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Sample records for abnormal repetitive behaviors

  1. Abnormal repetitive behaviors in dogs and cats: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Valarie V; Sinn, Leslie

    2014-05-01

    Abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) represent a diverse group of behaviors whose underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Their neurobiology likely involves several different neurotransmitter systems. These behaviors have been referred to as compulsive disorders, obsessive compulsive disorders and stereotypies. Underlying medical conditions and pain can often cause changes in behavior that are mistaken for ARBs. A complete medical work-up is always indicated prior to reaching a presumptive diagnosis. The frequency of ARBs can be reduced but not always eliminated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in conjunction with behavior modification and environmental enrichment. PMID:24766699

  2. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400

  3. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400

  4. Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Joseph P.; Thogerson, Collette M.; Dufour, Brett D.; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D.; Mench, Joy A.

    2011-01-01

    The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the “4P's” (Prediction, Preemption, Personalization, & Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely-related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly-specific model of a single disorder by matching this `fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies; and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders. PMID:21219937

  5. Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P; Thogerson, Collette M; Dufour, Brett D; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D; Mench, Joy A

    2011-06-01

    The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the "4P's" (Prediction, Pre-emption, Personalization, and Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly specific model of a single disorder by matching this 'fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders. PMID:21219937

  6. Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,

  7. Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

    2008-01-01

    Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of

  8. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  9. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat

  10. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature

  11. Electrodermal and behavioral responses of children with autism spectrum disorders to sensory and repetitive stimuli.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hessl, David; Macari, Suzanne L; Ozonoff, Sally; Green, Cherie; Rogers, Sally J

    2014-08-01

    Parents frequently report that their children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) respond atypically to sensory stimuli. Repetitive behaviors are also part of the ASD behavioral profile. Abnormal physiological arousal may underlie both of these symptoms. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of sympathetic nervous system arousal. The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to pilot methods for collecting EDA data in young children and (2) to examine hypothesized relationships among EDA, and sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD as compared with children with typical development. EDA was recorded on 54 young children with ASD and on 33 children with typical development (TD) during a protocol that included baseline, exposure to sensory and repetitive stimuli, and play. Parents completed standardized questionnaires regarding their child's sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors. Frequency and type of repetitive behavior during play was coded offline. Comparisons between EDA data for ASD and TD groups indicated no significant between-group differences in any measures. Parents of children with ASD reported more abnormal responses to sensory stimuli and more repetitive behaviors, but scores on these measures were not significantly correlated with EDA or with frequency of observed repetitive behaviors. Parent report of frequency and severity of sensory symptoms was significantly correlated with reports of repetitive behaviors in both groups. Although parents of children with ASD report high levels of sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors, these differences are not related to measured EDA arousal or reactivity. PMID:24788961

  12. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A.; Griffey, Christopher J.; Kromer, Lawrence F.

    2014-01-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms. PMID:25281279

  13. The prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat (N = 58), Fragile X (N = 191), Prader-Willi (N = 189), Lowe (N = 56) and Smith-Magenis (N = 42) syndromes and individuals with intellectual disability of heterogeneous aetiology (N = 56). Repetitive behavior was variable across syndromes. Fragile X syndrome scored highly on all subscales. Angelman syndrome demonstrated a significantly lowered probability for most behaviors. Prader-Willi, Cri-du-Chat and Smith-Magenis syndrome evidenced unique profiles of repetitive behavior. There is extreme heterogeneity of repetitive behavior across genetic syndromes, highlighting syndrome specific profiles. PMID:19037716

  14. fMRI tracks reductions in repetitive behaviors in autism: Two case studies

    PubMed Central

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Sikich, Linmarie; Mahorney, Steve; Felder, Jennifer N.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James

    2013-01-01

    Autism is characterized by abnormal prefrontal brain activation during cognitive control, a potential biomarker of repetitive behaviors. In this proof-of-principle study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity during an oddball task in two high-functioning males with autism before and after 12 weeks of treatment with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. One participant showed marked reductions in repetitive behaviors whereas the other showed mild worsening. Brain activation in relevant prefrontal regions increased in only the participant whose repetitive behavior symptoms improved. These findings suggest that fMRI may elucidate potential mechanisms of action of targeted autism interventions. PMID:20178033

  15. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for “higher order” behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research. PMID:21584849

  16. Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

  17. Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing

  18. Neuroligin 1 deletion results in impaired spatial memory and increased repetitive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, Jacqueline; Blaiss, Cory A.; Etherton, Mark R.; Espinosa, Felipe; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Walz, Christopher; Bolliger, Marc F.; Südhof, Thomas C.; Powell, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroligins (NLs) are a family of neural cell-adhesion molecules that are involved in excitatory/inhibitory synapse specification. Multiple members of the NL family (including NL1) and their binding partners have been linked to cases of human autism and mental retardation. We have now characterized NL1 deficient mice in autism and mental retardation-relevant behavioral tasks. NL1 KO mice display deficits in spatial learning and memory that correlate with impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation. In addition, NL1 KO mice exhibit a dramatic increase in repetitive, stereotyped grooming behavior, a potential autism-relevant abnormality. This repetitive stereotyped grooming abnormality in NL1 KO mice is associated with a reduced NMDA/AMPA ratio at cortico-striatal synapses. Interestingly, we further demonstrate that the increased repetitive grooming phenotype can be rescued in adult mice by administration of the NMDA receptor partial co-agonist D-cycloserine. Broadly, these data are consistent with a role of synaptic cell-adhesion molecules in general, and neuroligin-1 in particular, in autism, and implicate reduced excitatory synaptic transmission as a potential mechanism and treatment target for repetitive behavioral abnormalities. PMID:20147539

  19. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  20. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism: Relationships with Associated Clinical Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Hill, Dina E.; Ivers, Bonnie J.; Goldson, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between repetitive behaviors (RBs) and associated clinical features (i.e., cognitive and adaptive functioning levels, sleep problems, medication use, and other behavioral problems) were examined in two groups (High nonverbal IQ greater than or equal to 97 versus Low nonverbal IQ less than or equal to 56) of children with autism

  1. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. PMID:22114543

  2. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. PMID:22114543

  3. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  4. REPETITIVE MOTOR BEHAVIOR: FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION OF DEVELOPMENT AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Muehlmann, Amber M.; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. PMID:25631623

  5. Characterizing caregiver responses to restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-04-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. This descriptive study documented the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors in 85 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder as they interacted with their caregiver in a play interaction. For each child restricted and repetitive behavior, a caregiver response/non-response was coded. Caregiver responses were rated as successful or unsuccessful. In all, 83 toddlers demonstrated at least one restricted and repetitive behavior in 10 min. The most common child restricted and repetitive behavior was repetitive object use with 72 children displaying at least one instance of this category of restricted and repetitive behavior. Overall, caregivers responded to fewer than half of their child's restricted and repetitive behaviors, and caregiver response varied by child restricted and repetitive behavior type. The most common response was redirection. Success varied by child restricted and repetitive behavior type and caregiver response-redirections were most successful for child verbal and motor restricted and repetitive behaviors, whereas physical or verbal responses were rated more successful for repetitive object use and visual restricted and repetitive behaviors. This study represents the first attempt to characterize how caregivers respond to restricted and repetitive behaviors. Toddlers with autism spectrum disorder are already demonstrating a variety of restricted and repetitive behaviors within the context of a free play sessions, and caregivers differentially and naturally respond to them. PMID:25948600

  6. The Interplay between Sensory Processing Abnormalities, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways

  7. The interplay between sensory processing abnormalities, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways between sensory abnormalities and RRBs, and the role anxiety and IU may have. We gathered caregiver report data for 53 children with ASD aged 8-16 years. We found sensory under responsiveness and sensory over responsiveness were significantly associated with repetitive motor and insistence on sameness behaviours, and the relationships significantly mediated by IU and anxiety. Our findings indicate different mechanisms may underpin repetitive motor and insistence on sameness RRBs, which can inform treatment interventions. PMID:25261248

  8. Examining Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Two Observational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation…

  9. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior

  10. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive behaviors. In this review, we summarize the repetitive behaviors of the ASD mouse models and variations found in their neural mechanisms including molecular and electrophysiological features. We also propose potential neuronal mechanisms underlying these repetitive behaviors, focusing on the role of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits and brain regions associated with both social and repetitive behaviors. Further understanding of molecular and circuitry mechanisms of the repetitive behaviors associated with ASD is necessary to aid the development of effective treatments for these disorders. PMID:26790724

  11. Observational characterization of sensory interests, repetitions, and seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anne V; Little, Lauren M; Schultz, Beth; Baranek, Grace T

    2015-01-01

    Sensory interests, repetitions, and seeking behaviors (SIRS) are common among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD) and involve unusual actions that intensify or reinforce a sensory experience. Researchers and practitioners typically use parent-report measures or informal clinical observations to understand the presence and nature of SIRS. In this study, we used a scoring supplement to the Sensory Processing Assessment for Young Children, an observational measure, to characterize SIRS across three groups of children-those with ASD (n=40), DD (n=37), and typical development (n=39). Group differences were identified in frequency and intensity of overall SIRS, complexity of SIRS, and incidence of particular types of SIRS (i.e., posturing, sighting, proprioceptive seeking, spinning). Facial affect was also explored and found to be primarily neutral during engagement in SIRS across groups. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:25871592

  12. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  13. Measuring Repetitive Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Halladay, Alycia K.; Bishop, Somer L.; Bodfish, James W.; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Jones, Nancy; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; McCracken, James T.; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors vary widely in type, frequency, and intensity among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. They can be stigmatizing and interfere with more constructive activities. Accordingly, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may be a target of intervention. Several standardized

  14. Subcategories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization

  15. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

  16. Measuring Repetitive Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Halladay, Alycia K.; Bishop, Somer L.; Bodfish, James W.; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Jones, Nancy; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; McCracken, James T.; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors vary widely in type, frequency, and intensity among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. They can be stigmatizing and interfere with more constructive activities. Accordingly, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may be a target of intervention. Several standardized…

  17. Effects of a Family-Implemented Treatment on the Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Rupp, Betty; Khan, Faraaz; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The restricted and repetitive behaviors of children with autism can interfere with family functioning as well as learning and socialization opportunities for the child. To date, neither pharmacological nor comprehensive behavioral treatments have been found to be consistently effective at significantly reducing children's engagement in repetitive

  18. Environmental conditions associated with repetitive behavior in a group of African elephants.

    PubMed

    Hasenjager, Matthew J; Bergl, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive movement patterns are commonly observed in zoo elephants. The extent to which these behaviors constitute a welfare concern varies, as their expression ranges from stereotypies to potentially beneficial anticipatory behaviors. Nevertheless, their occurrence in zoo animals is often viewed negatively. To better identify conditions that prompt their performance, observations were conducted on six African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the North Carolina Zoo. Individuals spent most of their time engaged in feeding, locomotion, resting, and repetitive behavior. Both generalized estimating equation and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to identify factors associated with increased rates of repetitive behavior. Time of day in conjunction with location on- or off-exhibit best explained patterns of repetitive behavior. Repetitive behaviors occurred at a lower rate in the morning when on-exhibit, as compared to afternoons on-exhibit or at any time of day off-exhibit. Increased repetitive behavior rates observed on-exhibit in the afternoon prior to the evening transfer and feeding were possibly anticipatory responses towards those events. In contrast, consistently elevated frequencies of repetitive behavior off-exhibit at all times of day could be related to differences in exhibit complexity between off-exhibit and on-exhibit areas, as well as a lack of additional foraging opportunities. Our study contributes valuable information on captive elephant behavior and represents a good example of how behavioral research can be employed to improve management of zoo animals. PMID:25919392

