or more. A one-dimensional combined radiation hydrodynamics and vaporization and condensation computer code has been used to simulate the behavior of the vaporized material in the target chambers of HIB fusion reactors.

Peterson, Robert R.

1986-01-01

328

Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943

Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

2013-08-01

329

Managing the Risks of Repetitive Transcranial Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), defined as the administration of a series of magnetic stimuli to the brain for the purpose of altering brain function, is an experimental medical intervention. rTMS currently is used to probe various aspects of brain function in the context of research studies approved by local ethics committees. rTMS also is under investigation as a potential

Bob Belmaker; Paul Fitzgerald; Mark S. George; Sarah H. Lisanby; Alvar Pascual-Leone; Thomas E. Schlaepfer; Eric Wassermann

330

Repetition blindness: The survival of the grouped  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repetition blindness (RB) effect demonstrates that people often fail to detect the second presentation of an identical\\u000a object (e.g., Kanwisher, 1987). Grouping of identical items is a well-documented perceptual phenomenon, and this grouping generally facilitates perception.\\u000a These two effects pose a puzzle: RB impairs perception, while perceptual grouping improves it. Here, we combined these two\\u000a effects and studied how

Liat Goldfarb; Anne Treisman

331

Brief subjective durations contract with repetition.  

PubMed

Neural responses to a repeated stimulus typically diminish, an effect known as repetition suppression. We here demonstrate what appear to be parallel effects of repetition on subjective duration, even when stimuli are presented too rapidly for explicit temporal judgments. When a brief visual stimulus (e.g., a letter, word, object, or face) was serially flashed in different locations, several stimuli appeared to be present simultaneously due to persistence of vision-we term this the Proliferation Effect. Critically, fewer stimuli were perceived to be simultaneously present when the same stimulus was flashed repeatedly than when a different stimulus was used for each flash, indicating that persistence of vision (and hence subjective duration) shrinks for predictable stimuli. These short-timescale experiments demonstrate that subjective durations are computed at a preconscious and implicit level of processing, thereby changing the temporal interpretation of visual scenes. Further, these findings suggest a new, instant diagnostic test for deficits in repetition suppression, such as those found in schizophrenia. PMID:19146277

Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

2008-12-22

332

Phosphor thermometry at high repetition rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilizing the luminescence properties of thermographic phosphors. Typically these ceramic materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Photomultipliers and high-speed camera systems are used to transiently detect the subsequently emitted luminescence decay point wise or two-dimensionally resolved. Based on appropriate calibration measurements, the luminescence lifetime is converted to temperature. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. For the first time, the authors realized a high-speed phosphor thermometry system combining a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterized regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating in terms of heating effects has been investigated. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of one sample per crank angle degree at an engine speed of 1000 rpm. This experiment has proven that high-speed phosphor thermometry is a promising diagnostic tool for the resolution of surface temperature transients.

Fuhrmann, N.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

2013-09-01

333

Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.  

PubMed

Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method. PMID:20467064

Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

334

Chromosome abnormalities in glioma  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S. [Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

335

Passive internal model based repetitive control of robot manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new class of globally stable finite dimensional repetitive controller for robot manipulator is proposed. The passivity based design of the proposed repetitive controller avoid the problem of tight stability conditions and slow convergence of the conventional, internal model based, repetitive controllers. The passive interconnection of the controller with nonlinear mechanical systems provide stability margin which is

Josip Kasac; Branko Novakovic; Dubravko Majetic; Danko Brezak

2006-01-01

336

Compact, Repetitive, 6.5 Kilojoule Marx Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Repetitive Marx generator technology developed has been actively pursued for many years at Sandia National Laboratories. Four repetitive Marx generators with voltages to 1 MV, energies to 20 kJ and repetition rates to 50 Hz have been built, tested, and us...

K. T. Lancaster R. S. Clark M. T. Buttram

1988-01-01

337

Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

2012-01-01

338

Repetition Blindness: An Emergent Property of Inter-Item Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Repeating an item in a brief or rapid display usually produces faster or more accurate identification of the item (repetition priming), but sometimes produces the opposite effect (repetition blindness). We present a theory of short-term repetition effects, the "competition hypothesis," which explains these paradoxical outcomes. The central tenet…

Morris, Alison L.; Still, Mary L.; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

339

The evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNA in eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive DNA sequences form a large portion of the genomes of eukaryotes. The 'selfish DNA' hypothesis proposes that they are maintained by their ability to replicate within the genome. The behaviour of repetitive sequences can result in mutations that cause genetic diseases, and confer significant fitness losses on the organism. Features of the organization of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes,

Brian Charlesworth; Paul Sniegowski; Wolfgang Stephan

1994-01-01

340

Repetitive Behaviours in Typically Developing 2-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Repetitive behaviours are an essential part of the diagnosis of autism but are also commonly seen in typically developing children. The current study investigated the frequency and factor structure of repetitive behaviours in a large community sample of 2-year-olds. Methods: A new measure, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ-2)…

Leekam, Susan; Tandos, Jonathan; McConachie, Helen; Meins, Elizabeth; Parkinson, Kathryn; Wright, Charlotte; Turner, Michelle; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Le Couteur, Ann

2007-01-01

341

A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an impact to the cranium of an unrestrained subject allowing rapid acceleration of the free-moving head and torso, an essential characteristic known to be important for concussive injury in humans, and a factor that is missing from existing animal models of TBI. Our method does not require scalp incision, emplacement of protective skull helmets or surgery and the procedure can be completed in 1-2 min. Mice spontaneously recover the righting reflex and show no evidence of seizures, paralysis or impaired behavior. Skull fractures and intracranial bleeding are very rare. Minor deficits in motor coordination and locomotor hyperactivity recover over time. Histological analyses reveal mild astrocytic reactivity (increased expression of GFAP) and increased phospho-tau but a lack of blood-brain-barrier disruption, edema and microglial activation. This new animal model is simple and cost-effective and will facilitate characterization of the neurobiological and behavioral consequences of rmTBI. It is also ideal for high throughput screening of potential new therapies for mild concussive injuries as experienced by athletes and military personnel. PMID:21930157

Kane, Michael J; Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Briggs, Denise I; Viano, David C; Kreipke, Christian W; Kuhn, Donald M

2011-09-12

342

Experimental models of repetitive brain injuries.  

PubMed

Repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs in a significant portion of trauma patients, especially in specific populations, such as child abuse victims or athletes involved in contact sports (e.g. boxing, football, hockey, and soccer). A continually emerging hypothesis is that repeated mild injuries may cause cumulative damage to the brain, resulting in long-term cognitive dysfunction. The growing attention to this hypothesis is reflected in several recent experimental studies of repeated mild TBI in vivo. These reports generally demonstrate cellular and cognitive dysfunction after repetitive injury using rodent TBI models. In some cases, data suggests that the effects of a second mild TBI may be synergistic, rather than additive. In addition, some studies have found increases in cellular markers associated with Alzheimer's disease after repeated mild injuries, which demonstrates a direct experimental link between repetitive TBI and neurodegenerative disease. To complement the findings from humans and in vivo experimentation, my laboratory group has investigated the effects of repeated trauma in cultured brain cells using a model of stretch-induced mechanical injury in vitro. In these studies, hippocampal cells exhibited cumulative damage when mild stretch injuries were repeated at either 1-h or 24-h intervals. Interestingly, the extent of damage to the cells was dependent on the time between repeated injuries. Also, a very low level of stretch, which produced no cell damage on its own, induced cell damage when it was repeated several times at a short interval (every 2 min). Although direct comparisons to the clinical situation are difficult, these types of repetitive, low-level, mechanical stresses may be similar to the insults received by certain athletes, such as boxers, or hockey and soccer players. This type of in vitro model could provide a reliable system in which to study the mechanisms underlying cellular dysfunction following repeated injuries. As this area of TBI research continues to evolve, it will be imperative that models of repetitive injury replicate injuries in humans as closely as possible. For example, it will be important to model appropriately concussive episodes versus even lower level injuries (such as those that might occur during boxing matches). Suitable inter-injury intervals will also be important parameters to incorporate into models. Additionally, it will be crucial to design and utilize proper controls, which can be more challenging than experimental approaches to single mild TBI. It will also be essential to combine, and compare, data derived from in vitro experiments with those conducted with animals in vivo. These issues, as well as a summary of findings from repeated TBI research, are discussed in this review. PMID:17618983

Weber, John T

2007-01-01

343

[Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].  

