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1

Abnormal repetitive behaviors in dogs and cats: a guide for practitioners.  

PubMed

Abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) represent a diverse group of behaviors whose underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Their neurobiology likely involves several different neurotransmitter systems. These behaviors have been referred to as compulsive disorders, obsessive compulsive disorders and stereotypies. Underlying medical conditions and pain can often cause changes in behavior that are mistaken for ARBs. A complete medical work-up is always indicated prior to reaching a presumptive diagnosis. The frequency of ARBs can be reduced but not always eliminated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in conjunction with behavior modification and environmental enrichment. PMID:24766699

Tynes, Valarie V; Sinn, Leslie

2014-05-01

2

Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

3

Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted, repetitive behavior, along with deficits in social reciprocity and communication, is diagnostic of autism. Animal models relevant to this domain generally fall into three classes: repetitive behavior associated with targeted insults to the CNS; repetitive behavior induced by pharmacological agents; and repetitive behavior associated with restricted environments and experience. The extant literature provides potential models of the repetitive behavioral phenotype in autism rather than attempts to model the etiology or pathophysiology of restricted, repetitive behavior, as these are poorly understood. This review focuses on our work with deer mice which exhibit repetitive behaviors associated with environmental restriction. Repetitive behaviors are the most common category of abnormal behavior observed in confined animals and larger, more complex environments substantially reduce the development and expression of such behavior. Studies with this model, including environmental enrichment effects, suggest alterations in cortical-basal ganglia circuitry in the development and expression of repetitive behavior. Considerably more work needs to be done in this area, particularly in modeling the development of aberrant repetitive behavior. As mutant mouse models continue to proliferate, there should be a number of promising genetic models to pursue.

Lewis, Mark H.; Tanimura, Yoko; Lee, Linda W.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

4

Oxytocin Infusion Reduces Repetitive Behaviors in Adults with Autistic and Asperger's Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysfunction in three core behavioral domains: repetitive behaviors, social deficits, and language abnormalities. There is evidence that abnormalities exist in peptide systems, particularly the oxytocin system, in autism spectrum patients. Furthermore, oxytocin and the closely related peptide vasopressin are known to play a role in social and repetitive behaviors. This study examined the

Eric Hollander; Sherie Novotny; Margaret Hanratty; Rona Yaffe; Concetta M DeCaria; Bonnie R Aronowitz; Serge Mosovich

2003-01-01

5

The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

2009-01-01

6

Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism  

PubMed Central

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for “higher order” behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research.

McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

7

Evidence-based behavioral interventions for repetitive behaviors in autism.  

PubMed

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat "lower order" RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for "higher order" behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research. PMID:21584849

Boyd, Brian A; McDonough, Stephen G; Bodfish, James W

2012-06-01

8

The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior.\\u000a The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed\\u000a to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat (N = 58), Fragile X (N = 191), Prader-Willi (N = 189), Lowe (N = 56) and Smith-Magenis (N = 42) syndromes and individuals with intellectual

Joanna Moss; Chris Oliver; Kate Arron; Cheryl Burbidge; Katy Berg

2009-01-01

9

Nitrile-induced behavioral abnormalities in mice.  

PubMed

A single oral dose of crotononitrile or 2-pentenenitrile induced behavioral abnormalities such as circling, hyperactivity and head twitching. Crotononitrile induced the abnormalities in both olive oil- and CCl4 pretreated mice, whereas 2-pentenenitrile induced the abnormalities only in CCl4-pretreated mice. Seven related compounds induced no behavioral abnormality. The head twitching by crotononitrile and 2-pentenenitrile was either reduced by treatment with serotonin and dopamine antagonists, or enhanced by a serotonin releaser, suggesting that both the serotonin and dopamine systems are involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by these two nitriles. PMID:2616059

Tanii, H; Hayashi, M; Hashimoto, K

1989-01-01

10

Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

2008-01-01

11

Repetitive Behaviors in Autism: Relationships with Associated Clinical Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between repetitive behaviors (RBs) and associated clinical features (i.e., cognitive and adaptive functioning levels, sleep problems, medication use, and other behavioral problems) were examined in two groups (High nonverbal IQ greater than or equal to 97 versus Low nonverbal IQ less than or equal to 56) of children with autism…

Gabriels, Robin L.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Hill, Dina E.; Ivers, Bonnie J.; Goldson, Edward

2005-01-01

12

Psychopharmacologic interventions for repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of psychopharmacological treatments for repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in the context of current conceptualizations of this understudied core symptom domain. The available literature on the widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline, are reviewed. In addition to SSRIs, research on effects of other pharmacologic interventions such as divalproex sodium, risperidone, and the neuropeptide oxytocin are presented. To date, data are mixed for interventions commonly prescribed in clinical practice and suggest several areas of investigation in advancing research on the medication management of repetitive behaviors. PMID:18775368

Soorya, Latha; Kiarashi, Jessica; Hollander, Eric

2008-10-01

13

Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors: The Proximal and Distal Effects of Affective Variables on Behavioral Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on 2 studies designed to examine the contribution of affective variables on the expression of body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs; e.g., skin picking, nail biting). The first study revealed that persons engaging in a BFRB experienced significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression than those without BFRBs. The second study was conducted to determine if repetitive behaviors were

Ellen J. Teng; Douglas W. Woods; Brook A. Marcks; Michael P. Twohig

2004-01-01

14

Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

Paulk, H. H.; And Others

1977-01-01

15

Sexsomnia: abnormal sexual behavior during sleep.  

PubMed

This review attempts to assemble the characteristics of a distinct variant of sleepwalking called sexsomnia/sleepsex from the seemingly scarce literature into a coherent theoretical framework. Common features of sexsomnia include sexual arousal with autonomic activation (e.g. nocturnal erection, vaginal lubrication, nocturnal emission, dream orgasms). Somnambulistic sexual behavior and its clinical implications, the role of precipitating factors, diagnostic, treatment, and medico-legal issues are also reviewed. The characteristics of several individuals described in literature including their family/personal history of parasomnia as well as the abnormal behaviors occurring during sleep are reported. PMID:17706786

Andersen, Monica L; Poyares, Dalva; Alves, Rosana S C; Skomro, Robert; Tufik, Sergio

2007-12-01

16

Repetitive Thoughts and Behavior in Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Treatment with Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive thoughts and behavior are considered integral and core components of autistic disorder. Results from recent studies suggest that the types of repetitive thoughts and behavior of adults with autism and those with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be different. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), the primary drug treatment for patients with OCD, may reduce the repetitive phenomena of some autistic patients.

Christopher J. McDougle; Laura E. Kresch; David J. Posey

2000-01-01

17

Examining Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Two Observational Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation…

Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M.

2014-01-01

18

[Allylnitrile-induced behavioral abnormalities and findings relating to the mechanism underlying behavioral abnormalities].  

PubMed

Nitriles are widely used in industry as plastics, solvents, and synthetic intermediates. It has been shown that the thermal degradation of acrylonitrile-based plastics leads to the emission of a great variety of nitriles. Exposure of humans and experimental animals to some nitriles has been shown to lead to disorders of the central nervous, hepatic, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal systems. Iminodipropionitrile has long been known to induce in experimental animals behavioral syndromes that other nitriles have not been reported to induce. Recently, we have found that a single administration of allylnitrile, an analog of acrylonitrile, induces in rodents behavioral abnormalities including head twitching, head weaving, random circling, increased locomotor activity, backward pedaling, pivoting, and somersaulting. The induced abnormalities were persistent. Crotononitrile and 2-pentenenitrile also are able to produce behavioral abnormalities. Thus, the nitriles appear as a new class of neurotoxic compounds with potential relevance to the human health. The mechanism by which allylnitrile induces and maintains the behavioral abnormalities is summarised below. 1. Allylnitrile activates the serotonin (5-HT) system in the central nervous system, and as a consequence activation of 5-HT-2 receptors due to increased 5-HT may lead to induction of head twitching. 2. Although the data available indicate that the dopamine (DA) system may be involved in allylnitrile-induced behavioral abnormalities, it remains unknown how the DA system relates to the abnormalities. 3. Allylnitrile decreases the noradrenaline level in the central nervous system, which is thought to be secondary to the 5-HT system activation mentioned above. The allylnitrile-induced head twitching, however, may occur in consequence to both enhanced beta-adrenoceptor stimulation and to the removal of tonic inhibitory control by alpha-2-adrenoceptors. 4. The neuropathological data indicate an important role of the medial habenular and raphe nuclei in allylnitrile-induced behavioral abnormalities. Onset of the behavioral abnormalities appears to be associated with the impairment in the medial habenulo-raphe relay owing to activation of apoptotic cascade in neurons. 5. On the basis of the findings with iminodipropionitrile and crotononitrile, allylnitrile might produce pathological changes in the vestibular sensory hair cells. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanism underlying the allylnitrile-induced syndromes. PMID:10479886

Tanii, H; Zang, X P; Saijoh, K

1999-07-01

19

A comparison of repetitive behaviors in Aspergers Disorder and high functioning autism.  

PubMed

In this study we compared 33 IQ and age matched pairs of individuals with Aspergers Disorder (ASP) and high functioning autism (HFA) on measures of repetitive behavior. On the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), the ASP and HFA groups showed no differences in RBS-R Intensity score (severity) score or Frequency score (number of problems present). This suggests that the two groups are similar with respect to the intensity or severity of repetitive behaviors and the presence of repetitive behaviors. At the item level there were no differences on scales typically associated with autism (Stereotyped Behavior) and ASP (Restricted Interests). Similarly, there were no differences between the groups on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Stereotypy scale. These findings add to the body of literature showing that HFA and ASP fail to differ with respect to repetitive behaviors. The implications of the findings for neurobiologic and genetic studies are discussed. PMID:17410426

Cuccaro, Michael L; Nations, Laura; Brinkley, Jason; Abramson, Ruth K; Wright, Harry H; Hall, Alicia; Gilbert, John; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

2007-04-01

20

Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior

Muris, Peter

2006-01-01

21

Elevated repetitive behaviors are associated with lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels in autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had consistently high rates of repetitive behaviors (RBs) with abnormal sensory sensitivity. Given evidence of lower cortisol levels in response to stress and associated sensory sensitivity in the ASD population, this pilot study evaluates whether the presence of RBs reflects an underlying pathophysiology related to cortisol regulation. Diurnal salivary cortisol from 21 children with ASD and high versus low occurrence RBs were collected at four time points over three consecutive days. Although a typical decline in salivary cortisol was observed, participants in the high RB group showed 36% lower diurnal salivary cortisol than the low RB group. Age, IQ, RB type, and sleep quality were unrelated to observed differences. These findings suggest that RBs may serve to mitigate distress or that the glucocorticoid system has been down regulated in association with prolonged distress in this sample population. PMID:23466586

Gabriels, Robin L; Agnew, John A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Holt, Katherine D; Reynolds, Ann; Laudenslager, Mark L

2013-05-01

22

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Childhood Repetitive Behavior Disorders: Tic Disorders and Trichotillomania  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for repetitive behavior disorders. Tic disorders (i.e., Tourette's syndrome, chronic tic disorders) and trichotillomania (i.e., chronic hair pulling) are the most often studied and (arguably) most debilitating of these conditions. Therefore, this article will focus on the efficacy of CBT for tic disorders and trichotillomania. After a brief introduction to these disorders, the author will provide an overview of CBT for children presenting with these concerns. In particular, this review will focus on a therapeutic technique that is at the core of most all CBT-based interventions, habit reversal training. Discussion of two recent empirical studies pointing to the immense potential of CBT for the treatment of childhood repetitive behavior disorders will follow. Finally, future areas of research will be discussed.

Flessner, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

23

The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

2012-01-01

24

Further characterization of repetitive behavior in C58 mice: Developmental trajectory and effects of environmental enrichment  

PubMed Central

Aberrant repetitive behaviors are commonly observed in a variety of neurodevelopmental, neurological, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the specific neurobiological mechanisms that underlie such behaviors, however, and effective treatments are lacking. Valid animal models can aid substantially in identifying pathophysiological factors mediating aberrant repetitive behavior and aid in treatment development. The C58 inbred mouse strain is a particularly promising model, and we have further characterized its repetitive behavior phenotype. Compared to C57BL/6 mice, C58 mice exhibit high rates of spontaneous hindlimb jumping and backward somersaulting reaching adult frequencies by 5 weeks post-weaning and adult temporal organization by 2 weeks post-weaning. The development of repetitive behavior in C58 mice was markedly attenuated by rearing these mice in larger, more complex environments. In addition to characterizing repetitive motor behavior, we also assessed related forms of inflexible behavior that reflect restricted and perseverative responding. Contrary to our hypothesis, C58 mice did not exhibit increased marble burying nor did they display reduced exploratory behavior in the holeboard task. The C58 strain appears to be a very useful model for the repetitive motor behavior characteristic of a number of clinical disorders. As an inbred mouse strain, studies using the C58 model can take full advantage of the tool kit of modern genetics and molecular neuroscience. This technical advantage makes the model a compelling choice for use in studies designed to elucidate the etiology and pathophysiology of aberrant repetitive behavior. Such findings should, in turn, translate into effective new treatments.

Muehlmann, AM; Edington, G; Mihalik, AC; Buchwald, Z; Koppuzha, D; Korah, M; Lewis, MH

2012-01-01

25

Subcategories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization of RRBs in ASD. Using data from the Simons simplex collection (n = 1,825), we examined the association between scores on the ADI-R and the repetitive behavior scale-revised. Analyses supported the construct validity of RSM and IS subcategories. As in previous studies, IS behaviors showed no relationship with IQ. These findings support the continued use of RRB subcategories, particularly IS behaviors, as a means of creating more behaviorally homogeneous subgroups of children with ASD. PMID:23065116

Bishop, Somer L; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

2013-06-01

26

Mixed Pattern Matching-Based Traffic Abnormal Behavior Recognition  

PubMed Central

A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity.

Cui, Zhiming; Zhao, Pengpeng

2014-01-01

27

Mixed pattern matching-based traffic abnormal behavior recognition.  

PubMed

A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity. PMID:24605045

Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Sheng, Victor S; Shi, Yujie; Zhao, Pengpeng

2014-01-01

28

Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.  

PubMed

Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24315484

Hsiao, Elaine Y; McBride, Sara W; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Patterson, Paul H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

2013-12-19

29

The Association Between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children With Severe Intellectual Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors\\u000a and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data\\u000a were collected for 943 children (4–18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds ratio analyses revealed that these characteristics generated risk indices\\u000a ranging from 2 to 31 for the presence and

Chris Oliver; Jane Petty; Loraine Ruddick; Monique Bacarese-Hamilton

30

Association Between Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Nonverbal IQ in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the relationship between nonverbal IQ and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in 830 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The role of chronological age as a moderator of this relationship was also investigated. For many behaviors, there was a significant interaction between nonverbal IQ and chronological age, such that nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to

Somer L. Bishop; Jennifer Richler; Catherine Lord

2006-01-01

31

The role of parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in the risk of suicidal behavior repetition.  

PubMed

The current study examined the role of perceived parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in suicidal behavior. Participants completed measures of perceived parental bonding; schemas; risk of repeating suicidal behavior; anxiety; and depression following their presentation at Accident and Emergency with suicidal behavior. A suicidal behavior group (n = 60) differed from a comparison clinical (n = 46) and non-clinical (n = 48) group on measures of early maladaptive schemas, anxiety, and depression. No significant difference was noted between the suicidal behavior group and the comparison clinical group on a measure of parental bonding. Within the suicidal behavior group, significant associations were indicated between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior; and early maladaptive schemas and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior. Early maladaptive schemas were found to mediate the relationship between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior, with schemas of Social Alienation and Defectiveness/Shame offering mediator roles. The findings of the current study emphasize the complexities of suicidal behavior and factors that are associated with suicidal behavior. Although causality cannot be assumed, the findings highlight the importance and inter-relationships of not only perceived early experiences, but of underlying schemas in relation to suicidal behavior. PMID:21082448

Dale, Rosanna; Power, Kevin; Kane, Scott; Stewart, Alex Mitchell; Murray, Lindsey

2010-01-01

32

Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use. PMID:15579930

Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

2004-01-01

33

Abnormal experimentally- and behaviorally-induced LTP-like plasticity in focal hand dystonia.  

PubMed

Idiopathic focal hand dystonia (FHD) arises from abnormal plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) possibly reflecting abnormal sensori-motor integration processes. In this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in FHD, we evaluated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) and paired associative stimulation (PAS), techniques that elicit different forms of experimentally-induced long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in M1. We also examined behaviorally-induced LTP-like plasticity as reflected by early motor learning of a simple motor task. We studied 14 patients with FHD and 14 healthy subjects. MEPs were recorded before and after iTBS and PAS at the 25 ms interstimulus interval (PAS(25)) in separate sessions. Subjects did a simple motor task entailing repetitive index finger abductions. To measure early motor learning we tested practice-related improvement in peak velocity and peak acceleration. In FHD patients iTBS failed to elicit the expected MEP changes and PAS(25) induced abnormally increased MEPs in target and non-target muscles. In the experiment testing early motor learning, patients lacked the expected practice-related changes in kinematic variables. In FHD, the degree of early motor learning correlated with patients' clinical features. We conclude that experimentally-induced (iTBS and PAS) and behaviorally-induced LTP-like plasticity are both altered in FHD. PMID:23142185

Belvisi, Daniele; Suppa, Antonio; Marsili, Luca; Di Stasio, Flavio; Parvez, Ahmad Khandker; Agostino, Rocco; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

2013-02-01

34

Correlation between physical anomaly and behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: The minor physical anomaly (MPA) is believed to reflect abnormal development of the CNS. The aim is to find incidence of MPA and its behavioral correlates in Down syndrome and to compare these findings with the other causes of intellectual disability and normal population. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty intellectually disabled people attending a tertiary care set-up and from various NGOs are included in the study. The age-matched group from normal population was also studied for comparison. MPA are assessed by using Modified Waldrop scale and behavioral abnormality by Diagnostic assessment scale for severely handicapped (DASH II scale). Results: The Down syndrome group had significantly more MPA than other two groups and most of the MPA is situated in the global head region. There is strong correlation (P < 0.001) between the various grouped items of Modified Waldrop scale. Depression subscale is correlated with anomalies in the hands (P < 0.001), feet and Waldrop total items (P < 0.005). Mania item of DASH II scale is related with anomalies around the eyes (P < 0.001). Self-injurious behavior and total Waldrop score is negatively correlated with global head. Conclusion: Down syndrome group has significantly more MPA and a pattern of correlation between MPA and behavioral abnormalities exists which necessitates a large-scale study.

Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Sanyal, Debasish; Roy, Krishna; Bhattacharyya, Sumita

2010-01-01

35

3D abnormal behavior recognition in power generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far most research of human behavior recognition focus on simple individual behavior, such as wave, crouch, jump and bend. This paper will focus on abnormal behavior with objects carrying in power generation. Such as using mobile communication device in main control room, taking helmet off during working and lying down in high place. Taking account of the color and shape are fixed, we adopted edge detecting by color tracking to recognize object in worker. This paper introduces a method, which using geometric character of skeleton and its angle to express sequence of three-dimensional human behavior data. Then adopting Semi-join critical step Hidden Markov Model, weighing probability of critical steps' output to reduce the computational complexity. Training model for every behavior, mean while select some skeleton frames from 3D behavior sample to form a critical step set. This set is a bridge linking 2D observation behavior with 3D human joints feature. The 3D reconstruction is not required during the 2D behavior recognition phase. In the beginning of recognition progress, finding the best match for every frame of 2D observed sample in 3D skeleton set. After that, 2D observed skeleton frames sample will be identified as a specifically 3D behavior by behavior-classifier. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with experiments in similar power generation environment.

Wei, Zhenhua; Li, Xuesen; Su, Jie; Lin, Jie

2011-05-01

36

Validating the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factor structure of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in a sample of 287 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine six competing structural models. Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated to examine the associations between factor…

Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

2010-01-01

37

Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

2011-01-01

38

Relationship among Challenging, Repetitive, and Communicative Behaviors in Children with Severe Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used experimental and descriptive functional analyses and lag sequential analyses to examine the functional and temporal relationship among the self-injurious (SIB), potentially injurious, repetitive, challenging, and pragmatic communicative behaviors of 6 children with intellectual disabilities. Functional analyses revealed social function for…

Petty, Jane; Allen, Debbie; Oliver, Chris

2009-01-01

39

Age-Related Differences in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) were examined in a large group of children, adolescents and adults with ASD in order to describe age-related patterns of symptom change and association with specific contextual factors, and to examine if the patterns of change are different for the various types of RRBs. Over 700 individuals with ASD were…

Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Bodfish, James W.

2009-01-01

40

Synaptic dysfunction and abnormal behaviors in mice lacking major isoforms of Shank3  

PubMed Central

SHANK3 is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. Small microdeletions and point mutations in SHANK3 have been identified in a small subgroup of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. SHANK3 also plays a key role in the chromosome 22q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (Phelan–McDermid syndrome), which includes ASD and cognitive dysfunction as major clinical features. To evaluate the role of Shank3 in vivo, we disrupted major isoforms of the gene in mice by deleting exons 4–9. Isoform-specific Shank3e4–9 homozygous mutant mice display abnormal social behaviors, communication patterns, repetitive behaviors and learning and memory. Shank3e4–9 male mice display more severe impairments than females in motor coordination. Shank3e4–9 mice have reduced levels of Homer1b/c, GKAP and GluA1 at the PSD, and show attenuated activity-dependent redistribution of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors. Subtle morphological alterations in dendritic spines are also observed. Although synaptic transmission is normal in CA1 hippocampus, long-term potentiation is deficient in Shank3e4–9 mice. We conclude that loss of major Shank3 species produces biochemical, cellular and morphological changes, leading to behavioral abnormalities in mice that bear similarities to human ASD patients with SHANK3 mutations.

Wang, Xiaoming; McCoy, Portia A.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Pan, Yanzhen; Je, H. Shawn; Roberts, Adam C.; Kim, Caroline J.; Berrios, Janet; Colvin, Jennifer S.; Bousquet-Moore, Danielle; Lorenzo, Isabel; Wu, Gangyi; Weinberg, Richard J.; Ehlers, Michael D.; Philpot, Benjamin D.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Wetsel, William C.; Jiang, Yong-hui

2011-01-01

41

Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

1986-01-01

42

Pentoxifylline attenuates iminodipropionitrile-induced behavioral abnormalities in rats.  

PubMed

This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced behavioral abnormalities [excitation with choreiform and circling movements (ECC) syndrome] in rats. The animals were intraperitoneally injected with IDPN (100 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. PTX was administered daily 30 min before IDPN in the doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg for 9 days. The animals were observed for neurobehavioral abnormalities including dyskinetic head movements, circling, tail hanging, air righting reflex, and contact inhibition of the righting reflex. The onset of ECC syndrome was observed on day 8 in the group treated with IDPN alone; all animals in this group became dyskinetic on day 10. Co-treatment with PTX dose dependently delayed the onset time and significantly reduced the incidence and severity of IDPN-induced ECC syndrome; high dose of PTX completely inhibited the abnormal behavioral signs in IDPN-treated rats. Administration of IDPN caused significant depletions in cerebral glutathione and vitamin E levels. Treatment with PTX dose dependently attenuated IDPN-induced oxidative stress in rats. The beneficial effects of PTX against IDPN toxicity may be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:19584713

Al Kadasah, Saeed; Al Mutairy, Ahmad; Siddiquei, Mairaj; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad; Abdulwahid Arif, Ibrahim; Al Moutaery, Khalaf; Tariq, Mohammad

2009-07-01

43

Standardizing ADOS Domain Scores: Separating Severity of Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores provide a measure of autism severity that is less influenced by child characteristics than raw totals (Gotham et al. in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(5), 693–705 2009). However, these scores combine symptoms from the Social Affect (SA) and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors (RRB) domains. Separate calibrations of each domain would provide a clearer picture of ASD dimensions. The current study separately calibrated raw totals from the ADOS SA and RRB domains. Standardized domain scores were less influenced by child characteristics than raw domain totals, thereby increasing their utility as indicators of Social-Communication and Repetitive Behavior severity. Calibrated domain scores should facilitate efforts to examine trajectories of ASD symptoms and links between neurobiological and behavioral dimensions.

Hus, Vanessa; Gotham, Katherine; Lord, Catherine

2012-01-01

44

Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice.  

PubMed

Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII(-/-) mice. SynII(-/-) and SynIII(-/-) mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI(-/-), SynII(-/-) and SynIII(-/-) mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI(-/-) and SynII(-/-) mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy. PMID:23280234

Greco, Barbara; Managò, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

2013-08-15

45

Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII?/? mice. SynII?/? and SynIII?/? mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI?/?, SynII?/? and SynIII?/? mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI?/? and SynII?/? mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy.

Greco, Barbara; Manago, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

2013-01-01

46

Autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations commonly impair striatal circuits to boost repetitive behaviors.  

PubMed

In humans, neuroligin-3 mutations are associated with autism, whereas in mice, the corresponding mutations produce robust synaptic and behavioral changes. However, different neuroligin-3 mutations cause largely distinct phenotypes in mice, and no causal relationship links a specific synaptic dysfunction to a behavioral change. Using rotarod motor learning as a proxy for acquired repetitive behaviors in mice, we found that different neuroligin-3 mutations uniformly enhanced formation of repetitive motor routines. Surprisingly, neuroligin-3 mutations caused this phenotype not via changes in the cerebellum or dorsal striatum but via a selective synaptic impairment in the nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum. Here, neuroligin-3 mutations increased rotarod learning by specifically impeding synaptic inhibition onto D1-dopamine receptor-expressing but not D2-dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons. Our data thus suggest that different autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations cause a common increase in acquired repetitive behaviors by impairing a specific striatal synapse and thereby provide a plausible circuit substrate for autism pathophysiology. PAPERFLICK: PMID:24995986

Rothwell, Patrick E; Fuccillo, Marc V; Maxeiner, Stephan; Hayton, Scott J; Gokce, Ozgun; Lim, Byung Kook; Fowler, Stephen C; Malenka, Robert C; Südhof, Thomas C

2014-07-01

47

Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters.

Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

2012-01-01

48

Factor analysis of restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-R.  

PubMed

The current study examined the factor structure of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) in children with autism. Factor extraction procedures of 12 items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) were applied in N = 207 individuals with autism. Two interpretable factors were identified: Factor 1--repetitive sensory motor actions and Factor 2--resistance to change. There was a significant negative correlation between an index of level of adaptive functioning and Factor 1. Intraclass correlations were not significant for either factor in a subset of families with two or more siblings with autism (multiplex). No differences in scores were apparent for either factor when multiplex families and families containing only one affected individual with autism (singleton) were compared. RRB in autism are represented by two distinct factors which may reflect two separate groups within autism. Defining subgroups within autism will allow for reduction of clinical heterogeneity and enhance our ability to dissect the genetic etiology of this complex disorder. PMID:14518620

Cuccaro, Michael L; Shao, Yujan; Grubber, Janet; Slifer, Michael; Wolpert, Chantelle M; Donnelly, Shannon L; Abramson, Ruth K; Ravan, Sarah A; Wright, Harry H; DeLong, G Robert; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

2003-01-01

49

Relationship between postural control and restricted, repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation. Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP) sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) controls ages 3–16. All subjects had Non-verbal IQ > 70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self-selected stance width for 20 s. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all six subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs. Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this very diverse disorder.

Radonovich, K. J.; Fournier, K. A.; Hass, C. J.

2013-01-01

50

Modified Exposure and Response Prevention to Treat the Repetitive Behaviors of a Child with Autism: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles) remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings.

Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

2011-01-01

51

Feasibility of exposure response prevention to treat repetitive behaviors of children with autism and an intellectual disability: A brief report  

PubMed Central

There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child’s early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility of modifying exposure response prevention, an evidence-based strategy for obsessive–compulsive disorder, to treat the repetitive behaviors found in autism. Five school-aged participants (ages 5–11) diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. Our preliminary findings suggest it is feasible, and potentially efficacious, to modify standard exposure response prevention to treat the specific forms of repetitive behaviors found in individuals with autism and comorbid intellectual disabilities. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these preliminary findings.

Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

2013-01-01

52

Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not yet known; however, studies suggest that dysfunction of the immune system affects many children with ASD. Increasing evidence points to dysfunction of the innate immune system including activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages, increases in inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in brain tissue and CSF, and abnormal peripheral monocyte cell function. Dendritic cells are major players in innate immunity and have important functions in the phagocytosis of pathogens or debris, antigen presentation, activation of naïve T cells, induction of tolerance and cytokine/chemokine production. In this study, we assessed circulating frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells (defined as Lin-1(-)BDCA1(+)CD11c(+) and Lin-1(-)BDCA3(+)CD123(-)) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (Lin-1(-)BDCA2(+)CD123(+) or Lin-1(-)BDCA4(+) CD11c(-)) in 57 children with ASD, and 29 typically developing controls of the same age, all of who were enrolled as part of the Autism Phenome Project (APP). The frequencies of dendritic cells and associations with behavioral assessment and MRI measurements of amygdala volume were compared in the same participants. The frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were significantly increased in children with ASD compared to typically developing controls (p<0.03). Elevated frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were positively associated with abnormal right and left amygdala enlargement, severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and increased repetitive behaviors. The frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells were also associated with amygdala volumes as well as developmental regression in children with ASD. Dendritic cells play key roles in modulating immune responses and differences in frequencies or functions of these cells may result in immune dysfunction in children with ASD. These data further implicate innate immune cells in the complex pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:23063420

Breece, Elizabeth; Paciotti, Brian; Nordahl, Christine Wu; Ozonoff, Sally; Van de Water, Judy A; Rogers, Sally J; Amaral, David; Ashwood, Paul

2013-07-01

53

Effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism.  

PubMed

Lower order and higher order repetitive behaviors have been documented in the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mouse strain, a mouse model that exhibits all three core behavioral domains that define autism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of environmental enrichment for reducing repetitive behaviors in BTBR mice. Lower order behaviors were captured by assaying the time and sequence of grooming, while higher order behaviors were measured using pattern analysis of an object exploration task from digital recordings. Baseline scores were established at 7 weeks of age, followed by 30 days of housing in either a standard or enriched cage. As expected, BTBR mice spent significantly more time grooming and had a more rigid grooming sequence than control C57BL/6J mice did at baseline. After 30 days of enrichment housing, BTBR mice demonstrated a significant reduction in time spent grooming, resulting in levels that were lower than those exhibited by BTBR mice in standard housing. However, no changes were noted in the rigidity of their grooming sequence. In contrast to previous findings, there was no difference in repetitive patterns of exploration at baseline between BTBR and C57BL/6J mice in the object exploration test. Subsequently, enrichment did not significantly alter the number of repetitive patterns at posttest. Overall, the results suggest that environmental enrichment may be beneficial for reducing the time spent engaging in lower order repetitive behaviors, but may not change the overall quality of the behaviors when they do manifest. PMID:23813950

Reynolds, Stacey; Urruela, Meagan; Devine, Darragh P

2013-10-01

54

A cross-sectional survey of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests in a typically developing Turkish child population.  

PubMed

This study examined compulsive-like behaviors (CLBs) which are higher-order types of Repetitive Behaviors And Restricted Interests (RBRIs) in typically developing children in Turkey. Caregivers of 1,204 children between 8 and 72 months were interviewed with Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI) by trained interviewers in a cross-sectional survey. Factor analysis of the CRI revealed two factor structures comprising "just right behaviors" and "repetitive/sensory sensitivity behaviors". CLB frequency peaked at 2-4 years with declines after age four. In contrast to the previous CRI studies reporting no gender difference, CLBs were more common in males in 12-23 and 48-59 month age groups on both total CLB frequency and repetitive/sensory sensitivity behaviors. Also ages of onsets for CRI items were somewhat later than reported in other samples. Our findings supported the findings of the previous CRI studies while also revealing new perspectives in need of further investigation. PMID:24242356

Cevikaslan, Ahmet; Evans, David W; Dedeo?lu, Ceyda; Kalaça, Sibel; Yazgan, Yank?

2014-08-01

55

Changes in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors with Age: A Study of High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existing literature suggests that while impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue into adulthood, some behavioral symptoms tend to abate with age. However, there is a dearth of research examining changes in ASD symptoms from childhood to adulthood, especially for Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs). We examined age-related…

Chowdhury, Monali; Benson, Betsey A.; Hillier, Ashleigh

2010-01-01

56

Emotion regulation and other psychological models for body-focused repetitive behaviors.  

PubMed

The term body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs) refers to a group of recurrent, problematic, destructive behaviors directed toward the body, including hair-pulling, skin-picking, and nail-biting. Individuals with BFRBs report diminished control over the behavior and a range of physical and psychological sequelae. Recent research on psychological models for BRFBs has investigated the role of emotion regulation (ER), and many authors in this area have conceptualized problematic body-focused behavior as a maladaptive ER mechanism. This article organizes and reviews the empirical research on the ER model for BRFBs. First, the three most common BFRBs are described, as are the conceptualization, phenomenological similarities and covariation, and psychological and physical impact of BFRBs. Next, psychodynamic models and several cognitive-behavioral (CB) models are described. The article focuses on the ER model, including a review of studies of comorbidity in BFRBs, naturalistic and experimental studies, studies of subtypes of BFRBs, and treatment trials. The implications of the findings are discussed and the authors make recommendations for future research. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of psychological models for BFRBs and the limitations of the review. PMID:23792470

Roberts, Sarah; O'Connor, Kieron; Bélanger, Claude

2013-08-01

57

Severe drug-induced repetitive behaviors and striatal overexpression of VAChT in ChAT-ChR2-EYFP BAC transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

In drug users, drug-related cues alone can induce dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Instructive cues activate inputs to the striatum from both dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, which are thought to work together to support motor learning and motivated behaviors. Imbalances in these neuromodulatory influences can impair normal action selection and might thus contribute to pathologically repetitive and compulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. Dopamine and acetylcholine can have either antagonistic or synergistic effects on behavior, depending on the state of the animal and the receptor signaling systems at play. Semi-synchronized activation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum drives dopamine release via presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on dopamine terminals. Nicotinic receptor blockade is known to diminish abnormal repetitive behaviors (stereotypies) induced by psychomotor stimulants. By contrast, blockade of postsynaptic acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum exacerbates drug-induced stereotypy, exemplifying how different acetylcholine receptors can also have opposing effects. Although acetylcholine release is known to be altered in animal models of drug addiction, predicting whether these changes will augment or diminish drug-induced behaviors thus remains a challenge. Here, we measured amphetamine-induced stereotypy in BAC transgenic mice that have been shown to overexpress the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) with consequent increased acetylcholine release. We found that drug-induced stereotypies, consisting of confined sniffing and licking behaviors, were greatly increased in the transgenic mice relative to sibling controls, as was striatal VAChT protein. These findings suggest that VAChT-mediated increases in acetylcholine could be critical in exacerbating drug-induced stereotypic behaviors and promoting exaggerated behavioral fixity.

Lacey, Carolyn J.; Lee, Tyrone; Bowden, Hilary A.; Graybiel, Ann M.