  19. Striatal development in autism: repetitive behaviors and the reward circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Kohls, Gregor; Yerys, Benjamin; Schultz, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by two essential features – impaired social communication abilities, including deficits with social reciprocity, nonverbal communication and establishing relationships, and by the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Social deficits get the majority of attention both in science and in the popular media, but RRBIs are equally important in understanding autism. Although RRBIs are also seen in typically developing preschoolers, as well as in other psychiatric disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, their impairing and persisting character is a hallmark of ASD1. Repetitive behaviors are among the first signs of ASD, with significant elevations by the child's first birthday2. Individuals with ASD of all ages and cognitive ability levels display RRBIs to variable degrees, with males usually being more severely affected than females3. Caregivers of individuals with ASD commonly emphasize that RRBIs are among the most challenging facets of the disorder on an everyday basis1. They negatively impact social, cognitive, family functioning and well-being, often leading to increased levels of parental stress and negative parenting styles. While the clinical description and natural history of RRBIs is becoming clear, an understanding of the biological bases of this set of features has only recently begun to emerge4. Better insight into the ontogenesis of RRBIs and their underlying neurobiology is needed not only to inform models of the etiology of ASD, but also to foster the development of new interventions. In this issue of Biological Psychiatry, Langen et al.5 examine differences in the rate of basal ganglia growth in ASD relative to typically developing children (TDC). Their volumetric analyses focused on developmental trajectories of the ventral striatum (with nucleus accumbens) and dorsal striatum (with caudate nucleus and putamen). These components of the basal ganglia are the major subcortical targets within the frontostriatal behavior control loops that are recognized as likely subserving RRBIs4. This current study is a follow up of this same group's earlier work showing cross sectional differences in growth trajectory. While several labs have previously reported enlargement of the caudate nucleus in ASD, this current study is the first to make repeat morphology measurements, thus overcoming limitations associated with cross sectional analyses. This study involved 86 seven to seventeen year old cases and controls who had 2 MRI anatomical scans approximately 2 and a half years apart on average, allowing a direct test of differential striatal growth. The rate of basal ganglia growth was correlated with the severity of RRBIs as assessed by parent interview at the time of the first MRI scan, corroborating earlier work on the role of the striatum in repetitive behaviors among children with ASD. Specifically the caudate nucleus showed a growth rate in ASD that was twice as high as the growth rate in TDC (i.e., 4.6% vs. 2.3%). This was independent of overall brain growth, use of psychotropic medications, or other major confounds. Most importantly, more severe RRBIs early in life, particularly insistence on sameness behaviors, such as avoiding trivial changes in routines and environments as well as adhering to compulsions and rituals, were related to faster striatal growth between average ages of about 9 and 12 year old, with large effect sizes (e.g., caudate nucleus: Cohen's d = 0.86). While Langen et al. discuss several complementary explanations for their findings, they conclude that the divergent trajectory of caudate development in relation to RRBIs most likely results from early, and possibly continuing, patterns of repetitive behaviors that shape striatal development – not the other way around. This new set of data elegantly adds to the notion that the striatum plays a central role in core ASD phenomenology6. However, one question lingers: what cause RRBIs, like insistence on sameness, compulsions and rituals, to become such a force so as to impact the growth trajectory of an evolutionarily ancient brain structure like the caudate nucleus? This question ties in with a long-standing debate among clinicians and scientists concerning the potential functions that the myriad of RRBIs might serve in individuals with ASD. While several plausible ideas have been advanced7, convincing support for any specific one is lacking. One hypothesis that is gaining increased research attention, however, involves the effects of alterations of the balance between social and nonsocial motivation in reward circuitry on RRBIs8. This model suggests that ASD is in part a disorder of “behavioral dependency” to RRBIs because of the rewarding effects they induce1. Indeed, insistence on sameness and preoccupying restricted interests are reported to be quite pleasurable by affected individuals1. The dorsal striatum with caudate nucleus, in particular, is believed to mediate reward value for purposeful actions5. Functional imaging studies show that the brain's reward circuitry in ASD, particularly striatum and ventral prefrontal cortices, selectively over-reacts to objects that may comprise an intense special interest, whereas it under-reacts to more typical desires such as social reward and money6. This may indicate that the brain in ASD cares less for conventional rewards. It is not yet known if an initial lack of social reward motivation opens the door for enhanced rewarding effects of certain circumscribed objects, topics, and routines, or whether the reverse is true – that the dominating reward effects of nonsocial objects, topic and routines diminishes the reward value of social engagement. The rewarding effects of RRBIs are thought to be fueled by the preference of those with ASD for predictability in their environment, where they can exercise more control; social encounters are in many ways the antithesis of this, as these are often rapid, hard to control and offer much more variable reinforcement contingencies. When RRBIs are rewarding, their pursuit may be strengthened through reinforcement mechanisms that progressively turn them into rigid and strongly desired habits that are performed almost automatically with little conscious oversight. With this heuristic model, RRBIs are self-reinforcing, and they begin to hijack the normal developmental trajectory of entire repertoires of behaviors. The dorsal (associative) striatum with caudate nucleus dominates these processes4. Thus, an accelerated growth rate of the caudate related to RRBIs, as reported by Langen et al.5, could reflect atypical brain specialization in individuals with ASD9. From early in life the caudate nucleus mediates habitual processes for a wide range of different stimuli and contexts. Across development, however, the caudate may become co-opted by the most rewarding aspects of the environment. This interactive and self-sustaining biobehavioral process – in concert with other mesocorticolimbic functions4 – may shape the growth trajectory of the caudate nucleus and strengthens the occurrence of RRBIs in ASD (Figure 1). On a day-to-day basis, RRBIs interfere with social development and functioning as they may absorb resources typically dedicated to other learning opportunities, including social ones6. The observation that RRBIs in ASD involve plasticity of the caudate nucleus – one major hub within the frontostriatal circuits that control behavior – is a fascinating advance for our field. It brings us closer to the neurobiological roots of how and why affected individuals develop and maintain this set of challenging behaviors. Follow-up research will need to address several issues to improve upon the approach of the Langen et al study. One critical issue is that researchers need to use more precise behavioral measurement tools10. This could involve item rating scales with greater item density around key concepts, as it is clear to all the ADI-R is sorely lacking in this regard. Also, quantitative motion capture tools are now widely available; deploying these in natural environments seems to us to be extremely promising adjuncts to standard rating scales. Repeat behavioral measurement across time, in sync with repeat brain measurement is an important next step that will enable better characterization of the interplay between RRBIs and brain dynamics. In this regard, multimodal imaging in the same sample is called for, as structural imaging will surely only capture portions of the story. The findings by Langen et al.5 call attention to the importance of RRBIs in autism. Because RRBIs may be rooted in the powerful reward circuitries that motivate a great deal of behavior, strategically targeting the role of reward mechanisms promises to improve treatment practices for limiting the life interfering aspects of RRBIs among individuals with ASD and their families. PMID:25103541

  20. Sb (111) Abnormal Behavior under Ion Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. A.; Bozhko, S. I.; Ionov, A. M.; Protasova, S. G.; Chekmazov, S. V.; Kapustin, A. A.

    Due to a strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI), the surface states of Sb (111) are similar to those for topological insulators (TI) Sugawara et al. (2006). The surface states are protected by time-reversal symmetry and energy dispersion is a linear function of momentum. Defects in crystal structure lead to a local break of the surface translational symmetry and can modify surface states. It is the primary reason to study defects of Sb crystal structure and their effect on the surface states dispersion. Etching of the Sb (111) surface using Ar+ ions is a common way to create defects both in a bulk and on the surface of the crystal. Sb (111) ion etching at room temperature reveals anomalous behavior of surface crystal structure. It results in formation of flat terraces of 2 nm in size. Investigation of electronic structure of the etched Sb (111) surface has demonstrated increase of density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level. The results are discussed in terms of local break of conditions of Peierls transition.

  1. Repetitive Behavior in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: Parallels with Autism Spectrum Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Jane; Moss, Joanna; Beck, Sarah R.; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy; Oliver, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Syndrome specific repetitive behavior profiles have been described previously. A detailed profile is absent for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire and Social Communication Questionnaire were completed for children and adults with RTS (N=87), Fragile-X (N=196) and Down (N=132) syndromes, and individuals

  2. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Elaine Y; McBride, Sara W; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Patterson, Paul H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2013-12-19

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24315484

  3. Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Riddick, Natallia V.; Nikolova, Viktoriya D.; Teng, Brian L.; Agster, Kara L.; Nonneman, Randal J.; Young, Nancy B.; Baker, Lorinda K.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles. PMID:24211371

  4. Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Moy, Sheryl S; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Teng, Brian L; Agster, Kara L; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Baker, Lorinda K; Nadler, Jessica J; Bodfish, James W

    2014-02-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles. PMID:24211371

  5. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds

  6. Social Deficits, Stereotypy, and Early Emergence of Repetitive Behavior in the C58/J Inbred Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Bryce C.; Young, Nancy B.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Bodfish, James W.; Moy, Sheryl S.

    2010-01-01

    Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect aspects of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by emergence of symptoms early in life, higher prevalence in males, social deficits and abnormal repetitive behavior. Mice from the C57BL/6J inbred strain, which has a similar genetic lineage and physical appearance to C58/J, served as a comparison group. Our results revealed that C58/J mice display elevated activity levels by postnatal day 6, which persist into adulthood. Despite normal olfactory ability, young adult male C58/J mice showed deficits in social approach in the three-chambered choice assay and failed to demonstrate social transmission of food preference. In contrast, female C58/J mice performed similarly to female C57BL/6J mice in both social tests. C58/J mice of both sexes demonstrated abnormal repetitive behaviors, displaying excessive jumping and back flipping in both social and non-social situations. These stereotypies were clearly evident in C58/J pups by postnatal days 20–21, and were also observed in C58/J dams during a test for maternal behavior. Overall, the strain profile for C58/J, including spontaneously developing motor stereotypies emerging early in the developmental trajectory, and social deficits primarily in males, models multiple components of the autism phenotype. PMID:19941908

  7. Low-Intensity Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Abnormal Visual Cortical Circuit Topography and Upregulates BDNF in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Harvey, Alan R.; Sherrard, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the induced field is focused on a target region during rTMS, adjacent areas also receive stimulation at a lower intensity and the contribution of this perifocal stimulation to network-wide effects is poorly defined. Here, we examined low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS)-induced changes on a model neural network using the visual systems of normal (C57Bl/6J wild-type, n = 22) and ephrin-A2A5−/− (n = 22) mice, the latter possessing visuotopic anomalies. Mice were treated with LI-rTMS or sham (handling control) daily for 14 d, then fluorojade and fluororuby were injected into visual cortex. The distribution of dorsal LGN (dLGN) neurons and corticotectal terminal zones (TZs) was mapped and disorder defined by comparing their actual location with that predicted by injection sites. In the afferent geniculocortical projection, LI-rTMS decreased the abnormally high dispersion of retrogradely labeled neurons in the dLGN of ephrin-A2A5−/− mice, indicating geniculocortical map refinement. In the corticotectal efferents, LI-rTMS improved topography of the most abnormal TZs in ephrin-A2A5−/− mice without altering topographically normal TZs. To investigate a possible molecular mechanism for LI-rTMS-induced structural plasticity, we measured brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex and superior colliculus after single and multiple stimulations. BDNF was upregulated after a single stimulation for all groups, but only sustained in the superior colliculus of ephrin-A2A5−/− mice. Our results show that LI-rTMS upregulates BDNF, promoting a plastic environment conducive to beneficial reorganization of abnormal cortical circuits, information that has important implications for clinical rTMS. PMID:25100609

  8. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes. Abstract The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15–20 years. From the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f ≤ 1 Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f ≤ a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behavior. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behavior before an EQ. PMID:26487307

  9. Subcategories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization of RRBs in ASD. Using data from the Simons Simplex Collection (n=1825), we examined the association between scores on the ADI-R and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Analyses supported the construct validity of RSM and IS subcategories. As in previous studies, IS behaviors showed no relationship with IQ. These findings support the continued use of RRB subcategories, particularly IS behaviors, as a means of creating more behaviorally homogeneous subgroups of children with ASD. PMID:23065116

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Villagmez, D A F; Pinton, A

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known in domestic animal species about the functional effects of such chromosome aberrations in the germ cell line of carriers. However, some interesting facts gained from recent and previous studies on the meiotic behavior of chromosome abnormalities of domestic animals permit us to discuss, in the frame of recent knowledge emerging from mouse and human investigations, the possible mechanism implicated in the well known association between meiotic disruption and chromosome pairing failure. New cytogenetic techniques, based on molecular and immunofluorescent analyses, are allowing a better description of meiotic processes, including gamete production. The present communication reviews the knowledge of the meiotic consequences of chromosome abnormalities in domestic animals. PMID:18467827

  11. 3D abnormal behavior recognition in power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhenhua; Li, Xuesen; Su, Jie; Lin, Jie

    2011-06-01

    So far most research of human behavior recognition focus on simple individual behavior, such as wave, crouch, jump and bend. This paper will focus on abnormal behavior with objects carrying in power generation. Such as using mobile communication device in main control room, taking helmet off during working and lying down in high place. Taking account of the color and shape are fixed, we adopted edge detecting by color tracking to recognize object in worker. This paper introduces a method, which using geometric character of skeleton and its angle to express sequence of three-dimensional human behavior data. Then adopting Semi-join critical step Hidden Markov Model, weighing probability of critical steps' output to reduce the computational complexity. Training model for every behavior, mean while select some skeleton frames from 3D behavior sample to form a critical step set. This set is a bridge linking 2D observation behavior with 3D human joints feature. The 3D reconstruction is not required during the 2D behavior recognition phase. In the beginning of recognition progress, finding the best match for every frame of 2D observed sample in 3D skeleton set. After that, 2D observed skeleton frames sample will be identified as a specifically 3D behavior by behavior-classifier. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with experiments in similar power generation environment.