PubMed

Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities. Gene profiling analysis shows that the expression of several genes is deregulated including PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) gene, encoding a receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. In angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphomas molecular abnormalities are found in follicular helper T-cell (TFH) that express some distinctive markers such as CD10, PD-1, CXCR5 and the CXCL13 chemokine. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a paradigme of T-cell lymphoma since it is associated with an X-ALK oncogenic fusion protein due to a translocation involving ALK gene at 2p23. ALK tyrosine kinase activates downstream pathways (Stat3/5b, Src kinases, PLC?, PI3 kinase) implicated in lymphomagenesis, proliferation and protection against apoptosis. Specific ALK inhibitors are currently in clinical evaluation. Lastly several lymphomas are associated with infectious agents that play a direct (EB virus, HTLV1) or indirect role (e.g. Helicobacter pylori in MALT lymphoma) in lymphomagenesis. PMID:21084243

Delsol, G

2010-11-01

344

Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD  

PubMed Central

Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD.

Vaidya, Chandan J.

2012-01-01

345

fMRI Repetition Suppression: Neuronal Adaptation or Stimulus Expectation?  

PubMed Central

Measurements of repetition suppression with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation) have been used widely to probe neuronal population response properties in human cerebral cortex. fMRI adaptation techniques assume that fMRI repetition suppression reflects neuronal adaptation, an assumption that has been challenged on the basis of evidence that repetition-related response changes may reflect unrelated factors, such as attention and stimulus expectation. Specifically, Summerfield et al. (Summerfield C, Trittschuh EH, Monti JM, Mesulam MM, Egner T. 2008. Neural repetition suppression reflects fulfilled perceptual expectations. Nat Neurosci. 11:1004–1006) reported that the relative frequency of stimulus repetitions and non-repetitions influenced the magnitude of repetition suppression in the fusiform face area, suggesting that stimulus expectation accounted for most of the effect of repetition. We confirm that stimulus expectation can significantly influence fMRI repetition suppression throughout visual cortex and show that it occurs with long as well as short adaptation durations. However, the effect was attention dependent: When attention was diverted away from the stimuli, the effects of stimulus expectation completely disappeared. Nonetheless, robust and significant repetition suppression was still evident. These results suggest that fMRI repetition suppression reflects a combination of neuronal adaptation and attention-dependent expectation effects that can be experimentally dissociated. This implies that with an appropriate experimental design, fMRI adaptation can provide valid measures of neuronal adaptation and hence response specificity.

Smith, Andrew T.

2012-01-01

346

Abnormal cycles from normal dynamos (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary aim of this talk is to illustrate how simple yet reasonably realistic dynamo models of the solar cycle can exhibit "abnormal" features, including extended periods of minimum activity as currently observed. I will show that dynamo including even very simple amplitude quenching nonlinearities can, in the presence of low-amplitude stochastic forcing, produce fluctuations that may be mistaken for switches between distinct dynamical behaviors, and will examine to what degree such behavior can be distinguished from true intermittency, given extant data.

Charbonneau, P.

2009-12-01

347

Sacroiliac joint abnormalities in paraplegics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 186 paraplegic patients to clarify the pathogenesis of the sacroiliac (SI) joint abnormalities reported in these patients. Partial or complete fusion of SI joints was noted in 47 patients (25%), and milder degrees of abnormalities of these joints were present in 27 patients (15%). The abnormalities differed from those seen in ankylosing spondylitis and were found more commonly

M A Khan; I Kushner; A A Freehafer

1979-01-01

348

Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis.

Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

2009-01-01

349

Classification of oesophageal motility abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manometric examination of the oesophagus frequently reveals abnormalities whose cause is unknown and whose physiological importance is not clear. A large body of literature dealing with oesophageal motility abnormalities has evolved over the past few decades but comparisons among studies have been compromised by the lack of a widely accepted system for classifying the abnormal motility patterns, and by the

S J SPECHLER; D O CASTELL

2001-01-01

350

Enhanced Neurofibrillary Tangle Formation, Cerebral Atrophy, and Cognitive Deficits Induced by Repetitive Mild Brain Injury in a Transgenic Tauopathy Mouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and repetitive TBI (rTBI) may culminate in dementia pugilistica (DP), a syndrome characterized by progressive de- mentia, parkinsonism, and the hallmark brain lesions of AD, including neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), formed by abnormal tau filaments and senile plaques (SPs) composed of Afibrils. Previ- ous study showed that mild rTBI

Yasumasa Yoshiyama; Kunihiro Uryu; Makoto Higuchi; Luca Longhi; Rachel Hoover; Scott Fujimoto; Tracy McIntosh; Virginia M.-Y. Lee; John Q. Trojanowski

2005-01-01

351

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

2010-01-01

352

Exon repetition in mRNA  

PubMed Central

The production of different transcripts (transcript heterogeneity) is a feature of many genes that may result in phenotypic variation. Several mechanisms, that occur at both the DNA and RNA level have been shown to contribute to this transcript heterogeneity in mammals, all of which involve either the rearrangement of sequences within a genome or the use of alternative signals in linear, contiguous DNA or RNA. Here we describe tissue-specific repetition of selective exons in transcripts of a rat gene (SA) with a normal exon–intron organization. We conclude that nonlinear mRNA processing can generate tissue-specific transcripts.

Frantz, Simon A.; Thiara, Amrik S.; Lodwick, David; Ng, Leong L.; Eperon, Ian C.; Samani, Nilesh J.

1999-01-01

353

Superionic conductors as fast, repetitive opening switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of superionic conductors, in particular Ag13I9W2O8, as fast, repetitive, optically triggered opening switches for power conditioning applications in spacecraft has been investigated. It was found, unexpectedly, that serious shelf-life degradation in this material exists, caused by conversion of Ag(+) ions to neutral silver. This degradation can be minimized by storage at 150 C or above, but irreversible conversion from Ag13I9W2O8 to Ag4I2WO4 and Ag5IW2O8 is greatly accelerated by the presence of laser light.

Scott, James

1988-06-01

354

Marathon pancreatitis: is the etiology repetitive trauma?  

PubMed

Abdominal pain frequently occurs after long-distance running. The cause of the pain may be due to dehydration, diaphragmatic ischemia, muscular spasm, or myonecrosis. However, data regarding the frequency of these purported causes are currently lacking. Pancreatitis can also occur after long-distance running, but few cases have been reported, and the etiology is controversial. We report a case of pancreatitis in a thin, muscular marathon runner. We suggest the etiology in this case may be traumatic as the pancreas may have suffered repetitive injury against the posterior abdominal wall and spine. PMID:15212417

Stewart, David; Waxman, Kenneth

2004-06-01

355

Repetition of educational AIDS advertising affects attitudes.  