2014-01-01

58

BETA-ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN LONGTAILED AND PIGTAILED MACAQUES VARY BY ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR RATING AND SEX  

PubMed Central

Frequent or severe abnormal behavior may be associated with the release of endorphins that positively reinforce the behavior with an opiate euphoria or analgesia. One line of research exploring this association involves the superhormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The products of POMC appear to be dysregulated in some human subjects who exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB). Macaque monkeys have POMC very similar to humans, and some laboratory macaques display SIB or frequent stereotypies. We investigated associations between plasma levels of three immunoreactive POMC fragments with possible opioid action and abnormal behavior ratings in macaques. In 58 adult male and female macaques (24 Macaca fascicularis and 34 M. nemestrina), plasma levels of intact beta-endorphin (?E) and the N-terminal fragment (BEN) were significantly higher in animals with higher levels of abnormal behavior. The C-terminal fragment (BEC) was significantly higher in males but unrelated to ratings of abnormal behavior. Levels of ACTH, cortisol, and (?E-ACTH)/?E dysregulation index were unrelated to abnormal behavior. None of the POMC products differed significantly by subjects' species, age, or weight. The finding that intact beta-endorphin is positively related to abnormal behavior in two species of macaque is consistent with some previous research on human subjects and nonprimates. The positive relation of the N-terminal fragment of ?E to abnormal behavior is a new finding.

Crockett, Carolyn M.; Sackett, Gene P.; Sandman, Curt A.; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Bentson, Kathleen L.

2007-01-01

59

The Significance of Repetitive Hair-Pulling Behaviors in Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

We studied the relation between intrusive and repetitive hair-pulling, the defining feature of trichotillomania, and compulsive and impulsive features in 1453 individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. We conducted a series of regression models examining the relative influence of compulsive features associated with obsessive compulsive disorder; compulsive features associated with eating disorders; trait features related to harm avoidance, perfectionism and novelty seeking; and self harm. A final model with a reduced sample (n=928) examined the additional contribution of impulsive attributes. One out of 20 individuals endorsed hair-pulling. Evidence of a positive association with endorsement of compulsive behavior of the obsessive compulsive spectrum emerged. Hair-pulling may be more consonant with ritualistic compulsions than impulsive urges in those with eating disorders.

Zucker, Nancy; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M.; Strober, Michael; Plotnicov, Kathy; Klump, Kelly L.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2013-01-01

60

Regional gray matter volumetric changes in autism associated with social and repetitive behavior symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Although differences in brain anatomy in autism have been difficult to replicate using manual tracing methods, automated whole brain analyses have begun to find consistent differences in regions of the brain associated with the social cognitive processes that are often impaired in autism. We attempted to replicate these whole brain studies and to correlate regional volume changes with several autism symptom measures. Methods We performed MRI scans on 24 individuals diagnosed with DSM-IV autistic disorder and compared those to scans from 23 healthy comparison subjects matched on age. All participants were male. Whole brain, voxel-wise analyses of regional gray matter volume were conducted using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results Controlling for age and total gray matter volume, the volumes of the medial frontal gyri, left pre-central gyrus, right post-central gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, caudate nuclei and the left hippocampus were larger in the autism group relative to controls. Regions exhibiting smaller volumes in the autism group were observed exclusively in the cerebellum. Significant partial correlations were found between the volumes of the caudate nuclei, multiple frontal and temporal regions, the cerebellum and a measure of repetitive behaviors, controlling for total gray matter volume. Social and communication deficits in autism were also associated with caudate, cerebellar, and precuneus volumes, as well as with frontal and temporal lobe regional volumes. Conclusion Gray matter enlargement was observed in areas that have been functionally identified as important in social-cognitive processes, such as the medial frontal gyri, sensorimotor cortex and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, we have shown that VBM is sensitive to associations between social and repetitive behaviors and regional brain volumes in autism.

Rojas, Donald C; Peterson, Eric; Winterrowd, Erin; Reite, Martin L; Rogers, Sally J; Tregellas, Jason R

2006-01-01

61

Safety and Behavioral Effects of High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Electromagnetic brain stimulation might have value to reduce motor deficits after stroke. Safety and behavioral effects of higher frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) require detailed assessment. Methods Using an active treatment-only, unblinded, 2-center study design, patients with chronic stroke received 20 minutes of 20 Hz rTMS to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex hand area. Patients were assessed before, during the hour after, and 1 week after rTMS. Results The 12 patients were 4.7±4.9 years poststroke (mean±SD) with moderate–severe arm motor deficits. In terms of safety, rTMS was well tolerated and did not cause new symptoms; systolic blood pressure increased from pre- to immediately post-rTMS by 7 mm Hg (P=0.043); and none of the behavioral measures showed a decrement. In terms of behavioral effects, modest improvements were seen, for example, in grip strength, range of motion, and pegboard performance, up to 1 week after rTMS. The strongest predictor of these motor gains was lower patient age. Conclusions A single session of high-frequency rTMS to the motor cortex was safe. These results require verification with addition of a placebo group and thus blinded assessments across a wide spectrum of poststroke deficits and with larger doses of 20 Hz rTMS.

Yozbatiran, Nuray; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; See, Jill; Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Luu, Daniel; Motiwala, Rehan R.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Cramer, Steven C.

2012-01-01

62

Long-term behavioral effects of repetitive pain in neonatal rat pups.  

PubMed

Human preterm neonates are subjected to repetitive pain during neonatal intensive care. We hypothesized that exposure to repetitive neonatal pain may cause permanent or long-term changes because of the developmental plasticity of the immature brain. Neonatal rat pups were stimulated one, two, or four times each day from P0 to P7 with either needle prick (noxious groups N1, N2, N4) or cotton tip rub (tactile groups T1, T2, T4). In groups N2, N4, T2, T4 stimuli were applied to separate paws at hourly intervals;each paw was stimulated only once a day. Identical rearing occurred from P7 to P22 days. Pain thresholds were measured on P16, P22, and P65 (hot-plate test), and testing for defensive withdrawal, alcohol preference, air-puff startle, and social discrimination tests occurred during adulthood. Adult rats were exposed to a hot plate at 62 degrees C for 20 s, then sacrificed and perfused at 0 and 30 min after exposure. Fos expression in the somatosensory cortex was measured by immunocytochemistry. Weight gain in the N2 group was greater than the T2 group on P16 (p < 0.05) and P22 (p < 0.005); no differences occurred in the other groups. Decreased pain latencies were noted in the N4 group [5.0 +/- 1.0 s vs. 6.2 +/- 1.4 s on P16 (p < 0.05); 3.9 +/- 0.5 s vs. 5.5 +/- 1.6 s on P22 (p < 0.005)], indicating effects of repetitive neonatal pain on subsequent development of the pain system. As adults, N4 group rats showed an increased preference for alcohol (55 +/- 18% vs. 32 +/- 21%; p = 0.004); increased latency in exploratory and defensive withdrawal behavior (p < 0.05); and a prolonged chemosensory memory in the social discrimination test (p < 0.05). No significant differences occurred in corticosterone and ACTH levels following air-puff startle or in pain thresholds at P65 between N4 and T4 groups. Fos expression at 30 min after hot-plate exposure was significantly greater in all areas of the somatosensory cortex in the T4 group compared with the N4 group (p < 0.05), whereas no differences occurred just after exposure. These data suggest that repetitive pain in neonatal rat pups may lead to an altered development of the pain system associated with decreased pain thresholds during development. Increased plasticity of the neonatal brain may allow these and other changes in brain development to increase their vulnerability to stress disorders and anxiety-mediated adult behavior. Similar behavioral changes have been observed during the later childhood of expreterm neonates who were exposed to prolonged periods of neonatal intensive care. PMID:10386907

Anand, K J; Coskun, V; Thrivikraman, K V; Nemeroff, C B; Plotsky, P M

1999-06-01

63

mGluR5-antagonist mediated reversal of elevated stereotyped, repetitive behaviors in the VPA model of autism.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly disabling developmental disorders with a population prevalence of 1-3%. Despite a strong genetic etiology, there are no current therapeutic options that target the core symptoms of ASD. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic signaling, in particular through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) receptors, may contribute to phenotypic deficits and may be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. This study assessed the therapeutic potential of 2-methyl-6-phenylethyl-pyrididine (MPEP), an mGluR5-receptor antagonist, on repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors in the valproic acid (VPA) mouse model of autism. Mice were exposed prenatally on day E13 to VPA and assessed for repetitive self-grooming and marble burying behaviors as adults. Anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were measured in an open-field. VPA-exposed mice displayed increased repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors, consistent with previously published results. Across both marble burying and self-grooming assays, MPEP significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in VPA-treated mice, but had no effect on locomotor activity. These results are consistent with emerging preclinical literature that mGluR5-antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy for core symptoms of autism. PMID:22016815

Mehta, Mili V; Gandal, Michael J; Siegel, Steven J

2011-01-01

64

The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

Richardson, Lolita Lisa

2010-01-01

65

Dealing with Abnormal Behavior in the Classroom. Fastback 245.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet discusses four of the more common classroom behavior disorders with which teachers must deal: hyperactivity, childhood depression, extreme shyness, and aggressive behavior. In the section on hyperactivity, three characteristics--excessive motor activity, inattentiveness, and impulsiveness--are listed as constituting the hyperactivity…

Romney, David M.

66

Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

1984-01-01

67

Behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities in pleiotrophin knockout mice.  

PubMed

Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features. PMID:25000129

Krellman, Jason W; Ruiz, Henry H; Marciano, Veronica A; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D

2014-01-01

68

Behavioral and Neuroanatomical Abnormalities in Pleiotrophin Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features.

Krellman, Jason W.; Ruiz, Henry H.; Marciano, Veronica A.; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D.

2014-01-01

69

Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Repetitive Pain in Neonatal Rat Pups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human preterm neonates are subjected to repetitive pain during neonatal intensive care. We hypothesized that exposure to repetitive neonatal pain may cause permanent or long-term changes because of the developmental plasticity of the immature brain. Neonatal rat pups were stimulated one, two, or four times each day from P0 to P7 with either needle prick (noxious groups N1, N2, N4)

K. J. S Anand; V Coskun; K. V Thrivikraman; C. B Nemeroff; P. M Plotsky

1999-01-01

70

Brief Report: Glutamate Transporter Gene ( SLC1A1) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs301430) and Repetitive Behaviors and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs301430 in glutamate transporter gene (SLC1A1) with severity of repetitive behaviors (obsessive–compulsive behaviors, tics) and anxiety in children with autism spectrum\\u000a disorder (ASD). Mothers and\\/or teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 67 children with autism spectrum\\u000a disorder. Although analyses were not significant for repetitive behaviors, youths homozygous for the high expressing

Kenneth D. Gadow; Jasmin Roohi; Carla J. DeVincent; Sarah Kirsch; Eli Hatchwell

2010-01-01

71

Mechanisms of Action Underlying the Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Mood: Behavioral and Brain Imaging Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a set of experiments, we applied 10-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex (MDLFC) to investigate rTMS-induced changes in affective state and neural activity in healthy volunteers. In Experiment 1, we combined 10-Hz rTMS with a speech task to examine rTMS-induced changes in paralinguistic aspects of speech production, an affect-relevant behavior strongly linked to

Jennifer Barrett; Valeria Della-Maggiore; Philippe A Chouinard; Tomáš Paus

2004-01-01

72

Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, in children aged under 15, of severe impairments of social interaction, language abnormalities, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors was investigated in an area of London. A “socially impaired” group (more than half of whom were severely retarded) and a comparison group of “sociable severely mentally retarded” children were identified. Mutism or echolalia, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors were found in

Lorna Wing; Judith Gould

1979-01-01

73

Nuclear Fuel Road Behavior during Normal and Abnormal Operating Conditions - Results of Test PR-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An in-pile experiment to characterize the behavior of boiling-water-reactor-type fuel rods under normal and abnormal operating conditions was performed in the Power Burst Facility. The test, designated PR-1, was performed in February 1979 as part of the T...

D. T. Sparks R. H. Smith R. W. Garner

1981-01-01

74

Abnormal resonance behavior of the postural control loop in Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human postural control of upright stance sporadically can show an oscillatory behavior. Based on previous work, we assessed whether an abnormal tendency for such oscillations might contribute to the motor impairments in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated postural control during unperturbed stance in normal control subjects and in PD patients off and under

C. Maurer; T. Mergner; R. J. Peterka

2004-01-01

75

Abnormal turning behavior in Drosophila larvae. Identification and molecular analysis of scribbler (sbb).  

PubMed Central

Our genetic dissection of behavior has isolated scribbler (sbb), a vital gene that encodes a novel protein expressed in the embryonic and larval nervous systems and in the imaginal discs. Larvae with mutations in sbb exhibit abnormally high amounts of turning behavior in the absence of food. sbb is a large gene spanning >50 kb of genomic DNA with four major developmentally regulated transcripts. Transgenic rescue of scribbler behavior was demonstrated by targeting expression of a normal sbb transgene (sbb(+)) expressing one of the major transcripts to the nervous system. The vital function of sbb was restored by ubiquitous expression of this transgene throughout development.

Yang, P; Shaver, S A; Hilliker, A J; Sokolowski, M B

2000-01-01

76

Incidence and behavioral correlates of epileptiform abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with an increased incidence of epilepsy and of epileptiform discharges on electroencephalograms. It is unknown whether epileptiform discharges correlate with symptoms of ASD. We completed a retrospective chart review of 101 patients with ASD who had overnight electroencephalograms. We looked for a relationship between epileptiform abnormalities and diagnosis, history of regression, communication skills, and other features associated with ASD. There was a higher incidence of epileptiform activity in children with stereotypies and aggressive behavior. The incidence of epileptiform abnormalities was significantly lower in Asperger's compared with more severe forms of autism. Results suggest that increasing severity of autistic symptoms may be associated with higher likelihood of epileptiform abnormalities. Whether treatment alters outcome is unknown. PMID:23872941

Mulligan, Caitlin K; Trauner, Doris A

2014-02-01

77

Clinical Correlates and Repetition of Self-Harming Behaviors among Female Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…

Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline

2005-01-01

78

A New Neurological Syndrome with Mental Retardation, Choreoathetosis, and Abnormal Behavior Maps to Chromosome Xp11  

PubMed Central

Summary Choreoathetosis is a major clinical feature in only a small number of hereditary neurological disorders. We define a new X-linked syndrome with a unique clinical picture characterized by mild mental retardation, choreoathetosis, and abnormal behavior. We mapped the disease in a four-generation pedigree to chromosome Xp11 by linkage analysis and defined a candidate region containing a number of genes possibly involved in neuronal signaling, including a potassium channel gene and a neuronal G protein–coupled receptor.

Reyniers, Edwin; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Peeters, Nils; Vits, Lieve; Pauly, Fernand; Fransen, Erik; Van Regemorter, Nicole; Kooy, R. Frank

1999-01-01

79

Quantitative analysis of abnormal spontaneous behavior and clinical assessment of the stargazer rat.  

PubMed

A new mutant derived from the Zucker rat strain called stargazer (homozygous stg/stg) displays abnormal behavior that is characterized by pronounced arching of the neck ("stargazing"), rapid circling, and conspicuous hyperactivity. Results of serologic assays performed by two independent diagnostic laboratories have indicated that the abnormal behavior in the stargazer is not the result of a viral or bacterial infection. In this report, different groups of stargazer rats and their normal-behaving littermates (heterozygous stg/+) were assessed with regard to spontaneous behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma biochemical profiles. Besides frequent stargazing, the predominant behavioral feature of the stargazers was extreme hyperactivity; they had sevenfold greater activity than the normal littermates (P < 0.05), expressed in the form of rapid ambulation and tail-chasing. The stargazers had significantly greater daily calorie and water consumption, despite being significantly smaller in body weight than the littermates (P < 0.05 for all). However, urine output was not different between the two groups. Heart rate and blood pressure also were not different. Stargazers had significantly lower total triglycerides concentration and lower aminotransferase activity than littermates (P < 0.05 for both), a finding probably related to their smaller body size. It is concluded that stargazer rats are extremely hyperactive but normotensive; heterozygous littermates are behaviorally normal, despite being carriers of the stg gene; and routine diagnostic blood testing revealed no important differences between the stargazers and their unaffected littermates. PMID:7650898

Brock, J W; Truett, G E; Ross, K D; Kloster, C A

1995-06-01

80

Brain gene expression differences are associated with abnormal tail biting behavior in pigs.  

PubMed

Knowledge about gene expression in animals involved in abnormal behaviors can contribute to the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. This study aimed to explore the motivational background to tail biting, an abnormal injurious behavior and severe welfare problem in pig production. Affymetrix microarrays were used to investigate gene expression differences in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex of pigs performing tail biting, pigs receiving bites to the tail and neutral pigs who were not involved in the behavior. In the hypothalamus, 32 transcripts were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) when tail biters were compared with neutral pigs, 130 when comparing receiver pigs with neutrals, and two when tail biters were compared with receivers. In the prefrontal cortex, seven transcripts were differently expressed in tail biters when compared with neutrals, seven in receivers vs. neutrals and none in the tail biters vs. receivers. In total, 19 genes showed a different expression pattern in neutral pigs when compared with both performers and receivers. This implies that the functions of these may provide knowledge about why the neutral pigs are not involved in tail biting behavior as performers or receivers. Among these 19 transcripts were genes associated with production traits in pigs (PDK4), sociality in humans and mice (GTF2I) and novelty seeking in humans (EGF). These are in line with hypotheses linking tail biting with reduced back fat thickness and explorative behavior. PMID:23146156

Brunberg, E; Jensen, P; Isaksson, A; Keeling, L J

2013-03-01

81

Repetitive firing: quantitative analysis of encoder behavior of slowly adapting stretch receptor of crayfish and eccentric cell of Limulus.  

PubMed

Techniques developed for determining summed encoder feedback in conjunction with the leaky integrator and variable-gamma models for repetitive firing are applied to spike train data obtained from the slowly adapting crustacean stretch receptor and the eccentric cell of Limulus. Input stimuli were intracellularly applied currents. Analysis of data from cells stringently selected by reproducibility criteria gave a consistent picture for the dynamics of repetitive firing. The variable-gamma model with appropriate summed feedback was most accurate for describing encoding behavior of both cell types. The leaky integrator model, while useful for determining summed feedback parameters, was inadequate to account for underlying mechanisms of encoder activity. For the stretch receptor, two summed feedback processes were detected: one had a short time constant; the other, a long one. Appropriate tests indicated that the short time constant effect was from an electrogenic sodium pump, and the same is presumed for the long time constant summed feedback. Both feedbacks show seasonal and/or species variations. Short hyperpolarizing pulses inhibited the feedback from the long time constant process. The eccentric cell also showed two summed feedback processes: one is due to self inhibition, the other is postulated to be a short time constant electrogenic sodium pump similar to that described in the stretch receptor. PMID:894245

Fohlmeister, J F; Poppele, R E; Purple, R L

1977-06-01

82

Restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders and typical development: cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons.  

PubMed

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development. RRBs were coded from direct observation at three time points within 13 months of development. Children with ASD displayed higher frequency and greater diversity of RRBs at all time points, however RRBs were not unique to ASD and evident in the TD control group albeit at a reduced frequency. RRBs did not correlate with social and communicative impairments in the ASD group, suggesting dissociation between these domains. PMID:24234675

Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

2014-05-01

83

Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth.  

PubMed

A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention. PMID:24357109

Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

2014-06-01

84

Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4)-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.  

PubMed

This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-deficient Spr (-/-) mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/-) mice. We found that Spr (-/-) mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/-) mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/-) mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in Spr (-/-) mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/-) mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency. PMID:23577163

Kwak, Sang Su; Jeong, Mikyoung; Choi, Ji Hye; Kim, Daesoo; Min, Hyesun; Yoon, Yoosik; Hwang, Onyou; Meadows, Gary G; Joe, Cheol O

2013-01-01

85

On possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behaviors before an earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behaviors before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilzed to characterize the unusual animal behaviors; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15-20 years. As the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f < 1Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f < a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behaviors. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behaviors before an EQ.

Hayakawa, Masashi

2013-04-01

86

Suppression of Repetitive Self-Injurious Behavior by Contingent Inhalation of Aromatic Ammonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two severely retarded institutionalized children (4 and 7 years old) who exhibited high rates of severely self-injurious behaviors were punished with aromatic ammonia inhalation on a response-contingent basis. (Author/SBH)

Baumeister, Alan A.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

1978-01-01

87

Who Should Report Abnormal Behavior at Preschool Age? The Case of Behavioral Inhibition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are behaviorally "inhibited"--a condition at the extreme of the behavioral inhibition dimension--experience distress in uncertain social situations. Although parents and teachers are in the best position to detect this condition, they rarely agree. This study aims to analyze the agreement between parents and teachers and to examine…

Ballespi, Sergi; Jane, Ma Claustre; Riba, Ma Dolors

2012-01-01

88

Executive Function Deficits and Social-Behavioral Abnormality in Mice Exposed to a Low Dose of Dioxin In Utero and via Lactation  

PubMed Central

An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation.

Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

2012-01-01

89

Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1993-10-22

90

Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors.  

PubMed

Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis. PMID:15347806

Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; McKnight, Steven L

2004-09-14

91

Obesity-related abnormal eating behaviors in Type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the obesity-related abnormal eating behaviors in Type 2 diabetic patients. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study involving 120 Type 2 diabetic patients. Body weight and height of the individuals were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Bulimic Investigatory Test-Edinburg (BITE) was used to measure binge eating attitudes. Night eating symptoms were defined as consuming >25% of daily energy after suppertime. To determine the glycaemic control, HbA1c levels were analyzed. Data analyzed by SPSS 13.0 for Windows. Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.3±9.29 years. The mean diabetes duration was 11.1±2.04 years. The 50% of the patients had a BMI higher than 25kg/m2. The obese diabetic patients were more likely to have diabetic complications than non-obese subjects (x2 = 8.588, p=0.040). The percentages of the diabetic patients who met the criteria for binge eating and night eating were 17.2% and 42% respectively. Half of the patients were skipping a main meal per day. The frequencies of obesity-related abnormal eating behaviors were not statistically different in obese patients versus non-obese participants (p>0.05). The mean HbA1c levels were higher in diabetic patients than biochemical references and there was a significant difference between obese and non-obese patients (p<0.05). Conclusions: Obesity-related abnormal eating behaviors were prevalent in Type 2 diabetic patients and related with diabetic complications and glycaemic control.

Ercan, Aydan; Kiziltan, Gul

2013-01-01

92

A new neurological syndrome with mental retardation, choreoathetosis, and abnormal behavior maps to chromosome Xp11.  

PubMed

Choreoathetosis is a major clinical feature in only a small number of hereditary neurological disorders. We define a new X-linked syndrome with a unique clinical picture characterized by mild mental retardation, choreoathetosis, and abnormal behavior. We mapped the disease in a four-generation pedigree to chromosome Xp11 by linkage analysis and defined a candidate region containing a number of genes possibly involved in neuronal signaling, including a potassium channel gene and a neuronal G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:10521307

Reyniers, E; Van Bogaert, P; Peeters, N; Vits, L; Pauly, F; Fransen, E; Van Regemorter, N; Kooy, R F

1999-11-01

93

Lack of Efficacy of Citalopram in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and High Levels of Repetitive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Context Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely prescribed for children with autism spectrum disorders. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of citalopram hydrobromide therapy for repetitive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Design National Institutes of Health–sponsored randomized controlled trial. Setting Six academic centers, including Mount Sinai School of Medicine, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of California at Los Angeles, Yale University, and Dartmouth Medical School. Participants One hundred forty-nine volunteers 5 to 17 years old (mean [SD] age, 9.4 [3.1] years) were randomized to receive citalopram (n = 73) or placebo (n = 76). Participants had autistic spectrum disorders, Asperger disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified; had illness severity ratings of at least moderate on the Clinical Global Impressions, Severity of Illness Scale; and scored at least moderate on compulsive behaviors measured with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Interventions Twelve weeks of citalopram hydrobromide (10 mg/5 mL) or placebo. The mean (SD) maximum dosage of citalopram hydrobromide was 16.5 (6.5) mg/d by mouth (maximum, 20 mg/d). Main Outcome Measures Positive response was defined by a score of much improved or very much improved on the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement subscale. An important secondary outcome was the score on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Adverse events were systematically elicited using the Safety Monitoring Uniform Report Form. Results There was no significant difference in the rate of positive response on the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement subscale between the citalopram-treated group (32.9%) and the placebo group (34.2%) (relative risk, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.51; P> .99). There was no difference in score reduction on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders from baseline (mean [SD], ?2.0 [3.4] points for the citalopram-treated group and ?1.9 [2.5] points for the placebo group; P=.81). Citalopram use was significantly more likely to be associated with adverse events, particularly increased energy level, impulsiveness, decreased concentration, hyperactivity, stereotypy, diarrhea, insomnia, and dry skin or pruritus. Conclusion Results of this trial do not support the use of citalopram for the treatment of repetitive behavior in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00086645

King, Bryan H.; Hollander, Eric; Sikich, Linmarie; McCracken, James T.; Scahill, Lawrence; Bregman, Joel D.; Donnelly, Craig L.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann; Ritz, Louise

2014-01-01

94

The Effects of Gender and Age on Repetitive and/or Restricted Behaviors and Interests in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic Assessment…

Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

2011-01-01

95

Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmentally Similar Peers--A Follow Up to Watt et al. (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study extended the findings of Watt et al. (J Autism Dev Disord 38:1518-1533, 2008) by investigating repetitive and stereotyped behaviors (RSB) demonstrated by children (n = 50) and typical development (TD; n = 50) matched on developmental age, gender, and parents' education level. RSB were coded from videotaped Communication and…

Barber, Angela B.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Chambers, Nola W.

2012-01-01

96

Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design  

PubMed Central

We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior.

Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

2014-01-01

97

Abnormal resonance behavior of the postural control loop in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Human postural control of upright stance sporadically can show an oscillatory behavior. Based on previous work, we assessed whether an abnormal tendency for such oscillations might contribute to the motor impairments in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated postural control during unperturbed stance in normal control subjects and in PD patients off and under treatment, focusing on stabilogram diffusion analysis (SDA) of the foot center of pressure (COP) excursions and conventional measures of the sway amplitude and velocity. We found abnormal 1 Hz body sway oscillation in the SDA curves of PD patients that differed significantly from the body sway typically observed in control subjects during quiet stance. The 1 Hz body sway oscillation was associated with abnormally large and fast sway in the patients off treatment. Under treatment with levodopa, with 'deep brain stimulation' (subthalamic nucleus) and even more so with combined treatment, the oscillations in the SDA curves vanished and the sway became slower. The loss of oscillation and reduction of sway velocity were highly correlated with the improvements of patients' clinical motor assessment score. However, sway amplitude was not correlated with the patients' motor assessment score and patients reported clinical improvement under therapy even though sway amplitude increased on average. A simple feedback model of the postural control system with abnormally large internal noise could predict experimental measures both on and off treatment. The off treatment condition was consistent with a high motor gain in the feedback loop, and the on treatment condition with a reduced motor gain. PMID:15007581

Maurer, C; Mergner, T; Peterka, R J

2004-08-01

98

Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Psychopathological Animal Model Are Suggestive of Antidepressant-like Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were investigated in two rat lines selectively bred for high and low anxiety-related behavior. The stimulation parameters were adjusted according to the results of accurate computer-assisted and magnetic resonance imaging-based reconstructions of the current density distributions induced by rTMS in the rat and human brain, ensuring comparable stimulation patterns

Martin E. Keck; Tobias Welt; Anke Post; Marianne B. Müller; Nicola Toschi; Alexandra Wigger; Rainer Landgraf; Florian Holsboer; Mario Engelmann

2001-01-01

99

Saw-tooth substorms: Inconsistency of repetitive bay-like magnetic disturbances with behavior of aurora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between the magnetic disturbance onsets, aurora dynamics and particles injections at the geostationary orbit have been analyzed in detail for 25 sawtooth substorms. It is shown that inconsistency between the above signatures of the substorms onset is typical of the powerful sawtooth substorms, unlike the isolated (“classical”) magnetospheric substorms. The distinguishing feature of the aurora in case of saw-tooth substorms is permanently high level of auroral activity irrespective of the magnetic disturbance onsets and the double oval structure of the aurora display. The close relationship between the aurora behavior and the particle injections at geostationary orbit is also broken. The conclusion is made, that the classical concept of the substorm development, put forward by Akasofu (1964) for isolated substorms, is not workable in cases of the sawtooth disturbances, when the powerful solar wind energy pumping into the magnetosphere provides a permanent powerful aurora particle precipitation into the auroral zone.

Troshichev, O.; Stauning, P.; Liou, K.; Reeves, G.

2011-02-01

100

Point mutation in syntaxin-1A causes abnormal vesicle recycling, behaviors, and short term plasticity.  

PubMed

Syntaxin-1A is a t-SNARE that is involved in vesicle docking and vesicle fusion; it is important in presynaptic exocytosis in neurons because it interacts with many regulatory proteins. Previously, we found the following: 1) that autophosphorylated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an important modulator of neural plasticity, interacts with syntaxin-1A to regulate exocytosis, and 2) that a syntaxin missense mutation (R151G) attenuated this interaction. To determine more precisely the physiological importance of this interaction between CaMKII and syntaxin, we generated mice with a knock-in (KI) syntaxin-1A (R151G) mutation. Complexin is a molecular clamp involved in exocytosis, and in the KI mice, recruitment of complexin to the SNARE complex was reduced because of an abnormal CaMKII/syntaxin interaction. Nevertheless, SNARE complex formation was not inhibited, and consequently, basal neurotransmission was normal. However, the KI mice did exhibit more enhanced presynaptic plasticity than wild-type littermates; this enhanced plasticity could be associated with synaptic response than did wild-type littermates; this pronounced response included several behavioral abnormalities. Notably, the R151G phenotypes were generally similar to previously reported CaMKII mutant phenotypes. Additionally, synaptic recycling in these KI mice was delayed, and the density of synaptic vesicles was reduced. Taken together, our results indicated that this single point mutation in syntaxin-1A causes abnormal regulation of neuronal plasticity and vesicle recycling and that the affected syntaxin-1A/CaMKII interaction is essential for normal brain and synaptic functions in vivo. PMID:24136198

Watanabe, Yumi; Katayama, Norikazu; Takeuchi, Kosei; Togano, Tetsuya; Itoh, Rieko; Sato, Michiko; Yamazaki, Maya; Abe, Manabu; Sato, Toshiya; Oda, Kanako; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Takao, Keizo; Fukaya, Masahiro; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakimura, Kenji; Manabe, Toshiya; Igarashi, Michihiro

2013-11-29

101

Inactivation of ceramide synthase 6 in mice results in an altered sphingolipid metabolism and behavioral abnormalities.  

PubMed

The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for ?-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ?35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain. PMID:23760501

Ebel, Philipp; Vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

2013-07-19

102

Disruption of Eaat2b, a glutamate transporter, results in abnormal motor behaviors in developing zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Analysis of zebrafish mutants that have defects in motor behavior can allow entrée into the hindbrain and spinal cord networks that control locomotion. Here, we report that zebrafish techno trousers (tnt) locomotor mutants harbor a mutation in slc1a2b, which encodes Eaat2b, a plasma membrane glutamate transporter. We used tnt mutants to explore the effects of impaired glutamate transporter activity on locomotor network function. Wild-type larvae perform robust swimming behavior in response to touch stimuli at two and four days after fertilization. In contrast, tnt mutant larvae demonstrate aberrant, exaggerated body bends beginning two days after fertilization and they are almost paralyzed four days after fertilization. We show that slc1a2b is expressed in glial cells in a dynamic fashion across development, which may explain the abnormal sequence of motor behaviors demonstrated by tnt mutants. We also show that tnt larvae demonstrate enhanced excitation of neurons, consistent with the predicted effects of excessive glutamate. These findings illustrate the dynamic regulation and importance of glutamate transporters during development. Since glutamate toxicity caused by EAAT2 dysfunction is thought to promote several different neurological disorders in humans, including epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases, tnt mutants hold promise as a new tool to better understand these pathologies.

McKeown, Kelly Anne; Moreno, Rosa; Hall, Victoria L.; Ribera, Angeles B.; Downes, Gerald B.

2014-01-01

103

High dose CART peptide induces abnormal EEG activity and behavioral seizures.  

PubMed

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters found throughout the nervous system and in the periphery. CART has an important role in the regulation of food intake, anxiety, endocrine function, and in mesolimbic-mediated reward and reinforcement. This short report casts light upon previous descriptions of presumed behavioral seizure and tremor activity following administration of CART into the central nervous system. By employing electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, we document the state of cerebrocortical activity. We find that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 5 microg of CART 55-102 readily produces an abnormal EEG characterized initially by high amplitude hypersynchronous alpha in the 8-10 Hz range during behavioral wakefulness as manifest in both cortical and hippocampal theta EEG channels. This reliably progressed in three of three animals tested to unequivocal epileptiform activity accompanied by tremors and assumption of a rigid, tonic body posture. The neural substrates underlying this finding are unclear. This novel description of the epileptogenic quality of CART should lend caution to interpretations of the behaviors attributed to CART in other experimental paradigms. PMID:18178249

Keating, Glenda L; Kuhar, Michael J; Rye, David B

2008-04-01

104

Abnormal 5-HT modulation of stress behaviors in the Kv4.2 knockout mouse.  

PubMed

The Kv4.2 gene codes for an essential subunit of voltage-gated A-type potassium channels that are involved in dendritic signal integration and synaptic plasticity. Detailed cellular characterization in CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus has shown that knocking out the Kv4.2 gene increases neuronal excitability and promotes long-term potentiation. However, the overall behavioral consequences of these modifications have not been fully explored. Given the growing connection between neuronal plasticity and affect processing in the hippocampus and other Kv4.2 expressing regions, we proposed to investigate whether the absence of this gene would alter the stress response of mice to the forced swimming and tail suspension tests (TSTs) for depression-like behavior. Kv4.2 knockout (KO) mice, generated in the 129SvEv background, demonstrated elevated immobility and a loss of swimming, as well as antidepressant resistance to the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX). Characterization of a relatively new head movement behavior category, responsive to serotonergic treatment in wildtype (WT) mice, supported conclusions of abnormal 5-HT modulation. Electrophysiology recordings in the prefrontal cortex showed a blunting of postsynaptic response to direct 5-HT application following a single period of swim stress only in the animals without the Kv4.2 subunit. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that Kv4.2 KO mice may have an exaggerated 5-HT response to stress leading to a premature desensitization of postsynaptic receptors and a loss of continued behavior modulation. These results may shed some light on the involvement of A-type potassium channels in the effective action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. PMID:20801198

Lockridge, A; Su, J; Yuan, L L

2010-11-10

105

Abnormal Pre-Attentive Arousal in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Contributes to Their Atypical Auditory Behavior: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks (‘S1’ and ‘S2’) separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the ‘tangential’ P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the ‘radial’ N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD.

Stroganova, Tatiana A.; Kozunov, Vladimir V.; Posikera, Irina N.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Gratchev, Vitaliy V.; Orekhova, Elena V.

2013-01-01

106

Normal and Abnormal Development of Motor Behavior: Lessons From Experiments in Rats  

PubMed Central

In this essay a few relevant aspects of the neural and behavioral development of the brain in the human and in the rat are reviewed and related to the consequences of lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system at early and later age. Movements initially are generated by local circuits in the spinal cord and without the involvement of descending projections. After birth, both in humans and in rats it seems that the devlopment of postural control is the limiting factor for several motor behaviors to mature. Strong indications exist that the cerebellum is significantly involved in this control. Lesions in the CNS at early stages interfere with fundamental processes of neural development, such as the establishment of fiber connections and cell death patterns. Consequently, the functional effects are strongly dependent on the stage of development. The young and undisturbed CNS, on the other hand, has a much greater capacity than the adult nervous system for compensating abnormal reinnervation in the peripheral nervous system. Animal experiments indicated that the cerebellar cortex might play an important part in this compensation. This possibility should be investigated further as it might offer important perspectives for treatment in the human.