  12. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Exposure and Response Prevention on Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetterneck, Chad T.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure and response prevention (ERP) was evaluated as treatment for three repetitive behaviors in an 11-year-old boy using a multiple baseline across behaviors design. The repetitive behaviors and associated self-reported distress were eliminated. At 3-month follow-up, the frequency for two of the three behaviors returned to baseline levels.…

  13. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  14. Relationships among Repetitive Behaviors, Sensory Features, and Executive Functions in High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Holtzclaw, Tia; Baranek, Grace T.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory processing issues in school-aged children with high functioning autism (HFA). Children with HFA (N = 61) were compared to healthy, typical controls (N = 64) to determine the relationship between these behavioral classes and to examine whether executive dysfunction

  15. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's

  16. Effects of a Family-Implemented Treatment on the Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Rupp, Betty; Khan, Faraaz; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The restricted and repetitive behaviors of children with autism can interfere with family functioning as well as learning and socialization opportunities for the child. To date, neither pharmacological nor comprehensive behavioral treatments have been found to be consistently effective at significantly reducing children's engagement in repetitive…

  17. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  18. Synaptic dysfunction and abnormal behaviors in mice lacking major isoforms of Shank3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; McCoy, Portia A; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Pan, Yanzhen; Je, H Shawn; Roberts, Adam C; Kim, Caroline J; Berrios, Janet; Colvin, Jennifer S; Bousquet-Moore, Danielle; Lorenzo, Isabel; Wu, Gangyi; Weinberg, Richard J; Ehlers, Michael D; Philpot, Benjamin D; Beaudet, Arthur L; Wetsel, William C; Jiang, Yong-Hui

    2011-08-01

    SHANK3 is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. Small microdeletions and point mutations in SHANK3 have been identified in a small subgroup of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. SHANK3 also plays a key role in the chromosome 22q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (Phelan-McDermid syndrome), which includes ASD and cognitive dysfunction as major clinical features. To evaluate the role of Shank3 in vivo, we disrupted major isoforms of the gene in mice by deleting exons 4-9. Isoform-specific Shank3(e4-9) homozygous mutant mice display abnormal social behaviors, communication patterns, repetitive behaviors and learning and memory. Shank3(e4-9) male mice display more severe impairments than females in motor coordination. Shank3(e4-9) mice have reduced levels of Homer1b/c, GKAP and GluA1 at the PSD, and show attenuated activity-dependent redistribution of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors. Subtle morphological alterations in dendritic spines are also observed. Although synaptic transmission is normal in CA1 hippocampus, long-term potentiation is deficient in Shank3(e4-9) mice. We conclude that loss of major Shank3 species produces biochemical, cellular and morphological changes, leading to behavioral abnormalities in mice that bear similarities to human ASD patients with SHANK3 mutations. PMID:21558424

  19. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15-20 years. From the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f ? 1 Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f ? a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behavior. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behavior before an EQ. PMID:26487307

  20. Repetitive Behavior in 12-Month-Olds Later Classified With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Elison, Jed T.; Wolff, Jason J.; Reznick, J. Steven; Botteron, Kelly N.; Estes, Annette M.; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C.; Meadows, Adriane J.; Paterson, Sarah J.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective As compared to the utility of early emerging social communicative risk markers for predicting a later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), less is known about the relevance of early patterns of restricted and repetitive behaviors. We examined patterns of stereotyped motor mannerisms and repetitive manipulation of objects in 12-month-olds at high and low risk for developing ASD, all of whom were assessed for ASD at 24 months. Method Observational coding of repetitive object manipulation and stereotyped motor behaviors in digital recordings of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales was conducted using the Repetitive and Stereotyped Movement Scales for three groups of 12-month-olds: 1) low-risk infants (LR, n = 53); 2) high-familial-risk infants who did not meet diagnostic criteria for ASD at 24-months (HR-negative, n = 75); and 3) high-familial-risk infants who met diagnostic criteria for ASD at 24 months (HR-ASD, n = 30). Results The HR-ASD group showed significantly more stereotyped motor mannerisms than both the HR-negative group (p = .025) and the LR group (p = .001). The HR-ASD and HR-negative groups demonstrated statistically equivalent repetitive object manipulation scores (p = .431), and both groups showed significantly more repetitive object manipulation than the LR group (p’s < 0.040). Combining the motor and object stereotypy scores into an RSMS composite yielded a disorder-continuum effect such that each group was significantly different from one another (LR < HR-negative < HR-ASD). Conclusion These results suggest that targeted assessment of repetitive behavior during infancy may augment early identification efforts. PMID:25440311

  1. Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Barbara; Manag, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII?/? mice. SynII?/? and SynIII?/? mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI?/?, SynII?/? and SynIII?/? mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI?/? and SynII?/? mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy. PMID:23280234

  2. Cognitive Set Shifting Deficits and Their Relationship to Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Haylie L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Cook, Edwin H.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new

  3. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study

  4. Repetitive and Stereotyped Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Nola; Wetherby, Amy M.; Barber, Angie; Morgan, Lindee

    2008-01-01

    This study examined repetitive and stereotyped behaviors (RSB) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 50), developmental delays without ASD (DD; n = 25) and typical development (TD, n = 50) between 18 and 24 months of age. Children with ASD demonstrated significantly higher frequency and longer duration of RSB with objects, body, and

  5. Age-Related Differences in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) were examined in a large group of children, adolescents and adults with ASD in order to describe age-related patterns of symptom change and association with specific contextual factors, and to examine if the patterns of change are different for the various types of RRBs. Over 700 individuals with ASD were

  6. Generativity Abilities Predict Communication Deficits but Not Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate impaired generativity that is thought to mediate repetitive behaviors in autism (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(6):839-849, 1999a). The present study evaluated generativity in children with and without ASD via the use-of-objects task (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry,

  7. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richler, Jennifer; Bishop, Somer L.; Kleinke, Jennifer R.; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised (ADI-R: Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur (1994) were examined in 165 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), 49 children with non-spectrum developmental disorders (DD), and 65 children with typical development (TD) at approximately 2 years of age. A factor

  8. Validating the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in a sample of 287 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine six competing structural models. Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated to examine the associations between factor…

  9. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  10. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the

  11. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with a History of ASDs Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are particularly difficult to remediate. We examined present and past RRBs in 34 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes (OOs; lost their ASD diagnosis), 45 high-functioning individuals with ASD (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. The OO

  12. Cognitive Set Shifting Deficits and Their Relationship to Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Haylie L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Cook, Edwin H.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new…

  13. Generativity Abilities Predict Communication Deficits but Not Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate impaired generativity that is thought to mediate repetitive behaviors in autism (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(6):839-849, 1999a). The present study evaluated generativity in children with and without ASD via the use-of-objects task (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry,…

  14. A healing herd: benefits of a psychodynamic group approach in treating body-focused repetitive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nakell, Stacy

    2015-04-01

    Body-focused repetitive behaviors, such as trichotillomania and skin-picking, are not well understood in clinical communities. Research and practice with a population exhibiting these behaviors have focused almost exclusively on the usefulness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in symptom reduction. The author specializes in treating patients with body-focused repetitive behaviors and suggests that a holistic, psychodynamic model of treatment for this population creates possibilities for deeper change. Group therapy can be an important component of this work, helping clients to overcome resistance to change, ameliorate shame, work through dissociation, and regulate emotions. This process is explored in an examination of a psychodynamic therapy group with pickers and pullers. PMID:25760789

  15. Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task.

    PubMed

    Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Barr, Ann E; Strata, Fabrizio; Russier, Michael; Kietrys, David M; Merzenich, Michael M; Byl, Nancy N; Barbe, Mary F

    2009-12-01

    Repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal hand dystonia, can be associated with tasks that require prolonged, repetitive behaviors. Previous studies using animal models of repetitive motion have correlated cortical neuroplastic changes or peripheral tissue inflammation with fine motor performance. However, the possibility that both peripheral and central mechanisms coexist with altered motor performance has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between motor behavior changes associated with repetitive behaviors and both peripheral tissue inflammation and cortical neuroplasticity. A rat model of reaching and grasping involving moderate repetitive reaching with negligible force (MRNF) was used. Rats performed the MRNF task for 2 h/day, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Reach performance was monitored by measuring reach rate/success, daily exposure, reach movement reversals/patterns, reach/grasp phase times, grip strength and grooming function. With cumulative task exposure, reach performance, grip strength and agility declined while an inefficient food retrieval pattern increased. In S1 of MRNF rats, a dramatic disorganization of the topographic forepaw representation was observed, including the emergence of large receptive fields located on both the wrist/forearm and forepaw with alterations of neuronal properties. In M1, there was a drastic enlargement of the overall forepaw map area, and of the cortex devoted to digit, arm-digits and elbow-wrist responses. In addition, unusually low current amplitude evoked digit movements. IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha increased in forearm flexor muscles and tendons of MRNF animals. The increases in IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha negatively correlated with grip strength and amount of current needed to evoke forelimb movements. This study provides strong evidence that both peripheral inflammation and cortical neuroplasticity jointly contribute to the development of chronic repetitive motion disorders. PMID:19686738

  16. The Relationship between Executive Functioning, Central Coherence, and Repetitive Behaviors in the High-Functioning Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Mikle; Ozonoff, Sally; McMahon, William M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between everyday repetitive behavior (primary symptoms of autism) and performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function and central coherence (secondary symptoms). It was hypothesized that the frequency and intensity of repetitive behavior would be positively correlated with laboratory measures of

  17. Astroglial glutamate transporter deficiency increases synaptic excitability and leads to pathological repetitive behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Aida, Tomomi; Yoshida, Junichi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Tanimura, Asami; Iino, Yusuke; Soma, Miho; Bai, Ning; Ito, Yukiko; Cui, Wanpeng; Aizawa, Hidenori; Yanagisawa, Michiko; Nagai, Terumi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kano, Masanobu; Götz, Magdalena; Hirase, Hajime; Tanaka, Kohichi

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the ratio of cellular excitation to inhibition (E/I ratio) has been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's syndrome (TS). A proper E/I ratio is achieved via factors expressed in neuron and glia. In astrocytes, the glutamate transporter GLT1 is critical for regulating an E/I ratio. However, the role of GLT1 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders remains unknown because mice with a complete deficiency of GLT1 exhibited seizures and premature death. Here, we show that astrocyte-specific GLT1 inducible knockout (GLAST(CreERT2/+)/GLT1(flox/flox), iKO) mice exhibit pathological repetitive behaviors including excessive and injurious levels of self-grooming and tic-like head shakes. Electrophysiological studies reveal that excitatory transmission at corticostriatal synapse is normal in a basal state but is increased after repetitive stimulation. Furthermore, treatment with an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine ameliorated the pathological repetitive behaviors in iKO mice. These results suggest that astroglial GLT1 has a critical role in controlling the synaptic efficacy at corticostriatal synapses and its dysfunction causes pathological repetitive behaviors. PMID:25662838

  18. Standardizing ADOS Domain Scores: Separating Severity of Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Vanessa; Gotham, Katherine; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores provide a measure of autism severity that is less influenced by child characteristics than raw totals (Gotham et al. in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(5), 693–705 2009). However, these scores combine symptoms from the Social Affect (SA) and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors (RRB) domains. Separate calibrations of each domain would provide a clearer picture of ASD dimensions. The current study separately calibrated raw totals from the ADOS SA and RRB domains. Standardized domain scores were less influenced by child characteristics than raw domain totals, thereby increasing their utility as indicators of Social-Communication and Repetitive Behavior severity. Calibrated domain scores should facilitate efforts to examine trajectories of ASD symptoms and links between neurobiological and behavioral dimensions. PMID:23143131

  19. A Framework for Understanding the Emerging Role of Corticolimbic-Ventral Striatal Networks in OCD-Associated Repetitive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jesse; Ahmari, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Significant interest in the mechanistic underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fueled research on the neural origins of compulsive behaviors. Converging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that abnormal repetitive behaviors are driven by dysfunction in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits. These findings suggest that compulsive behaviors arise, in part, from aberrant communication between lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal striatum. An important body of work focused on the role of this network in OCD has been instrumental to progress in the field. Disease models focused primarily on these regions, however, fail to capture an important aspect of the disorder: affective dysregulation. High levels of anxiety are extremely prevalent in OCD, as is comorbidity with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, deficits in processing rewards and abnormalities in processing emotional stimuli are suggestive of aberrant encoding of affective information. Accordingly, OCD can be partially characterized as a disease in which behavioral selection is corrupted by exaggerated or dysregulated emotional states. This suggests that the networks producing OCD symptoms likely expand beyond traditional lateral OFC and dorsal striatum circuit models, and highlights the need to cast a wider net in our investigation of the circuits involved in generating and sustaining OCD symptoms. Here, we address the emerging role of medial OFC, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area projections to the ventral striatum (VS) in OCD pathophysiology. The VS receives strong innervation from these affect and reward processing regions, and is therefore poised to integrate information crucial to the generation of compulsive behaviors. Though it complements functions of dorsal striatum and lateral OFC, this corticolimbic-VS network is less commonly explored as a potential source of the pathology underlying OCD. In this review, we discuss this network’s potential role as a locus of OCD pathology and effective treatment. PMID:26733823