PubMed

In educational AIDS campaigns, initiators often use advertisements to warn about the threat of AIDS. The present Internet study (N = 283) tested the assumption of an inverted U-shaped relationship between the number of educational AIDS advertisements in a magazine and the perceived threat of AIDS among different groups (i.e., homosexual men and heterosexual men and women). This expectation was primarily based on signaling theory, which assumes that recipients use repetition frequency as a cue for judgments about the message. Results provided support for the expected inverted U-curve. PMID:21879615

Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

2011-06-01

356

WHAT TRIGGERS ABNORMAL EATING IN BULIMIC AND NONBULIMIC WOMEN? The Role of Dissociative Experiences, Negative Affect, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative experiences and abnormal eating were examined in 92 non-eating-disordered women and 61 age- matched bulimic women. In the nonclinical sample of women, dissociative experiences were associated with abnor- mal eating attitudes and behavior, even after controlling for other forms of psychopathology; furthermore, dissociation mediated the relationships between abnormal eating and sexual abuse, abnormal eating and emotional distress, and abnormal

Sonja Lyubomirsky; Lorie Sousa; Regina C. Casper

357

Spatial memory deficit and emotional abnormality in OLETF rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is deeply involved in the control of learning and emotional behaviors. The authors characterize the behavioral properties of Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which lack the CCK-A receptor because of a genetic abnormality. In the Morris water-maze task, the OLETF rats showed an impaired spatial memory. In the inhibitory avoidance test, they showed facilitating response 24

Xue-Liang Li; Shuji Aou; Tetsuro Hori; Yutaka Oomura

2002-01-01

358

Repetition enhancement and perceptual processing of visual word form.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the cerebral basis of word perceptual repetition priming with fMRI during a letter detection task that manipulated the familiarity of perceptual word form and the number of repetitions. Some neuroimaging studies have reported increases, instead of decreases, in brain activations (called "repetition enhancement") associated with repetition priming of unfamiliar stimuli which have been interpreted as the creation of new perceptual representations for unfamiliar items. According to this interpretation, several repetitions of unfamiliar items would then be necessary for the repetition priming to occur, a hypothesis not explicitly tested in prior studies. In the present study, using a letter detection task on briefly flashed words, we explored the effect of familiarity on brain response for word visual perceptual priming using both words with usual (i.e., familiar) and unusual (i.e., unfamiliar) font, presented up to four times for stimuli with unusual font. This allows potential changes in the brain responses for unfamiliar items to be assessed over several repetitions, i.e., repetition enhancement to suppression. Our results reveal significant increases of activity in the bilateral occipital areas related to repetition of words in both familiar and unfamiliar conditions. Our findings support the sharpening hypothesis, showing a lack of cerebral economy with repetition when the task requires the processing of all word features, whatever the familiarity of the material, and emphasize the influence of the nature of stimuli processing on its neuronal manifestation. PMID:22807895

Lebreton, Karine; Villain, Nicolas; Chételat, Gaël; Landeau, Brigitte; Seghier, Mohamed L; Lazeyras, François; Eustache, Francis; Ibanez, Vicente

2012-07-12

359

Repetition enhancement and perceptual processing of visual word form  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated the cerebral basis of word perceptual repetition priming with fMRI during a letter detection task that manipulated the familiarity of perceptual word form and the number of repetitions. Some neuroimaging studies have reported increases, instead of decreases, in brain activations (called “repetition enhancement”) associated with repetition priming of unfamiliar stimuli which have been interpreted as the creation of new perceptual representations for unfamiliar items. According to this interpretation, several repetitions of unfamiliar items would then be necessary for the repetition priming to occur, a hypothesis not explicitly tested in prior studies. In the present study, using a letter detection task on briefly flashed words, we explored the effect of familiarity on brain response for word visual perceptual priming using both words with usual (i.e., familiar) and unusual (i.e., unfamiliar) font, presented up to four times for stimuli with unusual font. This allows potential changes in the brain responses for unfamiliar items to be assessed over several repetitions, i.e., repetition enhancement to suppression. Our results reveal significant increases of activity in the bilateral occipital areas related to repetition of words in both familiar and unfamiliar conditions. Our findings support the sharpening hypothesis, showing a lack of cerebral economy with repetition when the task requires the processing of all word features, whatever the familiarity of the material, and emphasize the influence of the nature of stimuli processing on its neuronal manifestation.

Lebreton, Karine; Villain, Nicolas; Chetelat, Gael; Landeau, Brigitte; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Lazeyras, Francois; Eustache, Francis; Ibanez, Vicente

2012-01-01

360

Characterization of thin metallurgical coating systems by repetitive inclined impact test in dry condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the effectiveness of a non-lubricated repetitive inclined impact test to differentiate the fatigue behavior of thin tribological coatings. Three coatings were studied. One is W-diamond-like carbon (DLC) and the other two are Cr-DLC made from different deposition recipes. These coatings display unique impact failure curves. The impact failure curve, analogous to the ‘S–N’ curve (a semi-log plot

Elmer S. Zanoria; Larry E. Seitzman

2004-01-01

361

High repetition rate nitrogen ion laser  

SciTech Connect

The average power of a pulsed discharge laser may be increased by increasing the single pulse energy or by pulsing the laser at a higher rate without a substantial loss of single pulse energy. Single pulse energy can be enhanced by increasing the energy deposition to the medium, and by scaling to larger discharge volumes. The realization of high repetition rates (HRR's) is often accomplished by the addition of specialized power supplies, pulse-forming-networks, and laser heads. In this work, a HRR N{sub 2}+ laser has been developed and its output characterized as a function of gas pressure, temperature, velocity, energy deposition, and repetition rate. It is shown that a self-excited superradiant device is more susceptible to HRR failure modes than a similar oscillator-amplifier arrangement, the difference arising from gain and saturation considerations. With this understanding, A HRR N{sub 2}+ oscillator-amplifier was constructed yielding pulse energies of 4.5 mJ and 0.25 W average power at 60 pps, while capable of several hour gas fill lifetimes.

Harshaw, R.C.

1984-01-01

362

Pull-production in repetitive remanufacturing  

SciTech Connect

In the past, production activity control practices in most repetitive remanufacturing facilities resembled those used in intermittent production operations. These operations were characterized by large amounts of work-in-process (WIP), frequent work stoppages due to part shortages, excessive overtime, low product velocity, informal scheduling between dependent operations, low employee and management moral, and a lot of wasted time, material, labor, and space. Improvement in production activity control (PAC) methods for repetitive remanufactures has been hampered by uncertainty in: supply of incoming assets, configuration of assets, process times to refurbish assets, and yields in reclamation processes. collectively these uncertainties make shop floor operations seem uncontrollable. However, one United States Army depot has taken on the challenge. Through management supported, cross-functional teams, the Tooele Army Depot has designed and implemented pull-production systems for two of its major products, with several others to follow. This article presents a generalized version of Tooele`s pull-production system and highlights design characteristics which are specific to remanufacturing applications.

McCaskey, D.W. Jr.

1992-09-01

363

Pull-production in repetitive remanufacturing  

SciTech Connect

In the past, production activity control practices in most repetitive remanufacturing facilities resembled those used in intermittent production operations. These operations were characterized by large amounts of work-in-process (WIP), frequent work stoppages due to part shortages, excessive overtime, low product velocity, informal scheduling between dependent operations, low employee and management moral, and a lot of wasted time, material, labor, and space. Improvement in production activity control (PAC) methods for repetitive remanufactures has been hampered by uncertainty in: supply of incoming assets, configuration of assets, process times to refurbish assets, and yields in reclamation processes. collectively these uncertainties make shop floor operations seem uncontrollable. However, one United States Army depot has taken on the challenge. Through management supported, cross-functional teams, the Tooele Army Depot has designed and implemented pull-production systems for two of its major products, with several others to follow. This article presents a generalized version of Tooele's pull-production system and highlights design characteristics which are specific to remanufacturing applications.

McCaskey, D.W. Jr.