Gramsbergen, Albert

2001-01-01

107

Abnormal chromosome behavior in human oocytes which remained unfertilized during human in vitro fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal abnormalities and abnormal embryonic development have previously been observed after human in vitro fertilization (IVF). Chromosomal abnormalities may arise not only after fertilization but even earlier during meiotic maturation of human oocytes in culture. Since chromosomal analysis is simple in oocytes during meiotic maturation, the chromosomal status was analyzed in oocytes which remained unfertilized in a human in vitro

Horst Spielmann; Christiane Krüger; Manfred Stauber; Richard Vogel

1985-01-01

108

Embryo Sac Development in the Maize indeterminate gametophyte1 Mutant: Abnormal Nuclear Behavior and Defective Microtubule Organization.  

PubMed Central

The indeterminate gametophyte1 mutation in maize has been known to disrupt development of the female gametophyte. Mutant embryo sacs have abnormal numbers and behavior of micropylar and central cell nuclei, which result in polyembryony and elevated ploidy levels in the endosperm of developing kernels. In this study, we confirm abnormal nuclear behavior and present novel findings. In contrast to the normal form, there is no obvious polarity in two-nucleate embryo sacs or in the micropylar cells of eight-nucleate embryo sacs. We show that the second and third mitoses are not fully synchronized and that additional mitoses can occur in all of the nuclei of the mutant embryo sac or in just the micropylar or central regions. After cellularization, individual micropylar cells can undergo mitosis. Abnormal microtubular behavior results in irregular positioning of the nuclei, asynchronous microtubular patterns in different pairs of nuclei, and abnormal phragmoplasts after the third mitotic division. These results indicate that in addition to acting primarily in controlling nuclear divisions, the indeterminate gametophyte1 gene acts secondarily in regulating microtubule behavior. This cytoskeletal activity most likely controls the polarization and nuclear migration underlying the formation and fate of the cells of the normal embryo sac.

Huang, B. Q.; Sheridan, W. F.

1996-01-01

109

Are structural brain abnormalities associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders?  

PubMed

Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception. PMID:23866739

Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

2013-10-01

110

Behavioral and Neurotransmitter Abnormalities in Mice Deficient for Parkin, DJ-1 and Superoxide Dismutase  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of neurons in the substantia nigra that project to the striatum and release dopamine. The cause of PD remains uncertain, however, evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Although most cases of PD are sporadic, 5-10% of cases are caused by inherited mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 were the first to be linked to recessively inherited Parkinsonism. Surprisingly, mice bearing similar loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 do not show age-dependent loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons or depletion of dopamine in the striatum. Although the normal cellular functions of Parkin and DJ-1 are not fully understood, we hypothesized that loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 render cells more sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we crossed mice deficient for Parkin and DJ-1 with mice deficient for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) or the cytosolic antioxidant protein Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Aged Parkin-/-DJ-1-/- and Mn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have enhanced performance on the rotorod behavior test. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have elevated levels of dopamine in the striatum in the absence of nigral cell loss. Our studies demonstrate that on a Parkin/DJ-1 null background, mice that are also deficient for major antioxidant proteins do not have progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons but have behavioral and striatal dopamine abnormalities.

Hennis, Meghan R.; Seamans, Katherine W.; Marvin, Marian A.; Casey, Bradford H.; Goldberg, Matthew S.

2013-01-01

111

Familial Associations of Intense Preoccupations, an Empirical Factor of the Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors and Interests Domain of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Clinical heterogeneity of autism likely hinders efforts to find genes associated with this complex psychiatric disorder. Some studies have produced promising results by restricting the sample according to the expression of specific familial factors or components of autism. Previous factor analyses of the restricted, repetitive

Smith, Christopher J.; Lang, Colleen M.; Kryzak, Lauren; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hollander, Eric; Silverman, Jeremy M.

2009-01-01

112

Neural Basis of Repetition Priming during Mathematical Cognition: Repetition Suppression or Repetition Enhancement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the neural basis of repetition priming (RP) during mathematical cognition. Previous studies of RP have focused on repetition suppression as the basis of behavioral facilitation, primarily using word and object identification and classification tasks. More recently, researchers have suggested associative stimulus-response learning…

Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Chang, Catie; Menon, Vinod

2010-01-01

113

Abnormal Cortical Thickness and Brain-Behavior Correlation Patterns in Individuals with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure  

PubMed Central

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) have shown regional patterns of dysmorphology, most prominent in parietal and posterior temporal cortices. Various methods of image analysis have been employed in these studies, but abnormalities in cortical thickness have not yet been mapped over the entire cortical surface in individuals with FASD. Further, relationships between cognitive dysfunction and cortical thickness measures have not yet been explored. We applied cortical pattern matching algorithms and techniques for measuring cortical thickness in millimeters to the structural brain MRI images of 21 subjects with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (8–22 years, mean age 12.6 years), and 21 normally developing control subjects (8–25 years, mean age 13.5 years). Dissociable cognitive measures, of verbal recall and visuospatial functioning, were correlated with cortical thickness, and group by test score interactions were evaluated for predicting cortical thickness. Significant cortical thickness excesses of up to 1.2 mm were observed in the FASD subjects in large areas of bilateral temporal, bilateral inferior parietal, and right frontal regions. Significant group by test score interactions were found in right dorsal frontal regions for the verbal recall measure and in left occipital regions for the visuospatial measure. These results are consistent with earlier analyses from our own and other research groups, but for the first time, we show that cortical thickness is also increased in right lateral frontal regions in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Further, the significant interactions show for the first time that brain-behavior relationships are altered as a function of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Kan, Eric; Thompson, Paul M.; Riley, Edward P.; Toga, Arthur W.

2009-01-01

114

Serotonergic involvement in the amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in dopamine transporter knockout mice by nicotine.  

PubMed

Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems. First, we observed that the marked hyperactivity displayed by DAT KO mice was reduced by administration of nicotine. This nicotine effect was blocked by pretreatment with the non-specific nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist mecamylamine, or the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Secondly, we examined the effects of nicotine on PPI in DAT KO mice. Treatment with nicotine significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in DAT KO mice. The ameliorating action of nicotine on PPI deficits in DAT KO mice was blocked by mecamylamine, the ?? nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or WAY100635, while the ???? nACh receptor antagonist dihydro-?-erythroidinehydrobromide (DH?E) produced only a non-significant trend toward attenuation of nicotine effects. Finally, we observed that administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also ameliorated the deficit in PPI observed in DAT KO mice. This amelioration was antagonized by pretreatment with WAY100635. These data support the idea that nicotine might ameliorate some of the cognitive dysfunctions found in schizophrenia in a 5-HT1A-dependent fashion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22809709

Uchiumi, Osamu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Asami; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

2013-01-01

115

Listening for bats: pulse repetition rate as a cue for a defensive behavior in Cycnia tenera (Lepidoptera:Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tympanate, arctiid moth,Cycnia tenera responds to pulsed, 30 kHz acoustic stimuli resembling bat echolocation signals by emitting trains of clicks. This phonoresponse was used to determine that this moth is maximally sensitive to stimulus pulse repetition rates of 30–50 pulses\\/s, rates typically emitted by bats shortly before they close with their targets. At rates both above and below this

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

116

Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

2012-01-01

117

Neonatal Disruption of Serine Racemase Causes Schizophrenia-Like Behavioral Abnormalities in Adulthood: Clinical Rescue by D-Serine  

PubMed Central

Background D-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR). Given the role of D-serine in both neurodevelopment and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal disruption of D-serine synthesis by SRR inhibition could induce behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, in later life. Methodology/Principal Findings Neonatal mice (7–9 days) were injected with vehicle or phenazine methosulfate (Met-Phen: 3 mg/kg/day), an SRR inhibitor. Behavioral evaluations, such as spontaneous locomotion, novel object recognition test (NORT), and prepulse inhibition (PPI) were performed at juvenile (5–6 weeks old) and adult (10–12 weeks old) stages. In addition, we tested the effects of D-serine on PPI deficits in adult mice after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. Finally, we assessed whether D-serine could prevent the onset of schizophrenia-like behavior in these mice. Neonatal Met-Phen treatment reduced D-serine levels in the brain, 24 hours after the final dose. Additionally, this treatment caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms in juveniles and to schizophrenia in adults. A single dose of D-serine improved PPI deficits in adult mice. Interestingly, chronic administration of D-serine (900 mg/kg/day from P35 to P70) significantly prevented the onset of PPI deficits after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that disruption of D-serine synthesis during developmental stages leads to behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms and schizophrenia, in later life. Furthermore, early pharmacological intervention with D-serine may prevent the onset of psychosis in adult.

Hagiwara, Hiroko; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

2013-01-01

118

Prenatal and early-life exposure to high-level diesel exhaust particles leads to increased locomotor activity and repetitive behaviors in mice.  

PubMed

Abundant evidence indicates that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, limited knowledge is available concerning these contributing factors. An epidemiology study reported a link between increased incidence of autism and living closely to major highways, suggesting a possible role for pollutants from highway traffic. We investigated whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) negatively affects fetal development leading to autism-like phenotype in mice. Female mice and their offspring were exposed to DEP during pregnancy and nursing. Adult male offspring were then tested for behaviors reflecting the typical symptoms of ASD patients. Compared to control mice, DEP-exposed offspring exhibited higher locomotor activity, elevated levels of self-grooming in the presence of an unfamiliar mouse, and increased rearing behaviors, which may be relevant to the restricted and repetitive behaviors seen in ASD patients. However, the DEP-exposed mice did not exhibit deficits in social interactions or social communication which are the key features of ASD. These results suggest that early life exposure to DEP could have an impact on mouse development leading to observable changes in animal behaviors. Further studies are needed to reveal other environmental insults and genetic factors that would lead to animal models expressing key phenotypes of the autism spectrum disorders. PMID:23495194

Thirtamara Rajamani, Keerthi; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Bolden, Crystal; Willis, Daniel; Hoffman, Carol; Zelikoff, Judith; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gu, Howard

2013-08-01

119

The role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury in Chinese adolescents: a 2-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the follow-up period. Results indicate that while Year 1 depressive symptoms and family invalidation were significantly associated with the occurrence of Year 2 NSSI, Year 1 behavioral impulsivity contributed to both the occurrence and repetition of Year 2 NSSI. Findings of this study suggest that adolescents who display multiple impulsive behaviors may be at particular risk for engaging in repetitive NSSI. Clinical implications of these findings and future research directions were discussed. PMID:21855128

You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

2012-04-01

120

HPC-1/syntaxin 1A gene knockout mice show abnormal behavior possibly related to a disruption in 5-HTergic systems.  

PubMed

HPC-1/syntaxin 1A (STX1A) is thought to regulate the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in neurons. In recent human genetic studies, STX1A has been implicated in neuropsychological disorders. To examine whether STX1A gene ablation is responsible for abnormal neuropsychological profiles observed in human psychiatric patients, we analysed the behavioral phenotype of STX1A knockout mice. Abnormal behavior was observed in both homozygotes (STX1A(-/-)) and heterozygotes (STX1A(+/-)) in a social interaction test, a novel object exploring test and a latent inhibition (LI) test, but not in a pre-pulse inhibition test. Interestingly, attenuation of LI, which is closely related to human schizotypic symptoms, was restored by administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, but not by the dopamine reuptake inhibitor, GBR12935, or the noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, desipramine. We also observed that LI attenuation was restored by DOI (a 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist), but not by 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist), mCPP (a 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist), SKF 38393 (a D(1) receptor agonist), quinpirole (a D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist) or haloperidol (a D(2)/D(3) receptor antagonist). Thus, attenuation of LI is mainly caused by disruption of 5-HT-ergic systems via 5-HT(2A) receptors. In addition, 5-HT release from hippocampal and hypothalamic slices was significantly reduced. Therefore, ablation of STX1A may cause disruption of 5-HT-ergic transmission and induce abnormal behavior. PMID:20576034

Fujiwara, Tomonori; Snada, Masumi; Kofuji, Takefumi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Akagawa, Kimio

2010-07-01

121

Role of Social Encounter-Induced Activation of Prefrontal Serotonergic Systems in the Abnormal Behaviors of Isolation-Reared Mice  

PubMed Central

Isolation-reared male rodents show abnormal behaviors such as hyperlocomotion, aggressive behaviors, deficits of prepulse inhibition, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, but the neurochemical mechanism for the effects of psychological stress in these animals is not fully understood. This study examined the effects of social interactions between isolation-reared mice and intruder mice on brain monoaminergic systems. A cage was divided into two compartments by a mesh partition to prevent direct physical interactions. The 20-min encounter with an intruder elicited a restless and hyperexcitable state (hyperactivity) in male, but not in female, isolation-reared mice, whereas encounters with a sleeping intruder or a novel object did not. Although the encounter did not affect prefrontal neuronal-activity-marker c-Fos expression, dopamine (DA) levels, or serotonin (5-HT) levels in male group-reared mice or female isolation-reared mice, it increased prefrontal c-Fos expression, DA levels, and 5-HT levels in male isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, encounter-induced increases in c-Fos expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus and ventral tegmental area, but not in the nucleus accumbens shell, were much greater in isolation-reared than group-reared male mice. A 5-HT1A receptor agonist, a metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor agonist attenuated isolation-induced aggressive behaviors and encounter-induced hyperactivity, c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal raphe nucleus, and increases in prefrontal 5-HT levels. These findings suggest that the prefrontal DA and 5-HT systems are activated by encounter stimulation in male isolation-reared mice, and the encounter-induced activation of 5-HT system triggers the induction of some abnormal behaviors in male isolation-reared mice. Furthermore, this study implies that the encounter stimulation-induced signal has a pharmacological significance.

Ago, Yukio; Araki, Ryota; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Sasaga, Asuka; Nishiyama, Saki; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

2013-01-01

122

The aggression and behavioral abnormalities associated with monoamine oxidase A deficiency are rescued by acute inhibition of serotonin reuptake.  

PubMed

The termination of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurotransmission is regulated by its uptake by the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), as well as its degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A. MAO-A deficiency results in a wide set of behavioral alterations, including perseverative behaviors and social deficits. These anomalies are likely related to 5-HTergic homeostatic imbalances; however, the role of 5-HTT in these abnormalities remains unclear. To ascertain the role of 5-HTT in the behavioral anomalies associated to MAO-A deficiency, we tested the behavioral effects of its blocker fluoxetine on perseverative, social and aggressive behaviors in transgenic animals with hypomorphic or null-allele MAO-A mutations. Acute treatment with the 5-HTT blocker fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced aggressive behavior in MAO-A knockout (KO) mice and social deficits in hypomorphic MAO-A(Neo) mice. Furthermore, this treatment also reduced perseverative responses (including marble burying and water mist-induced grooming) in both MAO-A mutant genotypes. Both MAO-A mutant lines displayed significant reductions in 5-HTT expression across the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and striatum, as quantified by immunohistochemical detection; however, the down-regulation of 5-HTT in MAO-A(Neo) mice was more pervasive and widespread than in their KO counterparts, possibly indicating a greater ability of the hypomorphic line to enact compensatory mechanisms with respect to 5-HT homeostasis. Collectively, these findings suggest that the behavioral deficits associated with low MAO-A activity may reflect developmental alterations of 5-HTT within 5-HTergic neurons. Furthermore, the translational implications of our results highlight 5-HT reuptake inhibition as an interesting approach for the control of aggressive outbursts in MAO-A deficient individuals. PMID:24882701

Godar, Sean C; Bortolato, Marco; Castelli, M Paola; Casti, Alberto; Casu, Angelo; Chen, Kevin; Ennas, M Grazia; Tambaro, Simone; Shih, Jean C

2014-09-01

123

Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice  

PubMed Central

Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and ?-endorphin (?-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems.

Amat, Nurmuhammat; Hoxur, Parida; Ming, Dang; Matsidik, Aynur; Kijjoa, Anake; Upur, Halmurat

2012-01-01

124

Behavioral, neurochemical and neuroendocrine effects of abnormal savda munziq in the chronic stress mice.  

PubMed

Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and ?-endorphin (?-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems. PMID:22919413

Amat, Nurmuhammat; Hoxur, Parida; Ming, Dang; Matsidik, Aynur; Kijjoa, Anake; Upur, Halmurat

2012-01-01

125

Gestational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Reciprocal Social, Repetitive, and Stereotypic Behaviors in 4- and 5-Year-Old Children: The HOME Study.  

PubMed

Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, but identifying relevant chemicals within mixtures of EDCs is difficult.Objective: Our goal was to identify gestational EDC exposures associated with autistic behaviors.Methods: We measured the concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 organochlorine pesticides, 8 brominated flame retardants, and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances in blood or urine samples from 175 pregnant women in the HOME (Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment) Study (Cincinnati, OH). When children were 4 and 5 years old, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic behaviors. We examined confounder-adjusted associations between 52 EDCs and SRS scores using a two-stage hierarchical analysis to account for repeated measures and confounding by correlated EDCs.Results: Most of the EDCs were associated with negligible absolute differences in SRS scores (? 1.5). Each 2-SD increase in serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether-28 (PBDE-28) (? = 2.5; 95% CI: -0.6, 5.6) or trans-nonachlor (? = 4.1; 95% CI: 0.8-7.3) was associated with more autistic behaviors. In contrast, fewer autistic behaviors were observed among children born to women with detectable versus nondetectable concentrations of PCB-178 (? = -3.0; 95% CI: -6.3, 0.2), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (? = -3.3; 95% CI: -6.1, -0.5), or PBDE-85 (? = -3.2; 95% CI: -5.9, -0.5). Increasing perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations were also associated with fewer autistic behaviors (? = -2.0; 95% CI: -4.4, 0.4).Conclusions: Some EDCs were associated with autistic behaviors in this cohort, but our modest sample size precludes us from dismissing chemicals with null associations. PFOA, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB-178, PBDE-28, PBDE-85, and trans-nonachlor deserve additional scrutiny as factors that may be associated with childhood autistic behaviors.Citation: Braun JM, Kalkbrenner AE, Just AC, Yolton K, Calafat AM, Sjödin A, Hauser R, Webster GM, Chen A, Lanphear BP. 2014. Gestational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and reciprocal social, repetitive, and stereotypic behaviors in 4- and 5-year-old children: the HOME Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:513-520;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307261. PMID:24622245

Braun, Joseph M; Kalkbrenner, Amy E; Just, Allan C; Yolton, Kimberly; Calafat, Antonia M; Sjödin, Andreas; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Glenys M; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P

2014-05-01

126

Gestational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Reciprocal Social, Repetitive, and Stereotypic Behaviors in 4- and 5-Year-Old Children: The HOME Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, but identifying relevant chemicals within mixtures of EDCs is difficult. Objective: Our goal was to identify gestational EDC exposures associated with autistic behaviors. Methods: We measured the concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 organochlorine pesticides, 8 brominated flame retardants, and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances in blood or urine samples from 175 pregnant women in the HOME (Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment) Study (Cincinnati, OH). When children were 4 and 5 years old, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic behaviors. We examined confounder-adjusted associations between 52 EDCs and SRS scores using a two-stage hierarchical analysis to account for repeated measures and confounding by correlated EDCs. Results: Most of the EDCs were associated with negligible absolute differences in SRS scores (? 1.5). Each 2-SD increase in serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether-28 (PBDE-28) (? = 2.5; 95% CI: –0.6, 5.6) or trans-nonachlor (? = 4.1; 95% CI: 0.8–7.3) was associated with more autistic behaviors. In contrast, fewer autistic behaviors were observed among children born to women with detectable versus nondetectable concentrations of PCB-178 (? = –3.0; 95% CI: –6.3, 0.2), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (? = –3.3; 95% CI: –6.1, –0.5), or PBDE-85 (? = –3.2; 95% CI: –5.9, –0.5). Increasing perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations were also associated with fewer autistic behaviors (? = –2.0; 95% CI: –4.4, 0.4). Conclusions: Some EDCs were associated with autistic behaviors in this cohort, but our modest sample size precludes us from dismissing chemicals with null associations. PFOA, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB-178, PBDE-28, PBDE-85, and trans-nonachlor deserve additional scrutiny as factors that may be associated with childhood autistic behaviors. Citation: Braun JM, Kalkbrenner AE, Just AC, Yolton K, Calafat AM, Sjödin A, Hauser R, Webster GM, Chen A, Lanphear BP. 2014. Gestational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and reciprocal social, repetitive, and stereotypic behaviors in 4- and 5-year-old children: the HOME Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:513–520;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307261

Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Just, Allan C.; Yolton, Kimberly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Glenys M.; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P.

2014-01-01

127

Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

128

Repetition reduction: Lexical repetition in the absence of referent repetition.  

PubMed

Compared to words that are new to a discourse, repeated words are produced with reduced acoustic prominence. Although these effects are often attributed to priming in the production system, the locus of the effect within the production system remains unresolved because, in natural speech, repetition often involves repetition of referents and lexical items simultaneously. Therefore, repetition reduction could be due to repeated mention of a referent or to repetition of a word or referring expression. In our study, we use an event description task to test whether repetition reduction is due to repetition of lexical items or to repeated mention of referents. The results show that repeated lexical items lead to reduced duration and intensity even in the absence of referent repetition, whereas repeated referents lead to reduced intensity alone. The general pattern suggests that repetition reduction is due most strongly to repetition of the lexical item, rather than repeated mention of the referent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24548320

Lam, Tuan Q; Watson, Duane G

2014-05-01

129

The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

2012-01-01

130

Cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe congenital immunodeficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a highly successful treatment for severe congenital immunodeficiencies. However,somestudieshavesuggestedthat childrenmayexperiencecognitivedifficul- ties after HSCT. This large-scale study assessed cognitive and behavioral func- tion for the cohort of children treated by HSCT at one center between 1979 and 2003 to determine the frequency and se- verity of problems and to identify risk factors. A total of

Penny Titman; Elizabeth Pink; Emily Skucek; Katherine O'Hanlon; Tim J. Cole; Jane Gaspar; JinHua Xu-Bayford; Alison Jones; Adrian J. Thrasher; E. Graham Davies; Paul A. Veys; H. Bobby Gaspar

131

Genetic diversity contributes to abnormalities in pain behaviors between young and old rats.  

PubMed

Aging has profound yet unpredictable effects on pain perception and incidence of anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying age-related pathologies are confounded by contradictory observations in rodent models. Therefore, the goal of our study was to test the hypothesis that genetic variability contributes to age-related pain behaviors and susceptibility to anxiety. To address this hypothesis, we examined pain and anxiety-like behavior in young or old Brown Norway (BN), Fisher 344, and BN/F344 (F1), three rat strains used in studies to evaluate the effect of aging. Mechanosensitive thresholds were assessed using the Von Frey assay, and visceral pain sensitivity was measured via the visceromotor response to colorectal distension. Anxiety-like behavior and exploration was quantified in the elevated plus maze. In the BN strain, old rats exhibited increased mechanosensitive thresholds compared to young rats; however, age did not affect visceral sensitivity in this strain. In F344-BN rats, the number of abdominal contractions induced by the highest colonic distension pressure was significantly lower in old rats. However, following colonic sensitization, a difference was no longer apparent. In the F-344 strain, visceral hypersensitivity following afferent sensitization was evident in young rats at all distension pressures but was not observed in older animals at 20 mmHg. Aging significantly reduced maze exploration across all strains. Our data demonstrate that age- and strain-related alterations exist in pain behavior and highlight the effects of aging on exploratory behavior. These findings suggest that strain differences contribute to the controversial data on the effects of aging on pain perception. PMID:22095259

Chaloner, A; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

2013-02-01

132

Behavioral and anatomical abnormalities in Mecp2 mutant mice: A model for Rett syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 90% of Rett syndrome (RTT) cases have a mutation in the X-linked gene encoding methyl CpG binding-protein 2 (MeCP2). A mouse model that reprises clinical manifestations of the disease would be valuable for examining disease mechanisms. Here, we characterize physical and behavioral measures, as well as brain region volumes in young adult mice that have mutations in mouse methyl

N. A. Stearns; L. R. Schaevitz; H. Bowling; N. Nag; U. V. Berger; J. Berger-Sweeney

2007-01-01

133

Effects of the subacute administration of nefiracetam on abnormal behavior in aged rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of nefiracetam on learning and memory by the Morris water maze task and water-finding test, and on emotional behavior by forced swimming, hole-board and open-field tests in old male Kbl Wistar rats aged 90 and 108 weeks. In the water maze task, the acquisition of the task in aged rats was slower than that in young

Masaya Hasegawa; Shinobu Nakayama; Hiroshi Kinoshita; Manabu Amano; Kiyofumi Yamada; Takaaki Hasegawa; Toshitaka Nabeshima

1996-01-01

134

Ameliorating effect of piperine on behavioral abnormalities and oxidative markers in sodium valproate induced autism in BALB/C mice.  

PubMed

Post natal exposure to VPA (valproic acid) in mice induces behavioral deficits, abnormal sensitivity to sensory stimuli and self-injurious behavior, observed in autism. Piperine has been reported to have protective effect on brain. The present study aimed at evaluating effect of piperine on VPA induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in BALB/c mice. Young BALB/c mice 13 days old were procured from five different litters and segregated into five groups (n=6; 3 male, 3 female) i.e., Group I served as control group, received physiological saline on PND (Post natal day) 14 & Tween 80 p.o. from PND13-40. Group II served as normal treated group and received piperine (20mg/kg p.o.) from PND 13-40 and saline s.c. on PND 14. Group III served as valproate treated group received VPA (400mg/kg s.c.) on PND 14 and Tween 80 p.o. from PND 13-40. Group IV & V served as disease treated group received VPA (400mg/kg s.c.) on PND 14 & piperine (5 & 20mg/kg p.o.) from PND 13-40 respectively. BALB/c mice pups were subjected to behavioral testing to assess motor skill development, nociceptive response, locomotion, anxiety, and cognition on various postnatal days up to PND 40. At the end of behavioral evaluation, mice were sacrificed; brain was isolated for biochemical estimations (serotonin, glutathione, MDA and nitric oxide) and histopathological examination. Our study revealed that treatment with piperine significantly improved behavioral alterations, lowered oxidative stress markers, and restored histoarchitecture of cerebellum. This ameliorating effect of piperine is attributed to its anti-oxidant activity, cognition enhancing and neuroprotective activity. PMID:24803211

Pragnya, B; Kameshwari, J S L; Veeresh, B

2014-08-15

135

In-plane mechanical behaviors of 2D repetitive frameworks with four-coordinate flexible joints and elbowed beam members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of an open-framework structure constructed of joints and beam members are strongly influenced by both its geometrical configuration and joint flexibility. This paper clarifies the relationship between joint flexibility and Poisson's ratio, which is a mechanical criterion for solid deformation, and discusses two types of in-plane anisotropic structures made up of four-coordinate flexible joints and elbowed beam members. Uniaxial tensile analyses estimate the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of these frameworks by applying straightforward joint modeling with multi-rotational degrees of freedom. The numerical results show that these proposed frameworks produce a variety of deformability dependent on the joint flexibility in auxetic deformation with a negative Poisson's ratio, the folding mechanics under kinematic indeterminacy, and the transition of Poisson's ratio between the positive and negative values. The geometrical and topological aspects of the obtained mechanical behaviors are discussed.

Tanaka, Hiro; Shibutani, Yoji

2009-09-01

136

Paternal ethanol exposure and behavioral abnormities in offspring: Associated alterations in imprinted gene methylation.  

PubMed

Research confirms that maternal ethanol (EtOH) exposure can induce physical and mental disorders in offspring, yet the effect of paternal ethanol exposure on offspring is unclear. Methylation alterations in imprinted genes may be related to the well-documented teratogenic effects of ethanol. Here, we report that ethanol (0, 1.1, 3.3 g/kg) was administered intragastrically to male mice and a behavioral study was performed on their F1 generation. Data show that F1 mice with fathers exposed to the highest dose of ethanol had delayed cognitive performance and increased anxiety and depression. A specific circling behavior was observed in the offspring of the paternally ethanol-exposed group. The degree of methylation and mRNA expression of H19, Peg3, Ndn and Snrpn were assessed in paternal sperm and in the cerebral cortices of each offspring. It did affect methylation in paternal sperm (H19 and Peg3) and in the offspring's cerebral cortices (CpG7 and CpG11 in Peg3 and Snrpn), but the level of mRNA expression has not changed. In the circling mice, the highest ethanol exposure increase in methylation (CpG 1, 2, 7 and 11) and decreases in mRNA of Peg3.Thus, chronic paternal ethanol exposure can affect the methylation of imprinted genes in sire sperm that may be passed on to offspring, giving rise to mental deficits. PMID:24486713

Liang, Fei; Diao, Lei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Huijun; Zhou, Wenhao; Huang, Guoying; Ma, Duan

2014-06-01

137

Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3? and GSK-3?. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3? gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3? KO mice by using a well-established battery of behavioral tests together with neurochemical and neuroanatomical analysis. Results Similar to the previously described behaviours of GSK-3?+/-mice, GSK-3? mutants display decreased exploratory activity, decreased immobility time and reduced aggressive behavior. However, genetic inactivation of the GSK-3? gene was associated with: decreased locomotion and impaired motor coordination, increased grooming activity, loss of social motivation and novelty; enhanced sensorimotor gating and impaired associated memory and coordination. GSK-3? KO mice exhibited a deficit in fear conditioning, however memory formation as assessed by a passive avoidance test was normal, suggesting that the animals are sensitized for active avoidance of a highly aversive stimulus in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Changes in cerebellar structure and function were observed in mutant mice along with a significant decrease of the number and size of Purkinje cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data support a role for the GSK-3? gene in CNS functioning and possible involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders.

2009-01-01

138

Abnormal resistivity behavior of Cu-Ni and Cu-Co alloys in undercooled liquid state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resistivity behavior of undercooled liquid Cu-Ni and Cu-Co alloys had been studied in the contactless method, to probe the structure transition in undercooled melts during the cooling process. Over the entire concentration range, linear behavior of resistivity with temperature was obtained in liquid and undercooled liquid Cu-Ni system. It implied that the formation of icosahedral order might not influence the electron scattering in undercooled liquid Cu-Ni alloys. Similar results were obtained in Cu-Co system in the vicinity of liquidus temperature. A turning point was obvious in temperature coefficient of resistivity for undercooled liquid Cu-Co alloys around the bimodal line, which was interpreted to be responsible for metastable liquid-liquid phase separation. During liquid phase separation process, resistivity decreased and the temperature coefficient of resistivity was larger than that of homogeneous melts. In combination with transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope studies on the as-solidified microstructure, this was interpreted as the formation of egg-type structure and concentration change in Cu-rich and Co-rich phases. The mechanism controlling the separation and droplets motion was also discussed in undercooled liquid Cu-Co system.

Guo, Fengxiang; Lu, Ting; Qin, Jingyu; Zheng, Hongliang; Tian, Xuelei

2012-11-01

139

Large scale hippocampal cellular distress may explain the behavioral consequences of repetitive traumatic experiences--a proteomic approach.  

PubMed

Early life traumatic experiences are associated with psychopathology in adulthood. This may be due in part to the effects of trauma on hippocampal development and protein expression. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of early life trauma and adult re-stress on ventral hippocampal protein expression. Adolescent rats (n = 19) were subjected to a triple stressor on post-natal day 28 followed 7 days later by the first re-stress session and 25 days later (post-natal day 60 = adulthood) by the second re-stress session. Ventral hippocampi were collected on post-natal day 68 for protein expression determinations using protein arrays and 2D-gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to controls, traumatized animals showed an increase in Ca(2+) homeostatic proteins, dysregulated signaling pathways and energy metabolism enzymes, cytoskeletal protein changes, a decrease in neuroplasticity regulators, energy metabolism enzymes and an increase in apoptotic initiator proteins. These results indicate the extensive impact of trauma on adult brain development and behavior. PMID:18307038

Uys, Joachim D K; Hattingh, Suzél M; Stein, Dan J; Daniels, Willie M U

2008-09-01

140

Phase Transition Behavior and Abnormal Spall in FeMnNi Alloy with Low ?-? Transition Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase transition behavior of FeMnNi alloy with ?-V phase transition threshold in range of 6 GPa-7 GPa and corresponding spall phenomena in symmetric impact were studied experimentally. Impact of z-cut sapphire flyer on specimen with z-cut sapphire window and reverse impact by using specimen driven as flyer on z-cut sapphire and LiF window were used for loading and release wave profile measurement by VISAR. Experiments were conducted in velocity range 500 m/s-2000 m/s. Pulse X-ray was used for spallation verification by reason of difficulty in specimen recovery. Spallation phenomena were observed as impact stress far exceeds ?-V transition threshold. Observed spall phenomena should be related to special release wave configuration formed during reverse phase transition when impact stress slight exceeds phase transition threshold and even typical rarefaction shock wave formation is not observed.

Yongtao, Chen; Haibo, Hu; Xiaojun, Tang; Qingzhong, Li; Qixian, Peng; Jianbo, Hu

2007-12-01

141

Effects of the subacute administration of nefiracetam on abnormal behavior in aged rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of nefiracetam on learning and memory by the Morris water maze task and water-finding test, and on emotional behavior by forced swimming, hole-board and open-field tests in old male Kbl Wistar rats aged 90 and 108 weeks. In the water maze task, the acquisition of the task in aged rats was slower than that in young rats. Subacute administration of nefiracetam (1 and 3 mg/kg daily) for 24 days tended to shorten the goal latency to escape onto the platform in a dose-dependent manner in the retention test, conducted 24 days after acquisition training. Nefiracetam (1 mg/kg) administration for 49 days decreased the duration of immobility in aged rats in the forced swimming test. Locomotor activity in young rats during the dark period was significantly higher than that during the light period, while there was no difference in locomotor activity between the light and dark periods in aged rats, suggesting that locomotor activity during the dark period and nocturnal habits may be impaired in aged rats. Subacute administration of nefiracetam for 14 days significantly increased the locomotor activity during the dark, but not light, period in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, nefiracetam given for 38 days, significantly shortened the increased time elapsed before animals started exploring the environment in aged rats compared with young rats in the water-finding tests. These findings suggest that nefiracetam may improve the impaired nocturnal habits and some of emotional behavior in aged rats. PMID:8864041

Hasegawa, M; Nakayama, S; Kinoshita, H; Amano, M; Yamada, K; Hasegawa, T; Nabeshima, T

1996-08-01

142

Behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities after streptococcal exposure: a novel rat model of Sydenham chorea and related neuropsychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and autoimmunity are associated with the onset of a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders in children, with the prototypical disorder being Sydenham chorea (SC). Our aim was to develop an animal model that resembled the behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities of SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Male Lewis rats exposed to GAS antigen exhibited motor symptoms (impaired food manipulation and beam walking) and compulsive behavior (increased induced-grooming). These symptoms were alleviated by the D2 blocker haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, respectively, drugs that are used to treat motor symptoms and compulsions in streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Streptococcal exposure resulted in antibody deposition in the striatum, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and concomitant alterations in dopamine and glutamate levels in cortex and basal ganglia, consistent with the known pathophysiology of SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Autoantibodies (IgG) of GAS rats reacted with tubulin and caused elevated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling in SK-N-SH neuronal cells, as previously found with sera from SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Our new animal model translates directly to human disease and led us to discover autoantibodies targeted against dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat model as well as in SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22534626

Brimberg, Lior; Benhar, Itai; Mascaro-Blanco, Adita; Alvarez, Kathy; Lotan, Dafna; Winter, Christine; Klein, Julia; Moses, Allon E; Somnier, Finn E; Leckman, James F; Swedo, Susan E; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Joel, Daphna

2012-08-01

143

Behavioral, Pharmacological, and Immunological Abnormalities after Streptococcal Exposure: A Novel Rat Model of Sydenham Chorea and Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and autoimmunity are associated with the onset of a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders in children, with the prototypical disorder being Sydenham chorea (SC). Our aim was to develop an animal model that resembled the behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities of SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Male Lewis rats exposed to GAS antigen exhibited motor symptoms (impaired food manipulation and beam walking) and compulsive behavior (increased induced-grooming). These symptoms were alleviated by the D2 blocker haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, respectively, drugs that are used to treat motor symptoms and compulsions in streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Streptococcal exposure resulted in antibody deposition in the striatum, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and concomitant alterations in dopamine and glutamate levels in cortex and basal ganglia, consistent with the known pathophysiology of SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Autoantibodies (IgG) of GAS rats reacted with tubulin and caused elevated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling in SK-N-SH neuronal cells, as previously found with sera from SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Our new animal model translates directly to human disease and led us to discover autoantibodies targeted against dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat model as well as in SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

Brimberg, Lior; Benhar, Itai; Mascaro-Blanco, Adita; Alvarez, Kathy; Lotan, Dafna; Winter, Christine; Klein, Julia; Moses, Allon E; Somnier, Finn E; Leckman, James F; Swedo, Susan E; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Joel, Daphna

2012-01-01

144

Behavioral abnormalities and Parkinson's-like histological changes resulting from Id2 inactivation in mice  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Characterizing dopaminergic neuronal development and function in novel genetic animal models might uncover strategies for researchers to develop disease-modifying treatments for neurologic disorders. Id2 is a transcription factor expressed in the developing central nervous system. Id2?/? mice have fewer dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb and reduced olfactory discrimination, a pre-clinical marker of Parkinson’s disease. Here, we summarize behavioral, histological and in vitro molecular biological analyses to determine whether midbrain dopaminergic neurons are affected by Id2 loss. Id2?/? mice were hyperactive at 1 and 3 months of age, but by 6 months showed reduced activity. Id2?/? mice showed age-dependent histological alterations in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpC) associated with changes in locomotor activity. Reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) expression was observed at early ages in Id2?/? mice and DAT expression was dependent on Id2 expression in an in vitro dopaminergic differentiation model. Evidence of neurodegeneration, including activated caspase-3 and glial infiltration, were noted in the SNpC of older Id2?/? mice. These findings document a novel role for Id2 in the maintenance of midbrain dopamine neurons. The Id2?/? mouse should provide unique opportunities to study the progression of neurodegenerative disorders involving the dopamine system.