  20. A Framework for Understanding the Emerging Role of Corticolimbic-Ventral Striatal Networks in OCD-Associated Repetitive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jesse; Ahmari, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    Significant interest in the mechanistic underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fueled research on the neural origins of compulsive behaviors. Converging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that abnormal repetitive behaviors are driven by dysfunction in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits. These findings suggest that compulsive behaviors arise, in part, from aberrant communication between lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal striatum. An important body of work focused on the role of this network in OCD has been instrumental to progress in the field. Disease models focused primarily on these regions, however, fail to capture an important aspect of the disorder: affective dysregulation. High levels of anxiety are extremely prevalent in OCD, as is comorbidity with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, deficits in processing rewards and abnormalities in processing emotional stimuli are suggestive of aberrant encoding of affective information. Accordingly, OCD can be partially characterized as a disease in which behavioral selection is corrupted by exaggerated or dysregulated emotional states. This suggests that the networks producing OCD symptoms likely expand beyond traditional lateral OFC and dorsal striatum circuit models, and highlights the need to cast a wider net in our investigation of the circuits involved in generating and sustaining OCD symptoms. Here, we address the emerging role of medial OFC, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area projections to the ventral striatum (VS) in OCD pathophysiology. The VS receives strong innervation from these affect and reward processing regions, and is therefore poised to integrate information crucial to the generation of compulsive behaviors. Though it complements functions of dorsal striatum and lateral OFC, this corticolimbic-VS network is less commonly explored as a potential source of the pathology underlying OCD. In this review, we discuss this network's potential role as a locus of OCD pathology and effective treatment. PMID:26733823

  1. Antagonistic control of social versus repetitive self-grooming behaviors by separable amygdala neuronal subsets.

    PubMed

    Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J

    2014-09-11

    Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocialbehavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders. PMID:25215491

  2. Marble Burying and Nestlet Shredding as Tests of Repetitive, Compulsive-like Behaviors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Angoa-Prez, Mariana; Kane, Michael J.; Briggs, Denise I.; Francescutti, Dina M.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious and debilitating psychiatric conditions and each constitutes a significant public health concern, particularly in children. Both of these conditions are highlighted by the repeated expression of meaningless behaviors. Individuals with OCD often show checking, frequent hand washing, and counting. Children with ASDs also engage in repetitive tapping, arm or hand flapping, and rocking. These behaviors can vary widely in intensity and frequency of expression. More intense forms of repetitive behaviors can even result in injury (e.g.excessive grooming, hand washing, and self-stimulation). These behaviors are therefore very disruptive and make normal social discourse difficult. Treatment options for repetitive behaviors in OCD and ASDs are somewhat limited and there is great interest in developing more effective therapies for each condition. Numerous animal models for evaluating compulsive-like behaviors have been developed over the past three decades. Perhaps the animal models with the greatest validity and ease of use are the marble burying test and the nestlet shredding test. Both tests take advantage of the fact that the target behaviors occur spontaneously in mice. In the marble burying test, 20 marbles are arrayed on the surface of clean bedding. The number of marbles buried in a 30 min session is scored by investigators blind to the treatment or status of the subjects. In the nestlet shredding test, a nestlet comprised of pulped cotton fiber is preweighed and placed on top of cage bedding and the amount of the nestlet remaining intact after a 30 min test session is determined. Presently, we describe protocols for and show movie documentation of marble burying and nestlet shredding. Both tests are easily and accurately scored and each is sensitive to small changes in the expression of compulsive-like behaviors that result from genetic manipulations, disease, or head injury. PMID:24429507

  3. Marble burying and nestlet shredding as tests of repetitive, compulsive-like behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kane, Michael J; Briggs, Denise I; Francescutti, Dina M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious and debilitating psychiatric conditions and each constitutes a significant public health concern, particularly in children. Both of these conditions are highlighted by the repeated expression of meaningless behaviors. Individuals with OCD often show checking, frequent hand washing, and counting. Children with ASDs also engage in repetitive tapping, arm or hand flapping, and rocking. These behaviors can vary widely in intensity and frequency of expression. More intense forms of repetitive behaviors can even result in injury (e.g. excessive grooming, hand washing, and self-stimulation). These behaviors are therefore very disruptive and make normal social discourse difficult. Treatment options for repetitive behaviors in OCD and ASDs are somewhat limited and there is great interest in developing more effective therapies for each condition. Numerous animal models for evaluating compulsive-like behaviors have been developed over the past three decades. Perhaps the animal models with the greatest validity and ease of use are the marble burying test and the nestlet shredding test. Both tests take advantage of the fact that the target behaviors occur spontaneously in mice. In the marble burying test, 20 marbles are arrayed on the surface of clean bedding. The number of marbles buried in a 30 min session is scored by investigators blind to the treatment or status of the subjects. In the nestlet shredding test, a nestlet comprised of pulped cotton fiber is preweighed and placed on top of cage bedding and the amount of the nestlet remaining intact after a 30 min test session is determined. Presently, we describe protocols for and show movie documentation of marble burying and nestlet shredding. Both tests are easily and accurately scored and each is sensitive to small changes in the expression of compulsive-like behaviors that result from genetic manipulations, disease, or head injury. PMID:24429507

  4. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long-term effect on behavior, as evidenced by behavioral changes that persisted despite re-enrichment. Ours is the first study evaluating the relationship between personality dimensions, environment, and abnormal behaviors in an avian species. PMID:26114423

  5. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long-term effect on behavior, as evidenced by behavioral changes that persisted despite re-enrichment. Ours is the first study evaluating the relationship between personality dimensions, environment, and abnormal behaviors in an avian species. PMID:26114423

  6. Abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H; Leu, Bogdan M; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe(2+)-Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  7. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  8. Feasibility of Exposure Response Prevention to Treat Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism and an Intellectual Disability: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility

  9. Feasibility of Exposure Response Prevention to Treat Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism and an Intellectual Disability: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility…

  10. Natural Genetic Variation Underlying Differences in Peromyscus Repetitive & Social/Aggressive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Kimberly R.; Owen, Amy; Anderson, Vanessa; Hall-South, April C.; Hayford, Samantha; Cakora, Patricia; Crossland, Janet P.; Georgi, Velina R. M.; Perkins, Amy; Kelly, Sandra J.; Felder, Michael R.; Vrana, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Peromyscus maniculatus (BW) and P. polionotus (PO) are interfertile North American species that differ in many characteristics. For example, PO exhibit monogamy and BW animals are susceptible to repetitive behaviors and thus a model for neurobehavioral disorders such as Autism. We analyzed these two stocks as well as their hybrids, a BW YPO consomic line (previously shown to alter glucose homeostasis) and a natural P. maniculatus agouti variant (ANb = wide band agouti). We show that PO animals engage in far less repetitive behavior than BW animals, that this trait is dominant, and that trait distribution in both species is bi-modal. The ANb allele also reduces such behaviors, particularly in females. PO, F1, and ANb animals all dig significantly more than BW. Increased self-grooming is also a PO dominant trait, and there is a bimodal trait distribution in all groups except BW. The inter-stock differences in self-grooming are greater between males, and the consomic data suggest the Y chromosome plays a role. The monogamous PO animals engage in more social behavior than BW; hybrid animals exhibit intermediate levels. Surprisingly, ANb animals are also more social than BW animals, although ANb interactions led to aggressive interactions at higher levels than any other group. PO animals exhibited the lowest incidence of aggressive behaviors, while the hybrids exhibited BW levels. Thus this group exhibits natural, genetically tractable variation in several biomedically relevant traits. PMID:24407381

  11. An Examination of Executive Functioning in Young Adults Exhibiting Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Flessner, Christopher A; Francazio, Sarah; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle

    2015-07-01

    Body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs), including hair pulling, nail biting, and skin picking are repetitive, habitual, and compulsive in nature. Although characteristic of disorders such as trichotillomania and skin picking disorder, BFRBs are associated with other psychiatric conditions as well. To date, research has failed to examine neurocognitive risk factors, particularly executive functioning, implicated in BFRBs utilizing a transdiagnostic approach. The present study recruited 53 participants (n = 27 demonstrating BFRBs and n = 26 randomly selected controls) from a larger sample of young adults. Participants completed an automated neurocognitive test battery including tasks of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and planning and organization. Results revealed that participants in the BFRB group demonstrated significantly poorer cognitive flexibility (d = 0.63) than controls. No differences were noted in other neurocognitive domains. However, planning and organization demonstrated a significant relationship with various BFRB severity measures. Implications, limitations, and avenues for further research are discussed. PMID:26121152

  12. Relationship between postural control and restricted, repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Radonovich, K. J.; Fournier, K. A.; Hass, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation. Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP) sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) controls ages 316. All subjects had Non-verbal IQ > 70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self-selected stance width for 20 s. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all six subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs. Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this very diverse disorder. PMID:23675326

  13. Feasibility of exposure response prevention to treat repetitive behaviors of children with autism and an intellectual disability: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; Woodard, Cooper R; Bodfish, James W

    2013-03-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility of modifying exposure response prevention, an evidence-based strategy for obsessive-compulsive disorder, to treat the repetitive behaviors found in autism. Five school-aged participants (ages 5-11) diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. Our preliminary findings suggest it is feasible, and potentially efficacious, to modify standard exposure response prevention to treat the specific forms of repetitive behaviors found in individuals with autism and comorbid intellectual disabilities. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these preliminary findings. PMID:21975037

  14. Grade Repetition and Psychological Referrals in Relation to Child Behavior Checklist Scores for Students in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Colin W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Students (N=738) from grades one-five who exhibited behavior problems were assessed for behavioral disturbance using the Teacher's Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were analyzed to assess the form's internal consistency, accuracy in discriminating disturbed and nondisturbed students, and validity in terms of grade repetition and

  15. Effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stacey; Urruela, Meagan; Devine, Darragh P

    2013-10-01

    Lower order and higher order repetitive behaviors have been documented in the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mouse strain, a mouse model that exhibits all three core behavioral domains that define autism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of environmental enrichment for reducing repetitive behaviors in BTBR mice. Lower order behaviors were captured by assaying the time and sequence of grooming, while higher order behaviors were measured using pattern analysis of an object exploration task from digital recordings. Baseline scores were established at 7 weeks of age, followed by 30 days of housing in either a standard or enriched cage. As expected, BTBR mice spent significantly more time grooming and had a more rigid grooming sequence than control C57BL/6J mice did at baseline. After 30 days of enrichment housing, BTBR mice demonstrated a significant reduction in time spent grooming, resulting in levels that were lower than those exhibited by BTBR mice in standard housing. However, no changes were noted in the rigidity of their grooming sequence. In contrast to previous findings, there was no difference in repetitive patterns of exploration at baseline between BTBR and C57BL/6J mice in the object exploration test. Subsequently, enrichment did not significantly alter the number of repetitive patterns at posttest. Overall, the results suggest that environmental enrichment may be beneficial for reducing the time spent engaging in lower order repetitive behaviors, but may not change the overall quality of the behaviors when they do manifest. PMID:23813950

  16. Influence of Lead on Repetitive Behavior and Dopamine Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Kueon, Chojin; Kim, Jonghan

    2014-01-01

    Exposures to lead (Pb) are associated with neurological problems including psychiatric disorders and impaired learning and memory. Pb can be absorbed by iron transporters, which are up-regulated in hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disorder in which increased iron deposition in various parenchymal organs promote metal-induced oxidative damage. While dysfunction in HFE (High Fe) gene is the major cause of hemochromatosis, the transport and toxicity of Pb in Hfe-related hemochromatosis are largely unknown. To elucidate the relationship between HFE gene dysfunction and Pb absorption, H67D knock-in Hfe-mutant and wild-type mice were given drinking water containing Pb 1.6 mg/ml ad libitum for 6 weeks and examined for behavioral phenotypes using the nestlet-shredding and marble-burying tests. Latency to nestlet-shredding in Pb-treated wild-type mice was prolonged compared with non-exposed wild-types (p < 0.001), whereas Pb exposure did not alter shredding latency in Hfe-mutant mice. In the marble-burying test, Hfe-mutant mice showed an increased number of marbles buried compared with wild-type mice (p = 0.002), indicating more repetitive behavior upon Hfe mutation. Importantly, Pb-exposed wild-type mice buried more marbles than non-exposed wild-types, whereas the number of marbles buried by Hfe-mutant mice did not change whether or not exposed to Pb. These results suggest that Hfe mutation could normalize Pb-induced behavioral alteration. To explore the mechanism of repetitive behavior caused by Pb, western blot analysis was conducted for proteins involved in brain dopamine metabolism. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter increased upon Pb exposure in both genotypes, whereas Hfe-mutant mice displayed down-regulation of the dopamine transporter and dopamine D1 receptor with D2 receptor elevated. Taken together, our data support the idea that both Pb exposure and Hfe mutation increase repetitive behavior in mice and further suggest that these behavioral changes could be associated with altered dopaminergic neurotransmission, providing a therapeutic basis for psychiatric disorders caused by Pb toxicity. PMID:25584146