1992-09-01

364

Recovering sound sources from embedded repetition  

PubMed Central

Cocktail parties and other natural auditory environments present organisms with mixtures of sounds. Segregating individual sound sources is thought to require prior knowledge of source properties, yet these presumably cannot be learned unless the sources are segregated first. Here we show that the auditory system can bootstrap its way around this problem by identifying sound sources as repeating patterns embedded in the acoustic input. Due to the presence of competing sounds, source repetition is not explicit in the input to the ear, but it produces temporal regularities that listeners detect and use for segregation. We used a simple generative model to synthesize novel sounds with naturalistic properties. We found that such sounds could be segregated and identified if they occurred more than once across different mixtures, even when the same sounds were impossible to segregate in single mixtures. Sensitivity to the repetition of sound sources can permit their recovery in the absence of other segregation cues or prior knowledge of sounds, and could help solve the cocktail party problem.

McDermott, Josh H.; Wrobleski, David; Oxenham, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

365

Brief report: preliminary reliability, construct validity and standardization of the Auditory Behavior Questionnaire (ABQ) for children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The Auditory Behavior Questionnaire (ABQ) evaluates abnormal behavioral responses to auditory stimulation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study reports preliminary reliability, construct validity and standardization of the ABQ. Parents of children with ASD aged 7-21 years (n = 165) completed the ABQ on-line. Cronbach's alpha was 0.94 indicating strong internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure supporting previous theoretical discussion of global sensory processing difficulties and the construct validity of the ABQ. The 4-factors, (1) Difficulty in Background Noise, (2) Aversive Reactions, (3) Unresponsiveness, and (4) Stereotypic/Repetitive Behaviors, are very similar to Dunning's (Development of a questionnaire to assess auditory behaviors in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 2003) hypothesized factor domains. Standard factor scores for children with ASD are reported. PMID:22890403

Egelhoff, Kelsey; Lane, Alison E

2013-04-01

366

Event-related potential repetition effect in alzheimer's patients: Multiple repetition priming with pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most notable symptom in probable Alzheimer's disease (PAD) is a profound deficit on direct or explicit memory tasks. In many cases these same patients show performance similar to normal controls on indirect or implicit memory tasks. During indirect testing, recent studies have shown that many PAD subjects have an intact event-related potential (ERP) repetition effect, which is thought to

Victoria A. Kazmerski; David Friedman; Sean Hewitt

1995-01-01

367

Abnormal Menstrual Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The terminology of normal and abnormal menstrual function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The causes of menstrual dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Consequences of menstrual dysfunction in young women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Health concerns because of menstrual dysfunction.

Reid Norman

368

Long-Lasting Molecular Changes in Human Skin after Repetitive in situ UV Irradiation  

PubMed Central

It is known that UV modulates the expression of paracrine factors that regulate melanocyte function in the skin. We have investigated the consequences of repetitive UV exposure of human skin in biopsies of 10 subjects with phototypes 2-3.5 taken 1-4 yr later. The expression of melanogenic factors (TYR, MART1, MITF), growth factors/receptors (SCF/KIT, bFGF/FGFR1, ET1/EDNRB, HGF, GM-CSF), adhesion molecules (?-catenin, E-cadherin, N-cadherin), cell cycle proteins (PCNA, cyclins D1, E2) as well as Bcl-2, DKK1 and DKK3, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Most of those markers showed no detectable changes at ?1 yr after the repetitive UV irradiation. While increased expression of EDNRB protein was detected in 3 of 10 UV-irradiated subjects, there was no detectable change in the expression of ET1 protein or in EDNRB mRNA levels. In summary, only the expression of TYR, MART1 and/or EDNRB, and only in some subjects, was elevated at ?1 yr post-UV irradiation. Thus the long-term effects of repetitive UV irradiation on human skin did not lead to significant changes in skin morphology and there is considerable subject-to-subject variation in responses. The possibility that changes in the expression and function of EDNRB triggers downstream activation of abnormal melanocyte proliferation and differentiation deserves further investigation.

Brenner, Michaela; Coelho, Sergio G.; Beer, Janusz Z.; Miller, Sharon A.; Wolber, Rainer; Smuda, Christoph; Hearing, Vincent J.

2008-01-01

369

How the human auditory system treats repetition amongst change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occasional repetitions embedded in a sequence of ever-changing sounds elicit a frontally negative event-related potential peaking between 100 and 200ms from the onset of sound repetition (repetition negativity, RN). Three interpretations have been suggested for the emergence of RN: (1) RN is a mismatch negativity (MMN) response elicited because the auditory system detected sound change as a regular feature of

János Horváth; István Winkler

2004-01-01

370

A miniature high repetition rate shock tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P < 100 bars at a cycle rate of up to 4 Hz. The design of the apparatus is discussed in detail, and data are presented to demonstrate that well-formed shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources.

Tranter, R. S.; Lynch, P. T.

2013-09-01

371

A miniature high repetition rate shock tube.  

PubMed

A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P < 100 bars at a cycle rate of up to 4 Hz. The design of the apparatus is discussed in detail, and data are presented to demonstrate that well-formed shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources. PMID:24089840

Tranter, R S; Lynch, P T

2013-09-01

372

Electroencephalogram and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.  

PubMed

Scalp recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been used in association with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) investigations as a safety measure in monitoring ongoing EEG activity and as a neurophysiologic tool in examining the specific effects induced by the magnetic stimulus on the EEG or evoked potentials (EPs). Medline review on the use of EEG or EPs with rTMS reveals that this area has been largely unexplored. Limited available studies attest to the potential for studies combining EEG/EPs and rTMS to be useful in further elucidating the normal brain physiology. Herein, we report on our experience with continuous EEG sampling combined with rTMS in patients with major depression (n = 14), schizophrenia (n = 7), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 5). Our data support the practice of using continuous EEG monitoring when the stimulation parameters fall outside established safety guidelines. PMID:11126191

Boutros, N N; Berman, R M; Hoffman, R; Miano, A P; Campbell, D; Ilmoniemi, R

2000-01-01

373

Repetition blindness: the survival of the grouped.  

PubMed

The repetition blindness (RB) effect demonstrates that people often fail to detect the second presentation of an identical object (e.g., Kanwisher, 1987). Grouping of identical items is a well-documented perceptual phenomenon, and this grouping generally facilitates perception. These two effects pose a puzzle: RB impairs perception, while perceptual grouping improves it. Here, we combined these two effects and studied how they interact. In a series of three experiments, we presented repeated items in a simultaneous string, while manipulating the organization of the repeated items in groups within a string. We observed an interaction between RB and grouping that we summarize with a rule that we call "the survival of the grouped": In essence, the ability to group repeated elements protects them from RB. These findings are discussed within the framework of the object file theory. PMID:21811897

Goldfarb, Liat; Treisman, Anne

2011-12-01

374

Capillary underwater discharges in repetitive pulse regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study a capillary underwater discharge, that is sustained with AC (50 Hz) voltages up to 7.5 kV, is investigated. In a capillary discharge scheme, the current is, at some point along its path between two submerged electrodes, flowing through a narrow elongated bore in a dielectric material. When the current density is sufficiently high, local boiling and subsequent vapour breakdown results in the formation of a plasma within this capillary. At the same time the capillary emits an intense jet of vapour bubbles. Time-dependent electrical current, voltage and light emission curves are recorded for discharges in solutions of NaCl in distilled water and reveal different discharge regimes, depending on the conductivity and the excitation voltage, ranging from repetitive microsecond discharge pulses to a quasi-continuous discharge with a glow-like voltage-current characteristic.

de Baerdemaeker, F.; Monte, M.; Leys, C.