Havrda, Matthew C.; Paolella, Brenton R.; Ward, Nora M.; Holroyd, Kathryn B.

2013-01-01

145

Phase Transition Behavior and Abnormal Spall in FeMnNi alloy with Low ?-? Transition Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase transition behavior of a FeMnNi alloy with low ?-? phase transition stress in range of 6˜7GPa and corresponding spall phenomena are studied. Two experiment set up of symmetric impact design with flyer and target of same thickness and reverse impact technique of metal flyer on sapphire window are used. Loading and release wave profile are recorded with help of VISAR with two constants of strip numbers. Experiments are conducted on 100-mm-diameter and two stage light gas gun in velocity range from 300m/s up to 2000m/s. Discussion is focused on the formation of rarefaction shock wave and role of RSW in spallation. It is shown that spallation may happen in symmetric impacts when stress is higher than phase transition point. In velocity range up to 2000m/s, when impacting stress is more than 40GPa and shock front is overdriven, a spallation like oscillation profile is noticed in domain of first plateau in velocity curve. As release wave from impact side should come some time later, it may be raised by reflection of release wave from free surface with reverse phase transition. Specimen is thoroughly broken, although pulse X-ray records at the moment of 14 ?s after impact show no sign of multi-spallation. Further experiments are planned using VISAR with two constants of strip numbers to verify this phenomenon and parameters such as spall strength, spall thickness.

Hu, Haibo; Chen, Yongtao; Li, Qingzhong

2007-06-01

146

High fat diet produces brain insulin resistance, synaptodendritic abnormalities and altered behavior in mice.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3? with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors. PMID:24686304

Arnold, Steven E; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R; Carlson, Gregory C; Browne, Caroline A; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F; Kim, Sangwon F

2014-07-01

147

Motor abnormalities as a putative endophenotype for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) represent a complex group of behaviorally defined conditions with core deficits in social communication and the presence of repetitive and restrictive behaviors. To date, neuropathological studies have failed to identify pathognomonic cellular features for ASDs and there remains a fundamental disconnection between the complex clinical aspects of ASDs and the underlying neurobiology. Although not listed among the core diagnostic domains of impairment in ASDs, motor abnormalities have been consistently reported across the spectrum. In this perspective article, we summarize the evidence that supports the use of motor abnormalities as a putative endophenotype for ASDs. We argue that because these motor abnormalities do not directly depend on social or linguistic development, they may serve as an early disease indicator. Furthermore, we propose that stratifying patients based on motor development could be useful not only as an outcome predictor and in identifying more specific treatments for different ASDs categories, but also in exposing neurobiological mechanisms.

Esposito, Gianluca; Pasca, Sergiu P.

2013-01-01

148

Multiple pituitary hormone abnormalities, fever, behavioral problems, seizures and apnoic spells in a 6-year old girl.  

PubMed

A 6-year old girl was examined having two years previously presented a transient Cushing's syndrome, followed by recurrent hyponatremia, attributed to inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH). The brain MRI showed no abnormalities on repeated examinations, except for a suggestion of empty sella syndrome. During the past two years she also presented recurrent episodes of a prolonged febrile illness of unknown origin. All investigations related to infectious, autoimmune neoplastic diseases, histiocytosis-X or neurosarcoidosis were negative and the fever was characterized as central. The patient also presented episodes of tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonias and behavioral problems (alternating states of irritability, sleepiness and apathy, optic and hearing illusions and phobias) with or without hyponatremia. Her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination was not indicative of encephalitis and the encephalogram (EEG) showed only slowing of background activity. At the age of 4.75 years she, started to have recurrent episodes of hypopnoea/apnoea with severe desaturation and hypercapnia, occasionally requiring intubation and ventilation. She also developed unilateral miosis corneal ulceration and bilateral ptosis (oculo-sympathetic paresis). Repeat brain MRI and CT scans of the mediastinum excluded organic causes of apnoeas and of oculo-sympathetic paresis, such as neuroblastoma or lymphoma. Furthermore, on a 24 hour electrocardiogram recording, using power spectral analysis, significantly reduced heart rate variability was observed, by comparison with age-specific normal ranges. Thus the apnoeas, ptosis, miosis and temperature instability were attributed to autonomic dysfunction. During the same period, the patient presented significant growth retardation and growth hormone (GH) deficiency was confirmed during two provocative tests (peak GH levels: 3.1 and 2.9 ng/ml (normal>10). Moreover, thyrotropin (TSH) deficiency and persistent hyperprolactinemia were detected. She was started on hGH and thyroxine. She was also put on fluid restriction and increased sodium intake for her SIADH. She was advised to use O2 administration by mask in case of apnoeas. The child died at age 6 6/12 years as a result of apnoea during sleep. In conclusion: Multiple pituitary hormonal abnormalities, together with symptoms of autonomic neuropathy (apnoeas, ptosis, miosis, tachycardia, temperature instability) and encephalopathy (seizures, myoclonias and behavioral problems) developed in a 4-year old girl. The suggested diagnoses were: 1. Neurometabolic disorder, 2. Mitochondrial disorder, 3. Post infectious autoimmune process. PMID:17110363

Karavanaki, Kyriaki; Divoli, Andriani; Dattani, Mehul; Briassoulis, George; Theodorou, Virginia; Hatzara, Vasiliki; Avlonitis, Spyros

2002-01-01

149

New Perspectives in the Studies on Endocannabinoid and Cannabis: Abnormal Behaviors Associate With CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor and Development of Therapeutic Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC), the major psychoactive component of mari- juana, induces catalepsy-like immobilization and impairment of spatial memory in rats. 9-THC also induces aggressive behavior in isolated housing stress. These abnormal behaviors could be counteracted by SR141716A, a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist. Also 9-THC inhibited release of glutamate in the dorsal hippocampus, but this inhibition could be antagonized by SR141716A in

Michihiro Fujiwara; Nobuaki Egashira

2004-01-01

150

Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

2007-01-01

151

The Reduced Expression of the HADH2 Protein Causes X-Linked Mental Retardation, Choreoathetosis, and Abnormal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Recently, we defined a new syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation in a 4-generation family with a unique clinical phenotype characterized by mild mental retardation, choreoathetosis, and abnormal behavior (MRXS10). Linkage analysis in this family revealed a candidate region of 13.4 Mb between markers DXS1201 and DXS991 on Xp11; therefore, mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing in most of the 135 annotated genes located in the region. The gene (HADH2) encoding l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase II displayed a sequence alteration (c.574 C?A; p.R192R) in all patients and carrier females that was absent in unaffected male family members and could not be found in 2,500 control X chromosomes, including in those of 500 healthy males. The silent C?A substitution is located in exon 5 and was shown by western blot to reduce the amount of HADH2 protein by 60%–70% in the patient. Quantitative in vivo and in vitro expression studies revealed a ratio of splicing transcript amounts different from those normally seen in controls. Apparently, the reduced expression of the wild-type fragment, which results in the decreased protein expression, rather than the increased amount of aberrant splicing fragments of the HADH2 gene, is pathogenic. Our data therefore strongly suggest that reduced expression of the HADH2 protein causes MRXS10, a phenotype different from that caused by 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, which is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by missense mutations in this multifunctional protein.

Lenski, Claus; Frank Kooy, R.; Reyniers, Edwin; Loessner, Daniela; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Winnepenninckx, Birgitta; Hellebrand, Heide; Engert, Stefanie; Schwartz, Charles E.; Meindl, Alfons; Ramser, Juliane

2007-01-01

152

The reduced expression of the HADH2 protein causes X-linked mental retardation, choreoathetosis, and abnormal behavior.  

PubMed

Recently, we defined a new syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation in a 4-generation family with a unique clinical phenotype characterized by mild mental retardation, choreoathetosis, and abnormal behavior (MRXS10). Linkage analysis in this family revealed a candidate region of 13.4 Mb between markers DXS1201 and DXS991 on Xp11; therefore, mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing in most of the 135 annotated genes located in the region. The gene (HADH2) encoding L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase II displayed a sequence alteration (c.574 C-->A; p.R192R) in all patients and carrier females that was absent in unaffected male family members and could not be found in 2,500 control X chromosomes, including in those of 500 healthy males. The silent C-->A substitution is located in exon 5 and was shown by western blot to reduce the amount of HADH2 protein by 60%-70% in the patient. Quantitative in vivo and in vitro expression studies revealed a ratio of splicing transcript amounts different from those normally seen in controls. Apparently, the reduced expression of the wild-type fragment, which results in the decreased protein expression, rather than the increased amount of aberrant splicing fragments of the HADH2 gene, is pathogenic. Our data therefore strongly suggest that reduced expression of the HADH2 protein causes MRXS10, a phenotype different from that caused by 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, which is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by missense mutations in this multifunctional protein. PMID:17236142

Lenski, Claus; Kooy, R Frank; Reyniers, Edwin; Loessner, Daniela; Wanders, Ronald J A; Winnepenninckx, Birgitta; Hellebrand, Heide; Engert, Stefanie; Schwartz, Charles E; Meindl, Alfons; Ramser, Juliane

2007-02-01

153

Roles of repetitive sequences  

SciTech Connect

The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

Bell, G.I.

1991-12-31

154

Roles of repetitive sequences  

SciTech Connect

The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

Bell, G.I.

1991-01-01

155

Walking abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Different types of walking problems occur without a ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...

156

ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response  

PubMed Central

Background The Grin1 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA1) gene expresses a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is considered to play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. Grin1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In our previous study, we examined an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-generated mutant mouse strain (Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+) that has a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1. These mutant mice showed hyperactivity, increased novelty-seeking to objects, and abnormal social interactions. Therefore, Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice may serve as a potential animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, other behavioral characteristics related to these disorders, such as working memory function and sensorimotor gating, have not been fully explored in these mutant mice. In this study, to further investigate the behavioral phenotypes of Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice, we subjected them to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. Results There was no significant difference in nociception between Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ and wild-type mice. The mutants did not display any abnormalities in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. We confirmed the previous observations that the locomotor activity of these mutant mice increased in the open field and home cage activity tests. They displayed abnormal anxiety-like behaviors in the light/dark transition and the elevated plus maze tests. Both contextual and cued fear memory were severely deficient in the fear conditioning test. The mutant mice exhibited slightly impaired working memory in the eight-arm radial maze test. The startle amplitude was markedly decreased in Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice, whereas no significant differences between genotypes were detected in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. The mutant mice showed no obvious deficits in social behaviors in three different social interaction tests. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mutation causes abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, a deficiency in fear memory, and a decreased startle amplitude in mice. Although Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice only partially recapitulate symptoms of patients with ADHD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, they may serve as a unique animal model of a certain subpopulation of patients with these disorders.

2013-01-01

157

Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

158

Repetitive Stress Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... running surfaces or runs in worn-out sneakers. Tendonitis. In tendonitis, tearing and inflammation occur in the tendons, rope- ... bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. Tendonitis is associated with repetitive overstretching of tendons from ...

159

Recurrent reciprocal 1q21.1 deletions and duplications associated with microcephaly or macrocephaly and developmental and behavioral abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Chromosome region 1q21.1 contains extensive and complex low-copy repeats, and copy number variants (CNVs) in this region have recently been reported in association with congenital heart defects1, developmental delay2,3, schizophrenia and related psychoses4,5. We describe 21 probands with the 1q21.1 microdeletion and 15 probands with the 1q21.1 microduplication. These CNVs were inherited in most of the cases in which parental studies were available. Consistent and statistically significant features of microcephaly and macrocephaly were found in individuals with micro-deletion and microduplication, respectively. Notably, a paralog of the HYDIN gene located on 16q22.2 and implicated in autosomal recessive hydrocephalus6 was inserted into the 1q21.1 region during the evolution of Homo sapiens7; we found this locus to be deleted or duplicated in the individuals we studied, making it a probable candidate for the head size abnormalities observed. We propose that recurrent reciprocal microdeletions and microduplications within 1q21.1 represent previously unknown genomic disorders characterized by abnormal head size along with a spectrum of developmental delay, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. These phenotypes are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity.

Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Berg, Jonathan S; Scaglia, Fernando; Belmont, John; Bacino, Carlos A; Sahoo, Trilochan; Lalani, Seema R; Graham, Brett; Lee, Brendan; Shinawi, Marwan; Shen, Joseph; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Pursley, Amber; Lotze, Timothy; Kennedy, Gail; Lansky-Shafer, Susan; Weaver, Christine; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Grebe, Theresa A; Arnold, Georgianne L; Hutchison, Terry; Reimschisel, Tyler; Amato, Stephen; Geragthy, Michael T; Innis, Jeffrey W; Obersztyn, Ewa; Nowakowska, Beata; Rosengren, Sally S; Bader, Patricia I; Grange, Dorothy K; Naqvi, Sayed; Garnica, Adolfo D; Bernes, Saunder M; Fong, Chin-To; Summers, Anne; Walters, W David; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita

2009-01-01

160

Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these behavioral

Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

2011-01-01

161

Simulated Repetitive Impact in Orthogonal Continuous Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural contact and response interaction occurs in the mechanisms of many fields, including the nuclear, petroleum, biomedical, and automotive industries. Due to manufacturing or by design, a variety of machinery is susceptible to repetitive impact that can generate noise, wear, and damage as well as unexpected frequency-dependent behavior. Structural response and the force input are specifically important in cases of

Elizabeth K. Ervin

162

Repetition Priming in Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance…

Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

2008-01-01

163

Hierarchical representation and machine learning from faulty jet engine behavioral examples to detect real time abnormal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet engine behavior can be described by four major engine parameters and by their temporal and qualitative relationships. These parameters are rotational speeds of the low and high pressure turbine assemblies referred to as N1 and N2 respectively, exhaust gas temperature EGT, and combustion temperature COMBT. Normally, these parameters show stable readings. Faulty conditions like fuel interruption or bearing loss

U. K. Gupta; Moonis Ali

1988-01-01

164

Release Behavior of Fission Products from Coated Fuel Particles During Post-Irradiation Heating at Abnormally High Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report describes experimental results on release behavior of metal fission-products during isochronal and isothermal heating of TRISO-and BISO-coated fuel particles at temperatures from 1400 to 2200degC. The particles were irradiated in the ei...

K. Hayashi K. Fukuda

1989-01-01

165

Persistent neurochemical and behavioral abnormalities in adulthood despite early iron supplementation for perinatal iron deficiency anemia in rats?  

PubMed Central

Background Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has been associated with altered cognitive, motor, and social-emotional outcomes in human infants. We recently reported that rats with chronic perinatal IDA, had altered regional brain iron, monoamines, and sensorimotor skill emergence during early development. Objective To examine the long-term consequences of chronic perinatal IDA on behavior, brain iron and monoamine systems after dietary iron treatment in rats. Methods Sixty dams were randomly assigned to iron-sufficient (CN) or low-iron (EID) diets during gestation and lactation. Thereafter, all offspring were fed the iron-sufficient diet, assessed for hematology and behavior after weaning and into adulthood and for brain measures as adults (regional brain iron, monoamines, dopamine and serotonin transporters, and dopamine receptor). Behavioral assessments included sensorimotor function, general activity, response to novelty, spatial alternation, and spatial water maze performance. Results Hematology and growth were similar for EID and CN rats by postnatal day 35. In adulthood, EID thalamic iron content was lower. Monoamines, dopamine transporter, and dopamine receptor concentrations did not differ from CN. EID serotonin transporter concentration was reduced in striatum and related regions. EID rats had persisting sensorimotor deficits (delayed vibrissae-evoked forelimb placing, longer sticker removal time, and more imperfect grooming chains), were more hesitant in novel settings, and had poorer spatial water maze performance than CN. General activity and spatial alternation were similar for EID and CN. Conclusion Rats that had chronic perinatal IDA showed behavioral impairments that suggest persistent striatal dopamine and hippocampal dysfunction despite normalization of hematology, growth and most brain measures.

Felt, Barbara T.; Beard, John L.; Schallert, Timothy; Shao, Jie; Aldridge, J. Wayne; Connor, James R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Lozoff, Betsy

2006-01-01

166

Origin of the abnormal behavior of contact resistance in Ohmic contacts to laser-irradiated n-type GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal behavior of contact resistance with annealing in Ohmic contacts to laser-irradiated n-GaN is investigated. Ti/Al contacts on as-grown n-GaN shows no change in contact resistivity with annealing at the temperature range of 100-400 °C. However, the annealing results in the significant increase in contact resistivity in the contacts on laser-irradiated n-GaN. Synchrotron radiation photoemission study reveals the reduction of the concentration of donor-like N vacancies near the surface by the annealing. These results suggest that preventing the annihilation of N vacancies in the laser-irradiated n-GaN is important in improving the performance of vertical-structure GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off.

Jang, Ho Won; Lee, Jong-Lam

2009-05-01

167

Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702.

Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

2007-01-01

168

Do GluA1 knockout mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities relevant to the negative or cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder?  

PubMed

The glutamate system has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic illnesses, including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We recently found that knockout (KO) mice lacking the AMPA GluA1 subunit displayed behavioral abnormalities relevant to some of the positive symptoms of these disorders. Here we phenotyped GluA1 KO mice for behavioral phenotypes pertinent to negative and cognitive/executive symptoms. GluA1 KO mice were tested for conspecific social interactions, the acquisition and extinction of an operant response for food-reward, operant-based pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning, and impulsive choice in a delay-based cost/benefit decision-making T-maze task. Results showed that GluA1 KO mice engaged in less social interaction than wildtype (WT) controls when tested in a non-habituated, novel environment, but, conversely, displayed more social interaction in a well habituated, familiar environment. GluA1 KO mice were faster to acquire an operant stimulus-response for food reward than WT and were subsequently slower to extinguish the response. Genotypes showed similar pairwise discrimination learning and reversal, although GluA1 KO mice made fewer errors during early reversal. GluA1 KO mice also displayed increased impulsive choice, being less inclined to choose a delayed, larger reward when given a choice between this and a smaller, immediate reward, compared to WT mice. Finally, sucrose preference did not differ between genotypes. Collectively, these data add to the growing evidence that GluA1 KO mice display at least some phenotypic abnormalities mimicking those found in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Although these mice, like any other single mutant line, are unlikely to model the entire disease, they may nevertheless provide a useful tool for studying the role of GluA1 in certain aspects of the pathophysiology of major psychotic illness. PMID:21693126

Barkus, Chris; Feyder, Michael; Graybeal, Carolyn; Wright, Tara; Wiedholz, Lisa; Izquierdo, Alicia; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Schmitt, Wolfram; Sanderson, David J; Rawlins, J Nicholas P; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; Sprengel, Rolf; Bannerman, David; Holmes, Andrew

2012-03-01

169

Do GluA1 knockout mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities relevant to the negative or cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder?  

PubMed Central

The glutamate system has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic illnesses, including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We recently found that knockout (KO) mice lacking the AMPA GluA1 subunit displayed behavioral abnormalities relevant to some of the positive symptoms of these disorders. Here we phenotyped GluA1 KO mice for behavioral phenotypes pertinent to negative and cognitive/executive symptoms. GluA1 KO mice were tested for conspecific social interactions, the acquisition and extinction of an operant response for food-reward, operant-based pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning, and impulsive choice in a delay-based cost/benefit decision-making T-maze task. Results showed that GluA1 KO mice engaged in less social interaction than wildtype (WT) controls when tested in a non-habituated, novel environment, but, conversely, displayed more social interaction in a well habituated, familiar environment. GluA1 KO mice were faster to acquire an operant stimulus-response for food reward than WT and were subsequently slower to extinguish the response. Genotypes showed similar pairwise discrimination learning and reversal, although GluA1 KO mice made fewer errors during early reversal. GluA1 KO mice also displayed increased impulsive choice, being less inclined to choose a delayed, larger reward when given a choice between this and a smaller, immediate reward, compared to WT mice. Finally, sucrose preference did not differ between genotypes. Collectively, these data add to the growing evidence that GluA1 KO mice display at least some phenotypic abnormalities mimicking those found in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Although these mice, like any other single mutant line, are unlikely to model the entire disease, they may nevertheless provide a useful tool for studying the role of GluA1 in certain aspects of the pathophysiology of major psychotic illness.

Barkus, Chris; Feyder, Michael; Graybeal, Carolyn; Wright, Tara; Wiedholz, Lisa; Izquierdo, Alicia; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Schmitt, Wolfram; Sanderson, David J.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Sprengel, Rolf; Bannerman, David; Holmes, Andrew

2011-01-01

170

Hierarchical representation and machine learning from faulty jet engine behavioral examples to detect real time abnormal conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical basis and operation of LEBEX, a machine-learning system for jet-engine performance monitoring, are described. The behavior of the engine is modeled in terms of four parameters (the rotational speeds of the high- and low-speed sections and the exhaust and combustion temperatures), and parameter variations indicating malfunction are transformed into structural representations involving instances and events. LEBEX extracts descriptors from a set of training data on normal and faulty engines, represents them hierarchically in a knowledge base, and uses them to diagnose and predict faults on a real-time basis. Diagrams of the system architecture and printouts of typical results are shown.

Gupta, U. K.; Ali, M.

1988-01-01

171

Repetitive strain injuries.  

PubMed

Repetitive strain injuries (RSI) present an increasingly common challenge to clinicians. They consist of variety of musculoskeletal disorders, generally related to tendons, muscles, or joints, as well as some common peripheral-nerve-entrapment and vascular syndromes. These disorders generally affect the back, neck, and upper limbs, although lower limbs may also be involved. Although RSI may occur as a result of sports and recreational activities, occupational RSIs, affecting the patient's livelihood, are particularly important. These injuries result from repetitive and forceful motions, awkward postures, and other work-related conditions and ergonomic hazards. Occupationally induced RSIs are generally costly, creating a strong incentive for physicians to become familiar with the symptoms, signs, and risk factors so that they can be diagnosed early and appropriate interventions facilitated. PMID:9093264

Yassi, A

1997-03-29

172

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients.

BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

2011-01-01

173

Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments  

PubMed Central

Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2?/? mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2?/? mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments.

Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Holter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

2014-01-01

174

L-NAME cotreatment did prevent neither mitochondrial impairment nor behavioral abnormalities in adult Wistar rats treated with vitamin A supplementation.  

PubMed

Vitamin A has been characterized as a potential neurotoxin, because ingestion of such vitamin - or its derivatives, the retinoids - at moderate to high doses elicits a myriad of deleterious effects, from acute intoxication involving head-ache, confusion, and 'pseudo tumor cerebri' to chronic, and perhaps irreversible, abnormalities, including irritability, anxiety, depression, and suicide ideation. Nevertheless, it still remains to be found the mechanism by which vitamin A induces cognitive decline. Based on the fact that vitamin A at clinical doses is a potent pro-oxidant agent to the central nervous system, we performed the present work to analyze whether a cotreatment with L-NAME at 30 mg/kg (four times a week) was able to prevent (or minimize) the biochemical and/or behavioral disturbances resulting from a 28-day daily supplementation with retinol palmitate at doses from 1000 to 9000 IU/kg/day. Then, we investigated mitochondrial function, redox parameters, and the levels of proteins potentially involved in neurodegenerative events, as for instance ?-synuclein and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts. Besides, monoamine oxidase enzyme activity was quantified in this work. We observed that L-NAME cotreatment was not completely effective in preventing the redox disturbances induced by vitamin A supplementation. Moreover, L-NAME cotreatment did not affect the behavioral deficits elicited by vitamin A supplementation. We conclude that other parameters rather than NO levels or its derivatives, as for example ONOO(-), take a more important role in mediating the negative effects triggered by vitamin A supplementation. PMID:21521362

de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

2012-08-01

175

Deletion of densin-180 results in abnormal behaviors associated with mental illness and reduces mGluR5 and DISC1 in the postsynaptic density fraction  

PubMed Central

Densin is an abundant scaffold protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that forms a high affinity complex with ?CaMKII and ?-actinin. To assess the function of densin, we created a mouse line with a null mutation in the gene encoding it (LRRC7). Homozygous knockout mice display a wide variety of abnormal behaviors that are often considered endophenotypes of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. At the cellular level, loss of densin results in reduced levels of ?-actinin in the brain and selective reduction in the localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction; whereas, the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors and other prominent PSD proteins are unchanged. In addition, deletion of densin results in impairment of mGluR- and NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD), alters the early dynamics of regulation of CaMKII by NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), and produces a change in spine morphology. These results indicate that densin influences the function of mGluRs and CaMKII at synapses, and contributes to localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction. They are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations that disrupt the organization and/or dynamics of postsynaptic signaling complexes in excitatory synapses can cause behavioral endophenotypes of mental illness.

Carlisle, Holly J.; Luong, Tinh N.; Medina-Marino, Andrew; Schenker, Leslie; Khorosheva, Eugenia; Indersmitten, Tim; Gunapala, Keith M.; Steele, Andrew D.; O'Dell, Thomas J.; Patterson, Paul H.; Kennedy, Mary B.

2011-01-01

176

Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or ?PD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and activated microglia in perivascular areas and brain parenchyma. Genetically resistant, chronically infected mice had substantially less inflammation. Conclusion In outbred mice, chronic, adult acquired T. gondii infection causes neurologic and behavioral abnormalities secondary to inflammation and loss of brain parenchyma. Perivascular inflammation is prominent particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus. Even resistant mice have perivascular inflammation. This mouse model of chronic T. gondii infection raises questions of whether persistence of this parasite in brain can cause inflammation or neurodegeneration in genetically susceptible hosts.

Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

2008-01-01

177

Transplantation of Melanocytes Obtained from the Skin Ameliorates Apomorphine-Induced Abnormal Behavior in Rodent Hemi-Parkinsonian Models  

PubMed Central

Tyrosinase, which catalyzes both the hydroxylation of tyrosine and consequent oxidation of L-DOPA to form melanin in melanocytes, is also expressed in the brain, and oxidizes L-DOPA and dopamine. Replacement of dopamine synthesis by tyrosinase was reported in tyrosine hydroxylase null mice. To examine the potential benefits of autograft cell transplantation for patients with Parkinson’s disease, tyrosinase-producing cells including melanocytes, were transplanted into the striatum of hemi-parkinsonian model rats or mice lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine. Marked improvement in apomorphine-induced rotation was noted at day 40 after intrastriatal melanoma cell transplantation. Transplantation of tyrosinase cDNA-transfected hepatoma cells, which constitutively produce L-DOPA, resulted in marked amelioration of the asymmetric apomorphine-induced rotation in hemi-parkinsonian mice and the effect was present up to 2 months. Moreover, parkinsonian mice transplanted with melanocytes from the back skin of black newborn mice, but not from albino mice, showed marked improvement in the apomorphine-induced rotation behavior up to 3 months after the transplantation. Dopamine-positive signals were seen around the surviving transplants in these experiments. Taken together with previous studies showing dopamine synthesis and metabolism by tyrosinase, these results highlight therapeutic potential of intrastriatal autograft cell transplantation of melanocytes in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Asanuma, Masato; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Diaz-Corrales, Francisco J.; Higashi, Youichirou; Namba, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Norio

2013-01-01

178

[Derealization and repetition].  

PubMed

The psycho-technique of "derealization" helped the majority of the German population that had been loyal to the Hitler regime to escape from their historical responsibility in 1945. The derealization of an historical era of collective history and of the corresponding phases of their individual histories saved these people the work of self transformation and opened the way to an unwitting repetition. In the unending debates around Nazi war criminal and their accomplices, the paramount issue is to refuse the "normality" of this derealization. PMID:2315515

Dahmer, H

1990-02-01

179

The duplication 17p13.3 phenotype: analysis of 21 families delineates developmental, behavioral and brain abnormalities, and rare variant phenotypes.  

PubMed

Chromosome 17p13.3 is a gene rich region that when deleted is associated with the well-known Miller-Dieker syndrome. A recently described duplication syndrome involving this region has been associated with intellectual impairment, autism and occasional brain MRI abnormalities. We report 34 additional patients from 21 families to further delineate the clinical, neurological, behavioral, and brain imaging findings. We found a highly diverse phenotype with inter- and intrafamilial variability, especially in cognitive development. The most specific phenotype occurred in individuals with large duplications that include both the YWHAE and LIS1 genes. These patients had a relatively distinct facial phenotype and frequent structural brain abnormalities involving the corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis, and cranial base. Autism spectrum disorders were seen in a third of duplication probands, most commonly in those with duplications of YWHAE and flanking genes such as CRK. The typical neurobehavioral phenotype was usually seen in those with the larger duplications. We did not confirm the association of early overgrowth with involvement of YWHAE and CRK, or growth failure with duplications of LIS1. Older patients were often overweight. Three variant phenotypes included cleft lip/palate (CLP), split hand/foot with long bone deficiency (SHFLD), and a connective tissue phenotype resembling Marfan syndrome. The duplications in patients with clefts appear to disrupt ABR, while the SHFLD phenotype was associated with duplication of BHLHA9 as noted in two recent reports. The connective tissue phenotype did not have a convincing critical region. Our experience with this large cohort expands knowledge of this diverse duplication syndrome. PMID:23813913

Curry, Cynthia J; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Grant, Erica; Gripp, Karen W; Anderson, Carol; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Saad, Taha Ben; Chizhikov, Victor V; Dybose, Giedre; Fagerberg, Christina; Falco, Michelle; Fels, Christina; Fichera, Marco; Graakjaer, Jesper; Greco, Donatella; Hair, Jennifer; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Huggins, Marlene; Ladda, Roger; Li, Chumei; Moeschler, John; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J M; Ozmore, Jillian R; Reitano, Santina; Romano, Corrado; Roos, Laura; Schnur, Rhonda E; Sell, Susan; Suwannarat, Pim; Svaneby, Dea; Szybowska, Marta; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Tervo, Raymond; Tsai, Anne Chun-Hui; Tucker, Megan; Vallee, Stephanie; Wheeler, Ferrin C; Zand, Dina J; Barkovich, A James; Aradhya, Swaroop; Shaffer, Lisa G; Dobyns, William B

2013-08-01

180

[Review: Repetitive hydatidiform moles].  

PubMed

Repetitive moles are rare. They are either sporadic or familial, with or without consanguinity. Some of them can be explained by a NLRP7 mutation, which causes genomic parental imprinting alteration, with a preferential paternal phenotypic expression. Currently, no effective therapeutic solution has been developed. Among the 1687 patients declared to the French Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center, 13 presented at least two hydatidiform moles, thus less than 1% of the patients. A mutation of the NLRP7 gene was shown in six of 12 tested patients (50%) among whom three presented a homozygous mutation and three a heterozygous mutation. For an affected patient, type of mole can indifferently be a complete hydatidiform mole or a partial hydatidiform mole. We describe these cases and compare them to those already published. PMID:20965770

Muhlstein, J; Golfier, F; Frappart, L; Poulizac, G; Abel, F; Touitou, I; Hajri, T; Raudrant, D

2010-11-01

181

Repetition Blindness for Rotated Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repetition blindness (RB) is the finding that observers often miss the repetition of an item within a rapid stream of words or objects. Recent studies have shown that RB for objects is largely unaffected by variations in viewpoint between the repeated items. In 5 experiments, we tested RB under different axes of rotation, with different types of…

Hayward, William G.; Zhou, Guomei; Man, Wai-Fung; Harris, Irina M.

2010-01-01

182

Repetitive resonant railgun power supply  

DOEpatents

A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

183

Masked Repetition Priming using Magnetoencephalography  

PubMed Central

Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming. To date, the electrophysiological evidence has been equivocal. We report findings from two experiments. Both employed identity priming, where the prime and target are the same lexical item but differ in case (NEWS-news). The first experiment used only forward masking, while the prime in the second experiment was both preceded and followed by a mask (backward masking). In both studies, we find a significant behavioral effect of priming. Using MEG, we identified a component peaking approximately 225 ms post-onset of the target, whose latency was sensitive to repetition. These findings support the notion that properties of the MEG response index specific lexical processes and demonstrate that masked priming can be effectively combined with MEG to investigate the nature of lexical processing.

Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

2008-01-01

184

Clomipramine Treatment for Stereotypy and Related Repetitive Movement Disorders Associated with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of the serotonin uptake inhibitor clomipramine in treating stereotyped and related repetitive behavior disorders was tested in 10 adults (ages 18-42) with severe and profound mental retardation. Of the seven participants who tolerated the drug, six exhibited a clinically significant improvement in one or more repetitive behaviors.…

Lewis, Mark H.; And Others

1995-01-01

185

Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy (XXXX). Results of five experiments show that perceptual sensitivity is strikingly and significantly reduced in the RB condition relative to both baseline control conditions. The data show RB can be obtained under conditions in which memory problems are minimal and where perceptual sensitivity is assessed independently of biases.

Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

186

Early Repetitive Behaviors May Signal Autism Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... really show up until preschool," Wolff said. But recent research, including the current study, has shown that to ... May 17, 2014, presentation, International Meeting for Autism Research, ... Toddler Development Recent Health News Page last updated on 15 May ...

187

Growth differences associated with compulsive and stereotyped behavior disorders in adults with mental retardation.  