  17. Cocaine addiction: from habits to stereotypical-repetitive behaviors and punding.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Alfonso; Barra, Andrea; Nicosia, Paola; Rinaldi, Federica; Bria, Pietro; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Tonioni, Federico

    2008-07-01

    "Punding" is a stereotypical motor behavior characterized by an intense fascination with repetitive handling and examining of objects. Since its first description in amphetamine and cocaine addicts, data on punding has only derived from studies performed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Punding is classifiable as the most severe form of Repetitive Reward-Seeking Behaviours (RRSB) syndromes. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and phenomelogy of RRSB acutely induced by cocaine in order to determine the prevalence, severity and distinctive features discriminating "punders" from "non-punders". A consecutive sample of 50 cocaine addicts received a clinical psychiatric interview. RRSB diagnosis and severity were assessed using a modified version of a previous published questionnaire designed to identify punding in patients with PD. In the present series, 38% of the cocaine addicts met the proposed diagnostic criteria for a RRSB and 8% were considered punders. Subjects with vs. without RRSB did not differ in terms of sex ratio, age, education, occupation, predisposing habits, duration of cocaine use, hours of sleep, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and concomitant use of other drugs. These results and the observation that in the majority of cases RRSB started soon after first drug intake, strongly suggest that an underlying unknown predisposition led to the development of these behaviors. In conclusion, RRSB and punding is much more common than has been described previously and the resultant social disability is often overlooked. PMID:18378407

  18. Application of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised - Italian version - in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Fulceri, Francesca; Narzisi, Antonio; Apicella, Fabio; Balboni, Giulia; Baldini, Sara; Brocchini, Jenny; Domenici, Ilaria; Cerullo, Sonia; Igliozzi, Roberta; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities (RRB) are mandatory features for a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Despite the strong diagnostic role of RRB, their expressiveness and their relationship with other clinical/demographic features in ASD is not fully elucidated. The Italian version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) was applied to a relatively large sample of preschool-aged children with ASD who underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. The relationship between RRB and sex, age, non-verbal IQ, autism severity, as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the RBS-R were explored. Stereotyped and Ritualistic/Sameness behaviors were the most common RRB in preschoolers with ASD, without widespread differences between males and females. No significant correlations between RRB and chronological age, or non-verbal IQ were detected. The expressiveness of ritualistic/sameness behaviors positively correlated with autism severity, assessed through the Calibrated Severity Score (CSS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis showed high diagnostic accuracy using the Global Rating Score, which represents the judgment of the parents of as the RRB affect the child's life. However, while the Global Rating Score performed well, the remaining subscales did not. This investigation extends the limited research on early pattern and associated features of RRB in young children with ASD. The use of the RBS-R may increase the knowledge of the RRB complexity and variability and in turn improve the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within the autistic spectrum. PMID:26540296

  19. Improvement of white matter and functional connectivity abnormalities by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in crossed aphasia in dextral.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haitao; Wu, Haiyan; Cheng, Hewei; Wei, Dongjie; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    As a special aphasia, the occurrence of crossed aphasia in dextral (CAD) is unusual. This study aims to improve the language ability by applying 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We studied multiple modality imaging of structural connectivity (diffusion tensor imaging), functional connectivity (resting fMRI), PET, and neurolinguistic analysis on a patient with CAD. Furthermore, we applied rTMS of 1 Hz for 40 times and observed the language function improvement. The results indicated that a significantly reduced structural and function connectivity was found in DTI and fMRI data compared with the control. The PET imaging showed hypo-metabolism in right hemisphere and left cerebellum. In conclusion, one of the mechanisms of CAD is that right hemisphere is the language dominance. Stimulating left Wernicke area could improve auditory comprehension, stimulating left Broca's area could enhance expression, and the results outlasted 6 months by 1 Hz rTMS balancing the excitability inter-hemisphere in CAD. PMID:25419415

  20. Improvement of white matter and functional connectivity abnormalities by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in crossed aphasia in dextral

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haitao; Wu, Haiyan; Cheng, Hewei; Wei, Dongjie; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    As a special aphasia, the occurrence of crossed aphasia in dextral (CAD) is unusual. This study aims to improve the language ability by applying 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We studied multiple modality imaging of structural connectivity (diffusion tensor imaging), functional connectivity (resting fMRI), PET, and neurolinguistic analysis on a patient with CAD. Furthermore, we applied rTMS of 1 Hz for 40 times and observed the language function improvement. The results indicated that a significantly reduced structural and function connectivity was found in DTI and fMRI data compared with the control. The PET imaging showed hypo-metabolism in right hemisphere and left cerebellum. In conclusion, one of the mechanisms of CAD is that right hemisphere is the language dominance. Stimulating left Wernicke area could improve auditory comprehension, stimulating left Brocas area could enhance expression, and the results outlasted 6 months by 1 Hz rTMS balancing the excitability inter-hemisphere in CAD. PMID:25419415

  1. Emotion regulation and other psychological models for body-focused repetitive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sarah; O'Connor, Kieron; Blanger, Claude

    2013-08-01

    The term body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs) refers to a group of recurrent, problematic, destructive behaviors directed toward the body, including hair-pulling, skin-picking, and nail-biting. Individuals with BFRBs report diminished control over the behavior and a range of physical and psychological sequelae. Recent research on psychological models for BRFBs has investigated the role of emotion regulation (ER), and many authors in this area have conceptualized problematic body-focused behavior as a maladaptive ER mechanism. This article organizes and reviews the empirical research on the ER model for BRFBs. First, the three most common BFRBs are described, as are the conceptualization, phenomenological similarities and covariation, and psychological and physical impact of BFRBs. Next, psychodynamic models and several cognitive-behavioral (CB) models are described. The article focuses on the ER model, including a review of studies of comorbidity in BFRBs, naturalistic and experimental studies, studies of subtypes of BFRBs, and treatment trials. The implications of the findings are discussed and the authors make recommendations for future research. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of psychological models for BFRBs and the limitations of the review. PMID:23792470

  2. Severe drug-induced repetitive behaviors and striatal overexpression of VAChT in ChAT-ChR2-EYFP BAC transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Carolyn J.; Lee, Tyrone; Bowden, Hilary A.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    In drug users, drug-related cues alone can induce dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Instructive cues activate inputs to the striatum from both dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, which are thought to work together to support motor learning and motivated behaviors. Imbalances in these neuromodulatory influences can impair normal action selection and might thus contribute to pathologically repetitive and compulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. Dopamine and acetylcholine can have either antagonistic or synergistic effects on behavior, depending on the state of the animal and the receptor signaling systems at play. Semi-synchronized activation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum drives dopamine release via presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on dopamine terminals. Nicotinic receptor blockade is known to diminish abnormal repetitive behaviors (stereotypies) induced by psychomotor stimulants. By contrast, blockade of postsynaptic acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum exacerbates drug-induced stereotypy, exemplifying how different acetylcholine receptors can also have opposing effects. Although acetylcholine release is known to be altered in animal models of drug addiction, predicting whether these changes will augment or diminish drug-induced behaviors thus remains a challenge. Here, we measured amphetamine-induced stereotypy in BAC transgenic mice that have been shown to overexpress the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) with consequent increased acetylcholine release. We found that drug-induced stereotypies, consisting of confined sniffing and licking behaviors, were greatly increased in the transgenic mice relative to sibling controls, as was striatal VAChT protein. These findings suggest that VAChT-mediated increases in acetylcholine could be critical in exacerbating drug-induced stereotypic behaviors and promoting exaggerated behavioral fixity. PMID:24904300

  3. Severe drug-induced repetitive behaviors and striatal overexpression of VAChT in ChAT-ChR2-EYFP BAC transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Jill R; Lacey, Carolyn J; Lee, Tyrone; Bowden, Hilary A; Graybiel, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    In drug users, drug-related cues alone can induce dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Instructive cues activate inputs to the striatum from both dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, which are thought to work together to support motor learning and motivated behaviors. Imbalances in these neuromodulatory influences can impair normal action selection and might thus contribute to pathologically repetitive and compulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. Dopamine and acetylcholine can have either antagonistic or synergistic effects on behavior, depending on the state of the animal and the receptor signaling systems at play. Semi-synchronized activation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum drives dopamine release via presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on dopamine terminals. Nicotinic receptor blockade is known to diminish abnormal repetitive behaviors (stereotypies) induced by psychomotor stimulants. By contrast, blockade of postsynaptic acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum exacerbates drug-induced stereotypy, exemplifying how different acetylcholine receptors can also have opposing effects. Although acetylcholine release is known to be altered in animal models of drug addiction, predicting whether these changes will augment or diminish drug-induced behaviors thus remains a challenge. Here, we measured amphetamine-induced stereotypy in BAC transgenic mice that have been shown to overexpress the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) with consequent increased acetylcholine release. We found that drug-induced stereotypies, consisting of confined sniffing and licking behaviors, were greatly increased in the transgenic mice relative to sibling controls, as was striatal VAChT protein. These findings suggest that VAChT-mediated increases in acetylcholine could be critical in exacerbating drug-induced stereotypic behaviors and promoting exaggerated behavioral fixity. PMID:24904300

  4. Suppression of NMDA receptor function in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid improves social deficits and repetitive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jaeseung; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, administered to VPA mice rescues both social deficits and repetitive behaviors such as self-grooming and jumping. These results suggest that suppression of elevated NMDAR function in VPA animals normalizes repetitive behaviors in addition to social deficits. PMID:26074764

  5. Cognitive Set Shifting Deficits and Their Relationship to Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Haylie L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Cook, Edwin H.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new response set. We examined different error types on a test of set-shifting completed by 60 individuals with ASD and 55 age- and nonverbal IQ-matched controls. Individuals with ASD were able to initially shift sets, but they exhibited difficulty maintaining new response sets. Difficulty with set maintenance was related to increased severity of RRBs. General difficulty maintaining new response sets and a heightened tendency to revert to old preferences may contribute to RRBs. PMID:25234483

  6. The Significance of Repetitive Hair-Pulling Behaviors in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M.; Strober, Michael; Plotnicov, Kathy; Klump, Kelly L.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the relation between intrusive and repetitive hair-pulling, the defining feature of trichotillomania, and compulsive and impulsive features in 1453 individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. We conducted a series of regression models examining the relative influence of compulsive features associated with obsessive compulsive disorder; compulsive features associated with eating disorders; trait features related to harm avoidance, perfectionism and novelty seeking; and self harm. A final model with a reduced sample (n=928) examined the additional contribution of impulsive attributes. One out of 20 individuals endorsed hair-pulling. Evidence of a positive association with endorsement of compulsive behavior of the obsessive compulsive spectrum emerged. Hair-pulling may be more consonant with ritualistic compulsions than impulsive urges in those with eating disorders. PMID:21365638

  7. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors as Predictors of Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Troyb, Eva; Knoch, Kelley; Herlihy, Lauren; Stevens, Michael C; Chen, Chi-Ming; Barton, Marianne; Treadwell, Kimberli; Fein, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    Questions have been raised about the significance of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in predicting outcomes of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Previous studies have yielded mixed findings, but some suggest that the presence of RRBs during preschool years is a negative prognostic indicator for later childhood. This study examined the effect of RRBs at ages 1-2 and 3-5 years on cognitive functioning, adaptive abilities, and ASD symptomatology at age 8-10 years in 40 children with ASDs. At 1-2 years, RRBs did not predict later functioning. However, at 3-5 years, more severe preoccupations with parts of objects, sensory interests, and stereotyped motor movements predicted less developed cognitive and adaptive skills, and greater ASD symptom severity at age 8-10 years. PMID:26676629

  8. Behavioral abnormalities in mice lacking mesenchyme-specific Pten.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Cissé, Yasmine M; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen Z; Bolon, Brad; Nelson, Randy J; Marsh, Clay B

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and growth. Using a Cre-recombinase approach with Lox sequences flanking the fibroblast-specific protein 1 (Fsp1 aka S100A4; a mesenchymal marker), we probed sites of expression using a β-galactosidase Rosa26(LoxP) reporter allele; the transgene driving deletion of Pten (exons 4-5) was found throughout the brain parenchyma and pituitary, suggesting that deletion of Pten in Fsp1-positive cells may influence behavior. Because CNS-specific deletion of Pten influences social and anxiety-like behaviors and S100A4 is expressed in astrocytes, we predicted that loss of Pten in Fsp1-expressing cells would result in deficits in social interaction and increased anxiety. We further predicted that environmental enrichment would compensate for genetic deficits in these behaviors. We conducted a battery of behavioral assays on Fsp1-Cre;Pten(LoxP/LoxP) male and female homozygous knockouts (Pten(-/-)) and compared their behavior to Pten(LoxP/LoxP) (Pten(+/+)) conspecifics. Despite extensive physical differences (including reduced hippocampal size) and deficits in sensorimotor function, Pten(-/-) mice behaved remarkably similar to control mice on nearly all behavioral tasks. These results suggest that the social and anxiety-like phenotypes observed in CNS-specific Pten(-/-) mice may depend on neuronal Pten, as lack of Pten in Fsp1-expressing cells of the CNS had little effect on these behaviors. PMID:26876012