2004-03-01

375

Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) temperature monitoring system utilizing Luxtron fluoroptic sensors and thermocouples technical reference manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes the Temperature Monitoring System for the RHEPP project at Sandia National Laboratories. The system is designed to operate in the presence of severe repetitive high voltage and electromagnetic fields while providing real time thermal data on component behavior. The thermal data is used in the design and evaluation of the major RHEPP components such as the magnetically

G. E. Laderach

1992-01-01

376

The Effects of Fluorescent and Incandescent Lighting on the Repetitive Behaviours of Autistic and Intellectually Handicapped Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Repetitive behaviors of five autistic and five intellectually disabled children were observed under both fluorescent and incandescent lighting conditions. Findings supported the hypothesis that autistic children engage in a significantly greater frequency of stereotypes under fluorescent lighting, while there is no significant difference among…

Fenton, D. M.; Penney, R.

1985-01-01

377

Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

2011-01-01

378

Evaluation of nail abnormalities.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy. PMID:22534387

Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S

2012-04-15

379

Abnormal inspiratory depth in Phox2a haploinsufficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations of genes encoding Phox2a or Phox2b transcription factors induce modifications of different brainstem neuronal networks. Such modifications are associated with defects in breathing behavior at birth. In particular, an abnormal breathing frequency is observed in Phox2a?\\/? mutant mice, resulting from abnormal development of the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus. However, the role of Phox2a proteins in the establishment of respiratory

L. J. Wrobel; M. Ogier; F. Chatonnet; S. Autran; V. Mézières; M. Thoby-Brisson; H. McLean; C. Taeron; J. Champagnat

2007-01-01

380

The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases  

PubMed Central

In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number ? known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with ?, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620?±?0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629?±?0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684?±?0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from ? (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

Iosa, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

2013-01-01

381

Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

2003-01-01

382

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

383

Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy  

PubMed Central

This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

2010-01-01

384

Radiographic abnormalities in Laron dwarfism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiographic abnormalities in two children with Laron dwarfism are described. In addition to a characteristic bone age, which was retarded for the chronological age but advanced for the height of the patients, there were marked skull changes and minor skeletal abnormalities in the long bones and vertebrae. Such findings on a skeletal survey should lead the radiologist to suspect the

M. Vasil; A. Baxova; K. Kozlowski

1994-01-01

385

Repetition as a Factor in Oral Reading Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Repetitions in children's oral reading are typically thought of as disruptive, signalling the kind of careless reading symptomatic of random eye movement or inattention to context. This perspective, however, runs contrary to clinical experiences, which have revealed that many repetitions are deliberate and benefit the reader by serving at least…

Hanes, Madlyn Levine

386

High-power repetitively pulsed electric-discharge HF laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-power non-chain electric-discharge repetitively pulsed HF laser based on SF-hydrocarbon mixtures is developed and investigated. A pulse energy W{sub g} = 67 J is obtained at a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz. (lasers)

V D Bulaev; V S Gusev; S L Lysenko; Yu B Morozov; A N Poznyshev; S Yu Kazantsev; I G Kononov; K N Firsov

2010-01-01

387

Repetitive and Stereotyped Behaviours in Pervasive Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours are a heterogeneous group of behaviours present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite their core significance in PDD, it is not clear whether there are distinct groups of these behaviours with different specificity to autism. Methods: A two-factor model of the repetitive behaviours, namely…

Carcani-Rathwell, Iris; Rabe-Hasketh, Sophia; Santosh, Paramala J.

2006-01-01

388

RUPERT: a Device for Robotic Upper Extremity Repetitive Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development and initial evaluation of a device for robotic assisted upper extremity repetitive therapy (RUPERTtrade). Intense repetitive physical therapies provided by individualized interaction between the patient and a rehabilitation specialist to overcome upper extremity impairment after stroke are beneficial, however, they are expensive and difficult to evaluate quantitatively and objectively. The need is urgent and growing for

Jiping He; E. J. Koeneman; R. S. Schultz; D. E. Herring; J. Wanberg; H. Huang; T. Sugar; R. Herman; J. B. Koeneman

2005-01-01

389

Auditory repetition priming is impaired in pure alexic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alexia without agraphia, or “pure” alexia, is an acquired impairment in reading that leaves writing skills intact. Repetition priming for visually presented words is diminished in pure alexia. However, it is not possible to verify whether this priming deficit is modality-specific or modality independent because reading abilities are compromised. Hence, auditory repetition priming was assessed with lexical decision and word

Diane Swick; Kimberly M. Miller; Jary Larsena

2004-01-01

390

Target delivery system for high repetition rate lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present early prototype of a high repetition target delivery system, designed for nominal operation rate at 1 Hz but with possibility of running at up to 10 Hz. The system is primarily intended to deliver complex solid-state targets, such as composite foils or structured shapes, in vacuum environment into the focus of a high-repetition laser. The system in its

J. Polan; T. Havlicek; B. Rus

2007-01-01

391

Editable Replay of IDE-Based Repetitive Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmers often have to do many repetitive tasks when using an IDE (integrated development environment). These tasks require them to navigate through many views and dialogs in the same steps and input same data, which are time consuming and boring. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically perform the repetitive tasks by catching user actions on the IDE

Ying Zhang; Gang Huang; Nuyun Zhang; Hong Mei

2008-01-01

392

Early Grade Repetition and Inattention Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors analyze the occurrence of grade repetition and inattention in children diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Method: The participant group consisted of 310 patients with NF1 and a control group of 242 individuals. The number of grade repetitions for each participant during his or her time in elementary, middle, and high school was noted and the inattention

François X. Coudé; Claire Mignot; Stanislas Lyonnet; Arnold Munnich

2007-01-01

393

A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight

Michael J. Kane; Mariana Angoa-Pérez; Denise I. Briggs; David C. Viano; Christian W. Kreipke; Donald M. Kuhn

394

Status of Repetitive Pulsed Power at Sandia National Laboratories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multi-kilojoule repetitive pulsed power technology moved from a laboratory environment into its first commercial application in 1997 as a driver for ion beam surface treatment. Sandia's RHEPP II, a repetitive 2.5 kJ/pulse electron beam accelerator, has su...

M. Harden H. Harjes L. Martinez G. Pena K. Reed

1999-01-01

395

Application of Repetitive Visual Stimulation to EEG Neurofeedback Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. This report describes an approach for using repetitive visual stimulation in the context of electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback protocols. The EEG response to repetitive stimulation can be described as a series of successive evoked potentials (EPs), giving rise to a periodic response in the cortex, the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Experimental data and signal analyses are presented to support

Thomas F. Collura

2002-01-01

396

GA optimization model for repetitive projects with soft logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimization model for repetitive projects when considering soft logic. There have been several models developed for Time–cost Trade-Off optimization in repetitive projects and these models were set up to search for optimum output rate that yields the minimum total cost for each project. Previous researches are based on the assumption that work

Su-Ling Fan; Kuo-Shun Sun; Yu-Ren Wang

397

Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech  

PubMed Central

Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g., Patel, 2008). But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011). If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech.

Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

2013-01-01

398

Repetition and emotive communication in music versus speech.  

PubMed

Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g., Patel, 2008). But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity - achieved through repetition - is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011). If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech. PMID:23576998

Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

2013-04-04

399

Repetitive, electron-beam diode development  

SciTech Connect

We constructed a stacked-Blumlein pulse generator that can deliver pulses of nearly 200 kV to an electron beam diode load. This pulse generator has an output impedance of 100 {Omega} and a pulse width of 80 ns. It can operate continuously at pulse repetition rates as high as 500 Hz. We discharged the pulse generator into two diodes. One had a 2.9 cm diameter sintered bronze cathode, and the other had a 4.0 cm diameter graphite cathode with points machined into it. The sintered bronze cathode turned on completely with a peak, macroscopic field of 100 kV/cm. The graphite cathode required a peak, macroscopic field of 150 kV/cm in order to operate reproducibly. Nevertheless, only about 10% of the area of the graphite cathode emitted. The bronze cathode operated at 30 Hz, and it exhibited heat damage. Specifically, it melted in places. Conversely, the graphite cathode, operated at 50 Hz, exhibited little damage: principally, minor erosion around the perimeter.