PubMed

We have recently observed that compulsive behaviors in mentally retarded patients appear to be quite prevalent, can be reliably assessed, and have a high rate of co-occurrence with stereotyped and self-injurious behaviors in this population. As abnormal growth rate has been observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, we examined physical stature in adults with mental retardation who display repetitive movement disorders. Identification of cases with stereotypic movement disorder, and cases with compulsive behaviors was done using a symptom checklist and direct observation. Subjects with repetitive movement disorders were smaller in stature than control subjects, with gender differences observed across repetitive behavior disorders. Specifically, female subjects with compulsive behavior disorder, but not stereotypic movement disorder, were significantly shorter and weighted significantly less than same sex-matched controls. Conversely, male subjects with stereotypic movement disorder, but not compulsive disorder, were significantly shorter and weighed significantly less than same sex controls. These findings may point to a neuroendocrine abnormality associated with repetitive movement disorders. PMID:9160607

Powell, S B; Bodfish, J W; Parker, D E; Crawford, T W; Golden, R N; Lewis, M H

1996-01-01

188

Repetition Suppression and Multi-Voxel Pattern Similarity Differentially Track Implicit and Explicit Visual Memory  

PubMed Central

Repeated exposure to a visual stimulus is associated with corresponding reductions in neural activity, particularly within visual cortical areas. It has been argued that this phenomenon of repetition suppression is related to increases in processing fluency or implicit memory. However, repetition of a visual stimulus can also be considered in terms of the similarity of the pattern of neural activity elicited at each exposure—a measure that has recently been linked to explicit memory. Despite the popularity of each of these measures, direct comparisons between the two have been limited, and the extent to which they differentially (or similarly) relate to behavioral measures of memory has not been clearly established. In the present study, we compared repetition suppression and pattern similarity as predictors of both implicit and explicit memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned 20 participants while they viewed and categorized repeated presentations of scenes. Repetition priming (facilitated categorization across repetitions) was used as a measure of implicit memory, and subsequent scene recognition was used as a measure of explicit memory. We found that repetition priming was predicted by repetition suppression in prefrontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal regions; however, repetition priming was not predicted by pattern similarity. In contrast, subsequent explicit memory was predicted by pattern similarity (across repetitions) in some of the same occipitotemporal regions that exhibited a relationship between priming and repetition suppression; however, explicit memory was not related to repetition suppression. This striking double dissociation indicates that repetition suppression and pattern similarity differentially track implicit and explicit learning.

Chun, Marvin M.; Kuhl, Brice A.

2013-01-01

189

Directed PCR-free engineering of highly repetitive DNA sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A)) tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products. Results For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays. Conclusion Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.

2011-01-01

190

A Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Before concluding Repetition Blindness is a perceptual phenomenon, alternative explanations based on memory retrieval problems and report bias must be rejected. Memory problems were minimized by requiring a judgment about only a single briefly displayed field. Bias and sensitivity effects were empirically measured with an ROC-curve analysis method based on confidence ratings. Results from five experiments support the hypothesis that Repetition Blindness can be a perceptual phenomenon.

Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

191

Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. CONCLUSION: Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management.

O'Neil, B. A.; Forsythe, M. E.; Stanish, W. D.

2001-01-01

192

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Overview What is abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ...

193

Pressure Rig for Repetitive Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metals. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal i...

P. Vasquez W. R. Hutto A. R. Philips

1987-01-01

194

Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In…

Smith, Bruce

2006-01-01

195

Planning repetitive construction: Current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of existing techniques for planning and analysing linear construction operations. The family of techniques which are based on the line of balance (LOB) concept (e.g. linear scheduling method, vertical production method, line of balance scheduling, repetitive project model, velocity diagrams, and time space scheduling method) are introduced, the line of balance concept is discussed, and

James D. Lutz; Adib Hijazi

1993-01-01

196

Repetition Blindness Occurs in Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theorists have predicted that repetition blindness (RB) should be absent for nonwords because they do not activate preexisting mental types. The authors hypothesized that RB would be observed for nonwords because RB can occur at a sublexical level. Four experiments showed that RB is observed for word-nonword pairs (noon noof), orthographically…

Harris, Catherine L.; Morris, Alison L.

2004-01-01

197

How word frequency modulates masked repetition priming: an ERP investigation.  

PubMed

The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to provide precise temporal information about the modulation of masked repetition priming effects?×?word frequency during the course of target word recognition. Contrary to the pattern seen with behavioral response times in prior research, we predicted that high-frequency words should generate larger and earlier peaking repetition priming effects than low-frequency words in the N400 time window. This prediction was supported by the results of two experiments. Furthermore, repetition priming effects in the N250 time window were found for low-frequency words in both experiments, whereas for high-frequency words these effects were seen only at the shorter (50?ms stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA]) used in Experiment 2, and not in Experiment 1 (70?ms SOA). We explain this pattern as resulting from reset mechanisms operating on the form representations activated by prime stimuli when primes and targets are processed as separate perceptual events. PMID:22221077

Grainger, Jonathan; Lopez, Danielle; Eddy, Marianna; Dufau, Stéphane; Holcomb, Phillip J

2012-05-01

198

Cytogenetic abnormalities and fragile-x syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Autism is a behavioral disorder with impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. About 5–10 % of individuals with autism have 'secondary' autism in which an environmental agent, chromosome abnormality, or single gene disorder can be identified. Ninety percent have idiopathic autism and a major gene has not yet been identified. We have assessed the incidence of chromosome abnormalities and Fragile X syndrome in a population of autistic patients referred to our laboratory. Methods Data was analyzed from 433 patients with autistic traits tested using chromosome analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or molecular testing for fragile X syndrome by Southern and PCR methods. Results The median age was 4 years. Sex ratio was 4.5 males to 1 female [354:79]. A chromosome (cs) abnormality was found in 14/421 [3.33 %] cases. The aberrations were: 4/14 [28%] supernumerary markers; 4/14 [28%] deletions; 1/14 [7%] duplication; 3/14 [21%] inversions; 2/14 [14%] translocations. FISH was performed on 23 cases for reasons other than to characterize a previously identified cytogenetic abnormality. All 23 cases were negative. Fragile-X testing by Southern blots and PCR analysis found 7/316 [2.2 %] with an abnormal result. The mutations detected were: a full mutation (fM) and abnormal methylation in 3 [43 %], mosaic mutations with partial methylation of variable clinical significance in 3 [43%] and a permutation carrier [14%]. The frequency of chromosome and fragile-X abnormalities appears to be within the range in reported surveys (cs 4.8-1.7%, FRAX 2–4%). Limitations of our retrospective study include paucity of behavioral diagnostic information, and a specific clinical criterion for testing. Conclusions Twenty-eight percent of chromosome abnormalities detected in our study were subtle; therefore a high resolution cytogenetic study with a scrutiny of 15q11.2q13, 2q37 and Xp23.3 region should be standard practice when the indication is autism. The higher incidence of mosaic fragile-X mutations with partial methylation compared to FRAXA positive population [50% vs 15–40%] suggests that faint bands and variations in the Southern band pattern may occur in autistic patients.

Reddy, Kavita S

2005-01-01

199

How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network.  

PubMed

A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier

2014-06-01

200

Repetitive Delone sets and quasicrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of characterizing the simplest discrete\\u000apoint sets that are aperiodic, using invariants based on topological dynamics.\\u000aA Delone set whose patch-counting function N(T), for radius T, is finite for\\u000aall T is called repetitive if there is a function M(T) such that every ball of\\u000aradius M(T)+T contains a copy of each kind of patch

JEFFREY C. LAGARIAS; PETER A. B. PLEASANTS

2003-01-01

201

Brief Report: Exploring the Relationship between Sensory Processing and Repetitive Behaviours in Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours in children with Williams Syndrome (WS; n = 21). This is a novel investigation bringing together two clinical phenomena for the first time in this neuro-developmental disorder. Parents completed the Sensory Profile (Short Form; Dunn in The…

Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Rodgers, Jacqui

2013-01-01

202

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities refer to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs). ... Skeletal limb abnormalities are most often used to describe defects in the legs or arms that are ...

203

The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition  

PubMed Central

Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form.

2012-01-01

204

Cognitive Deficit, Learning Difficulties, Severe Behavioral Abnormalities and Healed Cleft Lip in a Patient with a 1.2-Mb Distal Microduplication at 22q11.2  

PubMed Central

The 22q11.2 duplication syndrome has been recently characterized as a new entity with features overlapping the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Most 22q11.2 duplications represent reciprocal events of the typical 3-Mb deletions extending between low copy repeat (LCR) 22-A and LCR22-D. It has been suggested that the clinical manifestations observed in patients with 22q11.2 microduplications may range from milder phenotypes to multiple severe defects, and this variability could be responsible for many undetected cases. Here, we report on a patient with a 1.2-Mb microduplication at 22q11.2 spanning LCR22-F and LCR22-H which harbor the SMARCB1 and SNRPD3 genes. The patient presented healed cleft lip, mild facial dysmorphism, cognitive deficit, and delayed language development associated with severe behavioral problems including learning difficulties and aggressive behavior.

Ribeiro-Bicudo, L.A.; de Campos Legnaro, C.; Gamba, B.F.; Candido Sandri, R.M.; Richieri-Costa, A.

2013-01-01

205

Abnormal Expression of Synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and Synaptotagmin 1 in the Hippocampus of Kainic Acid-Exposed Rats with Behavioral Deficits.  

PubMed

Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and associated with behavioral problems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these problems are not yet clear. In this study, kainic acid (KA) was systemically administered to immature male Wistar rats to induce SRS. The behavior of the immature rats was evaluated with a water maze, elevated-plus mazes, and open field tests. The expression patterns of synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and synaptotagmin 1 (Syt 1) were examined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. KA-treated rats with SRS demonstrated learning and memory deficits, reduced anxiety, and increased locomotor activity, compared with placebo-treated rats and KA-treated rats without SRS. No neuronal cell loss was observed in the hippocampus 6 weeks after exposure to KA. However, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed decreased synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and Syt 1 expression in KA-treated rats with SRS. Synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and Syt1 expression levels were found to be positively correlated with learning and memory but negatively correlated with anxiety and locomotor activity. These data suggested that SRS may induce changes in synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and Syt1 expression and may be functionally related to SRS-induced behavioral deficits. PMID:24832394

Zhang, Feng-Xia; Sun, Qin-Jian; Zheng, Xing-Yue; Lin, You-Ting; Shang, Wei; Wang, Ai-Hua; Duan, Rui-Sheng; Chi, Zhao-Fu

2014-08-01

206

Study of a 1-watt repetitive dye laser.  

PubMed

A repetitive flashtube pumped dye laser (pulse rate up to 30 Hz) is described. The untuned laser output average power with rhodamine 6G is 1 W. When tuned by a Perot-Fabry etalon, 0.36 W is obtained in a bandwidth of 3 A. Output power is given for several dyes emitting between 440 nm and 680 nm. The behavior of flashtubes and dye solutions after long use is discussed. PMID:20125242

Loth, C; Meyer, Y H

1973-01-01

207

Sensory representation abnormalities that parallel focal hand dystonia in a primate model  

PubMed Central

In our hypothesis of focal dystonia, attended repetitive behaviors generate aberrant sensory representations. Those aberrant representations interfere with motor control. Abnormal motor control strengthens sensory abnormalities. The positive feedback loop reinforces the dystonic condition. Previous studies of primates with focal hand dystonia have demonstrated multi-digit or hairy-glabrous responses at single sites in area 3b, receptive fields that average ten times larger than normal, and high receptive field overlap as a function of horizontal distance. In this study, we strengthen and elaborate these findings. One animal was implanted with an array of micro-electrodes that spanned the border between the face and digits. After the animal developed hand dystonia, responses in the initial hand representation increasingly responded to low threshold stimulation of the face in a columnar substitution. The hand-face border that is normally sharp became patchy and smeared over one millimeter of cortex within six weeks. Two more trained animals developed a focal hand dystonia variable in severity across the hand. Receptive field size, presence of multi-digit or hairy-glabrous receptive fields, and columnar overlap covaried with the animal’s ability to use specific digits. A fourth animal performed the same behaviors without developing dystonia. Many of its physiological measures were similar to the dystonic animals, but receptive field overlap functions were minimally abnormal, and no sites shared response properties that are normally segregated such as hairy-glabrous combined fields, or multi-digit fields. Thalamic mapping demonstrated proportionate levels of abnormality in thalamic representations as was found in cortical representations.

Blake, David T.; Byl, Nancy N.; Cheung, Steven; Bedenbaugh, Purvis; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Lamb, Michelle; Merzenich, Michael

2010-01-01

208

Movement dysfunction following repetitive hand opening and closing: anatomical analysis in Owl monkeys.  

PubMed

Repetitive strain injuries are thought to result from biomechanical stress and tissue microtrauma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of local inflammation, scarring or anatomical variations of the flexor tendons and the median and ulnar nerves in four Owl monkeys behaviorally trained at a repetitive motor or sensory task. Three monkeys were trained to repetitively open and close a handpiece. The two monkeys that used rapid, stereotypical hand squeezing developed a task-specific movement dysfunction (one in 5 weeks and one in 24 weeks). The third monkey used a variable shoulder-pulling strategy and did not develop movement problems. The fourth monkey served as a control subject for the repetitive motor movements, trained on a repetitive sensory task, and did not develop a task-specific movement dysfunction. On dissection and histologic staining, there were no signs of active inflammation in the median nerve, the ulnar nerve, or the flexor tendons in any of the monkeys. However, the monkey that developed movement problems after 5 weeks of repetitive hand squeezing had an anatomical restriction of the flexor profundus tendon on the fourth digit of the trained side and the third digit of the untrained side. Reorganization of the representation of the hand on the contralateral somatosensory cortex (area 3b) was noted in the two monkeys that developed motor control problems and in the monkey performing the repetitive sensory task. These findings suggest that repetitive, stereotypical motor behaviors can lead to motor control problems without local signs of tendon or nerve inflammation. Preexisting anatomical restrictions may modify the time course for the development of movement dysfunction under conditions of stressful repetition. This animal model may simulate clinical focal hand dystonia (or occupational hand cramps) which can develop in human subjects who perform prolonged, repetitive, stereotypical movements. PMID:10091624

Topp, K S; Byl, N N

1999-03-01

209

Increased repetitive behaviours and prolactin responsivity to oral m-chlorophenylpiperazine in adults with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysfunction in three primary behavioural domains: repetitive behaviours, social deficits, and language abnormalities. There is evidence that abnormalities exist in the serotonin (5-HT) system in autism spectrum patients. Furthermore, 5-HT is known to play a role in repetitive and social behaviours. This study examined the effect of m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) on repetitive behaviours and prolactin response in 11 adults with autism or Aspergers disorder and 8 age- and gender-matched healthy controls via randomized double-blind, m-CPP and placebo challenges. The primary outcome measure was an instrument rating six repetitive behaviours: need to know, repeating, ordering, need to tell/ask, self-injury, and touching. Patients with autism spectrum disorders showed a significant increase in repetitive behaviours at end-point following oral m-CPP in comparison to placebo. Additionally subjects with autism spectrum disorders showed a significantly increased prolactin response to m-CPP compared to normal controls, with neither group responding to placebo. This study provides further evidence for altered 5-HT sensitivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, as well as a possible relationship between repetitive behaviours in autism spectrum disorders and abnormalities in the 5-HT system. PMID:15132762

Novotny, Sherie; Hollander, Eric; Phillips, Ann; Allen, Andrea; Wasserman, Stacey; Iyengar, Rupa

2004-09-01

210

Optimizing power output by varying repetition tempo.  

PubMed

The effects of varying interrepetition rest and eccentric velocity on power output (PO) and the number of repetitions performed during a bench press set were examined in 24 college-aged resistance trained men. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a set of bench press at 80% 1 repetition maximum until volitional fatigue. For each of the 6 repetition tempo trials, the bench press set was paced by metronome to a unique repetition tempo involving a combination of the following: interrepetition rest of 0 or 4 seconds; eccentric velocity of 1 or 4 seconds and bottom rest of 0 or 3 seconds. The velocity of concentric contraction was maximal during all 6 tempo trials. During each trial, video data were captured to determine PO variables and number of successful repetitions completed at each tempo. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed tempos with a fast eccentric phase (1 second), and no bottom rest produced significantly greater (p ? 0.05) PO and repetitions than tempos involving slower eccentric velocity (4 seconds) or greater bottom rest (4 seconds). This combination of greater repetitions and PO resulted in a greater volume of work. Varying interrepetition rest (1 or 4 seconds) did not significantly affect PO or repetitions. The results of this study support the use of fast eccentric speed and no bottom rest during acute performance testing to maximize PO and number of repetitions during a set of bench press. PMID:21881531

Pryor, Riana R; Sforzo, Gary A; King, Deborah L

2011-11-01

211

Effects of attention and emotion on repetition priming and their modulation by cholinergic enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether behavioral and neural effects of repeating faces are modulated by independent factors of selective attention, emotion, and cholinergic enhancement, during functional MRI. Face repetition occurred either between task-relevant (spatially attended) or task-irrelevant (unattended) stimuli; faces could be fearful or neutral; subjects received either placebo or physostigmine. Under placebo, a reaction time advantage occurred with repetition (i.e., priming)

Paul Bentley; Patrik Vuilleumier; Christiane M. Thiel; Jon Driver; Raymond J. Dolan

2003-01-01

212

Abnormal Stomatal Behavior and Hormonal Imbalance in flacca, a Wilty Mutant of Tomato: I. Root Effect and Kinetin-like Activity.  

PubMed

The wilty tomato mutant, flacca, and the normal variety, Rheinlands Ruhm, were compared for kinetin-like activity in ontogeny. The mutant wilts easily because its stomata resist closure. This stomatal resistance decreases with age. The occurrence of a root factor which induces stomatal opening was inferred from grafting experiments. It was hypothesized that the excessive stomatal openings in the mutant may result from excess of kinetin-like activity in the leaf of that plant. In addition, it was suggested that the closure of stomata in the aging mutant is due to a decrease of kinetin-like activity with age. Kinetin-like activity in the leaf was determined by incorporation of labeled leucine. The concentration of cytokinins in root exudate and leaf extract was determined by the soybean callus assay. Evidence was presented of higher kinetin-like activity in the leaves of the mutant and higher cytokinin concentration in its root exudate. Cytokinin concentration in the shoot was found to be only slightly higher in the mutant than in the normal plants. Kinetin-like activity in the leaf and cytokinin concentration of root exudate decreased with age in both mutant and normal plants. Kinetin-like activity in the leaves of mutant plants, which phenocopy the normal variety as a result of continuous application of abscisic acid, was lower than in control mutant plants. The significance of these findings per se and in connection with stomatal behavior is discussed. PMID:16657469

Tal, M; Imber, D; Itai, C

1970-09-01

213

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury.  

PubMed

Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed dementia pugilistica, and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review 48 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 profession althletes, 1 football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes, parkinsonism, and speech and gait abnormalities. Neuropathologically, CTE is characterized by atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem, with ventricular dilatation and a fenestrated cavum septum pellucidum. Microscopically, there are extensive tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles, and spindle-shaped and threadlike neurites throughout the brain. The neurofibrillary degeneration of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies by preferential involvement of the superficial cortical layers, irregular patchy distribution in the frontal and temporal cortices, propensity for sulcal depths, prominent perivascular, periventricular, and subpial distribution, and marked accumulation of tau-immunoreactive astrocytes. Deposition of beta-amyloid, most commonly as diffuse plaques, occurs in fewer than half the cases. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a neuropathologically distinct slowly progressive tauopathy with a clear environmental etiology. PMID:19535999

McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Hedley-Whyte, E Tessa; Gavett, Brandon E; Budson, Andrew E; Santini, Veronica E; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A; Stern, Robert A

2009-07-01

214

A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) word repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. In this article, the authors (a) describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetition Task…

Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

2009-01-01

215

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

216

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

217

Serial position effects in nonword repetition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research has emphasized the linkage between performance in immediate serial recall of lists, nonword repetition, and word learning. Recently, it has been reported that primacy and recency effects are obtained in repetition of individual syllables within nonwords (Gupta, in press). Five experiments examined whether such within-nonword primacy and recency effects are attributable to common sequencing mechanisms

Prahlad Gupta; John Lipinski; Brandon Abbs; Po-Han Lin

2005-01-01

218

Repetitive Sequence-Free DNA Libraries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of creating a repetitive sequence-free DNA library comprising the steps of providing a DNA library, providing an amplification mixture from the DNA library, and adding a repetitive sequence fraction DNA to the amplification mixture to produce the...

A. T. Christian J. Bedford L. C. Dugan

2005-01-01

219

The Repetition of Large-Earthquake Ruptures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This survey of well-documented repeated fault rupture confirms that some faults have exhibited a ``characteristic'' behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault lengths contrast markedly for two consecutive ruptures, but the amount of offset at individual sites was similar. Adjacent individual patches, 10 km or more in length, failed singly during one event and in tandem during the other. More complex cases of repetition may also represent the failure of several distinct patches. The faults of the 1992 Landers earthquake provide an instructive example of such complexity. Together, these examples suggest that large earthquakes commonly result from the failure of one or more patches, each characterized by a slip function that is roughly invariant through consecutive earthquake cycles. The persistence of these slip-patches through two or more large earthquakes indicates that some quasi-invariant physical property controls the pattern and magnitude of slip. These data seem incompatible with theoretical models that produce slip distributions that are highly variable in consecutive large events.

Sieh, Kerry

1996-04-01

220

The spectrum of neurobehavioral sequelae after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury: a novel mouse model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Abstract There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury. PMID:24766454

Petraglia, Anthony L; Plog, Benjamin A; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H

2014-07-01

221

The Spectrum of Neurobehavioral Sequelae after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Mouse Model of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Abstract There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury.

Plog, Benjamin A.; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L.; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T.; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H.

2014-01-01

222

Repetition suppression of face-selective evoked and induced EEG recorded from human cortex.  

PubMed

In functional MRI studies, repetition suppression refers to the reduction of hemodynamic activation to repeated stimulus presentation. For example, the repeated presentation of a face reduces the hemodynamic response evoked by faces in the fusiform gyrus. The neural events that underlie repetition suppression are not well understood. Indeed, in contrast to the hemodynamic response, the face-specific N200 recorded from subdural electrodes on the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, primarily along the fusiform gyrus, has been reported to be insensitive to face-identity repetition. We have previously described a face-specific broadband gamma (30-100 Hz) response at ventral face-specific N200 sites that is functionally dissociable from the N200. In this study, we investigate whether gamma and other components of the electroencephalogram spectrum are affected by face-identity repetition independently of the N200. Participants viewed sequentially presented identical faces. At sites on and around the fusiform gyrus, we found that face repetition modulated alpha (8-12 Hz), low-gamma (30-60 Hz), and high-gamma (60-100 Hz) synchrony, but not the N200. These findings provide evidence of a spatially co-localized progression of face processing. Whereas the N200 reflects an initial obligatory response that is less sensitive to face-identity repetition, the subsequent spectral fluctuations reflect more elaborative face processing and are thus sensitive to face novelty. It is notable that the observed modulations were different for different frequency bands. We observed repetition suppression of broadband gamma, but repetition enhancement of alpha synchrony. This difference is discussed with regard to an existing model of repetition suppression and behavioral repetition priming. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4155-4162, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24677530

Engell, Andrew D; McCarthy, Gregory

2014-08-01

223

Neuroimaging Evidence for Dissociable Forms of Repetition Priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetition priming has been characterized neurophysiologically as a decreased response following stimulus repetition. The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether this repetition-related response is sensitive to stimulus familiarity. A right fusiform region exhibited an attenuated response to the repetition of familiar stimuli, both faces and symbols, but exhibited an enhanced response to the repetition of

R. N. A. Henson; T. Shallice; R. Dolan

2000-01-01

224

Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

Saville, Kirt

2011-01-01

225

Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher  

DOEpatents

A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

1997-02-11

226

Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model  

PubMed Central

In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 s, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1) a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2) a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The “paradoxically” high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception.

Nakao, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Kazu

2014-01-01

227

Autism spectrum disorder as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence from the brain imaging abnormalities in 2-3 years old toddlers.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships in adolescents and adults with ASD, literature is still limited in information about the neurobiology of ASD in the early age of life. Brain images of 50 toddlers with ASD and 28 age, gender, and developmental quotient matched toddlers with developmental delay (DD) (control group) between ages 2 and 3 years were captured using combined magnetic resonance-based structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was applied to assess overall gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and regional alterations were assessed by voxel-based morphometry. DTI was used to investigate the white matter tract integrity. Compared with DD, significant increases were observed in ASD, primarily in global GM and WM volumes and in right superior temporal gyrus regional GM and WM volumes. Higher fractional anisotropy value was also observed in the corpus callosum, posterior cingulate cortex, and limbic lobes of ASD. The converging findings of structural and white matter abnormalities in ASD suggest that alterations in neural-anatomy of different brain regions may be involved in behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with ASD, especially in an early age of 2-3 years old toddlers. PMID:24419870

Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

2014-07-01

228

Abnormal menstrual periods (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... may have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... the endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial ... Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.

229

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques.

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

230

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

Abnormal tooth color is any color other than the white to yellowish-white of normal teeth. ... things can cause tooth discoloration. The change in color may affect the entire tooth, or just appear ...

231

Behaviorism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

Moore, J.

2011-01-01

232

A systematic approach to repetitive failures  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a model of a systematic approach to address and correct repetitive failures. In this context, repetitive failures are the recurring inability of a system, subsystem, structure, or component to perform its intended function. The report presents a systematic method for identifying repetitive failures, selecting the failures to be investigated, determining root cause, selecting corrective actions for implementation, and monitoring of subsequent system/component performance. Appendix A provides an example of the use of this methodology at an operating nuclear generating station. 4 figs.

Odland, D.J. (Sonalysts, Inc., Waterford, CT (USA))

1991-02-01

233

Dissociating task performance from fMRI repetition attenuation in ventral visual cortex.  

PubMed

Repeated visual stimuli elicit reduced neural responses compared with novel stimuli in various brain regions (repetition attenuation). This effect has become a powerful tool in fMRI research, allowing researchers to investigate the stimulus-specific neuronal representations underlying perception and cognition. Repetition attenuation is also commonly associated with behavioral priming, whereby response accuracy and speed increase with repetition. This raises the possibility that repetition attenuation merely reflects decreased processing time. Here, we report a full dissociation between repetition attenuation and behavioral performance by varying the task performed on identical visual stimuli. In the scene task, observers judged whether two photographs came from the same scene, and in the image task, they judged whether the two photographs were identical pixel for pixel. The two tasks produced opposite patterns of behavioral performance: in the scene task, responses were faster and more accurate when the photographs were very similar, whereas, in the image task, responses were faster and more accurate when the photographs were less similar. However, in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), a scene-selective region of ventral cortex, identical repetition attenuation was observed in both tasks: lower neural responses for the very similar pairs relative to the less similar pairs. Whereas the PPA was impervious to task modulation, responses from two frontal regions mirrored behavioral performance, consistent with their role in decision-making. Thus, although repetition attenuation and performance are often correlated, they can be dissociated, suggesting that attenuation in ventral visual areas reflects stimulus-specific processing independent of task demands. PMID:17537969

Xu, Yaoda; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Chun, Marvin M

2007-05-30

234

Characteristics of Long-Lasting Repetition Priming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Facilitated performance in the identification of stimuli has been demonstrated due to prior exposure to the stimuli. Repetition priming can occur in the absence of explicit memory for the stimuli. Experiments explored the degree to which facilitation in v...

C. B. Cave

1996-01-01

235

Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... the Internet , kids often spend hours at the computer. So it's important for parents to know about ... to the stress of repetitive motions at the computer or overuse injuries in sports. RSI in kids ...

236

Repetition duration influences ratings of perceived exertion.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of different repetition durations on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in active muscles (RPE-AM) and the overall body (RPE-O). 19 male volunteers (M age = 25.4 yr., SD = 3.5) performed strength training protocols with multiple sets matched by the number of sets and repetitions, intensity and rest interval but different repetition durations: 4 sec., 6 sec., or self-paced. Participants were asked to estimate their RPE-AM and RPE-O after each set. Training protocols with a 6-sec. repetition duration produced distinct responses on RPE during and after performance compared to 4-sec. and self-paced durations. However, there were no significant differences between 4-sec. and self-paced durations. PMID:24724526

Diniz, Rodrigo C R; Martins-Costa, Hugo C; Machado, Sandra C; Lima, Fernando V; Chagas, Mauro H

2014-02-01

237

AUTOSIM: An Automated Repetitive Software Testing Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AUTOSIM is a software tool which automates the repetitive run testing of software. This tool executes programming tasks previously performed by a programmer with one year of programming experience. Use of the AUTOSIM tool requires a knowledge base contain...

J. R. Dunham S. E. Mcbride

1985-01-01

238

Repetitive Trauma Disorders in the Garment Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The prevalence of repetitive trauma disorders among workers in the garment industry was investigated with the intention of identifying specific sources of ergonomic stress which could be causing these conditions. The prevalence of pain in selected joints ...

W. M. Keyserling J. L. Donoghue L. Punnett A. B. Miller

1982-01-01

239

A 400-W repetitively pulsed DF laser  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study of a repetitively pulsed three-module electric-discharge DF laser operating on an SF{sub 6} - D{sub 2} mixture are reported. It is shown that the optimisation of the cavity Q-factor, the pressure of the working mixture, and its composition, provides a 400-W output power at a pulse repetition rate of {approx} 10 Hz. (lasers)

Aksenov, Yu N; Borisov, V P; Burtsev, Val V; Velikanov, S D; Voronov, S L; Voronin, V V; Zapol'skii, A F; Kirillov, G A; Kovalenko, O I; Lazarenko, V I; Mis'ko, V M; Murugov, Vasilii M; Selemir, Victor D; Sin'kov, S N; Frolov, Yu N; Tsiberev, V P; Sheremet'ev, Yu N [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod Region (Russian Federation)

2001-04-30

240

Neuro-Immune Abnormalities in Autism and Their Relationship with the Environment: A Variable Insult Model for Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous condition affecting an individual’s ability to communicate and socialize and often presents with repetitive movements or behaviors. It tends to be severe with less than 10% achieving independent living with a marked variation in the progression of the condition. To date, the literature supports a multifactorial model with the largest, most detailed twin study demonstrating strong environmental contribution to the development of the condition. Here, we present a brief review of the neurological, immunological, and autonomic abnormalities in ASD focusing on the causative roles of environmental agents and abnormal gut microbiota. We present a working hypothesis attempting to bring together the influence of environment on the abnormal neurological, immunological, and neuroimmunological functions and we explain in brief how such pathophysiology can lead to, and/or exacerbate ASD symptomatology. At present, there is a lack of consistent findings relating to the neurobiology of autism. Whilst we postulate such variable findings may reflect the marked heterogeneity in clinical presentation and as such the variable findings may be of pathophysiological relevance, more research into the neurobiology of autism is necessary before establishing a working hypothesis. Both the literature review and hypothesis presented here explore possible neurobiological explanations with an emphasis of environmental etiologies and are presented with this bias.

Goyal, Daniel K.; Miyan, Jaleel A.

2014-01-01

241

Relationship between redistribution on exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and repetitive ventricular premature beats in patients with recent myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between myocardial ischemia detected by exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and repetitive ventricular premature beats (VPBs) during ambulatory monitoring was evaluated in 57 patients with recent myocardial infarction. Multivariate analysis was performed to obtain the relatively important factor related to repetitive VPBs with the use of the following variables: age, redistribution, left ventricular ejection fraction, serum potassium and magnesium concentration, QRS score, left ventricular aneurysm, and the number of diseased vessels. Thirty-five patients had redistribution, but only three of them had repetitive VPBs during exercise testing. The average heart rate before 79% of 398 episodes of repetitive VPBs during ambulatory monitoring was in the range of 56 to 70/min. These data indicate that most of repetitive VPBs during ambulatory monitoring were not provoked by exercise-induced acute myocardial ischemia. However, redistribution was found to be an important factor associated with repetitive VPBs. The electrical abnormality relating to a substrate characterized by chronic reversible ischemia may explain the association between redistribution and repetitive VPBs.

Tsuji, H.; Iwasaka, T.; Sugiura, T.; Shimada, T.; Nakamori, H.; Kimura, Y.; Inada, M. (Kansai Medical Univ., Osaka, (Japan))

1991-06-01

242

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

243

High repetition rate femtosecond laser processing of metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, in high repetition rate femto second laser processing novel laser matter interacting effects were reported, such as heat accumulation and particle shielding. In this study, high repetition rate laser processing was investigated to discuss and understand the impact of laser repetition rate and accompanied accumulative laser material interacting effects. Therefore, a high repetition rate femto second fibre laser setup

Joerg Schille; Robby Ebert; Udo Loeschner; Patricia Scully; Nicholas Goddard; Horst Exner

2010-01-01

244

Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.  

PubMed

A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. PMID:24055170

Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

2013-11-01

245

Sustained happiness? Lack of repetition suppression in right-ventral visual cortex for happy faces  

PubMed Central

Emotional stimuli have been shown to preferentially engage initial attention but their sustained effects on neural processing remain largely unknown. The present study evaluated whether emotional faces engage sustained neural processing by examining the attenuation of neural repetition suppression to repeated emotional faces. Repetition suppression of neural function refers to the general reduction of neural activity when processing a repeated stimulus. Preferential processing of emotional face stimuli, however, should elicit sustained neural processing such that repetition suppression to repeated emotional faces is attenuated relative to faces with no emotional content. We measured the reduction of functional magnetic resonance imaging signals associated with immediate repetition of neutral, angry and happy faces. Whereas neutral faces elicited the greatest suppression in ventral visual cortex, followed by angry faces, repetition suppression was the most attenuated for happy faces. Indeed, happy faces showed almost no repetition suppression in part of the right-inferior occipital and fusiform gyri, which play an important role in face-identity processing. Our findings suggest that happy faces are associated with sustained visual encoding of face identity and thereby assist in the formation of more elaborate representations of the faces, congruent with findings in the behavioral literature.

Goh, Joshua O. S.; Hebrank, Andrew; Sutton, Bradley P.; Jenkins, Lucas; Flicker, Blair A.; Park, Denise C.

2011-01-01

246

A Survey of Repetitive Control for Nonlinear Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In aerospace engineering and industry, control tasks are often of a periodic nature, while repetitive control is especially suitable for tracking and rejection of periodic exogenous signals. Because of limited research effort on nonlinear systems, we give a survey of repetitive control for nonlinear systems in this paper. First, a brief introduction of repetitive control is presented. Then, after giving a brief overview of repetitive control for linear systems, this paper summarizes design methods and existing problems of repetitive control for nonlinear systems in detail. Lastly, relationships between repetitive control and other control schemes are analyzed to recognize repetitive control from different aspects more insightfully.

Quan, Quan; Cai, Kai-Yuan

2010-10-01

247

Nonword Repetition and Sentence Repetition as Clinical Markers of Specific Language Impairment: The Case of Cantonese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Recent research suggests that nonword repetition (NWR) and sentence repetition (SR) tasks can be used to discriminate between children with SLI and their typically developing age-matched (TDAM) and younger (TDY) peers. Method: Fourteen Cantonese-speaking children with SLI and 30 of their TDAM and TDY peers were compared on NWR and SR…

Stokes, Stephanie F.; Wong, Anita M-Y.; Fletcher, Paul; Leonard, Laurence B.