  9. Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

    1984-01-01

    Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

  10. Restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders: a review of research in the last decade.

    PubMed

    Leekam, Susan R; Prior, Margot R; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-07-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the description of RRBs. Research has also identified distinctive subtypes of RRBs in autism spectrum disorders. Research on potential causal origins and immediate triggers for RRBs is still at an early stage. However, promising new ideas and evidence are emerging from neurobiology and developmental psychology that identify neural adaptation, lack of environmental stimulation, arousal, and adaptive functions as key factors for the onset and maintenance of RRBs. Further research is needed to understand how these factors interact with each other to create and sustain atypical levels of RRB. The literature indicates that RRBs have the potential to spontaneously reduce across time, and this is enhanced for those with increased age and cognitive and language ability. Research on interventions is sparse. Pharmacological treatments can be helpful in some children but have adverse side effects. Behavioral intervention methods provide the better intervention option with positive effects, but a more systematic and targeted approach is urgently needed. Evidence suggests that we will learn best from the last decade of research by taking a developmental perspective, by directing future research toward subtypes of RRBs, and by implementing early intervention targeted to improve RRBs before these behaviors become entrenched. PMID:21574682

  11. Safety and Behavioral Effects of High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yozbatiran, Nuray; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; See, Jill; Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Luu, Daniel; Motiwala, Rehan R.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Cramer, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Electromagnetic brain stimulation might have value to reduce motor deficits after stroke. Safety and behavioral effects of higher frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) require detailed assessment. Methods Using an active treatment-only, unblinded, 2-center study design, patients with chronic stroke received 20 minutes of 20 Hz rTMS to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex hand area. Patients were assessed before, during the hour after, and 1 week after rTMS. Results The 12 patients were 4.7±4.9 years poststroke (mean±SD) with moderate–severe arm motor deficits. In terms of safety, rTMS was well tolerated and did not cause new symptoms; systolic blood pressure increased from pre- to immediately post-rTMS by 7 mm Hg (P=0.043); and none of the behavioral measures showed a decrement. In terms of behavioral effects, modest improvements were seen, for example, in grip strength, range of motion, and pegboard performance, up to 1 week after rTMS. The strongest predictor of these motor gains was lower patient age. Conclusions A single session of high-frequency rTMS to the motor cortex was safe. These results require verification with addition of a placebo group and thus blinded assessments across a wide spectrum of poststroke deficits and with larger doses of 20 Hz rTMS. PMID:18845801

  12. Behavioral and Neuroanatomical Abnormalities in Pleiotrophin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krellman, Jason W.; Ruiz, Henry H.; Marciano, Veronica A.; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features. PMID:25000129

  13. mGluR5-Antagonist Mediated Reversal of Elevated Stereotyped, Repetitive Behaviors in the VPA Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly disabling developmental disorders with a population prevalence of 1–3%. Despite a strong genetic etiology, there are no current therapeutic options that target the core symptoms of ASD. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic signaling, in particular through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) receptors, may contribute to phenotypic deficits and may be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. This study assessed the therapeutic potential of 2-methyl-6-phenylethyl-pyrididine (MPEP), an mGluR5-receptor antagonist, on repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors in the valproic acid (VPA) mouse model of autism. Mice were exposed prenatally on day E13 to VPA and assessed for repetitive self-grooming and marble burying behaviors as adults. Anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were measured in an open-field. VPA-exposed mice displayed increased repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors, consistent with previously published results. Across both marble burying and self-grooming assays, MPEP significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in VPA-treated mice, but had no effect on locomotor activity. These results are consistent with emerging preclinical literature that mGluR5-antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy for core symptoms of autism. PMID:22016815

  14. Does Gender Moderate Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Girls and Boys with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD

  15. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…

  16. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.

  17. Brief Report: The Dopamine-3-Receptor Gene ("DRD3") Is Associated with Specific Repetitive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staal, Wouter G.; de Krom, Mariken; de Jonge, Maretha V.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the "DRD3" gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. This risk allele was

  18. Does Gender Moderate Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Girls and Boys with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD…

  19. Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as

  20. Risk factors for behavioral abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Liana G.; Di, Li Jie; Duffy, Erin L.; Brook, Jenny; Elashoff, David; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Fairbanks, Lynn; Cummings, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral symptoms are common in both MCI and AD. Methods We analyzed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire data of 3456 MCI and 2641 mild AD NACC participants. Using factor analysis and logistic regression we estimated the effects of age, sex, race, education, MMSE, functional impairment, marital status and family history on presence of behavioral symptoms. We also compared the observed prevalence of behavioral symptoms between amnestic and nonamnestic MCI. Results Four factors were identified: affective behaviors (depression, apathy and anxiety); distress/tension behaviors (irritability and agitation); impulse control behaviors (disinhibition, elation and aberrant motor behavior), and psychotic behaviors (delusions and hallucinations). Male gender was significantly associated with all factors. Younger age was associated with higher prevalence of distress/tension, impulse control and psychotic behaviors. Being married was protective against psychotic behaviors. Lower education was associated with the presence of distress/tension behaviors. Caucasians showed higher prevalence of affective behaviors. Functional impairment was strongly associated with all behavioral abnormalities. Amnestic MCI had more elation and agitation relative to nonamnestic MCI. Conclusions Younger age, male gender and greater functional impairment were associated with higher overall presence of behavioral abnormalities in MCI and mild AD. Marital status, lower education and race had effect on selected behaviors. PMID:24481207

  1. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with

  2. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  3. Evidence for three subtypes of repetitive behavior in autism that differ in familiality and association with other symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kristen S.L.; Bodfish, James W.; Piven, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism and consist of a variety of behaviors, ranging from motor stereotypies to complex circumscribed interests. The objective of the current study was to examine the structure of RRBs in autism using relevant items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in a sample of 316 individuals with autistic disorder. Methods/Results Using exploratory factor analysis, three distinct factors were identified: Repetitive Motor Behaviors (RMB), Insistence on Sameness (IS), and Circumscribed Interests (CI). RMB were found to be associated with a variety of subject characteristics such as IQ, age, social/communication impairments, and the presence of regression. IS was associated with social and communication impairments whereas CI appeared to be independent of subject characteristics, suggesting CI may be particularly useful in subsetting samples. Based on sib-pair correlations, IS and CI (but not RMB) appear to be familial. Analysis of the data at the case level suggests that the presence of multiple forms of RRB in an individual is associated with more impairment in the social and communication domains, suggesting a more severe presentation of autistic disorder. Conclusions There appears to be considerable structure within repetitive behavior in autism. The finding that these behaviors are differentially related to subject characteristics and familiality adds to their validity. PMID:19017031

  4. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors. PMID:26620495

  5. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agera, Zaida; Jimnez-Murcia, Susana; Fernndez-Real, Jos M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frhbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchn, Jos M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  6. Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2010-01-01

    Origins of impaired adaptive functioning in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Behavioral disorganization may arise from an abnormal reliance on common combinations between concepts stored in semantic memory. Avolition-apathy may be related to deficits in using goal-related requirements to flexibly plan behavior. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 medicated schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy controls in a novel video paradigm presenting congruous or incongruous objects in real-world activities. All incongruous objects were contextually inappropriate, but the incongruous scenes varied in comprehensibility. Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to less comprehensible incongruous scenes, and larger N400 priming was associated with disorganization severity. A P600 ERP, which may index flexible object-action integration based on goal-related requirements, was abnormally attenuated in patients, and its smaller magnitude was associated with the SANS rating of impersistence at work or school (goal-directed behavior). Thus, distinct neurocognitive abnormalities may underlie disorganization and goal-directed behavior deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:19413402

  7. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  8. Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

    2004-01-01

    A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior. PMID:21206800

  9. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  10. The Frontal-Anatomic Specificity of Design Fluency Repetitions and their Diagnostic Relevance for Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Possin, Katherine L.; Chester, Serana K.; Laluz, Victor; Bostrom, Alan; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    On tests of design fluency, an examinee draws as many different designs as possible in a specified time limit while avoiding repetition. The neuroanatomical substrates and diagnostic group differences of design fluency repetition errors and total correct scores were examined in 110 individuals diagnosed with dementia, 53 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 37 neurologically healthy controls. The errors correlated significantly with volumes in the right and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the right and left superior frontal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the right striatum, but did not correlate with volumes in any parietal or temporal lobe regions. Regression analyses indicated that the lateral OFC may be particularly crucial for preventing these errors, even after excluding patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from the analysis. Total correct correlated more diffusely with volumes in the right and left frontal and parietal cortex, the right temporal cortex, and the right striatum and thalamus. Patients diagnosed with bvFTD made significantly more repetition errors than patients diagnosed with MCI, Alzheimer’s disease, semantic dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy or corticobasal syndrome. In contrast, total correct design scores did not differentiate the dementia patients. These results highlight the frontal-anatomic specificity of design fluency repetitions. In addition, the results indicate that the propensity to make these errors supports the diagnosis of bvFTD. PMID:22835330

  11. Incidence and behavioral correlates of epileptiform abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Caitlin K; Trauner, Doris A

    2014-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with an increased incidence of epilepsy and of epileptiform discharges on electroencephalograms. It is unknown whether epileptiform discharges correlate with symptoms of ASD. We completed a retrospective chart review of 101 patients with ASD who had overnight electroencephalograms. We looked for a relationship between epileptiform abnormalities and diagnosis, history of regression, communication skills, and other features associated with ASD. There was a higher incidence of epileptiform activity in children with stereotypies and aggressive behavior. The incidence of epileptiform abnormalities was significantly lower in Asperger's compared with more severe forms of autism. Results suggest that increasing severity of autistic symptoms may be associated with higher likelihood of epileptiform abnormalities. Whether treatment alters outcome is unknown. PMID:23872941

  12. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Farnia, Vahid; Abdoli, Nasrin; Akrami, Mohammad R.; Arman, Farid; Shakeri, Hania

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. ?Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). ?Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%). However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320). Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively). Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001). Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004). ?Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts. PMID:26171123

  13. Abnormal circling behavior in rat mutants and its relevance to model specific brain dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Lscher, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Circling or rotational behavior is the most studied indicator of cerebral asymmetry in the rat. In humans, disturbances in cerebral asymmetry are involved in the etiology of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Abnormal rotational behavior in rodents is indicative of either an imbalance of forebrain dopamine systems, particularly an imbalance of nigrostriatal function, or an inner ear disease affecting the vestibular (balance) system. Abnormally enhanced circling behavior has been described in several mutant rat and mouse strains both with and without defects of the vestibular system. However, the relationship between vestibular defects and lateralized circling in rodents is only incompletely understood. In this review, we describe and discuss various spontaneous mutations associated with abnormal circling behavior in different rat strains and their potential relevance to model specific brain dysfunctions. The circling rat mutants described in this review illustrate how genetic animal models may serve to study multifaceted brain functions and dysfunctions, including disorders of the basal ganglia and vestibular system. PMID:19607857

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha plays a crucial role in behavioral repetition and cognitive flexibility in mice

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Cristiano, Claudia; Lyons, David J.; Citraro, Rita; Russo, Emilio; Avagliano, Carmen; Russo, Roberto; Raso, Giuseppina Mattace; Meli, Rosaria; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Heisler, Lora K.; Calignano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis and is the target of medications used to treat dyslipidemia. However, little is known about the role of PPAR-α in mouse behavior. Methods To investigate the function of Ppar-α in cognitive functions, a behavioral phenotype analysis of mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Ppar-α was performed in combination with neuroanatomical, biochemical and pharmacological manipulations. The therapeutic exploitability of PPAR-α was probed in mice using a pharmacological model of psychosis and a genetic model (BTBR T + tf/J) exhibiting a high rate of repetitive behavior. Results An unexpected role for brain Ppar-α in the regulation of cognitive behavior in mice was revealed. Specifically, we observed that Ppar-α genetic perturbation promotes rewiring of cortical and hippocampal regions and a behavioral phenotype of cognitive inflexibility, perseveration and blunted responses to psychomimetic drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the antipsychotic and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) medication risperidone ameliorates the behavioral profile of Ppar-α deficient mice. Importantly, we reveal that pharmacological PPAR-α agonist treatment in mice improves behavior in a pharmacological model of ketamine-induced behavioral dysinhibition and repetitive behavior in BTBR T + tf/J mice. Conclusion Our data indicate that Ppar-α is required for normal cognitive function and that pharmacological stimulation of PPAR-α improves cognitive function in pharmacological and genetic models of impaired cognitive function in mice. These results thereby reveal an unforeseen therapeutic application for a class of drugs currently in human use. PMID:26137440

  15. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of planning is presented and the results of applying the methodology within two experimental investigations of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations are discussed. Beyond showing that the methodology yields consistent results, these experiments also lead to concepts in terms of a dichotomy between event driven and time driven planning, subtle effects of automation on planning, and the relationship of planning to workload and flight performance.