McClenahan, C.R.; Martinez, L.E.; Pena, G.E.; Weber, G.J.

1993-08-01

400

Language fMRI abnormalities associated with FOXP2 gene mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Half the members of the KE family suffer from a speech and language disorder caused by a mutation in the FOXP2 gene. We examined functional brain abnormalities associated with this mutation using two fMRI language experiments, one involving covert (silent) verb generation and the other overt (spoken) verb generation and word repetition. The unaffected family members showed a typical left-dominant

Torsten Baldeweg; Alan Connelly; David G Gadian; Mortimer Mishkin; Faraneh Vargha-Khadem; Frédérique Liégeois

2003-01-01

401

Central Adaptations to Repetitive Grasping in Healthy Aging  

PubMed Central

Augmented cortical activity during repetitive grasping mitigates repetition-related decrease in cortical efficiency in young adults. It is unclear if similar processes occur with healthy aging. We recorded movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) during 150 repetitive handgrip contractions at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in healthy young (n = 10) and old (n = 10) adults. Repetitions were grouped into two Blocks (Block 1 and 2: repetitions 1–60 and 91–150, respectively) and analyzed separately to assess the effects of aging and block. EMG of the flexor digitorum superficialis and handgrip force were also recorded. No changes in EMG or MVC were observed across blocks for either group. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for MRCPs recorded from mesial (FCz, Cz, CPz) and motor (C1, C3, Cz) electrode sites, with younger adults demonstrating significant increases in MRCP amplitude. Focal MRCP activity in response to repetitive grasping resulted in minimal changes (i.e. Block 1 versus Block 2) in older adults. Central adaptive processes change across the lifespan, showing increasingly less focal activation in older adults during repetitive grasping. Our findings are consistent with previous paradigms demonstrating more diffuse cortical activation during motor tasks in older adults.

Sirevaag, Erik J.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Earhart, Gammon M.

2011-01-01

402

Repeated cortico-striatal stimulation generates persistent OCD-like behavior.  

PubMed

Although cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit dysregulation is correlated with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), causation cannot be tested in humans. We used optogenetics in mice to simulate CSTC hyperactivation observed in OCD patients. Whereas acute orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-ventromedial striatum (VMS) stimulation did not produce repetitive behaviors, repeated hyperactivation over multiple days generated a progressive increase in grooming, a mouse behavior related to OCD. Increased grooming persisted for 2 weeks after stimulation cessation. The grooming increase was temporally coupled with a progressive increase in light-evoked firing of postsynaptic VMS cells. Both increased grooming and evoked firing were reversed by chronic fluoxetine, a first-line OCD treatment. Brief but repeated episodes of abnormal circuit activity may thus set the stage for the development of persistent psychopathology. PMID:23744948

Ahmari, Susanne E; Spellman, Timothy; Douglass, Neria L; Kheirbek, Mazen A; Simpson, H Blair; Deisseroth, Karl; Gordon, Joshua A; Hen, René

2013-06-01

403

Detection of Abnormalities in MANETs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abnormalities in MANETs can be malicious attacks or selfish nodes which can affect network architecture and network operation significantly. Clearly, there are two distinct objectives: 1) To design/examine attacks and develop countermeasures and 2) design...

W. Wang

2007-01-01

404

Abnormal States of Nuclear Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results for abnormal states in nuclear matter are reviewed and compared with pi exp - condensates in the context of chiral invariance and the sigma model. The relative importance of symmetry breaking and conserving interactions is assessed for the two pro...

L. Castillejo

1975-01-01

405

Progress in developing repetitive pulse systems utilizing inductive energy storage  

SciTech Connect

High-power, fast-recovery vacuum switches were used in a new repetitive counterpulse and transfer circuit to deliver a 5-kHz pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW (at 8.6 kA) to a 1-..cap omega.. load, resulting in the first demonstration of fully controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy-storage and transfer system with nondestructive switches. New circuits, analytical and experimental results, and feasibility of 100-kV repetitive pulse generation are discussed. A new switching concept for railgun loads is presented.

Honig, E.M.

1983-01-01

406

Repetition frequency pulling effects in asynchronous mode-locking.  

PubMed

Repetition frequency pulling effects are found to exist in asynchronous harmonic mode-locked fiber soliton lasers. The deviation frequency of asynchronous mode-locking is found to be dependent on the active modulation depth, not wholly determined by the difference between the intracavity active modulation frequency and the cavity harmonic repetition frequency. Transition from asynchronous to synchronous mode-locking will also occur when the modulation depth is above the threshold. Independent repetition frequency control of asynchronous mode-locked laser can be achieved through the effects. PMID:23381433

Jyu, Siao-Shan; Lai, Yinchieh

2013-02-01

407

OCD-Like behaviors caused by a neuropotentiating transgene targeted to cortical and limbic D1+ neurons.  

PubMed

To study the behavioral role of neurons containing the D1 dopamine receptor (D1+), we have used a genetic neurostimulatory approach. We generated transgenic mice that express an intracellular form of cholera toxin (CT), a neuropotentiating enzyme that chronically activates stimulatory G-protein (Gs) signal transduction and cAMP synthesis, under the control of the D1 promoter. Because the D1 promoter, like other CNS-expressed promoters, confers transgene expression that is regionally restricted to different D1+ CNS subsets in different transgenic lines, we observed distinct but related psychomotor disorders in different D1CT-expressing founders. In a D1CT line in which transgene expression was restricted to the following D1+ CNS regions-the piriform cortex layer II, layers II-III of somatosensory cortical areas, and the intercalated nucleus of the amygdala-D1CT mice showed normal CNS and D1+ neural architecture but increased cAMP content in whole extracts of the piriform and somatosensory cortex. These mice also exhibited a constellation of compulsive behavioral abnormalities that strongly resembled human cortical-limbic-induced compulsive disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These compulsive behaviors included episodes of perseverance or repetition of any and all normal behaviors, repetitive nonaggressive biting of siblings during grooming, and repetitive leaping. These results suggest that chronic potentiation of cortical and limbic D1+ neurons thought to induce glutamatergic output to the striatum causes behaviors reminiscent of those in human cortical-limbic-induced compulsive disorders. PMID:10366637

Campbell, K M; de Lecea, L; Severynse, D M; Caron, M G; McGrath, M J; Sparber, S B; Sun, L Y; Burton, F H

1999-06-15

408

Using social robots to study abnormal social development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social robots recognize and respond to hu- man social cues with appropriate behaviors. Social robots, and the technology used in their construction, can be unique tools in the study of abnormal social development. Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that is char- acterized by social and communicative im- pairments. Based on three years of integra- tion and immersion with a

Brian Scassellati

409

Large Brains in Autism: The Challenge of Pervasive Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most replicated finding in autism neuroanatomy—a tendency to unusually large brains—has seemed paradoxical in relation to the specificity of the abnormalities in three behavioral domains that define autism. We now know a range of things about this phenomenon, including that brains in autism have a growth spurt shortly after birth and then slow in growth a few short years

MARTHA R. HERBERT

2005-01-01

410

A comparative psychologist's approach to problems in abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

During observation on the behavior of white rats, the idea occurred that comparative psychology could assist in solving some of the problems of abnormal psychology. Some of the rats, considered neurotic because of their variation in conduct from the majority of rats when going for food, increased the speed of their performance with the increase of the drive (in this

C. Hall

1933-01-01

411

A rat model for neural circuitry abnormalities in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models for complex brain disorders, such as schizophrenia, are essential for the interpretation of postmortem findings. These models allow empirical testing of hypotheses regarding the role of genetic and environmental factors, the pathophysiological mechanisms and brain circuits that are responsible for specific neural abnormalities and their associated behavioral impairment, and the effectiveness of therapeutic treatments relative to these diseases.