2006-01-01

248

Learning Words over Time: The Role of Stimulus Repetition in Mutual Exclusivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the second year of life, infants develop a preference to attach novel labels to novel objects. This behavior is commonly known as "mutual exclusivity" (Markman, 1989). In an intermodal preferential looking experiment with 19.5- and 22.5-month-olds, stimulus repetition was critical for observing mutual exclusivity. On the first occasion that…

Mather, Emily; Plunkett, Kim

2009-01-01

249

Abnormalities in hippocampal functioning with persistent pain.  

PubMed

Chronic pain patients exhibit increased anxiety, depression, and deficits in learning and memory. Yet how persistent pain affects the key brain area regulating these behaviors, the hippocampus, has remained minimally explored. In this study we investigated the impact of spared nerve injury (SNI) neuropathic pain in mice on hippocampal-dependent behavior and underlying cellular and molecular changes. In parallel, we measured the hippocampal volume of three groups of chronic pain patients. We found that SNI animals were unable to extinguish contextual fear and showed increased anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, SNI mice compared with Sham animals exhibited hippocampal (1) reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression and phosphorylation, (2) decreased neurogenesis, and (3) altered short-term synaptic plasticity. To relate the observed hippocampal abnormalities with human chronic pain, we measured the volume of human hippocampus in chronic back pain (CBP), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and osteoarthritis patients (OA). Compared with controls, CBP and CRPS, but not OA, had significantly less bilateral hippocampal volume. These results indicate that hippocampus-mediated behavior, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis are abnormal in neuropathic rodents. The changes may be related to the reduction in hippocampal volume we see in chronic pain patients, and these abnormalities may underlie learning and emotional deficits commonly observed in such patients. PMID:22539837

Mutso, Amelia A; Radzicki, Daniel; Baliki, Marwan N; Huang, Lejian; Banisadr, Ghazal; Centeno, Maria V; Radulovic, Jelena; Martina, Marco; Miller, Richard J; Apkarian, A Vania

2012-04-25

250

Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943

Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

2013-08-01

251

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C. E.

1995-01-01

252

Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Modulates Evoked-Gamma Frequency Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  

PubMed Central

Introduction It has been reported that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have abnormal reactions to the sensory environment and visuo-perceptual abnormalities. Electrophysiological research has provided evidence that gamma band activity (30-80 Hz) is a physiological indicator of the co-activation of cortical cells engaged in processing visual stimuli and integrating different features of a stimulus. A number of studies have found augmented and indiscriminative gamma band power at early stages of visual processing in ASD; this may be related to decreased inhibitory processing and an increase in the ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition. Low frequency or ‘slow’ (?1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits. Methods We wanted to test the hypothesis of gamma band abnormalities at early stages of visual processing in ASD by investigating relative evoked (i.e. ~ 100 ms) gamma power in 25 subjects with ASD and 20 age-matched controls using Kanizsa illusory figures. Additionally, we wanted to assess the effects of 12 sessions of bilateral ‘slow’ rTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on evoked gamma activity using a randomized controlled design. Results In individuals with ASD evoked gamma activity was not discriminative of stimulus type, whereas in controls early gamma power differences between target and non-target stimuli were highly significant. Following rTMS individuals with ASD showed significant improvement in discriminatory gamma activity between relevant and irrelevant visual stimuli. We also found significant improvement in the responses on behavioral questionnaires (i.e., irritability, repetitive behavior) as a result of rTMS. Conclusion We proposed that ‘slow’ rTMS may have increased cortical inhibitory tone which improved discriminatory gamma activity at early stages of visual processing. rTMS has the potential to become an important therapeutic tool in ASD treatment and has shown significant benefits in treating core symptoms of ASD with few, if any side effects.

Baruth, Joshua M.; Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Horrell, Tim; Mathai, Grace; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

2010-01-01

253

The Effects of Repetition on Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the effects of repetition (1, 3, 7, and 10 encounters) on word knowledge in a carefully controlled study of 121 Japanese students learning English. The study is innovative and original in several aspects. (1) The study uses 10 tests to measure knowledge of orthography, association, grammatical functions, syntax, and meaning…

Webb, Stuart

2007-01-01

254

Repetition Effect: A Memory-Dependent Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In choice reaction time (RT) studies it has commonly been found that RT to a repeated stimulus is faster than to nonrepeated stimuli. The first two experiments tested the hypothesis that this repetition effect is a short-term memory phenomenon and that an...

S. W. Keele

1968-01-01

255

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to the…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

256

Development of repetitive corrugation and straightening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present recent developments in repetitive corrugation and straightening (RCS), a new severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique. Two refinements of the original RCS method are presented and results are shown for commercial purity copper that illustrate the associated improvements in the effectiveness of nanostructuring. Second-generation tooling was implemented using a bench scale rolling mill for continuous processing

Jianyu Huang; Yuntian T. Zhu; David J. Alexander; Xiaozhou Liao; Terry C. Lowe; Robert J. Asaro

2004-01-01

257

Dealing with repetitions in sequencing by hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA sequencing by hybridization (SBH) induces errors in the biochemical experiment. Some of them are random and disappear when the experiment is repeated. Others are systematic, involving repetitions in the probes of the target sequence. A good method for solving SBH problems must deal with both types of errors. In this work we propose a new hybrid genetic algorithm for

Jacek Blazewicz; Fred Glover; Marta Kasprzak; Wojciech T. Markiewicz; Ceyda Oguz; Dietrich Rebholz-schuhmann; Aleksandra Swiercz

2006-01-01

258

Repetitive magnetic stimulation and motor evoked potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of varying stimulus rates of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (RTMS) on the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle (APB). Thirteen normals were included. Stimuli were applied to the cortex and to the median nerve at the wrist. The cortical stimuli were applied without and

Poul Jennum; Henrik Winkel; Anders Fuglsang-Frederiksen

1995-01-01

259

Large-scale detection of repetitions.  

PubMed

Combinatorics on words began more than a century ago with a demonstration that an infinitely long string with no repetitions could be constructed on an alphabet of only three letters. Computing all the repetitions (such as ???TTT???? or ??? CGACGA ????) in a given string x of length n is one of the oldest and most important problems of computational stringology, requiring time in the worst case. About a dozen years ago, it was discovered that repetitions can be computed as a by-product of the ?(n)-time computation of all the maximal periodicities or runs in x. However, even though the computation is linear, it is also brute force: global data structures, such as the suffix array, the longest common prefix array and the Lempel-Ziv factorization, need to be computed in a preprocessing phase. Furthermore, all of this effort is required despite the fact that the expected number of runs in a string is generally a small fraction of the string length. In this paper, I explore the possibility that repetitions (perhaps also other regularities in strings) can be computed in a manner commensurate with the size of the output. PMID:24751872

Smyth, W F

2014-05-28

260

A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics  

PubMed Central

Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non-functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression, and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome re-arrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins. Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space.

Casa, Valentina; Gabellini, Davide

2012-01-01

261

Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Program Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) grant program provides funding to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk of flood damage to structures insured under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that have had one or more claim payments for flood damages. ...

2008-01-01

262

The Value of Repetition in Articulation Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exact analysis of an experiment involving children from the ages of 4 to 12 learning three new articulations revealed that most of the articulation learning took place on the second attempt with relatively moderate improvement in subsequent trials, thus placing the value of repetition in articulation learning in question. (FB)

Locke, John L.

1970-01-01

263

Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

2010-01-01

264

High Repetition Rate Spark Gap. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the program was to design, fabricate and test a high repetition rate spark gap to meet the following technical specifications: voltage--250 kV; applied voltage wave-voltage waveform above 150 kV for shape--2 mu sec prior to firing; curren...

1977-01-01

265

Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

2010-01-01

266

Armor materials’ behavior under repetitive dense plasma shots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on the plasma focus device PF-12 have been carried out to investigate changes in the structure of the surface and bulk of tungsten and tungsten doped with 1% lanthanum oxide after repeated powerful deuterium plasma shots (8, 25 and 100). The surface morphology of the targets exposed to plasma streams is analyzed by electron and optical microscopy. Due to the plasma effect, different surface structures, such as wave-like structures, a melted layer, a mesh of microcracks, droplets, craters, crevices and holes, appear. The change of cross-section hardness after a number of shots in different materials is investigated.

Shirokova, V.; Laas, T.; Ainsaar, A.; Priimets, J.; Ugaste, Ü.; Väli, B.; Gribkov, V. A.; Maslyaev, S. A.; Demina, E. V.; Dubrovsky, A. V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Prusakova, M. D.; Mikli, V.

2014-05-01

267

Roentgenologic Abnormalities in Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...

T. Higuchi W. J. Russell M. Komatsuda S. Neriishi

1968-01-01

268

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

269

[Repetitive strain injuries. Forearm pain caused by tissue responses to repetitive strain].  

PubMed

According to the National Research Council, painful work-related upper limb disorders are caused by different pathophysiological mechanisms, one of which is repetitive strain injury (RSI). Forearm pain, tenderness, and paresthesias are thought to result from a continual risk of exceeding limits of "cumulative trauma load tolerance" (CTLT, cf. NRC 2001) in soft tissue by thousands of high-frequency, repetitive movements. On the other hand, repetitive painful stimulations also produce neuroplastic changes in the spinal and supraspinal nociceptive systems. Thus, repetitive motor and nociceptive impulses become part of the same motor programs, which are also responsible for high-frequency movements and tissue damage. In this way RSI pain may be felt as a task-related response, even after all injuries are completely healed. Consequences of this neuroplastic CTLT model for RSI prevention and therapy are discussed. PMID:12376875

Sorgatz, H

2002-10-01

270

Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration.

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

2013-01-01

271

Abnormal cycles from normal dynamos (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary aim of this talk is to illustrate how simple yet reasonably realistic dynamo models of the solar cycle can exhibit "abnormal" features, including extended periods of minimum activity as currently observed. I will show that dynamo including even very simple amplitude quenching nonlinearities can, in the presence of low-amplitude stochastic forcing, produce fluctuations that may be mistaken for switches between distinct dynamical behaviors, and will examine to what degree such behavior can be distinguished from true intermittency, given extant data.

Charbonneau, P.

2009-12-01

272

WHAT TRIGGERS ABNORMAL EATING IN BULIMIC AND NONBULIMIC WOMEN? The Role of Dissociative Experiences, Negative Affect, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative experiences and abnormal eating were examined in 92 non-eating-disordered women and 61 age- matched bulimic women. In the nonclinical sample of women, dissociative experiences were associated with abnor- mal eating attitudes and behavior, even after controlling for other forms of psychopathology; furthermore, dissociation mediated the relationships between abnormal eating and sexual abuse, abnormal eating and emotional distress, and abnormal

Sonja Lyubomirsky; Lorie Sousa; Regina C. Casper

273

The hot-hand fallacy in cognitive control: repetition expectancy modulates the congruency sequence effect.  

PubMed

In this study, the role of expectancies in cognitive control was tested. On the basis of the original interpretation of the congruency sequence effect (Gratton, Coles, & Donchin, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121:480-506, 1992), we sought evidence for a repetition bias steering attentional control. In a series of four Stroop experiments, we investigated how participants' explicit predictions about the upcoming (in)congruency proactively influenced subsequent Stroop performance. Similar to the fallacious "hot-hand" belief in gambling, repeating stimulus events were overpredicted, as participants consistently expected more repetitions of the congruency level than the actual presented number of congruency-level repetitions (50 %). Moreover, behavioral adjustments (i.e., a congruency sequence effect) were only found when participants anticipated a congruency-level repetition, whereas no modulation of the Stroop effect was found following alternation predictions. We propose that proactive control processes in general, and repetition expectancy in particular, should be given more attention in current theorizing and modeling of cognitive control, which is characterized by an emphasis on reactive, conflict-induced control adjustments. PMID:23371807

Duthoo, Wout; Wühr, Peter; Notebaert, Wim

2013-08-01

274

Repetition and Memory: Evidence for a Multiple-Trace Hypothesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two hypotheses concerning the effect of frequency on memory are (a) that repetition increments the cumulative strength of a single memory trace and (b) that repetition results in multiple traces, each identifiable by its 'time tag.' Results from two exper...

D. L. Hintzman R. A. Block

1970-01-01

275

Effects of Psychophysical Lifting Training on Maximal Repetitive Lifting Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of psychophysical lifting training on maximal repetitive lifting capacity. Maximal repetitive lifting capacity was defined as the maximum box mass that could be lifted for a full hour to...

M. A. Sharp S. J. Legg

1987-01-01

276

Breakdown Phenomena in Nitrogen Due to Repetitive Nanosecond-pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanosecond-pulse breakdown indicates special characteristics depending on the pulse rise-time and duration. Based on a repetitive nanosecond-pulse generator, breakdown phenomena of parallel-plane gaps in nitrogen were investigated with single pulse and repetitive bursts under different gap conditions. The relationships between applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, breakdown time lag, repetitive pulse stress time and the number of applied pulses are presented.

Tao Shao; Guangsheng Sun; Ping Yan; Shichang Zhang

2007-01-01

277

Repetitive pulse operation of reltron tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present data related to the repetitive pulse performance of Reltron HPM tubes. While the tubes using thermionic cathodes are usually limited only by the power supply and/or cooling system, the repetition rate for the high-peak-power tubes (which use explosive emission cathodes) is limited by the rise in the vacuum pressure. In particular, if the tube pressure significantly exceeds 10-4 torr, the tube fails to operate properly, and the voltage pulses are significantly degraded. We have developed a simple model to describe the phenomenology. We have also begun to explore alternate cathode materials which evolve less gas than velvet. A CsI-coated graphite-fiber cathode appears most promising at present.

Miller, R. Bruce

1997-10-01

278

Repetition probability effects depend on prior experiences.  

PubMed

The magnitude of repetition suppression (RS) in the Fusiform Face Area is influenced by the probability of repetitions of faces (Summerfield et al., 2008), implying that perceptual expectations affect repetition-related processes. Surprisingly, however, macaque single-cell (Kaliukhovich and Vogels, 2011) and human fMRI (Kovács et al., 2013) studies have failed to find repetition probability [P(rep)] modulations of RS with nonface stimuli in the occipitotemporal cortex, suggesting that the effect is face specific. One possible explanation of this category selectivity is that the extensive experience humans have with faces affects the neural mechanisms of RS specifically, creating P(rep) modulatory effects. To address this question, we used fMRI to test the P(rep) effects for another well trained stimulus category, upright letters of the roman alphabet as well as for unfamiliar false fonts. We observed significant RS for both stimulus sets in the Letter Form Area as well as in the caudodorsal part of the lateral occipital complex. Interestingly, the influence of P(rep) on RS was dependent on the stimulus: while we observed P(rep) modulations for the roman letters, no such effects were found for the unfamiliar false fonts in either area. Our findings suggest that P(rep) effects on RS are manifest for nonface stimuli as well, but that they depend on the experience of the subjects with the stimulus category. This shows, for the first time, that prior experience affects the influence of contextual predictive information on RS in the human occipitotemporal cortex. PMID:24806689

Grotheer, Mareike; Kovács, Gyula

2014-05-01

279

Repetitive nerve stimulation and exercise testing.  

PubMed

Repetitive nerve stimulation and exercise testing are useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected disorders of the NMJ and muscle membrane excitability when performed with close attention to technical factors. They can be very helpful in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, and botulism, as well as rare disorders of skeletal muscle membrane excitability, including paramyotonia congenita, myotonia congenita, myotonic dystrophy, and the periodic paralyses. PMID:12795512

Shapiro, Barbara E; Preston, David C

2003-05-01

280

Identification of abnormal driving state based on driver's model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal driving state recognition method is proposed in this paper. The basic idea is to regard the driving behavior as a feed back control system; the input signal is vehicle lateral position; the output signal is steering wheel angle. The control system, i.e., the driving behavior, is modeled with normal driving data. And then the model is used to

Weicun Zhang; Qiaoli Fan

2010-01-01

281

Destabilization of Simple Repetitive DNA Sequences by Transcription in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Simple repetitive DNA sequences in the eukaryotic genome frequently alter in length. In wild-type strains, we find that transcription through a repetitive poly GT tract destabilizes the tract four- to ninefold. In mismatch repair-deficient yeast strains, simple repeats are very unstable. High levels of transcription in such strains destabilize repetitive tracts an additional two- to threefold.

Wierdl, M.; Greene, C. N.; Datta, A.; Jinks-Robertson, S.; Petes, T. D.

1996-01-01

282

Eye movement abnormalities.  

PubMed

Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

2012-01-01

283

Phosphor thermometry at high repetition rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilizing the luminescence properties of thermographic phosphors. Typically these ceramic materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Photomultipliers and high-speed camera systems are used to transiently detect the subsequently emitted luminescence decay point wise or two-dimensionally resolved. Based on appropriate calibration measurements, the luminescence lifetime is converted to temperature. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. For the first time, the authors realized a high-speed phosphor thermometry system combining a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterized regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating in terms of heating effects has been investigated. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of one sample per crank angle degree at an engine speed of 1000 rpm. This experiment has proven that high-speed phosphor thermometry is a promising diagnostic tool for the resolution of surface temperature transients.

Fuhrmann, N.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

2013-09-01

284

Evaluation of nail abnormalities.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy. PMID:22534387

Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S

2012-04-15

285

Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities Induced by Prenatal Valproic Acid Exposure in Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

In-utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been known as a potent inducer of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), not only in humans, but also in animals. In addition to the defects in communication and social interaction as well as repetitive behaviors, ASD patients usually suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) problems. However, the exact mechanism underlying these disorders is not known. In this study, we examined the gross GI tract structure and GI motility in a VPA animal model of ASD. On embryonic day 12 (E12), 4 pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subcutaneously injected with VPA (400 mg/kg) in the treatment group, and with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in the control group; the resulting male offspring were analyzed at 4 weeks of age. VPA exposure decreased the thickness of tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis in the stomach and ileum. Other regions such as duodenum, jejunum, and colon did not show a significant difference. In high-resolution microscopic observation, atrophy of the parietal and chief cells in the stomach and absorptive cells in the ileum was observed. In addition, decreased staining of the epithelial cells was observed in the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained ileum section. Furthermore, decreased motility in GI tract was also observed in rat offspring prenatally exposed to VPA. However, the mechanism underlying GI tract defects in VPA animal model as well as the association between abnormal GI structure and function with ASD is yet to be clearly understood. Nevertheless, the results from the present study suggest that this VPA ASD model undergoes abnormal changes in the GI structure and function, which in turn could provide beneficial clues pertaining to the pathophysiological relevance of GI complications and ASD phenotypes.

Kim, Ji-Woon; Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Ki Chan; Park, Jin Hee; Seung, Hana; Joo, So Hyun; Yang, Sung Min

2013-01-01

286

Software reliability: Repetitive run experimentation and modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software experiment conducted with repetitive run sampling is reported. Independently generated input data was used to verify that interfailure times are very nearly exponentially distributed and to obtain good estimates of the failure rates of individual errors and demonstrate how widely they vary. This fact invalidates many of the popular software reliability models now in use. The log failure rate of interfailure time was nearly linear as a function of the number of errors corrected. A new model of software reliability is proposed that incorporates these observations.

Nagel, P. M.; Skrivan, J. A.

1982-01-01

287

Repetitively pulsed high power stacked Blumlein generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stacked Blumlein pulse generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switching element at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give the desired discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Described here is the progress in development and characterization of these novel pulse-power generators capable of discharging at high repetition rates. The introduction of a tapered transmission line concept to the stacked Blumlein design provided fine tuning of output waveforms.

Davanloo, F.; Borovina, D. L.; Collins, C. B.; Agee, F. J.; Kingsley, L. E.

1995-05-01

288

Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

2003-01-01

289

Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

Law, B. E.; Spencer, C. W.

1998-01-01

290

Whose Bad Objects Are We Anyway? Repetition and Our Elusive Love Affair with Evil  

Microsoft Academic Search

What allows us to explain the repetitive cycles of self-destructive, self-defeating behavior that we all struggle to help patients overcome? What explains the malignancy that can infuse certain transference—countertransference relationships, often suddenly and without warning? Why do some patients come to hate us despite our best efforts? Why do we come to hate some of them? Perhaps more to the

Jody Messler Davies

2004-01-01

291

Motor nerve conduction and repetitive nerve stimulation in captive ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua).  

PubMed

There are few electrophysiologic studies in wild animals. The aim of this study was to determine normal data for motor nerve conduction studies and repetitive stimulation in sciatic-tibial and ulnar nerves in clinically normal captive coati. Eight adult ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua), two females and six males weighing 6-8 kg, were used. Average nerve conduction velocity was 70.81 m/sec (standard deviation [SD] = 3.98) and 56.93 m/ sec (SD = 4.31) for the sciatic-tibial and ulnar nerves, respectively. Repetitive stimulation responses demonstrated minimal variations of the area of the compound muscle action potentials at low (3 Hz) and high (20 Hz) frequencies. The maximal obtained decremental area response was 8%. These normal data of conduction studies may be used in assessing abnormalities for clinical diagnosis. In addition, the obtained normal repetitive stimulation data were similar to dogs and humans and may be used for post- and presynaptic disturbances of the neuromuscular transmission in coatis. PMID:23082506

Mortari, Ana Carolina; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Resende, Luiz Antonio de Lima; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Mendes, Guilherme Maia

2012-09-01

292

Long-lasting molecular changes in human skin after repetitive in situ UV irradiation.  

PubMed

It is known that UV modulates the expression of paracrine factors that regulate melanocyte function in the skin. We investigated the consequences of repetitive UV exposure of human skin in biopsies of 10 subjects with phototypes 2-3.5 taken 1-4 years later. The expression of melanogenic factors (TYR, MART1, MITF), growth factors/receptors (SCF/KIT, bFGF/FGFR1, ET1/EDNRB, HGF, GM-CSF), adhesion molecules (beta-catenin, E-cadherin, N-cadherin), cell cycle proteins (PCNA, cyclins D1, E2) as well as Bcl-2, DKK1, and DKK3, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Most of those markers showed no detectable changes at > or = 1 year after the repetitive UV irradiation. Although increased expression of EDNRB protein was detected in 3 of 10 UV-irradiated subjects, there was no detectable change in the expression of ET1 protein or in EDNRB mRNA levels. In summary, only the expression of TYR, MART1, and/or EDNRB, and only in some subjects, was elevated at > or = 1 year after UV irradiation. Thus the long-term effects of repetitive UV irradiation on human skin did not lead to significant changes in skin morphology and there is considerable subject-to-subject variation in responses. The possibility that changes in the expression and function of EDNRB triggers downstream activation of abnormal melanocyte proliferation and differentiation deserves further investigation. PMID:18946495

Brenner, Michaela; Coelho, Sergio G; Beer, Janusz Z; Miller, Sharon A; Wolber, Rainer; Smuda, Christoph; Hearing, Vincent J

2009-04-01

293

Investigation of a repetitive pulsed electrothermal thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pulsed electrothermal (PET) thruster with 1000:1 ratio nozzle is tested in a repetitive mode on water propellant. The thruster is driven by a 60J pulse forming network at repetition rates up to 10 Hz (600W). The pulse forming network has a .31 ohm impedance, well matched to the capillary discharge resistance of .40 ohm, and is directly coupled to the thruster electrodes without a switch. The discharge is initiated by high voltage breakdown, typically at 2500V, through the water vapor in the interelectrode gap. Water is injected as a jet through a .37 mm orifice on the thruster axis. Thruster voltage, current and impulse bit are recorded for several seconds at various power supply currents. Thruster to power ratio is typically T/P = .07 N/kW. Tank background pressure precludes direct measurement of exhaust velocity which is inferred from calculated pressure and temperature in the discharge to be about 14 km/sec. Efficiency, based on this velocity and measured T/P is .54 + or - .07. Thruster ablation is zero at the throat and becomes measurable further upstream, indicating that radiative ablation is occurring late in the pulse.

Burton, R. L.; Fleischer, D.; Goldstein, S. A.; Tidman, D. A.; Winsor, N. K.

1986-01-01

294

Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic  

DOEpatents

Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

Goranson, Craig A. (Kennewick, WA) [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R. (Kennewick, WA) [Kennewick, WA

2011-03-22

295

Stimulus repetition modulates gamma-band synchronization in primate visual cortex  

PubMed Central

When a sensory stimulus repeats, neuronal firing rate and functional MRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses typically decline, yet perception and behavioral performance either stay constant or improve. An additional aspect of neuronal activity is neuronal synchronization, which can enhance the impact of neurons onto their postsynaptic targets independent of neuronal firing rates. We show that stimulus repetition leads to profound changes of neuronal gamma-band (?40–90 Hz) synchronization. Electrocorticographic recordings in two awake macaque monkeys demonstrated that repeated presentations of a visual grating stimulus resulted in a steady increase of visually induced gamma-band activity in area V1, gamma-band synchronization between areas V1 and V4, and gamma-band activity in area V4. Microelectrode recordings in area V4 of two additional monkeys under the same stimulation conditions allowed a direct comparison of firing rates and gamma-band synchronization strengths for multiunit activity (MUA), as well as for isolated single units, sorted into putative pyramidal cells and putative interneurons. MUA and putative interneurons showed repetition-related decreases in firing rate, yet increases in gamma-band synchronization. Putative pyramidal cells showed no repetition-related firing rate change, but a decrease in gamma-band synchronization for weakly stimulus-driven units and constant gamma-band synchronization for strongly driven units. We propose that the repetition-related changes in gamma-band synchronization maintain the interareal stimulus signaling and sharpen the stimulus representation by gamma-synchronized pyramidal cell spikes.

Brunet, Nicolas M.; Bosman, Conrado A.; Vinck, Martin; Roberts, Mark; Oostenveld, Robert; Desimone, Robert; De Weerd, Peter; Fries, Pascal

2014-01-01

296

Variable pulse repetition frequency output from an optically injected solid state laser.  

PubMed

An optically injected solid state laser (OISSL) system is known to generate complex nonlinear dynamics within the parameter space of varying the injection strength of the master laser and the frequency detuning between the master and slave lasers. Here we show that within these complex nonlinear dynamics, a system which can be operated as a source of laser pulses with a pulse repetition frequency (prf) that can be continuously varied by a single control, is embedded. Generation of pulse repetition frequencies ranging from 200 kHz up to 4 MHz is shown to be achievable for an optically injected Nd:YVO4 solid state laser system from analysis of prior experimental and simulation results. Generalizing this to other optically injected solid state laser systems, the upper bound on the repetition frequency is of order the relaxation oscillation frequency for the lasers. The system is discussed in the context of prf versatile laser systems more generally. Proposals are made for the next generation of OISSLs that will increase understanding of the variable pulse repetition frequency operation, and determine its practical limitations. Such variable prf laser systems; both low powered, and, higher powered systems achieved using one or more optical power amplifier stages; have many potential applications from interrogating resonance behaviors in microscale structures, through sensing and diagnostics, to laser processing. PMID:21369300

Kane, D M; Toomey, J P

2011-02-28

297

Distinct chromosomal distributions of highly repetitive sequences in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of genomic DNA in most plant species is made up of repetitive elements including satellites and retrotransposons.\\u000a The maize genome is intermediate in size and abundance of repetitive elements between small genomes such as Arabidopsis and rice and larger genomes such as wheat. Although repetitive elements are present throughout the maize genome, individual\\u000a families are non-randomly distributed along

Jonathan C. Lamb; Julie M. Meyer; Blake Corcoran; Akio Kato; Fangpu Han; James A. Birchler

2007-01-01

298

Naming and repetition in aphasia: Steps, routes, and frequency effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the cognitive processes underlying picture naming and auditory word repetition. In the two-step model of lexical access, both the semantic and phonological steps are involved in naming, but the former has no role in repetition. Assuming recognition of the to-be-repeated word, repetition could consist of retrieving the word’s output phonemes from the lexicon (the lexical-route model), retrieving

Nazbanou Nozari; Audrey K. Kittredge; Gary S. Dell; Myrna F. Schwartz

2010-01-01

299

A system for repetitive pulsed corona plasmas, with ecological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A depollution system for gases, using the repetitive pulsed corona plasmas, is described. The main sub-systems are: High-voltage repetitive pulser; treatment chamber; gas flow circuit; gas analyzer. The high-voltage repetitive pulser discharges a capacitor in the primary of a pulse transformer. The high-voltage switch is a thyratron. Many construction manners were tested for the pulse transformer. High-voltage pulses with 25-100

N. Georgeseut; A. Vulpe; R. Minea

2003-01-01

300

Echocardiographic abnormalities following cardiac radiation  

SciTech Connect

Five years or more after receiving cardiac radiation, 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease and seminoma in remission were subjected to echocardiography. The abnormalities detected included pericardial thickening in 70%, thickening of the aortic and/or mitral valves in 28%, right ventricular dilatation or hypokinesis in 39%, and left ventricular dysfunction in 39%. In the 23 patients treated by an upper mantle technique with shielding, the incidence of right ventricular abnormalities and valvular thickening was significantly lower than in patients treated with modified techniques. Although no symptoms were attributable to the observed abnormalities, longer follow-up time may reveal important functional implications.

Perrault, D.J.; Levy, M.; Herman, J.D.; Burns, R.J.; Bar Shlomo, B.Z.; Druck, M.N.; Wu, W.Q.; McLaughlin, P.R.; Gilbert, B.W.

1985-04-01

301

Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

2011-01-01

302

Increase in laser repetition rate by spectral selection  

SciTech Connect

There is a need, particularly in optical computing applications, for an ultrahigh-repetition-rate, high-power, mode-locked laser source. Commercially available high-power lasers can currently provide pulses up to 100 MHz repetition rates, which is at least a factor of ten less than is needed for many applications. An experimental and theoretical study has been made into the use of Fabry-Perot etalons as static repetition rate upconvertors outside the laser cavity. The authors have shown both theoretically and experimentally that the output repetition rate can be increased up to twelve times while maintaining high average power.

Sizer, T. II (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (US))

1989-01-01

303

Use and safety of a new repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator.  

PubMed

In order to test a new repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator, the Dantec MagPro, we administered transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at 1 Hz and 125% of motor threshold for an average of 204 s (until the coil temperature reached 40 degrees C) and 20 Hz stimulation at 100% of motor threshold for 2 s every minute for 10 min, on different days to 10 healthy volunteers. We stimulated 6 scalp positions (primary motor area (M1) and sites 5 cm anterior and posterior on each hemisphere) with an 8-shaped coil. We tested immediate and delayed memory, verbal fluency, prolactin levels and EEG at the beginning of the study and after stimulation on each day. No abnormalities were found. Motor evoked potentials evoked with 1 Hz stimulation diminished progressively in amplitude, and 1 Hz stimulation of M1 caused inhibition lasting at least 1 min in 3 of 4 subjects who were tested with 0.1 Hz stimulation before and after the 1 Hz stimulation period. This did not occur with 20 Hz stimulation. Finger tapping frequency was tested at the beginning of the study and after TMS at each scalp site. Finger tapping rate data from 6 additional subjects who were stimulated in an identical fashion with a different stimulator were also analyzed. There was an increase in tapping rate after TMS which was independent of scalp site. This was most pronounced with 1 Hz stimulation at 125% of threshold and reached statistical significance in the hand contralateral to the stimulation. The results of this study indicate that rTMS with the MagPro stimulator is safe at specific combinations of intensity, frequency and train duration. PMID:8913194

Wassermann, E M; Grafman, J; Berry, C; Hollnagel, C; Wild, K; Clark, K; Hallett, M

1996-10-01

304

Context and repetition in word learning  

PubMed Central

Young children learn words from a variety of situations, including shared storybook reading. A recent study by Horst et al. (2011a) demonstrates that children learned more new words during shared storybook reading if they were read the same stories repeatedly than if they were read different stories that had the same number of target words. The current paper reviews this study and further examines the effect of contextual repetition on children's word learning in both shared storybook reading and other situations, including fast mapping by mutual exclusivity. The studies reviewed here suggest that the same cognitive mechanisms support word learning in a variety of situations. Both practical considerations for experimental design and directions for future research are discussed.

Horst, Jessica S.

2013-01-01

305

Repetition blindness: the survival of the grouped.  

PubMed

The repetition blindness (RB) effect demonstrates that people often fail to detect the second presentation of an identical object (e.g., Kanwisher, 1987). Grouping of identical items is a well-documented perceptual phenomenon, and this grouping generally facilitates perception. These two effects pose a puzzle: RB impairs perception, while perceptual grouping improves it. Here, we combined these two effects and studied how they interact. In a series of three experiments, we presented repeated items in a simultaneous string, while manipulating the organization of the repeated items in groups within a string. We observed an interaction between RB and grouping that we summarize with a rule that we call "the survival of the grouped": In essence, the ability to group repeated elements protects them from RB. These findings are discussed within the framework of the object file theory. PMID:21811897

Goldfarb, Liat; Treisman, Anne

2011-12-01

306

A miniature high repetition rate shock tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P < 100 bars at a cycle rate of up to 4 Hz. The design of the apparatus is discussed in detail, and data are presented to demonstrate that well-formed shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources.

Tranter, R. S.; Lynch, P. T.

2013-09-01

307

A miniature high repetition rate shock tube.  

PubMed

A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P < 100 bars at a cycle rate of up to 4 Hz. The design of the apparatus is discussed in detail, and data are presented to demonstrate that well-formed shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources. PMID:24089840

Tranter, R S; Lynch, P T

2013-09-01

308

The abnormal proximal tibiofibular joint.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of the proximal tibiofibular joint are infrequently encountered. Mostly instability occurs as a result of trauma. Four types of instability are distinguished: subluxation, anterolateral, posteromedial and superior dislocation. Four radiological methods designed to visualize abnormalities of the proximal tibiofibular joint are discussed. Special notice is given to the clinical relevance of a new method. Instability was demonstrated in 19 patients; 16 of these were treated by an operation. History, data obtained by physical examination and ways of treatment are discussed. PMID:6703874

Veth, R P; Kingma, L M; Nielsen, H K

1984-01-01

309

GRAPE - GIS Repetition Using Audio-Visual Repetition Units and its Leanring Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new audio-visual learning medium has been developed at the Department of Environmental Sciences at ETH Zurich (Switzerland), for use in geographical information sciences (GIS) courses. This new medium, presented in the form of Repetition Units, allows students to review and consolidate the most important learning concepts on an individual basis. The new material consists of: a) a short enhanced podcast (recorded and spoken slide show) with a maximum duration of 5 minutes, which focuses on only one important aspect of a lecture's theme; b) one or two relevant exercises, covering different cognitive levels of learning, with a maximum duration of 10 minutes; and c), solutions for the exercises. During a pilot phase in 2010, six Repetition Units were produced by the lecturers. Twenty more Repetition Units will be produced by our students during the fall semester of 2011 and 2012. The project is accompanied by a 5-year study (2009 - 2013) that investigates learning success using the new material, focussing on the question, whether or not the new material help to consolidate and refresh basic GIS knowledge. It will be analysed based on longitudinal studies. Initial results indicate that the new medium helps to refresh knowledge as the test groups scored higher than the control group. These results are encouraging and suggest that the new material with its combination of short audio-visual podcasts and relevant exercises help to consolidate students' knowledge.

Niederhuber, M.; Brugger, S.

2011-09-01

310

The golden ratio of gait harmony: repetitive proportions of repetitive gait phases.  

PubMed

In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number ? known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with ?, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from ? (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait. PMID:23862161

Iosa, Marco; Fusco, Augusto; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

2013-01-01

311

Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Issues > Complications of Labor and Delivery 4 Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Position refers ... neck flexed, and presentation is head first. An abnormal position is facing forward, and abnormal presentations include ...