  16. Behavioral and Clinical Factors Associated with Self-Reported Abnormal Papanicolaou Tests in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Victoria G; Solomon, Daniel H; Shadick, Nancy A; Weinblatt, Michael E; Iannaccone, Christine K; Feldman, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Some evidence suggests that women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for the development of cervical cancer; however, it is unclear how this increase risk is conferred. We aimed to assess the factors related to abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) tests in women with RA to determine whether they are similar to those reported for the general population. Methods: A structured questionnaire was mailed to 503 female patients from a longitudinal RA cohort. The survey included items on sociodemographic, behavioral, and gynecological factors. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models examined the association of self-reported abnormal Pap results with a number of potential behavioral risk factors. Results: The questionnaire response rate was 57.5% (n=289). Median age was 61 years and 97% had ?1 Pap test previously. Twenty-nine percent of respondents reported a previous abnormal Pap result. In the multivariable logistic model adjusted for age, number of lifetime sexual partners, age at menarche, birth control use, and history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), ever using birth control (odds ratio [OR] 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.184.52) and previous STD (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.706.70) were associated with an increased risk of abnormal Pap result. Compared with either the state or national population, a greater proportion of the respondents was older, married, and previous smokers, and completed postsecondary education and obtained a Pap test. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study, self-reported abnormal Pap results were associated with use of birth control and history of STD in RA patients. PMID:25203494

  17. Abnormal illness behavior of patients with functional somatic symptoms: relation to psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Kuroki, T; Koizumi, S

    2001-01-01

    Functional somatic symptoms are highly associated with hypochondriasis, anxiety, and depressive disorders. Despite the absence of an organic disorder, underlying psychological distress of patients with functional somatic symptoms may result in abnormal illness behavior such as inadequate treatment seeking or overuse of medical services. Using the Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), we examined the illness behavior of Japanese patients visiting a general medicine clinic whose physical symptoms were considered functional. We used the General Health Questionnaire-30 to classify patients with functional somatic symptoms as those with and without psychological distress. Patients with distress (n=35) reported more physical complaints and higher IBQ scores than did patients without distress (n=22). The IBQ profile of patients with psychological distress was identical to that of patients diagnosed with either hypochondriasis or major depression. The illness behavior of patients without psychological distress was indistinguishable from that of patients whose physical symptoms were attributed to organic disease. These results further support the hypothesis that functional somatic symptoms may be associated with hypochondriasis and major depression, the pathology of which may contribute to the development of abnormal illness behavior. PMID:11543849

  18. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of human planning behavior in complex dynamic systems is presented and applied to the study of aircraft pilot behavior in normal, abnormal and emergency situations. The method measures the depth of planning, that is the level of detail employed with respect to a specific task, according to responses to a verbal questionnaire, and compares planning depth with variables relating to time, task criticality and the probability of increased task difficulty. In two series of experiments, depth of planning was measured on a five- or ten-point scale during various phases of flight in a HFB-320 simulator under normal flight conditions, abnormal scenarios involving temporary runway closure due to snow removal or temporary CAT-III conditions due to a dense fog, and emergency scenarios involving engine shut-down or hydraulic pressure loss. Results reveal a dichotomy between event-driven and time-driven planning, different effects of automation in abnormal and emergency scenarios and a low correlation between depth of planning and workload or flight performance.

  19. Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-06-01

    A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention. PMID:24357109

  20. Abnormal animal behavior prior to the Vrancea (Romania) major subcrustal earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Angela; Pantea, Aurelian

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some observations about abnormal animal behavior prior and during of some Romanian subcrustal earthquakes. The major Vrancea earthquakes of 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.4, Imax = IX-X MSK), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.1, Io = VIII-IX MSK) and 30 May 1990 (Mw = 6.9, Io = VIII MSK), were preceded by extensive occurrences of anomalous animal behavior. These data were collected immediately after the earthquakes from the areas affected by these. Some species of animals became excited, nervous and panicked before and during the earthquakes, such as: dogs (barking and running in panic), cats, snakes, mice and rats (came into the houses and have lost their fear), birds (hens, geese, parrots), horses, fishes etc. These strange manifestations of the animals were observed on the entire territory of country, especially in the extra-Carpathian area. This unusual behavior was noticed within a few hours to days before the seismic events, but for the most of cases the time of occurrence was within two hours of the quakes. We can hope that maybe one day the abnormal animal behavior will be used as a reliable seismic precursor for the intermediate depth earthquakes.

  1. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization

    PubMed Central

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years) or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years). The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined. PMID:25379228

  2. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G. ); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. )

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  3. Who Should Report Abnormal Behavior at Preschool Age? The Case of Behavioral Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballespi, Sergi; Jane, Ma Claustre; Riba, Ma Dolors

    2012-01-01

    Children who are behaviorally "inhibited"--a condition at the extreme of the behavioral inhibition dimension--experience distress in uncertain social situations. Although parents and teachers are in the best position to detect this condition, they rarely agree. This study aims to analyze the agreement between parents and teachers and to examine

  4. Lymphocyte Subset Alterations Related to Executive Function Deficits and Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in children with ASD. Eighteen high-functioning (HFA) and 19 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17 years,

  5. Lymphocyte Subset Alterations Related to Executive Function Deficits and Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in children with ASD. Eighteen high-functioning (HFA) and 19 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17 years,…

  6. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation prevents abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from chronic nicotine consumption.

    PubMed

    Pedron, Solne; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Van Waes, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Successful available treatments to quit smoking remain scarce. Recently, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a tool to reduce craving for nicotine has gained interest. However, there is no documented animal model to assess the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS on addiction-related behaviors. To address this topic, we have developed a model of repeated tDCS in mice and used it to validate its effectiveness in relieving nicotine addiction. Anodal repeated tDCS was applied over the frontal cortex of Swiss female mice. The stimulation electrode (anode) was fixed directly onto the cranium, and the reference electrode was placed onto the ventral thorax. A 2 20 min/day stimulation paradigm for five consecutive days was used (0.2 mA). In the first study, we screened for behaviors altered by the stimulation. Second, we tested whether tDCS could alleviate abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from nicotine consumption. In naive animals, repeated tDCS had antidepressant-like properties 3 weeks after the last stimulation, improved working memory, and decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine without affecting locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. Importantly, abnormal behaviors associated with chronic nicotine exposure (ie, depression-like behavior, increase in nicotine-induced place preference) were normalized by repeated tDCS. Our data show for the first time in an animal model that repeated tDCS is a promising, non-expensive clinical tool that could be used to reduce smoking craving and facilitate smoking cessation. Our animal model will be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS on addiction and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:24154668

  7. Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; McKnight, Steven L

    2004-09-14

    Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis. PMID:15347806

  8. Executive Function Deficits and Social-Behavioral Abnormality in Mice Exposed to a Low Dose of Dioxin In Utero and via Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation. PMID:23251380

  9. Altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors in rats exposed to early life seizures

    PubMed Central

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Cassane, Gustavo dos Santos Teada; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are the most common manifestation of neurological dysfunction in the neonate. The prognosis of neonatal seizures is highly variable, and the controversy remains whether the severity, duration, or frequency of seizures may contribute to brain damage independently of its etiology. Animal data indicates that seizures during development are associated with a high probability of long-term adverse effects such as learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes and even epilepsy, which is strongly age dependent, as well as the severity, duration, and frequency of seizures. In preliminary studies, we demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to one-single neonatal status epilepticus (SE) episode showed social behavior impairment, and we proposed the model as relevant for studies of developmental disorders. Based on these facts, the goal of this study was to verify the existence of a persistent deficit and if the anxiety-related behavior could be associated with that impairment. To do so, male Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were submitted to a single episode of SE by pilocarpine injection (380 mg/kg, i.p.) and control animals received saline (0.9%, 0.1 mL/10 g). It was possible to demonstrate that in adulthood, animals exposed to neonatal SE displayed low preference for social novelty, anxiety-related behavior, and increased stereotyped behavior in anxiogenic environment with no locomotor activity changes. On the balance, these data suggests that neonatal SE in rodents leads to altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors. PMID:23675329

  10. Clinical Correlates and Repetition of Self-Harming Behaviors among Female Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups

  11. M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice display abnormal social behavior and decreased prepulse inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the central nervous system (CNS), the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO) mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI)-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. Results In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. Conclusions These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. PMID:22463818

  12. The relationship between auditory processing and restricted, repetitive behaviors in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kargas, Niko; Lpez, Beatriz; Reddy, Vasudevi; Morris, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Current views suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterised by enhanced low-level auditory discrimination abilities. Little is known, however, about whether enhanced abilities are universal in ASD and how they relate to symptomatology. We tested auditory discrimination for intensity, frequency and duration in 21 adults with ASD and 21 IQ and age-matched controls. Contrary to predictions, there were significant deficits in ASD on all acoustic parameters. The findings suggest that low-level auditory discrimination ability varies widely within ASD and this variability relates to IQ level, and influences the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs). We suggest that it is essential to further our understanding of the potential contributing role of sensory perception ability on the emergence of RRBs. PMID:25178987

  13. Brief Report: Glutamate Transporter Gene ("SLC1A1") Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs301430) and Repetitive Behaviors and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Investigated association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs301430 in glutamate transporter gene ("SLC1A1") with severity of repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive behaviors, tics) and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers and/or teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 67 children

  14. Brief Report: Glutamate Transporter Gene ("SLC1A1") Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs301430) and Repetitive Behaviors and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Investigated association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs301430 in glutamate transporter gene ("SLC1A1") with severity of repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive behaviors, tics) and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers and/or teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 67 children…

  15. GABA progenitors grafted into the adult epileptic brain control seizures and abnormal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Robert F.; Girskis, Kelly M.; Rubenstein, John L.; AlvarezBuylla, Arturo; Baraban, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired GABAmediated neurotransmission has been implicated in many neurologic diseases including epilepsy, intellectual disability, and psychiatric disorders. Here we report that inhibitory neuron transplantation into the hippocampus of adult mice with confirmed epilepsy at the time of grafting dramatically reduced the occurrence of electrographic seizures and restored behavioral deficits in spatial learning, hyperactivity, and the aggressive response to handling. In the recipient brain, GABA progenitors migrated up to 1500 ?m from the injection site, expressed genes and proteins characteristic for interneurons, differentiated into functional inhibitory neurons, and received excitatory synaptic input. In contrast to hippocampus, cell grafts into basolateral amygdala rescued the hyperactivity deficit but did not alter seizure activity or other abnormal behaviors. Our results highlight a critical role for interneurons in epilepsy and suggest that interneuron cell transplantation is a powerful approach to halt seizures and rescue accompanying deficits in severely epileptic mice. PMID:23644485

  16. The microbiota modulates gut physiology and behavioral abnormalities associated with autism

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Elaine Y.; McBride, Sara W.; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R.; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A.; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Patterson, Paul H.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by core behavioral impairments, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly reported. Subsets of ASD individuals display dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, and some exhibit increased intestinal permeability. Here we demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in a mouse model displaying features of ASD, maternal immune activation (MIA). Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition and ameliorates ASD-related defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naïve mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:24315484

  17. Metabolic indicators of nutritional stress are not predictive of abnormal oral behavior in piglets.

    PubMed

    Tucker, A L; Atkinson, J L; Millman, S T; Widowski, T M

    2010-06-16

    Belly nosing is an abnormal oral-nasal behavior that can develop to high levels in newly weaned piglets and may signal nutritional need. The effects of feed restriction on both behavior and metabolic serum parameters were examined in 128 weaned piglets. All pigs were fed ad libitum during week 1, and during week 2, half of all pens (N=8) were restricted to 65% of ad libitum intake. Blood samples were collected on days 3 and 10 after weaning and behavior was observed from video recordings on days 5 and 12. Piglets were classified as early 'nosers' or early 'non-nosers' based on their behavior on day 5. Feed restriction resulted in elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and both lower glucose and a NEFA/glucose ratio, but belly nosing was not affected. Piglets classified as 'nosers' did not have blood profiles indicating they were in greater nutritional need compared to 'non-nosers' in the first week of weaning, nor did they increase belly nosing or other piglet directed behaviors when restricted in week 2. Overall, no associations were found between blood parameters indicative of nutritional stress and belly nosing. This study identifies serum glucose, BHB and NEFA as well as the glucose/NEFA ratio as useful indicators of nutritional stress in newly weaned piglets. PMID:20226202

  18. Abnormal behavior of supercooled liquid region in bulk-forming metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, E. S.; Na, J. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2010-09-01

    A metallic glass is often viewed as an amorphous alloy exhibiting a single endothermic reaction in the supercooled liquid region (SCLR, ΔTx=Tx-Tg). Here we discuss the origin and consequences of abnormal behavior of SCLR in various bulk-forming metallic glasses (BMGs). The two-stage-like endothermic reaction in Ni-based, Cu-based, Zr-based, and Mg-based BMGs can originate from the local immiscibility of liquids, which is closely related to chemical heterogeneity in as-cast BMG. These inflections can be attributed to the overlap of the exothermic reaction for the formation and growth of clusters in SCLR. The abnormal behavior of SCLR can be modulated by controlling cooling rate as well as by tailoring alloy composition, with the consequence that the modulated local heterogeneity in these BMGs can lead to enhanced flexibility of the BMGs. This correlation assists in understanding toughening mechanism and in guiding alloy design to alleviate brittleness of BMGs.