Sabina Berretta; Francine M Benes

2006-01-01

412

Abnormal Cerebral Structure Is Present at Term in Premature Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Long-term studies of the outcome of very prematurely born infants have clearly documented that the majority of such infants have sig- nificant motor, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. How- ever, there is a limited understanding of the nature of the cerebral abnormality underlying these adverse neuro- logic outcomes. Aim. The overall aim of this study was to define quantitatively the

Terrie E. Inder; Simon K. Warfield; Hong Wang; Petra S. Hüppi; Joseph J. Volpe

2005-01-01

413

POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS IN ABNORMAL YOUNG TERNS FROM LONG ISLAND SOUND  

Microsoft Academic Search

THS paper reports the results of preliminary analyses for chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in young terns with visible abnormalities fo.und in a colony on Great Gull Island, 72 ø 07' W, 41 ø 12' N. Analyses are also reported on eight species of fish brought to the colony as food for the young or as part of behavioral displays. Great

HELEN HAYS; ROBERT W. RISEBROUGH

414

Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

2008-01-01

415

Reversing-Counterpulse Repetitive-Pulse Inductive Storage Circuit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpuls...

E. M. Honig

1984-01-01

416

Pictures, Repetition, and Young Children's Oral Prose Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the studies reported here, repetition of an orally presented story did help first grade children remember the information, but pictures were even more effective in facilitating recall of information. (Author)|

Levin, Joel R.; And Others

1976-01-01

417

High Voltage Nanosecond Pulser Using a Repetitive Series Interrupter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pulse generation system using an inductive energy storage technique is described. A high magnitude current flowing in a storage inductor is suddenly halted by means of a repetitive series interrupter device and an accompanying magnetic field coupled con...

M. Weiner

1978-01-01

418

Repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia originating from the aortic sinus cusp  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe sought to investigate the electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics for guiding catheter ablation in patients with repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (RMVT) originating from the aortic sinus cusp (ASC).

Feifan Ouyang; Parwis Fotuhi; Siew Yen Ho; Joachim Hebe; Marius Volkmer; Masahiko Goya; Mark Burns; Matthias Antz; Sabine Ernst; Riccardo Cappato; Karl-Heinz Kuck

2002-01-01

419

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human frontal cortex: implications for repetitive TMS treatment of depression  

PubMed Central

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive tool used to manipulate activity in specific neural circuits of the human brain. Clinical studies suggest that, in some patients with major depression, rTMS has the potential to alleviate symptoms that may be related to functional abnormalities in a frontocingulate circuit. This paper reviews the rationale for the use of rTMS in this context. The following topics are discussed: symptoms and cognition in major depression, with special emphasis on the initiation of speech; neuroimaging studies of depression; rTMS as treatment for depression; structure and function of the mid-dorsolateral frontal and anterior cingulate cortices; and combined TMS/positron emission tomography studies of frontocortical connectivity.

Paus, Tomas; Barrett, Jennifer

2004-01-01

420

Repetitively-Pulsed Relativistic BWO with Enhanced Mechanical Frequency Tunability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gigawatt repetitively-pulsed relativistic microwave generators with pulse-to-pulse frequency tuning are of interest of some practical applications. Earlier, a 5-15% frequency tuning was demonstrated in single-pulse regime, in particular, in the resonant relativistic BWO, in the feedback-supplied resonant relativistic TWT, and in the two-sectional vircator. However, repetitive operation of these sources meets severe technical problems such as gradual variation of slow-wave

S. A. Kitsanov; A. I. Klimov; I. K. Kurkan; S. D. Polevin; V.V. Rostov; E. M. Totmeninov

2007-01-01

421

Short palindromic repetitive DNA elements in enterobacteria: a survey.  

PubMed

We present a survey of short palindromic repetitive elements in enterobacteria. Seven families are presented. Five were already known (RSA, IRU, 29-bp repeats, BIMEs and boxC), and their properties are updated; in particular, a new composite element is shown to include the formerly identified boxC repeats. Two repetitions, YPAL1 and YPAL2, found primarily in Yersinia, are described here for the first time. PMID:10673002

Bachellier, S; Clément, J M; Hofnung, M

422

Repetition priming and frequency attenuation in lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six experiments investigated repetition priming and frequency attenuation in lexical access with 164 college students. Repetition priming effects in lexical decision tasks are stronger for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words. This frequency attenuation effect creates problems for frequency-ordered search models that assume a relatively stable frequency effect. It was posited that frequency attenuation is a product of the involvement

Kenneth I. Forster; Chris Davis

1984-01-01

423

Repetition Blindness: Out of Sight or Out of Mind?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does repetition blindness represent a failure of perception or of memory? In Experiment 1, participants viewed rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sentences. When critical words (C1 and C2) were orthographically similar, C2 was frequently omitted from serial report; however, repetition priming for C2 on a postsentence lexical decision task was equivalent whether or not C1 was similar to C2. In

Alison L. Morris; Catherine L. Harris

2004-01-01

424

Repetitive, small-bore two-stage light gas gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repetitive two-stage light gas gun for high-speed pellet injection has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In general, applications of the two-stage light gas gun have been limited to only single shots, with a finite time (at least minutes) needed for recovery and preparation for the next shot. The new device overcomes problems associated with repetitive operation, including

S. K. Combs; C. R. Foust; D. T. Fehling; M. J. Gouge; S. L. Milora

1991-01-01

425

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who exhibit chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and marked fluctuation of behavioral symptoms exhibit distinct innate immune abnormalities and transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood (PB) monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innate\\/adaptive immune responses and transcript profiles of peripheral blood monocytes were studied in ASD children who exhibit fluctuating behavioral symptoms following infection and other immune insults (ASD\\/Inf, N=30). The ASD\\/Inf children with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms (ASD\\/Inf+GI, N=19), revealed less production of proinflammatory and counter-regulatory cytokines with stimuli of innate immunity and marked changes in transcript profiles of monocytes as compared

Harumi Jyonouchi; Lee Geng; Deanna L. Streck; Gokce A. Toruner

2011-01-01

426

Negative effects of item repetition on source memory.  

PubMed

In the present study, we explored how item repetition affects source memory for new item-feature associations (picture-location or picture-color). We presented line drawings varying numbers of times in Phase 1. In Phase 2, each drawing was presented once with a critical new feature. In Phase 3, we tested memory for the new source feature of each item from Phase 2. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated and replicated the negative effects of item repetition on incidental source memory. Prior item repetition also had a negative effect on source memory when different source dimensions were used in Phases 1 and 2 (Experiment 3) and when participants were explicitly instructed to learn source information in Phase 2 (Experiments 4 and 5). Importantly, when the order between Phases 1 and 2 was reversed, such that item repetition occurred after the encoding of critical item-source combinations, item repetition no longer affected source memory (Experiment 6). Overall, our findings did not support predictions based on item predifferentiation, within-dimension source interference, or general interference from multiple traces of an item. Rather, the findings were consistent with the idea that prior item repetition reduces attention to subsequent presentations of the item, decreasing the likelihood that critical item-source associations will be encoded. PMID:22411165

Kim, Kyungmi; Yi, Do-Joon; Raye, Carol L; Johnson, Marcia K

2012-08-01

427

Role of subconcussion in repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Research now suggests that head impacts commonly occur during contact sports in which visible signs or symptoms of neurological dysfunction may not develop despite those impacts having the potential for neurological injury. Recent biophysics studies utilizing helmet accelerometers have indicated that athletes at the collegiate and high school levels sustain a surprisingly high number of head impacts ranging from several hundred to well over 1000 during the course of a season. The associated cumulative impact burdens over the course of a career are equally important. Clinical studies have also identified athletes with no readily observable symptoms but who exhibit functional impairment as measured by neuropsychological testing and functional MRI. Such findings have been corroborated by diffusion tensor imaging studies demonstrating axonal injury in asymptomatic athletes at the end of a season. Recent autopsy data have shown that there are subsets of athletes in contact sports who do not have a history of known or identified concussions but nonetheless have neurodegenerative pathology consistent with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Finally, emerging laboratory data have demonstrated significant axonal injury, blood-brain barrier permeability, and evidence of neuroinflammation, all in the absence of behavioral changes. Such data suggest that subconcussive level impacts can lead to significant neurological alterations, especially if the blows are repetitive. The authors propose "subconcussion" as a significant emerging concept requiring thorough consideration of the potential role it plays in accruing sufficient anatomical and/or physiological damage in athletes and military personnel, such that the effects of these injuries are clinically expressed either contemporaneously or later in life. PMID:23971952

Bailes, Julian E; Petraglia, Anthony L; Omalu, Bennet I; Nauman, Eric; Talavage, Thomas

2013-08-23

428

Ciliary abnormalities in respiratory disease.  