312

Psychophysical studies of repetitive wrist flexion and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the feasibility of using psychophysical methods to determine maximum acceptable forces for various types and frequencies of repetitive wrist motion. Four adjustable work stations were built to simulate repetitive wrist flexion with a power grip, wrist flexion with a pinch grip, and wrist extension with a power grip. The study consisted of

STOVER H. SNOOK; DONALD R. VAILLANCOURT; VINCENT M. CIRIELLO; BARBARA S. WEBSTER

1995-01-01

313

Repetitive pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. A reliable opening switch operated repetitively is necessary to realize an inductive pulsed power generator. Two kinds of repetitively operated opening switches have been developed in Kumamoto University. One is an exploding copper wire set by

H. Akiyama; U. Katschinski; K. Murayama; S. Katsuki; S. Tsukamoto

1995-01-01

314

First domestic high repetition rate ultrashort pulse laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 7 February 1985, certification tests were conducted on the High Repetition Rate Ultrashort Pulse Laser. Experts at the meeting pointed out that this was China's first prototype high repetition rate ultrashort pulse laser. Its performance is higher than that of similar lasers in this country and is comparable to the advanced standards of foreign products. The energy of the

Lin Guang

1985-01-01

315

Phonological Repetition-Suppression in Bilateral Superior Temporal Sulci  

PubMed Central

Evidence has accumulated that posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is critically involved in phonological processing during speech perception, although there are conflicting accounts regarding the degree of lateralization. The current fMRI experiment aimed to identify phonological processing during speech perception through repetition-suppression effects. Repetition-suppression occurs when brain activity decreases from repetitive presentation of stimulus characteristics, in regions of cortex that process those characteristics. We manipulated the degree of phonological repetition among words in short lists to obtain systematic decreases in brain response, indicative of phonological processing. The fMRI experiment presented seventeen participants with recorded wordlists, of low, medium, or high phonological repetition, defined by how many phonemes were shared among words. Bilaterally, middle STS demonstrated activity differences consistent with our prediction of repetition-suppression, as responses decreased systematically with each increase in phonological repetition. Phonological repetition-suppression in bilateral STS converges with neuroimaging evidence for phonological processing, and word deafness resulting from bilateral superior temporal lesions.

Vaden, Kenneth I.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Hickok, Gregory

2009-01-01

316

Repetition in Nonnative Speaker Writing: More than Quantity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined repetition in expository essays written by 24 college-level nonnative speakers (NNSs) and 16 native speakers (NSs) of English. A qualitative comparison of three essays from each group showed that NNSs did not match their degree of repetition to the development of the argument structure of the text in the same way as NSs. (contains 31…

Reynolds, Dudley W.

1995-01-01

317

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves depersonalization: a case report.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder is a poorly understood and treatment-resistant condition. This report describes a patient with depersonalization disorder who underwent six sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation produced a 28% reduction on depersonalization scores. PMID:15115950

Jiménez-Genchi, Alejandro M

2004-05-01

318

Two Forms of Spoken Repetition in a Girl with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The talk of persons with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) often features distinctive forms of repetition (echophenomena). Although often characterized as meaningless or inappropriate, there is evidence that such practices can sometimes have communicative functions. Aims: To investigate the interactional organization of repetition

Stribling, Penny; Rae, John; Dickerson, Paul

2007-01-01

319

Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the…

Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

2008-01-01

320

Influence of Paraphrased Repetitions on the Spacing Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "spacing" effect was examined in students' memory for paragraphs and brief lectures. In Experiment 1, students who read massed verbatim repetitions of paragraphs recalled less content than did students who read verbatim repetitions spaced across time. Experiment 2 replicated these results using a brief lecture as the to-be-learned material.…

Glover, John A.; Corkill, Alice J.

1987-01-01

321

Abnormal gastrointestinal motility in patients with celiac sprue  

Microsoft Academic Search

No study to date has objectively investigated whether the motor behavior of the small bowel is abnormal in celiac sprue. The purpose of this study was to systematically address this topic by means of intraluminal pressure recordings in a series of such patients. Sixteen subjects (nine adults, seven children, age range 2–69 years) with celiac sprue were recruited and studied

Gabrio Bassotti; Giuseppe Castellucci; Cesare Betti; Carla Fusaro; Maria Lucia Cavalletti; Alberto Bertotto; Fabrizio Spinozzi; Antonio Morelli; Maria Antonietta Pelli

1994-01-01

322

Multi-Input Multi-Output Repetitive Control Theory And Taylor Series Based Repetitive Control Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repetitive control (RC) systems aim to achieve zero tracking error when tracking a periodic command, or when tracking a constant command in the presence of a periodic disturbance, or both a periodic command and periodic disturbance. This dissertation presents a new approach using Taylor Series Expansion of the inverse system z-transfer function model to design Finite Impulse Response (FIR) repetitive controllers for single-input single-output (SISO) systems, and compares the designs obtained to those generated by optimization in the frequency domain. This approach is very simple, straightforward, and easy to use. It also supplies considerable insight, and gives understanding of the cause of the patterns for zero locations in the optimization based design. The approach forms a different and effective time domain design method, and it can also be used to guide the choice of parameters in performing in the frequency domain optimization design. Next, this dissertation presents the theoretical foundation for frequency based optimization design of repetitive control design for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. A comprehensive stability theory for MIMO repetitive control is developed. A necessary and sufficient condition for asymptotic stability in MIMO RC is derived, and four sufficient conditions are created. One of these is the MIMO version of the approximate monotonic decay condition in SISO RC, and one is a necessary and sufficient condition for stability for all possible disturbance periods. An appropriate optimization criterion for direct MIMO is presented based on minimizing a Frobenius norm summed over frequencies from zero to Nyquist. This design process is very tractable, requiring only solution of a linear algebraic equation. An alternative approach reduces the problem to a set of SISO design problems, one for each input-output pair. The performances of the resulting designs are studied by extensive examples. Both approaches are seen to be able to create RC designs with fast monotonic decay of the tracking error. Finally, this dissertation presents an analysis of using an experiment design sequence for parameter identification based on the theory of iterative learning control (ILC), a sister field to repetitive control. This is suggested as an alternative to the results in optimal experiment design. Modified ILC laws that are intentionally non-robust to model errors are developed, as a way to fine tune the use of ILC for identification purposes. The non-robustness with respect to its ability to improve identification of system parameters when the model error is correct is studied. It is demonstrated that in many cases the approach makes the learning particularly sensitive to relatively small parameter errors in the model, but sensitivity is sometimes limited to parameter errors of a specific sign.

Xu, Kevin

323

Improved Discrimination of Visual Stimuli Following Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a “virtual lesion” in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary to expectations of a visual deficit, we find that rTMS often improves the discrimination of visual features. For coarse orientation tasks, discrimination of a static stimulus improved consistently following theta-burst stimulation of the occipital lobe. Using a reaction-time task, we found that these improvements occurred throughout the visual field and lasted beyond one hour post-rTMS. Low-frequency (1 Hz) stimulation yielded similar improvements. In contrast, we did not find consistent effects of rTMS on performance in a fine orientation discrimination task. Conclusions/Significance Overall our results suggest that rTMS generally improves or has no effect on visual acuity, with the nature of the effect depending on the type of stimulation and the task. We interpret our results in the context of an ideal-observer model of visual perception.

Waterston, Michael L.; Pack, Christopher C.

2010-01-01

324

An electrophysiological study of cross-modal repetition priming  

PubMed Central

Few studies have focused on language processing across modalities. Two experiments examined between-modality interactions across three prime–target intervals (0, 200, and 800 ms) in a cross-modal repetition priming paradigm. Event-related potentials were recorded to auditory targets following visual primes (Experiment 1) or visual targets following auditory primes (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 robust repetition effects were found for auditory targets as early as 100 ms, and continued through the N400 epoch. Moreover, these visual–auditory repetition effects were large across all three prime–target intervals although they onset 200 ms later at the shortest interval. In Experiment 2 repetition effects to visual targets started later (at 200 ms), but also offset relatively later (?1000 ms). These auditory–visual repetition effects were both smaller overall and absent for the two shortest prime–target intervals during the typical N400 window.

Holcomb, Phillip J.; Anderson, Jane; Grainger, Jonathan

2013-01-01

325

Repetition suppression in auditory-motor regions to pitch and temporal structure in music.  

PubMed

Music performance requires control of two sequential structures: the ordering of pitches and the temporal intervals between successive pitches. Whether pitch and temporal structures are processed as separate or integrated features remains unclear. A repetition suppression paradigm compared neural and behavioral correlates of mapping pitch sequences and temporal sequences to motor movements in music performance. Fourteen pianists listened to and performed novel melodies on an MR-compatible piano keyboard during fMRI scanning. The pitch or temporal patterns in the melodies either changed or repeated (remained the same) across consecutive trials. We expected decreased neural response to the patterns (pitch or temporal) that repeated across trials relative to patterns that changed. Pitch and temporal accuracy were high, and pitch accuracy improved when either pitch or temporal sequences repeated over trials. Repetition of either pitch or temporal sequences was associated with linear BOLD decrease in frontal-parietal brain regions including dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, pre-SMA, and superior parietal cortex. Pitch sequence repetition (in contrast to temporal sequence repetition) was associated with linear BOLD decrease in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) while pianists listened to melodies they were about to perform. Decreased BOLD response in IPS also predicted increase in pitch accuracy only when pitch sequences repeated. Thus, behavioral performance and neural response in sensorimotor mapping networks were sensitive to both pitch and temporal structure, suggesting that pitch and temporal structure are largely integrated in auditory-motor transformations. IPS may be involved in transforming pitch sequences into spatial coordinates for accurate piano performance. PMID:23163413

Brown, Rachel M; Chen, Joyce L; Hollinger, Avrum; Penhune, Virginia B; Palmer, Caroline; Zatorre, Robert J

2013-02-01

326

Repetitive, electron-beam diode development  

SciTech Connect

We constructed a stacked-Blumlein pulse generator that can deliver pulses of nearly 200 kV to an electron beam diode load. This pulse generator has an output impedance of 100 {Omega} and a pulse width of 80 ns. It can operate continuously at pulse repetition rates as high as 500 Hz. We discharged the pulse generator into two diodes. One had a 2.9 cm diameter sintered bronze cathode, and the other had a 4.0 cm diameter graphite cathode with points machined into it. The sintered bronze cathode turned on completely with a peak, macroscopic field of 100 kV/cm. The graphite cathode required a peak, macroscopic field of 150 kV/cm in order to operate reproducibly. Nevertheless, only about 10% of the area of the graphite cathode emitted. The bronze cathode operated at 30 Hz, and it exhibited heat damage. Specifically, it melted in places. Conversely, the graphite cathode, operated at 50 Hz, exhibited little damage: principally, minor erosion around the perimeter.

McClenahan, C.R.; Martinez, L.E.; Pena, G.E.; Weber, G.J.

1993-08-01

327

Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.  

PubMed

Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. PMID:24268321

Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

2014-02-01

328

A chenopod extensin lacks repetitive tetrahydroxyproline blocks  

SciTech Connect

An extensin isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) cell suspension cultures fulfills all criteria for membership of the extensin family save one, notably, lack of the diagnostic pentamer Ser-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp. However, sequence analysis of the major tryptic peptides shows that sugar beet extensin shares a motif in common with tomato extensin P1 but differs by the position of an insertion sequence (X) or (Y) which, in sugar beet, splits the tetrahydroxyproline block: Ser-Hyp-Hyp-(X)-Hyp-Hyp-Thr-Hyp-Val-Tyr-Lys, where (X) is (Val-His-Glu/Lys-Tyr-Pro), while in tomato the insertion sequence (Y) = (Val-Lys-Pro-Tyr-His-Pro) and, when it occurs, immediately follows the tetrahydroxyproline block: Ser-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-Hyp-(Y)-Thr-Hyp-Val-Tyr-Lys. Based on these data were reinterpret three highly repetitive cDNA sequences, including nodulin N75 from soybean and wound-induced P33 of carrot, as extensins with split tetra(hydroxy)proline blocks.

Li, Xiongbiao; Kieliszewski, M.; Lamport, D.T.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-02-01

329

[Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression].  

PubMed

It has been reported that approximately one third of patients with major depression are medication-resistant. In spite of partial responsiveness to antidepressants, most of the medication-resistant patients remain incompletely remitted without successful social reintegration. Symptom severity could be mild to moderate for many of them due to the incomplete remission, and, thus, electroconvulsive therapy is not applicable for them. However, they usually feel some difficulty performing cognitive behavioral therapy or social rehabilitation training due to residual symptoms such as thought inhibition and hypobulia. Under such conditions, those patients are longing for treatment options complementary to antidepressants, for less painful social reintegration. In October 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States finally approved repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for medication-resistant patients with major depression. The main reason for the FDA approval was that rTMS had shown similar effectiveness (effect size around 0.39 in a recent meta-analysis) to antidepressants for medication-resistant patients without serious adverse effects. TMS is a brain stimulation methodology employing magnetic energy which can penetrate the skull bone without energy decay, and, thus, eddy currents induced by TMS can stimulate cerebral cortices effectively and locally. When TMS is repetitively delivered over several hundreds of pulses within a session, stimulation effects can be observed beyond the stimulation period as aftereffects. Moreover, when a daily rTMS session is repeated over several weeks, rTMS could have antidepressant effects. Clinical trials of rTMS for depression have employed two kinds of rTMS protocol of high-frequency (facilitatory) rTMS over the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) and low-frequency (inhibitory) rTMS over the right DLPFC. Although the antidepressant action of rTMS over DLPFC has not been fully elucidated, the neuronal level hypothesis includes the induction of neuroplasticity and activation of the dopamine system, and the neuronal circuitry level hypothesis includes the activation of the left DLPFC and inhibition of the right DLPFC and (para) limbic system such as the subgenual cingulate cortex and amygdala. On the therapeutic application of rTMS in clinical psychiatry, neuroethics and low invasiveness should be fully considered along with a negative history of punitive electroconvulsive therapy and prefrontal lobotomy. It is important to investigate the neurobiological mechanism of rTMS treatment and to place rTMS in a suitable position within comprehensive treatment algorithms of major depression. PMID:23367835

Nakamura, Motoaki

2012-01-01

330

OCD-Like behaviors caused by a neuropotentiating transgene targeted to cortical and limbic D1+ neurons.  

PubMed

To study the behavioral role of neurons containing the D1 dopamine receptor (D1+), we have used a genetic neurostimulatory approach. We generated transgenic mice that express an intracellular form of cholera toxin (CT), a neuropotentiating enzyme that chronically activates stimulatory G-protein (Gs) signal transduction and cAMP synthesis, under the control of the D1 promoter. Because the D1 promoter, like other CNS-expressed promoters, confers transgene expression that is regionally restricted to different D1+ CNS subsets in different transgenic lines, we observed distinct but related psychomotor disorders in different D1CT-expressing founders. In a D1CT line in which transgene expression was restricted to the following D1+ CNS regions-the piriform cortex layer II, layers II-III of somatosensory cortical areas, and the intercalated nucleus of the amygdala-D1CT mice showed normal CNS and D1+ neural architecture but increased cAMP content in whole extracts of the piriform and somatosensory cortex. These mice also exhibited a constellation of compulsive behavioral abnormalities that strongly resembled human cortical-limbic-induced compulsive disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These compulsive behaviors included episodes of perseverance or repetition of any and all normal behaviors, repetitive nonaggressive biting of siblings during grooming, and repetitive leaping. These results suggest that chronic potentiation of cortical and limbic D1+ neurons thought to induce glutamatergic output to the striatum causes behaviors reminiscent of those in human cortical-limbic-induced compulsive disorders. PMID:10366637

Campbell, K M; de Lecea, L; Severynse, D M; Caron, M G; McGrath, M J; Sparber, S B; Sun, L Y; Burton, F H

1999-06-15

331

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical ``heartprints'' which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing ~105 heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-09-01

332

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

333

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes.

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-01-01

334

Craniocervical junction abnormalities in dogs.  

PubMed

Craniocervical junction abnormality (CJA) is a term that encompasses a number of developmental anatomical aberrations at the region of the caudal occiput and first two cervical vertebrae. Chiari-like malformation appears to be the most common CJA encountered in dogs, and there has been a tremendous amount of clinical investigation into this disorder in recent years. Other abnormalities in this region include atlanto-occipital overlap, dorsal constriction at C1/C2 and atlantoaxial instability. This review article presents an overview of the current understanding of CJA in dogs, as well as medical and surgical treatment options available. PMID:23556552

Dewey, C W; Marino, D J; Loughin, C A

2013-07-01

335

Central Adaptations to Repetitive Grasping in Healthy Aging  

PubMed Central

Augmented cortical activity during repetitive grasping mitigates repetition-related decrease in cortical efficiency in young adults. It is unclear if similar processes occur with healthy aging. We recorded movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) during 150 repetitive handgrip contractions at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in healthy young (n = 10) and old (n = 10) adults. Repetitions were grouped into two Blocks (Block 1 and 2: repetitions 1–60 and 91–150, respectively) and analyzed separately to assess the effects of aging and block. EMG of the flexor digitorum superficialis and handgrip force were also recorded. No changes in EMG or MVC were observed across blocks for either group. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for MRCPs recorded from mesial (FCz, Cz, CPz) and motor (C1, C3, Cz) electrode sites, with younger adults demonstrating significant increases in MRCP amplitude. Focal MRCP activity in response to repetitive grasping resulted in minimal changes (i.e. Block 1 versus Block 2) in older adults. Central adaptive processes change across the lifespan, showing increasingly less focal activation in older adults during repetitive grasping. Our findings are consistent with previous paradigms demonstrating more diffuse cortical activation during motor tasks in older adults.

Sirevaag, Erik J.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Earhart, Gammon M.

2011-01-01

336

Controversies surrounding "misuse," "overuse," and "repetition" in musicians.  

PubMed

Medical opinion remains divided on the existence of a specific medical entity of nonspecific arm pain produced by repetition. Controversy also exists in the pathophysiology of certain painful, anatomically defined medical conditions in the hand and arm and the role of repetition, cumulative trauma, and microtrauma in the development of these conditions. The flaws in science and the language are examined in this article, as are the results of a survey of Australian music students in comparison with nonmusic students, questioning accepted wisdom on repetitive strain injuries. PMID:12852675

Winspur, Ian

2003-05-01

337

Repetition frequency pulling effects in asynchronous mode-locking.  

PubMed

Repetition frequency pulling effects are found to exist in asynchronous harmonic mode-locked fiber soliton lasers. The deviation frequency of asynchronous mode-locking is found to be dependent on the active modulation depth, not wholly determined by the difference between the intracavity active modulation frequency and the cavity harmonic repetition frequency. Transition from asynchronous to synchronous mode-locking will also occur when the modulation depth is above the threshold. Independent repetition frequency control of asynchronous mode-locked laser can be achieved through the effects. PMID:23381433

Jyu, Siao-Shan; Lai, Yinchieh

2013-02-01

338

Context effects in repetition priming are sense effects.  

PubMed

This article reports three experiments that investigate the role of context in repetition priming using a lexical decision task. The experiments show that repetition priming is either eliminated or significantly reduced if a change in context also alters the perceived sense of a nonhomographic target word. If perceived sense is not altered, a change in context is inconsequential. This points to the important role played by perceived sense in repetition priming. An explanation within a sense-specific activation framework is proposed in preference to a modified processing view. PMID:8412714

Bainbridge, J V; Lewandowsky, S; Kirsner, K

1993-09-01

339

Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.  

PubMed

This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry. PMID:2185921

Cooper, G; Friedman, J M

1990-04-01

340

Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Berretta, Sabina

2011-01-01

341

Abnormal movements are associated with poor psychosocial functioning in adolescents at high risk for psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The period immediately preceding the onset of overt psychosis is characterized by a range of symptoms and behaviors including emerging attenuated psychosis, spontaneous movement abnormalities, and a broad decline in role and social functioning. Recent evidence suggests that basal ganglia dysfunction, which is implicated in the development of psychotic symptomatology, may manifest in the form of both movement abnormalities and

Vijay A. Mittal; Maria Jalbrzikowski; Melita Daley; Cristina Roman; Carrie E. Bearden; Tyrone D. Cannon

2011-01-01

342

Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate…

Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

2012-01-01

343

Investigation into the Repetition-Rate Limitations of Magnetic Switches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of magnetic switches to generate high power pulses has opened up a whole new spectrum of possibilities. Here we describe an investigation into the maximum repetition rates possible with these devices.

D. L. Birx L. L. Reginato J. A. Schmidt

1982-01-01

344

Repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia originating from the aortic sinus cusp  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe sought to investigate the electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics for guiding catheter ablation in patients with repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (RMVT) originating from the aortic sinus cusp (ASC).

Feifan Ouyang; Parwis Fotuhi; Siew Yen Ho; Joachim Hebe; Marius Volkmer; Masahiko Goya; Mark Burns; Matthias Antz; Sabine Ernst; Riccardo Cappato; Karl-Heinz Kuck

2002-01-01

345

Immediate, Repetitive Playback/Record--A Practical Solution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of an immediate, repetitive replay recording system. Photographs and text describe the system and its combination with another system to achieve the desired listen/record/compare sequence. (CHK)

Aikens, H. F.; Ross, A. J.

1977-01-01

346

Digital repetitive controlled three-phase PWM rectifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a digital repetitive control (RC) strategy is proposed to achieve zero tracking error for constant-voltage constant-frequency (CVCF) pulse width modulation (PWM) converters. The proposed control scheme is of \\

Keliang Zhou; Danwei Wang

2003-01-01

347

How does repetition affect memory? Evidence from judgments of recency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments were done to investigate the effects of repetition on judgment of recency (JOR). Experiment 1 showed that\\u000a repetition can make an item seem either more recent or less recent than a nonrepeated item, depending on presentation spacing.\\u000a Experiments 2-4 showed that subjects are able to judge the recency of a repeated item’s first presentation or of its second

Douglas L. Hintzman

2010-01-01

348

Repetitive, small-bore two-stage light gas gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repetitive two-stage light gas gun for high-speed pellet injection has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In general, applications of the two-stage light gas gun have been limited to only single shots, with a finite time (at least minutes) needed for recovery and preparation for the next shot. The new device overcomes problems associated with repetitive operation, including

S. K. Combs; C. R. Foust; D. T. Fehling; M. J. Gouge; S. L. Milora

1991-01-01

349

Human Scalp Electroencephalography Reveals that Repetition Suppression Varies with Expectation  

PubMed Central

Repetitions of a sensory event elicit lower levels of brain activity than its initial presentation (“repetition suppression,” RS). According to one view, RS depends on the biophysics of neuronal discharge, and is thus an automatic consequence of stimulus processing (“fatigue” model). Another account suggests that RS depends on the statistical structure of the environment, and occurs when repeated stimuli are less surprising than novel stimuli (“surprise reduction” model). In support of the latter view, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that RS is modulated by the local probability of repetition. However, single-cell recordings from macaque inferotemporal area (IT) have failed to replicate this finding. Here, we recorded scalp electroencephalography from human participants viewing pairs of faces that repeated (face1–face1) or alternated (face1–face2), in contexts in which repetitions were expected or unexpected. As previously described, event-related potentials in the range of 100–400?ms recorded at posterior electrode sites and at the vertex differed between repetitions and alternations. Critically, at central electrodes, we observed that the difference between repeated and alternating stimuli was attenuated when repetitions were unexpected, as predicted by the surprise reduction model. These findings demonstrate that the modulation of RS by repetition probability is observable using direct neural recording methods in human participants, and that it occurs relatively late (>300?ms) post-stimulus. Finally, we found that theta-band (4–8?Hz) spectral power over central electrodes varied with the three-way interaction between of repetition, expectation, and the rate of change of the environment, consistent with recent reports that frontal theta may be a hallmark of learning processes originating in the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex.

Summerfield, Christopher; Wyart, Valentin; Johnen, Vanessa Mareike; de Gardelle, Vincent

2011-01-01

350

Repetitive strain injuries: has the Australian epidemic burnt out?  

PubMed

In the 1980s Australia experienced an epidemic of medically certified claims for non-specific arm symptoms described as repetitive strain injury. Although a number of factors were mooted as causal of the epidemic, no single factor emerged as a compelling putative candidate. The present paper discusses the results of research which was published only after the epidemic had waned. It provides possible insights into the rise and fall of repetitive strain injury. PMID:15271176

Awerbuch, M

2004-07-01

351

A repetitive X-band relativistic backward-wave oscillator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repetitive X-band relativistic backward-wave oscillator (BWO) driven by a SINUS-881 accelerator is described. Relativistic electron beams with peak current of 5.4 kA and voltage of 610 kV at a repetition rate of 100 Hz were generated by the SINUS-881 and then guided through the corrugated waveguide by an axial magnetic field of 3.0 T produced by a superconducting magnet.

Changhua Chen; Guozhi Liu; Wenhua Huang; Zhimin Song; Juping Fan; Hongjun Wang

2002-01-01

352

Molecular fingerprinting of Riemerella anatipestifer by repetitive sequence PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riemerella anatipestifer is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium associated with epizootic infections in poultry. A total of 35 R. anatipestifer isolates including the type strain ATCC11845T, reference and field strains for 18 different serotypes were characterized by repetitive sequence based-PCR (rep-PCR) with outwardly-directed primers based on the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) consensus sequence. This technique was applied by using either extracted

Bin Huang; Sumathi Subramaniam; Kim-Lee Chua; Jimmy Kwang; Hilda Loh; Joachim Frey; Hai-Meng Tan

1999-01-01

353

Repetitive controlled three-phase reversible PWM rectifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a repetitive current control scheme for three-phase reversible PWM rectifier is proposed. The proposed control scheme is of typical dual-loop structure: inner AC current loop with plug-in repetitive plus feedback deadbeat controller, and outer DC voltage loop with PI controller. The unit power factor and constant DC bus voltage are obtained under load disturbance. Simulation results are

Keliang Zhou; Danwei Wang; Guangyan Xu

2000-01-01

354

Repetition priming and frequency attenuation in lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six experiments investigated repetition priming and frequency attenuation in lexical access with 164 college students. Repetition priming effects in lexical decision tasks are stronger for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words. This frequency attenuation effect creates problems for frequency-ordered search models that assume a relatively stable frequency effect. It was posited that frequency attenuation is a product of the involvement

Kenneth I. Forster; Chris Davis

1984-01-01

355

Repetitive behaviour in kennelled domestic dog: stereotypical or not?  

PubMed

Repetitive behaviour is common in kennelled dogs, yet its motivational basis remains relatively unexplored. We examine the repetitive behaviour of 30 kennelled working dogs in ten contexts both coinciding with, and in the absence of, commonly occurring arousing stimuli, such as care staff, other dogs and food preparation. A large proportion (93%) of subjects performed some repetitive behaviour, most commonly bouncing, but only 17% in the absence of the arousing stimuli. Subjects could be divided into four groups according to the stimuli eliciting, and the duration, of their repetitive behaviour, and these groups were compared on the basis of their cortisol response to an acute psychogenic stressor--a veterinary examination. Urinary cortisol/creatinine response curves differed significantly between the groups. In particular, those dogs which performed repetitive behaviour at times of minimal stimulation, showed a distinctly different pattern of response, with cortisol levels decreasing, as compared to increasing, after the veterinary examination. We conclude that dogs showing repetitive behaviours at times of high arousal are motivationally distinct from those "stereotyping" in the absence of stimulation. We suggest that those dogs showing spontaneous repetitive behaviours may have past experiences and/or temperaments that affect both their reactions to a veterinary examination and to long-term kennelling. For example, some dogs may find isolation from humans particularly aversive, hence affecting their reactions both to being left in a kennel and to being taken to the veterinary surgeon. Alternatively, such dogs may have atypical responsiveness of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, possibly brought about through chronic stress. High levels of repetitive behaviours in response to inaccessible husbandry events may be explained if such behaviour has inadvertently been reinforced by attention from staff, and therefore may not always be indicative of aversion to kennelling or compromised welfare. PMID:24472323

Denham, Hamish D C; Bradshaw, John W S; Rooney, Nicola J

2014-04-10

356

Hypnotically-induced vasodilation in the treatment of repetitive strain injuries.  

PubMed

The study examined the effectiveness of behaviorally-induced vasodilation (hypnosis with biofeedback and autogenics) in the treatment of upper extremity repetitive strain injuries (RSI). Thirty patients with recent onset of upper extremity RSI symptoms were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions, i.e., hypnotically-induced vasodilation or a waiting-list control. Treatments were given on an individual basis, once a week for 6 weeks. Patients in the treatment condition showed highly significant increases in hand temperature between pre- and post-treatment. Patients in the treatment condition also showed highly significant reductions in pain in comparison to the waiting list condition. PMID:8936710

Moore, L E; Wiesner, S L

1996-10-01

357

Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.  

PubMed

Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

Samson, J

1996-07-01

358

Naming and repetition in aphasia: Steps, routes, and frequency effects  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates the cognitive processes underlying picture naming and auditory word repetition. In the 2-step model of lexical access, both the semantic and phonological steps are involved in naming, but the former has no role in repetition. Assuming recognition of the to-be-repeated word, repetition could consist of retrieving the word’s output phonemes from the lexicon (the lexical-route model), retrieving the output phonology directly from input phonology (the nonlexical-route model) or employing both routes together (the summation dual-route model). We tested these accounts by comparing the size of the word frequency effect (an index of lexical retrieval) in naming and repetition data from 59 aphasic patients with simulations of naming and repetition models. The magnitude of the frequency effect (and the influence of other lexical variables) was found to be comparable in naming and repetition, and equally large for both the lexical and summation dual-route models. However, only the dual-route model was fully consistent with data from patients, suggesting that nonlexical input is added on top of a fully-utilized lexical route.

Nozari, Nazbanou; Kittredge, Audrey K.; Dell, Gary S.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

2010-01-01

359

Electrophysiological evidence for cortical plasticity with movement repetition.  

PubMed

The role of movement repetition and practice has been extensively studied as an aspect of motor skill learning but has rarely been investigated in its own right. As practice is considered a prerequisite for motor learning we expected that even the repetitive execution of a simple movement would rapidly induce changes in neural activations without changing performance. We used 64-channel event-related potential mapping to investigate these effects of movement repetition on corresponding brain activity in humans. Ten healthy right-handed young adults performed a power grip task under visual force control to ensure constant behaviour during the experimental session. The session consisted of two parts intersected by a break. For analysis each part was subdivided into two runs to control for potential attention or fatigue effects, which would be expected to disappear during the break. Microstate analysis revealed that distinct topographies and source configurations during movement preparation, movement execution and feedback integration are responsive to repetition. The observed patterns of changes differed for the three microstates, suggesting that different, repetition-sensitive neural mechanisms are involved. Moreover, this study clearly confirms that movement repetition, in the absence of skill learning, is capable of inducing changes in neural networks. PMID:15869524

Halder, Pascal; Sterr, Annette; Brem, Silvia; Bucher, Kerstin; Kollias, Spyros; Brandeis, Daniel

2005-04-01

360

Role of subconcussion in repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Research now suggests that head impacts commonly occur during contact sports in which visible signs or symptoms of neurological dysfunction may not develop despite those impacts having the potential for neurological injury. Recent biophysics studies utilizing helmet accelerometers have indicated that athletes at the collegiate and high school levels sustain a surprisingly high number of head impacts ranging from several hundred to well over 1000 during the course of a season. The associated cumulative impact burdens over the course of a career are equally important. Clinical studies have also identified athletes with no readily observable symptoms but who exhibit functional impairment as measured by neuropsychological testing and functional MRI. Such findings have been corroborated by diffusion tensor imaging studies demonstrating axonal injury in asymptomatic athletes at the end of a season. Recent autopsy data have shown that there are subsets of athletes in contact sports who do not have a history of known or identified concussions but nonetheless have neurodegenerative pathology consistent with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Finally, emerging laboratory data have demonstrated significant axonal injury, blood-brain barrier permeability, and evidence of neuroinflammation, all in the absence of behavioral changes. Such data suggest that subconcussive level impacts can lead to significant neurological alterations, especially if the blows are repetitive. The authors propose "subconcussion" as a significant emerging concept requiring thorough consideration of the potential role it plays in accruing sufficient anatomical and/or physiological damage in athletes and military personnel, such that the effects of these injuries are clinically expressed either contemporaneously or later in life. PMID:23971952

Bailes, Julian E; Petraglia, Anthony L; Omalu, Bennet I; Nauman, Eric; Talavage, Thomas

2013-11-01

361

Comparing one repetition maximum and three repetition maximum between conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlifts.  

PubMed

Bishop, A, DeBeliso, M, Sevene, TG, and Adams, KJ. Comparing one repetition maximum and three repetition maximum between conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlifts. J Strength Cond Res 28(7): 1820-1825, 2014-This study determined if an eccentrically loaded deadlift yields a higher 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 3RM than a conventional deadlift and if the 1RM conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlift can be accurately estimated from the 3RM (3RM = 93% of 1RM). Division 1 football players (n = 15; 20.3 ± 1.9 years; 95.8 ± 18.2 kg; 184.4 ± 6.6 cm) participated. Deadlift 1RM and 3RM were measured in the conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlift. Dependent t-tests showed no significant difference between the 3RM and 1RM conventional deadlift and the 3RM and 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift (p = 0.30 and p = 0.20, respectively). Pearson correlation between the 1RM conventional deadlift estimate and 1RM conventional deadlift actual was r = 0.91 (p ? 0.01); a dependent t-test indicated the 1RM conventional deadlift estimate was significantly less than the 1RM conventional deadlift actual (p = 0.007). Pearson correlation between the 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift estimate and 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift actual was r = 0.84 (p ? 0.01); a dependent t-test indicated the 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift estimate was nearly significantly less than the 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift actual (p = 0.061). Results suggest that conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlifts may be interchangeable within a training program; this may elicit the benefits of using a broader variety of ground-based multijoint compound movements in an athlete's strength and power training. Additionally, because of differences between predicted and actual 1RM scores in the deadlift, strength coaches should prioritize actual 1RM testing of their athletes to optimize deadlift training loads across the RM continuum. PMID:24276311

Bishop, Alan; DeBeliso, Mark; Sevene, Trish G; Adams, Kent J

2014-07-01

362

Lymphatic abnormalities in Noonan's syndrome.  

PubMed

Five boys who had Noonan's syndrome and lymphatic abnormalities are reported. The youngest boy had clinical lymphoedema and the other four showed dermal backflow after interdigital injection of Patent Blue indicating impairment of flow along the superficial lymphatics. One boy had severe bilateral chylothorax. The lymphographic findings in four of these boys are reported. Patients with the Noonan syndrome frequently have oedema of the hands and feet at birth, which decreases during the first years of life [10]. It has been demonstrated by lymphography that similar peripheral oedema in patients with the Turner's syndrome is due to lymphatic hypoplasia [1, 3]. We report certain lymphatic abnormalities diagnosed by lymphography in four out of five patients with Noonan's syndrome. PMID:673526

Lanning, P; Similä, S; Suramo, I; Paavilainen, T

1978-06-19

363

Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities.  

PubMed

Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplasic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10.5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis. PMID:3595619

Schnyder, P; Candardjis, G

1987-05-01

364

Switching between global and local levels: the level repetition effect and its hemispheric asymmetry  

PubMed Central

The global level of hierarchical stimuli (Navon’s stimuli) is typically processed quicker and better than the local level; further differential hemispheric dominance is described for local (left hemisphere, LH) and global (right hemisphere, RH) processing. However, neuroimaging and behavioral data indicate that stimulus category (letter or object) could modulate the hemispheric asymmetry for the local level processing. Besides, when the targets are unpredictably displayed at the global or local level, the participant has to switch between levels, and the magnitude of the switch cost increases with the number of repeated-level trials preceding the switch. The hemispheric asymmetries associated with level switching is an unresolved issue. LH areas may be involved in carrying over the target level information in case of level repetition. These areas may also largely participate in the processing of level-changed trials. Here we hypothesized that RH areas underly the inhibitory mechanism performed on the irrelevant level, as one of the components of the level switching process. In an experiment using a within-subject design, hierarchical stimuli were briefly presented either to the right or to the left visual field. 32 adults were instructed to identify the target at the global or local level. We assessed a possible RH dominance for the non-target level inhibition by varying the attentional demands through the manipulation of level repetitions (two or gour repeated-level trials before the switch). The behavioral data confirmed a LH specialization only for the local level processing of letter-based stimuli, and detrimental effect of increased level repetitions before a switch. Further, data provides evidence for a RH advantage in inhibiting the non-target level. Taken together, the data supports the notion of the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying level-switch effects.

Keita, Luc; Bedoin, Nathalie; Burack, Jacob A.; Lepore, Franco

2014-01-01

365

Abnormal menstruation in malaria: a short review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malarial infection is an important tropical mosquito borne infectious disease. An important unusual manifestation of malaria\\u000a is the abnormal menstruation. In this brief review, the author will focus on the abnormal menstruation in malarial infection.

Viroj Wiwanitkit

2009-01-01

366

Effects of Response and Trial Repetition on Sight-Word Training for Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effects of trial repetition (1 response within 5 trials per word) versus response repetition (5 response repetitions within 1 trial per word) on sight-word acquisition for 3 elementary students, ages 9 and 12, with learning disabilities in reading. Trial repetition resulted in more words mastered. (Author/SW)

Belfiore, Phillip J.; And Others

1995-01-01

367

Abnormal brain structure implicated in stimulant drug addiction.  

PubMed

Addiction to drugs is a major contemporary public health issue, characterized by maladaptive behavior to obtain and consume an increasing amount of drugs at the expense of the individual's health and social and personal life. We discovered abnormalities in fronto-striatal brain systems implicated in self-control in both stimulant-dependent individuals and their biological siblings who have no history of chronic drug abuse; these findings support the idea of an underlying neurocognitive endophenotype for stimulant drug addiction. PMID:22301321

Ersche, Karen D; Jones, P Simon; Williams, Guy B; Turton, Abigail J; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

2012-02-01

368

Platelet abnormalities in muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Platelets which have complex membranes and calcium shifts similar to those in muscles were investigated in 14 patients with muscular dystrophy and 20 suitable controls. In 4 Duchenne and one limb-girdle dystrophy aggregations were done and found to be depressed with adrenaline and ADP. Electron microscopic and chemical examinations revealed an increased number of dense bodies, changed permeability and/or binding of cations and elevated intracellular calcium in all the 9 cases of Duchenne dystrophy while the 2 limb-girdle and 3 myotonic dystrophies varied. A two phase polymer separation system applied to fixed platelets of all patients and controls showed no abnormality of surface negative charge. PMID:6308847

Yarom, R; Meyer, S; More, R; Liebergall, M; Eldor, A

1983-06-28

369

Foot abnormalities of wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

1962-01-01

370

Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser  

PubMed Central

High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100?GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55?ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7?nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary.

Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu

2013-01-01

371

Repetitive DNA in the automictic fungus Microbotryum violaceum.  

PubMed

The small genomes of fungi are expected to have little repetitive content other than rDNA genes. Moreover, among asexual or highly selfing lineages, the diversity of repetitive elements is also expected to be very low. However, in the automictic fungus Microbotryum violaceum, a very large proportion of random DNA fragments from the autosomes and the fungal sex chromosomes are repetitive in nature, either as retrotransposon or helicase sequences. Among the retrotransposon sequences, examples were found from each major kind of elements, including copia, gypsy, and non-LTR sequences. The most numerous were copia-like elements, which are believed to be rare in fungi, particularly among basidiomycetes. The many helicase sequences appear to belong to the recently discovered Helitron type of transposable elements. Also, sequences that could not be identified as a known type of gene were also very repetitive within the database of random fragments from M. violaceum. The differentiated pair of fungal sex chromosomes and suppression of recombination may be the major forces determining the highly repetitive content in the small genome of M. violaceum. PMID:16010998

Hood, Michael E

2005-05-01

372

Repetitively Q-switched Nd:BeL lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal and mechanical characteristics which will ultimately limit the performance of Nd:BeL at high average power levels were investigated. The output beam characteristics (pulse width, peak power, beam dimensions and collimation) were determined at high repetition rates for both Nd:BeL and Nd:YAG. The output of Nd:BeL was shown to exceed that of Nd:YAG by a factor of 2.7 at low Q-switched repetition rates (1 Hz). This result follows from the smaller stimulated emission cross section of x-axis Nb:BeL compared to that of NdYAG by the same factor. At high repetition rates (10 Hz) the output of Nd:Bel falls to a level of three-fifths of its low repetition rate value while under similar tests the output of Nd:YAG remains essentially constant. A comparison of the measured values of the elasto-optic coefficients, the dn/dT values and the linear expansion coefficients for BeL and YAG failed to provide an explanation for the performance of BeL; however, thermal lensing was observed in Nd:BeL. Results imply that the output of a high repetition rate Q-switched Nd:BeL laser (high thermal loading) could be dramatically increased by utilization of a resonator design to compensate for the thermal lensing effects.

Degnan, J.; Birnbaum, M.; Deshazer, L. G.

1979-01-01

373

Solid state pulsed high-repetition-rate excimer lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the most efficient UV laser sources excimer lasers are unique tools for the various fields of material processing. Essentially, the tight process windows fuel the need for better dose control during laser illumination and hence the demand for high repetition rate excimer lasers operating at comparably low pulse energies of only some 10 mJ. Compact, flexible excimer lasers offering high repetition rate-low energy and low cost of ownership pave the way to efficient mask writing and wafer inspection systems for chip manufacturing as well as to efficient testing of optical materials. Utilizing micro-mirror arrays, high-repetition rate-low energy excimer lasers are ideal for flexible direct-write material processing approaches e.g., in laser marking or cleaning. Moreover, medical applications such as refractive eye surgery currently using up to 200 Hz repetition rate will benefit from high-repetition rate excimer lasers offering reduced treatment times with excimer laser based systems with 500 Hz and even 1000 Hz in the near future.

Delmdahl, Ralph F.; Nikolaus, Bernhard

2004-07-01

374

Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser.  

PubMed

High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100 GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55 ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7 nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary. PMID:24226153

Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu

2013-01-01

375

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes.

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

376

Lower extremity abnormalities in children.  

PubMed

Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal. PMID:12924829

Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

2003-08-01

377

Emotionally negative stimuli are resistant to repetition priming.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at testing whether the repetition priming was influenced by affective valence of visual stimuli. Neutral and emotionally negative words and images were shown in the right or in the left visual field. Each of the stimuli was repeated twice, with 2 to 4 other stimuli presented between repetitions. The subjects' task was detection of a stimulus. Responses were given by index finger of the left or right hand. The task was the same for all stimuli, the new and the repeated ones. Reaction times were measured and analyzed. The effects of repetition priming were significant only for neutral stimuli: repeated items were detected faster than the new ones. For emotionally negative items, generally no priming was observed. Interestingly, new emotionally negative stimuli were detected significantly faster in comparison to neutral stimuli. The results are discussed in relation to attentional processes involved in processing of affective stimuli. PMID:17474324

Marchewka, Artur; Nowicka, Anna

2007-01-01

378

Status of Repetitive Pulsed Power at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Multi-kilojoule repetitive pulsed power technology moved from a laboratory environment into its first commercial application in 1997 as a driver for ion beam surface treatment. Sandia's RHEPP II, a repetitive 2.5 kJ/pulse electron beam accelerator, has supported the development of radiation treatment processes for polymers and elastomers, food products, and high dose- rate effects testing for defense programs since early 1996. Dos Lineas, an all solid-state testbed, has demonstrated synchronization techniques for parallel magnetic modulator systems and is continuing the development of design standards for long lifetime magnetic switches and voltage adders at a shot rate capability that exceeds 5x106 pulses per day. This paper will describe progress in multi-kilojoule class repetitive pulsed power technology development, limitations of magnetic switching technology for accelerator and modulator applications, and future research and development directions.

Harden, M.; Harjes, H.; Martinez, L.; Pena, G.; Reed, K.; Schneider, L

1999-06-23

379

Repetitive control of an electrostatic microbridge actuator: theory and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrostatic microactuators are used extensively in MEMS sensors, RF switches and microfluidic pumps. The high bandwidth operation required by these applications complicates the implementation of feedback controllers. This paper designs, proves stability and simulates a feedforward repetitive controller for an electrostatic microbridge. High residual stress creates tension in the microbridge that dominates bending stiffness so a pinned string model with uniform electrostatic force loading is used for model-based control. The control objective is to force the microbridge displacement to follow prescribed spatial and periodic time trajectories. Viscous damping ensures boundedness of the distributed transverse displacement in response to bounded inputs. The average displacement is measured by capacitive sensing and processed offline using a repetitive control algorithm that updates a high speed waveform generator's parameters. Simulations show that the performance depends on the amount of damping. With less than 1% damping in a representative microbridge structure, repetitive control reduces the midspan displacement overshoot by 83%.

Zhao, Haiyu; Rahn, Christopher D.

2010-12-01

380

The Effects of Repetition on Children's True and False Reports  

PubMed Central

As children are often called upon to provide testimony in court proceedings, determining the veracity of their statements is an important issue. In the course of investigation by police and social workers, children are often repeatedly interviewed about their experiences, though the impact of this repetition on children’s true and false statements remains largely unexamined. The current study analysed semantic differences in children’s truthful and fabricated statements about an event they had or had not participated in. Results revealed that children’s truthful and fabricated reports differed in linguistic content, and that their language also varied with repetition. Discriminant analyses revealed that with repetition, children’s true and false reports became increasingly difficult to differentiate using linguistic markers, though true reports were consistently classified correctly at higher rates than false reports. The implications of these findings for legal procedures concerning child witnesses are discussed.

Evans, Angela D.; Brunet, Megan K.; Talwar, Victoria; Bala, Nicholas; Lindsay, Rod C.L.; Lee, Kang

2013-01-01

381

Multiple cellular mechanisms prevent chromosomal rearrangements involving repetitive DNA  

PubMed Central

Repetitive DNA is present in the eukaryotic genome in the form of segmental duplications, tandem and interspersed repeats, and satellites. Repetitive sequences can be beneficial by serving specific cellular functions (e.g. centromeric and telomeric DNA) and by providing a rapid means for adaptive evolution. However, such elements are also substrates for deleterious chromosomal rearrangements that affect fitness and promote human disease. Recent studies analyzing the role of nuclear organization in DNA repair and factors that suppress non-allelic homologous recombination have provided insights into how genome stability is maintained in eukaryotes. In this review we outline the types of repetitive sequences seen in eukaryotic genomes and how recombination mechanisms are regulated at the DNA sequence, cell organization, chromatin structure, and cell cycle control levels to prevent chromosomal rearrangements involving these sequences.

George, Carolyn M.; Alani, Eric

2012-01-01

382

Reproductive behavior of small animals.  

PubMed

Normal and abnormal reproductive behavior of dogs and cats, and known and proposed hormonal bases for these behaviors are addressed. Emerging information includes use of oxytocin to promote pair-bonding between dam and offspring and the possible effect of prolactin in inhibiting sexual behaviors. PMID:15946732

Root Kustritz, Margaret V

2005-08-01

383

Reproductive behavior of small animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal and abnormal reproductive behavior of dogs and cats, and known and proposed hormonal bases for these behaviors are addressed. Emerging information includes use of oxytocin to promote pair-bonding between dam and offspring and the possible effect of prolactin in inhibiting sexual behaviors.

Margaret V. Root Kustritz

2005-01-01

384

Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

2012-01-01

385

Time-frequency analysis of movement-related spectral power in EEG during repetitive movements: a comparison of methods  

PubMed Central

During dynamic voluntary movements, power in the ?-and ?-bands resulting from synchronized neuronal activity is modulated in a manner that is time-locked to movement onset. These signals can be readily recorded from the scalp surface using electroencephalography. Abnormalities in the magnitude and timing of these oscillations are present in a wide variety of movement disorders including Parkinson’s disease and dystonia. Most studies have examined movement-related oscillations in the context of single discrete movements, yet marked impairments are often seen during the performance of repetitive movements. For this reason, there is considerable need for analysis methods that can resolve the modulation of these oscillations in both the frequency and time domains. Presently, there is little consensus on which is the most appropriate method for this purpose. In this paper, a comparison of commonly used time-frequency methods is presented for the analysis of movement-related power in the ?-and ?-bands during repetitive movements. The same principles hold, however, for any form of repetitive or rhythmic input-output processes in the brain. In particular, methods based on band-pass filtering, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), continuous wavelet transform and reduced interference distributions are discussed. The relative merits and limitations in terms of spectral or temporal resolution of each method are shown with the use of simulated and experimental data. It is shown that the STFT provides the best compromise between spectral and temporal resolution and thus is the most appropriate approach for the analysis and interpretation of repetitive movement-related oscillations in health and disease. (250 words)

MacKinnon, Colum D.

2009-01-01

386

Molecular Design of Performance Proteins With Repetitive Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most performance proteins responsible for the mechanical stability of cells and organisms reveal highly repetitive sequences. Mimicking such performance proteins is of high interest for the design of nanostructured biomaterials. In this article, flagelliform silk is exemplary introduced to describe a general principle for designing genes of repetitive performance proteins for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli . In the first step, repeating amino acid sequence motifs are reversely transcripted into DNA cassettes, which can in a second step be seamlessly ligated, yielding a designed gene. Recombinant expression thereof leads to proteins mimicking the natural ones. The recombinant proteins can be assembled into nanostructured materials in a controlled manner, allowing their use in several applications.

Vendrely, Charlotte; Ackerschott, Christian; Römer, Lin; Scheibel, Thomas

387

TECHWR-L: Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you work in front of a computer a lot, you are probably a candidate for Repetitive-Stress Injuries (RSI). This article from TECHWR-L entitled, Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries: A Guide for the Technical Communicator gives some helpful tips for preventing the aches, pains, hand problems and eye strain associated with repeated computer usage. The article discusses different mouse options, keyboard options, and other adjustments you can make to lessen your risk of RSI and make typing at the computer a little more pleasant. Additional links at the bottom provide further information on healthy computing.

388

Prediction of Muscle Performance During Dynamic Repetitive Exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for predicting human muscle performance was developed. Eight test subjects performed a repetitive dynamic exercise to failure using a Lordex spinal machine. Electromyography (EMG) data was collected from the erector spinae. Evaluation of the EMG data using a 5th order Autoregressive (AR) model and statistical regression analysis revealed that an AR parameter, the mean average magnitude of AR poles, can predict performance to failure as early as the second repetition of the exercise. Potential applications to the space program include evaluating on-orbit countermeasure effectiveness, maximizing post-flight recovery, and future real-time monitoring capability during Extravehicular Activity.

Byerly, D. L.; Byerly, K. A.; Sognier, M. A.; Squires, W. G.

2002-01-01

389

Sensorimotor gating abnormalities in young males with fragile X syndrome and Fmr1-knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene (FMR1) disorder affecting cognitive and behavioral function in humans. This syndrome is characterized by a cluster of abnormalities including lower IQ, attention deficits, impairments in adaptive behavior and increased incidence of autism. Here, we show that young males with FXS have profound deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI), a basic marker

P W Frankland; Y Wang; B Rosner; T Shimizu; B W Balleine; E M Dykens; E M Ornitz; A J Silva

2004-01-01

390

Monitoring and detecting abnormal behavior in mobile cloud infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several mobile services are changing to cloud-based mobile services with richer communications and higher flexibility. We present a new mobile cloud infrastructure that combines mobile devices and cloud services. This new infrastructure provides virtual mobile instances through cloud computing. To commercialize new services with this infrastructure, service providers should be aware of security issues. In this paper, we first

Taehyun Kim; Yeongrak Choi; Seunghee Han; Jae Yoon Chung; Jonghwan Hyun; Jian Li; James Won-Ki Hong

2012-01-01

391

Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia.  

PubMed

Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia is based on an ordered sequence of endocrine and genetic investigations that are predicated on knowledge obtained from a suitable history and detailed examination of the external genital anatomy. Investigations are particularly relevant in 46,XY DSD where the diagnostic yield is less successful than in the 46,XX counterpart. Advantage should be taken of spontaneous activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy rendering measurements of gonadotrophins and sex steroids by sensitive, validated assays key to assessing testicular function. Allied measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone completes a comprehensive testis profile of Leydig and Sertoli cell function. Genetic assessment is dominated by analysis of a plethora of genes that attempts to delineate a cause for gonadal dysgenesis. In essence, this is successful in up to 20% of cases from analysis of SRY and SF1 (NR5A1) genes. In contrast, gene mutation analysis is highly successful in 46,XY DSD due to defects in androgen synthesis or action. The era of next generation sequencing is increasingly being applied to investigate complex medical conditions of unknown cause, including DSD. The challenge for health professionals will lie in integrating vast amounts of genetic information with phenotypes and counselling families appropriately. How tissues respond to hormones is apposite to assessing the range of genital phenotypes that characterise DSD, particularly for syndromes associated with androgen resistance. In vitro methods are available to undertake quantitative and qualitative analysis of hormone action. The in vivo equivalent is some assessment of the degree of under-masculinisation in the male, such as an external masculinisation score, and measurement of the ano-genital distance. This anthropometric marker is effectively a postnatal readout of the effects of prenatal androgens acting during the masculinisation programming window. For investigation of the newborn with abnormal genitalia, a pragmatic approach can be taken to guide the clinician using appropriate algorithms. PMID:23168057

Hughes, I A; Morel, Y; McElreavey, K; Rogol, A

2012-12-01

392

Extreme developmental temperatures result in morphological abnormalities in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta): a climate change perspective.  

PubMed

Increases in extreme environmental events are predicted to be major results of ongoing global climate change and may impact the persistence of species. We examined the effects of heat and cold waves during embryonic development of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in natural nests on the occurrence of abnormal shell morphologies in hatchlings. We found that nests exposed to extreme hot temperatures for >60 h produced more hatchlings with abnormalities than nests exposed to extreme hot temperatures for shorter periods, regardless of whether or not nesting females displayed abnormal morphologies. We observed no effect of extreme cold nest temperatures on the occurrence of hatchlings with abnormalities. Moreover, the frequency of nesting females with abnormal shell morphologies was approximately 2-fold lower than that of their offspring, suggesting that such abnormalities are negatively correlated with survival and fitness. Female turtles could potentially buffer their offspring from extreme heat by altering aspects of nesting behavior, such as choosing shadier nesting sites. We addressed this hypothesis by examining the effects of shade cover on extreme nest temperatures and the occurrence of hatchling abnormalities. While shade cover was negatively correlated with the occurrence of extreme hot nest temperatures, it was not significantly correlated with abnormalities. Therefore, female choice of shade cover does not appear to be a viable target for selection to reduce hatchling abnormalities. Our results suggest that increases in the frequency and intensity of heat waves associated with climate change might perturb developmental programs and thereby reduce the fitness of entire cohorts of turtles. PMID:23731815

Telemeco, Rory S; Warner, Daniel A; Reida, Molly K; Janzen, Fredric J

2013-06-01

393

BTBR T+tf/J MICE: AUTISM-RELEVANT BEHAVIORS AND REDUCED FRACTONE-ASSOCIATED HEPARAN SULFATE  

PubMed Central

BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice have emerged as strong candidates to serve as models of a range of autism-relevant behaviors, showing deficiencies in social behaviors; reduced or unusual ultrasonic vocalizations in conspecific situations; and enhanced, repetitive self grooming. Recent studies have described their behaviors in a seminatural Visible Burrow System (VBS); a social proximity test in which avoidance of a conspecific is impossible; and in an object approach and investigation test evaluating attention to specific objects and potential stereotypies in the order of approaching/investigating objects. VBS results confirmed strong BTBR avoidance of conspecifics and in the social proximity test, BTBR showed dramatic differences in several close-in behaviors, including specific avoidance of a nose-to-nose contact that may potentially be related to gaze-avoidance. Diazepam normalized social avoidance by BTBRs in a three-chamber test, and some additional behaviors –but not nose to nose avoidance- in the social proximity test. BTBR also showed higher levels of preference for particular objects, and higher levels of sequences investigating 3- or 4- objects in the same order. Heparan sulfate (HS) associated with fractal structures in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles was severely reduced in BTBR. HS may modulate the functions of a range of growth and guidance factors during development, and HS abnormalities are associated with relevant brain (callosal agenesis) and behavioral (reductions in sociality) changes; suggesting the value of examination of the dynamics of the HS system in the context of autism.

Blanchard, D. Caroline; Defensor, Erwin B.; Meyza, Ksenia Z.; Pobbe, Roger L.H.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Blanchard, Robert J.

2011-01-01

394

Forward and Backward Repetition Blindness in Speed and Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repetition blindness (RB) was investigated in a new paradigm in which effects could stem from items preceding or following a target. Speeded-response tasks in which 3 critical items (C1, C2, and C3) were sequentially presented on each trial. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to judge whether C2 (the target) was present on each trial.…

Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

2009-01-01

395

Development of a Repetitive Explosion Device for Rock Fracturing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the contract was to demonstrate that repetitive fuel/air explosions would augment the rock-fracturing capabilities of a standard D7F Caterpillar tractor with a parallelogram-type ripper. A standard D7 Caterpillar tractor with ripper was m...

J. W. Colburn R. J. Mathis

1972-01-01

396

Repetition rate multiplication in eight microstructured optical fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, passively mode locked fiber laser have been a very rich research field and today short pulsed laser with high energy and high repetition rate find many applications in areas of many fundamental research. In this paper, we propose a passively mode locked figure-eight fiber laser (8FL) totally made up of microstructured optical fiber (MOF) and incorporating two single

Tarek Ennejah; Faouzi Bahloul; Rabah Attia

2009-01-01

397

Repetitive DNA Elements as a Major Component of Plant Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major part of the nuclear genome of most plants is composed of different repetitive DNA elements. Studying these sequence elements is essential for our understanding of the nature and consequences of genome size variation between different species, and for studying the large-scale organization and evolution of plant genomes. Sugar beet (Beta vulgarisL.) is an important crop and a suitable

SYBILLE KUBIS; THOMAS SCHMIDT

1998-01-01

398

High repetition rate effects in XeCl tea lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high repetition rate capability of a discharge pumped XeCl laser with static fill has been studied by double pulse experiments. By suitably selecting the laser parameters (energy deposition, gas mixture composition, filling pressure), following an analytical model of the discharge induced thermal effects, laser action from the second pulse for delays as short as 5 ms with an energy

R. Buffa; P. Burlamacchi; M. Matera; H. F. Ranea Sandoval; R. Salimbeni

1982-01-01

399

Highly conserved repetitive DNA sequences are present at human centromeres.  

PubMed Central

Highly conserved repetitive DNA sequence clones, largely consisting of (GGAAT)n repeats, have been isolated from a human recombinant repetitive DNA library by high-stringency hybridization with rodent repetitive DNA. This sequence, the predominant repetitive sequence in human satellites II and III, is similar to the essential core DNA of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromere, centromere DNA element (CDE) III. In situ hybridization to human telophase and Drosophila polytene chromosomes shows localization of the (GGAAT)n sequence to centromeric regions. Hyperchromicity studies indicate that the (GGAAT)n sequence exhibits unusual hydrogen bonding properties. The purine-rich strand alone has the same thermal stability as the duplex. Hyperchromicity studies of synthetic DNA variants indicate that all sequences with the composition (AATGN)n exhibit this unusual thermal stability. DNA-mobility-shift assays indicate that specific HeLa-cell nuclear proteins recognize this sequence with a relative affinity greater than 10(5). The extreme evolutionary conservation of this DNA sequence, its centromeric location, its unusual hydrogen bonding properties, its high affinity for specific nuclear proteins, and its similarity to functional centromeres isolated from yeast suggest that this sequence may be a component of the functional human centromere. Images

Grady, D L; Ratliff, R L; Robinson, D L; McCanlies, E C; Meyne, J; Moyzis, R K

1992-01-01

400

Use and safety of a new repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to test a new repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator, the Dantec MagPro, we administered transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at 1 Hz and 125% of motor threshold for an average of 204 s (until the coil temperature reached 40°C) and 20 Hz stimulation at 100% of motor threshold for 2 s every minute for 10 min, on different days to

Eric M. Wassermann; Jordan Grafman; Cherisse Berry; Caroline Hollnagel; Krista Wild; Kim Clark; Mark Hallett

1996-01-01

401

High Repetition Rate Pulsers for Beam Switching Magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a type of pulsed power supply which has been developed to energize deflection magnets with a field of either direction, for a right or left beam deflection, on a pulse-to-pulse basis, at repetition rates up to 360 pulses per second, and to recover most of the energy at the end of the pulse. The scheme consists basically

J. L. Cole; I. C. Lutz; J. J. Muray

1965-01-01

402

Cross-Language Nonword Repetition by Bilingual and Monolingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Identifying children with primary or specific language impairment (LI) in languages other than English continues to present a diagnostic challenge. This study examined the utility of English and Spanish nonword repetition (NWR) to identify children known to have LI. Method: Participants were 4 groups of school-age children (N = 187).…

Windsor, Jennifer; Kohnert, Kathryn; Lobitz, Kelann F.; Pham, Giang T.

2010-01-01

403

Gender Differences in Repetitive Language in Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Verbal perseveration (i.e. excessive self-repetition) is a characteristic of male individuals with fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about its occurrence among females or its underlying causes. This project examined the relationship between perseveration and (1) gender, (2) cognitive and linguistic ability, and (3) language…

Murphy, M. M.; Abbeduto, L.

2007-01-01

404

Degenerate 1 GHz repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator.  

PubMed

We report a degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) that is synchronously pumped by a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser at 1 GHz repetition rate. The OPO produces an 85 nm (10 THz) wide frequency comb centered at 1.6 ?m. Stable long-term operation with >100 mW of average output power has been achieved. PMID:23114363

Vainio, Markku; Merimaa, Mikko; Halonen, Lauri; Vodopyanov, Konstantin

2012-11-01

405

Repetition Priming within and between the Two Cerebral Hemispheres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments explored repetition priming benefits in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. In both experiments, a lateralized lexical decision task was employed using repeated target stimuli. In the first experiment, all targets were repeated in the same visual field, and in the second experiment the visual field of presentation was switched…

Weems, S.A.; Zaidel, E.

2005-01-01

406

Analysis of repetitive element DNA methylation by MethyLight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive elements represent a large portion of the human genome and contain much of the CpG methylation found in normal human postnatal somatic tissues. Loss of DNA methylation in these sequences might account for most of the global hypomethylation that characterizes a large percent- age of human cancers that have been studied. There is widespread interest in correlating the genomic

Daniel J. Weisenberger; Mihaela Campan; Tiffany I. Long; Myungjin Kim; Christian Woods; Emerich Fiala; Melanie Ehrlich; Peter W. Laird

2005-01-01

407

Process of labeling specific chromosomes using recombinant repetitive DNA  

DOEpatents

Chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family members and consensus sequences of the repetitive DNA families for the chromosome preferential sequences. The selected low homology regions are then hybridized with chromosomes to determine those low homology regions hybridized with a specific chromosome under normal stringency conditions.

Moyzis, R.K.; Meyne, J.

1988-02-12

408

Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

409

Bilingual Performance on Nonword Repetition in Spanish and English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Nonword repetition (NWR) involves the ability to perceive, store, recall and reproduce phonological sequences. These same abilities play a role in word and morpheme learning. Cross-linguistic studies of performance on NWR tasks, word learning, and morpheme learning yield patterns of increased performance on all three tasks as a…

Summers, Connie; Bohman, Thomas M.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

410

Nonword Repetition in Children and Adults: Effects on Movement Coordination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hearing and repeating novel phonetic sequences, or novel nonwords, is a task that taps many levels of processing, including auditory decoding, phonological processing, working memory, speech motor planning and execution. Investigations of nonword repetition abilities have been framed within models of psycholinguistic processing, while the motor…

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Smith, Anne; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Weber-Fox, Christine

2010-01-01

411

A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2013-04-15

412

Continuously tunable multigigahertz repetition rate DFB laser pulsations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of short optical pulses with a repetition rate up to 45 GHz has been realized by using a new method based on cw-light injection from one DFB into another cw operated DFB-laser with a proper frequency detuning. Extremely high extinction ratios of the pulsations could be controlled by two parameters: detuning and injection ratio. An optimized construction of

Herbert Burkhard; R. Loesch; Valeri Piataev; Winfried Schlapp; H. Schoell

1997-01-01

413

Using Repetition and Alternating Levels of Practice in Beginning Typewriting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of secondary school students from 16 randomly selected typing classes in the Los Angeles County School District revealed that speed and accuracy on straight-copy writings in first-semester work are unaffected by repetition of practice materials and that alternate levels of practice is an effective technique. (AG)

Weise, Barbara

1975-01-01

414

Auditory Repetition Priming Is Impaired in Pure Alexic Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alexia without agraphia, or ''pure'' alexia, is an acquired impairment in reading that leaves writing skills intact. Repetition priming for visually presented words is diminished in pure alexia. However, it is not possible to verify whether this priming deficit is modality-specific or modality independent because reading abilities are compromised.…

Swick, Diane; Miller, Kimberly M.; Larsen, Jary

2004-01-01

415

Nonword Repetition and Word Learning: The Nature of the Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a theoretical framework designed to accommodate core evidence that the abilities to repeat nonwords and to learn the phonological forms of new words are closely linked. Basic findings relating nonword repetition and word learning both in typical samples of children and adults and in individuals with disorders of language…

Gathercole, Susan E.

2006-01-01

416

Noncombinatorial Detection of Regular Repetitions under Perspective Skew  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a geometric framework for the efficient detection of regular repetitions of planar (but not necessarily coplanar) patterns. At the heart of our system, lie the fixed structures of the transformations that describe these regular configurations. The approach detects a number of symmetric configurations that have traditionally been dealt with separately, in that all configurations corresponding to planar homologies

Tinne Tuytelaars; Andreas Turina; Luc J. Van Gool

2003-01-01

417

In-tube rocket propulsion using repetitive laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In `in-tube propulsion,' that is the combination of conventional rocket propulsion and ballistic range operation, propulsion performance can be enhanced with increases in thrust due to spatial confinement and in payload capability because propellant can be placed off board a projectile. This paper describes proofed concepts of in-tube propulsion by using repetitive laser pulses.

Sasoh, Akihiro

2011-09-01

418

Developmental abnormalities and mental retardation: diagnostic strategy.  

PubMed

Intellectual disability formerly called mental retardation (MR) is defined as having an IQ score below 70; the term "developmental delay" (DD) is preferred for young children. A detailed clinical history including a three-generation pedigreee and physical examination are the fundamental steps in achieving an etiological diagnosis in MR. Physical examination should be performed with special emphasis on dysmorphological and neurological exam. Genetic studies have priority in the laboratory investigation of a child with MR. Routine karyotyping is recommended regardless of the degree of MR. Fragile X studies are strongly recommended in both females and males with unexplained MR, especially in patients with a positive family history and typical physical and behavioral features. FISH analysis of subtelomeric regions should be reserved for selected patients. Inborn errors of metabolism are seldom seen as the causes of isolated MR but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with MR/DD in populations where the rate of consanguineous marriages is high. Neuroimaging studies should be performed on an indication basis such as abnormal brain size or neurological findings. It is essential to diagnose the underlying etiology of MR for recognition of treatable disorders, determining prognosis, family counseling, and providing prenatal diagnosis when possible. PMID:23622166

Topcu, Meral; Yalnizo?lu, Dilek

2013-01-01

419

Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with myotonic dystrophy.  

PubMed Central

In examining the incidence and progression of electrocardiographic abnormalities in 45 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 26 (58%) of whom at entry had at least 1 electrocardiographic abnormality, we found conduction abnormalities in 17 (38%). In 21 patients (47%), new abnormalities developed during follow-up (mean, 4.6 years). The overall incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities increased to 78%, and the incidence of conduction defects increased to 62%. Second-degree or complete atrioventricular block did not develop in any of the patients. Pseudoinfarction patterns were common at entry and during follow-up and were not correlated with evidence of clinical coronary artery disease. There was no correlation between the presence of electrocardiographic abnormalities and apparent disease severity. Images

Florek, R. C.; Triffon, D. W.; Mann, D. E.; Ringel, S. P.; Reiter, M. J.

1990-01-01

420

The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232

Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

2005-09-01

421

MODIFIABILITY OF ABNORMAL ISOMETRIC ELBOW AND SHOULDER JOINT TORQUE COUPLING AFTER STROKE  

PubMed Central

Unlike individuals with mild stroke, individuals with severe stroke are constrained to stereotypical movement patterns attributed to abnormal coupling of shoulder abductors with elbow flexors, and shoulder adductors with elbow extensors. Whether abnormal muscle coactivation and associated joint torque patterns can be changed in this population is important to determine given that it bears on the development of effective rehabilitation interventions. Eight subjects participated in a protocol that was designed to reduce abnormal elbow/shoulder joint torque coupling by training them to generate combinations of isometric elbow and shoulder joint torques away from the constraining patterns. After training, subjects demonstrated a significant reduction in abnormal torque coupling and a subsequent significant increase in ability to generate torque patterns away from the abnormal pattern. We suggest the rapid time-course of these changes reflects a residual capacity of the central nervous system to adapt to a novel behavioral training environment.

ELLIS, MICHAEL D.; HOLUBAR, BRADLEY G.; ACOSTA, ANA MARIA; BEER, RANDALL F.; DEWALD, JULIUS P. A.

2010-01-01

422

Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.  

PubMed

Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review. PMID:12840117

Limdi, J K; Hyde, G M

2003-06-01

423

Apparatus and method for removing abnormal tissue  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A computer assisted, minimally invasive method and apparatus for surgically removing abnormal tissue from a patient, for example, from a breast, are disclosed. The method involves imaging of the breast to locate the abnormal tissue, and determining a volume encapsulating the abnormal tissue and including a margin of healthy tissue. Based on the volume, a sequence of movements of a surgical instrument for tissue removal device is planned, so as to predictably excise the desired volume of tissue.

2008-10-21

424

Abnormal T-lymphocytes in lymphomatoid papulosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The abnormal cell population in lymphomatoid papulosis was studied by immunohistochemistry, light and electron microscopy\\u000a in five cases. It resulted in a comprehensive description of all the main variants within the abnormal cell population.\\u000a \\u000a In one of the cases an irreversible intracytoplasmic process in the abnormal lymphocytes made it possible to demonstrate the\\u000a derivation of lymphomatoid cells with cerebriform nuclei

S. C. J. van der Putte; J. Toonstra; W. A. van Vloten; J. A. M. van Unnik

1986-01-01

425

Cardiac abnormalities in mixed connective tissue disease.  

PubMed

Sixteen patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) were studied using noninvasive cardiovascular techniques. Cardiovascular abnormalities including pericarditis, asymmetric septal hypertrophy, and LV dilatation were found in 38 percent of the study group. Borderline ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities were present in 31 percent of the study group, and the remaining 31 percent were normal by all study techniques. MCTD patients have a high prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities when studied noninvasively. The most common clinical abnormality is a steroid-responsive pericarditis, present in 25 percent of our series. PMID:6822098

Oetgen, W J; Mutter, M L; Lawless, O J; Davia, J E

1983-02-01

426