PubMed

One hundred and sixty seven children, ranging in age from 5 weeks to 16 years, with chronic upper or lower respiratory tract problems, or both, were investigated for ciliary dyskinesia. Abnormal ciliary function was found in 18 cases all of whom had chronic lower respiratory disease and most of whom also had upper respiratory problems. Fifteen of the 18 cases had reduced ciliary beat frequencies (less than 10 Hz) associated with dyskinesia and the other three showed apparent absence of ciliated cells. Of the 15 cases with reduced ciliary beat frequencies, ciliary ultrastructure was normal in seven cases but abnormal with missing dynein arms and occasional abnormalities of microtubular arrangement in eight. Respiratory symptoms in the perinatal period were more common in children with abnormal ciliary function and present in all those with ultrastructural abnormalities or absence of ciliated cells compared with 34 (26%) of 132 children, in whom symptoms were recorded, with normal ciliary function. This study would suggest that all children with unexplained chronic respiratory disease, in particular those with symptoms starting in the perinatal period, should be investigated for ciliary dyskinesia. PMID:3355203

Buchdahl, R M; Reiser, J; Ingram, D; Rutman, A; Cole, P J; Warner, J O

1988-03-01

429

Lymphocyte abnormalities in Behçet's syndrome.  

PubMed

In order to test indirectly the hypothesis that Behçet's syndrome is caused by a virus, lymphocytes from eighty-six patients were evaluated for two parameters consistent with persistent virus infection: chromosomal abnormalities and decreased ability to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV) to grow in lymphocyte cultures stimulated by PHA. Whereas HSV grew in lymphocytes cultured from all normal donors, replication was impaired in lymphocytes from 37% of the patients with Behçet's syndrome. This figure is increased to 57% if patients receiving steroids or cytotoxic drugs were excluded. Lymphocytes were scored as chromosomally abnormal from sixteen of the thirty-eight patients examined, compared with only one of seventeen normal controls. There was damage to specific chromosomes in four patients. The frequency with which chromosomal abnormalities were detected was significantly related to failure to replicate HSV and inversely related to concomitant steroid treatment. The findings are consistent with a viral aetiology for Behçet's syndrome but other explanations are not excluded. PMID:6161726

Denman, A M; Fialkow, P J; Pelton, B K; Salo, A C; Appleford, D J; Gilchrist, C

1980-10-01

430

Abnormal movement preparation in task-specific focal hand dystonia.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

Jankowski, Jakob; Paus, Sebastian; Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

2013-10-22

431

Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia.

Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

2013-01-01

432

Models of Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that the underlying pathology of schizophrenia has its roots in brain development and that these brain abnormalities do not manifest themselves until adolescence or early adulthood. Animal models based on developmental manipulations have provided insight into the vulnerability of the developing fetus and the importance of the early environment for normal maturation. These models have provided a wide range of validated approaches to answer questions regarding environmental influences on both neural and behavioral development. In an effort to better understand the developmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, animal models have been developed, which seek to model the etiology and/or the pathophysiology of schizophrenia or specific behaviors associated with the disease. Developmental models specific to schizophrenia have focused on epidemiological risk factors (e.g., prenatal viral insult, birth complications) or more heuristic models aimed at understanding the developmental neuropathology of the disease (e.g., ventral hippocampal lesions). The combined approach of behavioral and neuroanatomical evaluation of these models strengthens their utility in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and developing new treatment strategies.

Powell, Susan B.

2013-01-01

433

Event-related potentials differentiate the effects of aging on word and nonword repetition in explicit and implicit memory tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explicit memory declines with age while implicit memory remains largely intact. These experiments extended behavioral findings by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in young and elderly adults during repetition priming and recognition memory paradigms. Words and pronounceable nonwords repeated after 1 of 3 delays. Stimuli were categorized as either word-nonword or old-new. Repeated items elicited more positive-going potentials in bom tasks.

Diane Swick; Robert T. Knight

1997-01-01

434

Suprathreshold 0.3 Hz repetitive TMS prolongs the cortical silent period: potential implications for therapeutic trials in epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the after-effects of 0.3 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms at the primary motor cortex level, as tested by single-pulse TMS variables.Methods: In 9 healthy subjects, we studied a wide set of neurophysiological and behavioral variables from the first dorsal interosseous before (Baseline), immediately after (Post 1), and 90 min after (Post

M Cincotta; A Borgheresi; C Gambetti; F Balestrieri; L Rossi; G Zaccara; M Ulivelli; S Rossi; C Civardi; R Cantello

2003-01-01

435

Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Berretta, Sabina

2011-01-01

436

Transcriptional abnormalities in Huntington disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG repeat expansion that is translated into an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein. The precise mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in HD have not been fully elucidated, but alterations in gene transcription could well be involved because the activities of several nuclear proteins are compromised by the polyQ mutation. Recent

Katharine L. Sugars; David C. Rubinsztein

2003-01-01

437

Abnormal waves during Hurricane Camille  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reanalysis is reported of the wave time series recorded during Hurricane Camille having as objective the identification of individual waves that satisfy current criteria defining abnormal or freak waves. It is shown that during the hurricane development, a very nonstationary situation has occurred during which the second-order sea state parameters changed significantly with time. The parameters of the largest

C. Guedes Soares; Z. Cherneva; E. M. Antão

2004-01-01

438

Journal of Abnormal Psychology: Editorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In keeping with tradition, the editor of the current issue of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1980, Vol. 89, No. 4) presents an account of his policies and goals for the benefit of readers and potential authors. The author discusses the Journal's coverage, criteria for acceptance, types of articles, evaluation procedures, and the blind review process.

Alexander M. Buchwald

1980-01-01

439

Anxiety, pregnancy, and childbirth abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who later experienced complications or had abnormal children show higher manifest anxiety scores in the 7th month of pregnancy. For those retested, differences were not significant 6 weeks later. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3HK74D.

Anthony Davids; Spencer Devault; Max Talmadge

1961-01-01

440

Combined effect of repetitive work and cold on muscle function and fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

maki. Combined effect of repetitive work and cold on muscle function and fatigue. J Appl Physiol 92: 354-361, 2002.— This study compared the effect of repetitive work in thermo- neutral and cold conditions on forearm muscle electromyo- gram (EMG) and fatigue. We hypothesize that cold and repetitive work together cause higher EMG activity and fatigue than repetitive work only, thus

JUHA OKSA; MICHEL B. DUCHARME; HANNU RINTAMAKI

441

Effects of Response and Trial Repetition on Sight-Word Training for Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared the effects of trial repetition (1 response within 5 trials per word) versus response repetition (5 response repetitions within 1 trial per word) on sight-word acquisition for 3 elementary students, ages 9 and 12, with learning disabilities in reading. Trial repetition resulted in more words mastered. (Author/SW)|

Belfiore, Phillip J.; And Others

1995-01-01