  19. Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Social Participation, Play, Leisure, and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in People With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Kelly; Hand, Brittany N; O'Toole, Gjyn; Lane, Alison E

    2015-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience difficulties with social participation, play, and leisure along with restricted and repetitive behaviors that can interfere with occupational performance. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence for interventions within the occupational therapy scope of practice that address these difficulties. Strong evidence was found that social skills groups, the Picture Exchange Communication System, joint attention interventions, and parent-mediated strategies can improve social participation. The findings were less conclusive for interventions to improve play and leisure performance and to decrease restricted and repetitive behaviors, but several strategies showed promise with moderately strong supporting evidence. Occupational therapists should be guided by evidence when considering interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with ASD. Additional research using more robust scientific methods is needed for many of the currently available strategies. PMID:26356653

  20. Does Gender Moderate Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Girls and Boys with ASD.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-11-01

    Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD demonstrated similar rates and types of RRBs in early childhood, using discrete observational coding from a video-taped play interaction. Twenty-nine girls with ASD were matched to 29 boys based on ASD severity. While boys in our sample demonstrated a greater frequency of RRBs, this was not significant and our findings indicate that girls and boys under five are more similar than dissimilar on this core deficit. However our data also revealed a trend toward gender-differential growth trajectories--a finding worthy of further investigation in larger samples. PMID:26111739

  1. Suppression of Repetitive Self-Injurious Behavior by Contingent Inhalation of Aromatic Ammonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alan A.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1978-01-01

    Two severely retarded institutionalized children (4 and 7 years old) who exhibited high rates of severely self-injurious behaviors were punished with aromatic ammonia inhalation on a response-contingent basis. (Author/SBH)

  2. Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jrgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2013-02-17

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research into implications of gut bacteria, their metabolites and the polyamine system on brain and behavior in laying hens. PMID:23313560

  3. Repetitive Treatment with Diluted Bee Venom Attenuates the Induction of Below-Level Neuropathic Pain Behaviors in a Rat Spinal Cord Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Yun; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Wan; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2015-01-01

    The administration of diluted bee venom (DBV) into an acupuncture point has been utilized traditionally in Eastern medicine to treat chronic pain. We demonstrated previously that DBV has a potent anti-nociceptive efficacy in several rodent pain models. The present study was designed to examine the potential anti-nociceptive effect of repetitive DBV treatment in the development of below-level neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury (SCI) rats. DBV was applied into the Joksamli acupoint during the induction and maintenance phase following thoracic 13 (T13) spinal hemisection. We examined the effect of repetitive DBV stimulation on SCI-induced bilateral pain behaviors, glia expression and motor function recovery. Repetitive DBV stimulation during the induction period, but not the maintenance, suppressed pain behavior in the ipsilateral hind paw. Moreover, SCI-induced increase in spinal glia expression was also suppressed by repetitive DBV treatment in the ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord. Finally, DBV injection facilitated motor function recovery as indicated by the BassoBeattieBresnahan rating score. These results indicate that the repetitive application of DBV during the induction phase not only decreased neuropathic pain behavior and glia expression, but also enhanced locomotor functional recovery after SCI. This study suggests that DBV acupuncture can be a potential clinical therapy for SCI management. PMID:26184310

  4. NEURONAL DEGENERATION, SYNAPTIC DEFECTS, AND BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES IN TAU45-230 TRANSGENIC MICE

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Ashlee E.; Methner, D. Nicole Riherd; Ferreira, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The complement of mechanisms underlying tau pathology in neurodegenerative disorders has yet to be elucidated. Among these mechanisms, abnormal tau phosphorylation has received the most attention because neurofibrillary tangles present in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related disorders known as tauopathies are composed of hyperphosphorylated forms of this microtubule-associated protein. More recently, we showed that calpain-mediated cleavage leading to the generation of the 17 kDa tau45-230 fragment is a conserved mechanism in these diseases. To obtain insights into the role of this fragment in neurodegeneration, we generated transgenic mice that express tau45-230 and characterized their phenotype. Our results showed a significant increase in cell death in the hippocampal pyramidal cell layer of transgenic tau45-230 mice when compared to wild type controls. In addition, significant synapse loss was detected as early as six months after birth in transgenic hippocampal neurons. These synaptic changes were accompanied by alterations in the expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate (NMDA) receptor subunits. Furthermore, functional abnormalities were detected in the transgenic mice using Morris Water Maze and fear conditioning tests. These results suggest that the accumulation of tau45-230 is responsible, at least in part, for neuronal degeneration and some behavioral changes in AD and other tauopathies. Collectively, these data provide the first direct evidence of the toxic effects of a tau fragment biologically produced in the context of these diseases in vertebrate neurons that develop in situ. PMID:24952329

  5. Disruption of Eaat2b, a glutamate transporter, results in abnormal motor behaviors in developing zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Kelly Anne; Moreno, Rosa; Hall, Victoria L.; Ribera, Angeles B.; Downes, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of zebrafish mutants that have defects in motor behavior can allow entrée into the hindbrain and spinal cord networks that control locomotion. Here, we report that zebrafish techno trousers (tnt) locomotor mutants harbor a mutation in slc1a2b, which encodes Eaat2b, a plasma membrane glutamate transporter. We used tnt mutants to explore the effects of impaired glutamate transporter activity on locomotor network function. Wild-type larvae perform robust swimming behavior in response to touch stimuli at two and four days after fertilization. In contrast, tnt mutant larvae demonstrate aberrant, exaggerated body bends beginning two days after fertilization and they are almost paralyzed four days after fertilization. We show that slc1a2b is expressed in glial cells in a dynamic fashion across development, which may explain the abnormal sequence of motor behaviors demonstrated by tnt mutants. We also show that tnt larvae demonstrate enhanced excitation of neurons, consistent with the predicted effects of excessive glutamate. These findings illustrate the dynamic regulation and importance of glutamate transporters during development. Since glutamate toxicity caused by EAAT2 dysfunction is thought to promote several different neurological disorders in humans, including epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases, tnt mutants hold promise as a new tool to better understand these pathologies. PMID:22094018

  6. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  7. Abnormal foraging behavior induced by sublethal dosage of imidacloprid in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, E C; Chuang, Y C; Chen, Y L; Chang, L H

    2008-12-01

    Although sublethal dosages of insecticide to nontarget insects have never been an important issue, they are attracting more and more attention lately. It has been demonstrated that low dosages of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid may affect honey bee, Apis mellifera L., behavior. In this article, the foraging behavior of the honey bee workers was investigated to show the effects of imidacloprid. By measuring the time interval between two visits at the same feeding site, we found that the normal foraging interval of honey bee workers was within 300 s. However, these honey bee workers delayed their return visit for > 300 s when they were treated orally with sugar water containing imidacloprid. This time delay in their return visit is concentration-dependent, and the lowest effective concentration was found to be 50 microg/liter. When bees were treated with an imidacloprid concentration higher than 1,200 microg/liter, they showed abnormalities in revisiting the feeding site. Some of them went missing, and some were present again at the feeding site the next day. Returning bees also showed delay in their return trips. Our results demonstrated that sublethal dosages of imidacloprid were able to affect foraging behavior of honey bees. PMID:19133451

  8. Decomposition of abnormal free locomotor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grieb, Benjamin; von Nicolai, Constantin; Engler, Gerhard; Sharott, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.; Moll, Christian K.

    2013-01-01

    Poverty of spontaneous movement, slowed execution and reduced amplitudes of movement (akinesia, brady- and hypokinesia) are cardinal motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease that can be modeled in experimental animals by brain lesions affecting midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most behavioral investigations in experimental parkinsonism have employed short-term observation windows to assess motor impairments. We postulated that an analysis of longer-term free exploratory behavior could provide further insights into the complex fine structure of altered locomotor activity in parkinsonian animals. To this end, we video-monitored 23 h of free locomotor behavior and extracted several behavioral measures before and after the expression of a severe parkinsonian phenotype following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the rat dopaminergic substantia nigra. Unbiased stereological cell counting verified the degree of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive cell loss in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In line with previous reports, overall covered distance and maximal motion speed of lesioned animals were found to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Before lesion surgery, exploratory rat behavior exhibited a bimodal distribution of maximal speed values obtained for single movement episodes, corresponding to a first and second gear of motion. 6-OHDA injections significantly reduced the incidence of second gear motion episodes and also resulted in an abnormal prolongation of these fast motion events. Likewise, the spatial spread of such episodes was increased in 6-OHDA rats. The increase in curvature of motion tracks was increased in both lesioned and control animals. We conclude that the discrimination of distinct modes of motion by statistical decomposition of longer-term spontaneous locomotion provides useful insights into the fine structure of fluctuating motor functions in a rat analog of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24348346

  9. Alzheimer Disease in a Mouse Model: MR Imaging–guided Focused Ultrasound Targeted to the Hippocampus Opens the Blood-Brain Barrier and Improves Pathologic Abnormalities and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sonam; Yeung, Sharon; Hough, Olivia; Eterman, Naomi; Aubert, Isabelle; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To validate whether repeated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–guided focused ultrasound treatments targeted to the hippocampus, a brain structure relevant for Alzheimer disease (ADAlzheimer disease), could modulate pathologic abnormalities, plasticity, and behavior in a mouse model. Materials and Methods All animal procedures were approved by the Animal Care Committee and are in accordance with the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Seven-month-old transgenic (TgCRND8) (Tg) mice and their nontransgenic (non-Tg) littermates were entered in the study. Mice were treated weekly with MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound in the bilateral hippocampus (1.68 MHz, 10-msec bursts, 1-Hz burst repetition frequency, 120-second total duration). After 1 month, spatial memory was tested in the Y maze with the novel arm prior to sacrifice and immunohistochemical analysis. The data were compared by using unpaired t tests and analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc analysis. Results Untreated Tg mice spent 61% less time than untreated non-Tg mice exploring the novel arm of the Y maze because of spatial memory impairments (P < .05). Following MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound, Tg mice spent 99% more time exploring the novel arm, performing as well as their non-Tg littermates. Changes in behavior were correlated with a reduction of the number and size of amyloid plaques in the MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound–treated animals (P < .01). Further, after MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound treatment, there was a 250% increase in the number of newborn neurons in the hippocampus (P < .01). The newborn neurons had longer dendrites and more arborization after MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound, as well (P < .01). Conclusion Repeated MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound treatments led to spatial memory improvement in a Tg mouse model of ADAlzheimer disease. The behavior changes may be mediated by decreased amyloid pathologic abnormalities and increased neuronal plasticity. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:25222068

  10. Lack of Efficacy of Citalopram in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and High Levels of Repetitive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    King, Bryan H.; Hollander, Eric; Sikich, Linmarie; McCracken, James T.; Scahill, Lawrence; Bregman, Joel D.; Donnelly, Craig L.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann; Ritz, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Context Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely prescribed for children with autism spectrum disorders. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of citalopram hydrobromide therapy for repetitive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Design National Institutes of Healthsponsored randomized controlled trial. Setting Six academic centers, including Mount Sinai School of Medicine, North ShoreLong Island Jewish Health System, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of California at Los Angeles, Yale University, and Dartmouth Medical School. Participants One hundred forty-nine volunteers 5 to 17 years old (mean [SD] age, 9.4 [3.1] years) were randomized to receive citalopram (n = 73) or placebo (n = 76). Participants had autistic spectrum disorders, Asperger disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified; had illness severity ratings of at least moderate on the Clinical Global Impressions, Severity of Illness Scale; and scored at least moderate on compulsive behaviors measured with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Interventions Twelve weeks of citalopram hydrobromide (10 mg/5 mL) or placebo. The mean (SD) maximum dosage of citalopram hydrobromide was 16.5 (6.5) mg/d by mouth (maximum, 20 mg/d). Main Outcome Measures Positive response was defined by a score of much improved or very much improved on the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement subscale. An important secondary outcome was the score on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Adverse events were systematically elicited using the Safety Monitoring Uniform Report Form. Results There was no significant difference in the rate of positive response on the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement subscale between the citalopram-treated group (32.9%) and the placebo group (34.2%) (relative risk, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.51; P> .99). There was no difference in score reduction on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders from baseline (mean [SD], ?2.0 [3.4] points for the citalopram-treated group and ?1.9 [2.5] points for the placebo group; P=.81). Citalopram use was significantly more likely to be associated with adverse events, particularly increased energy level, impulsiveness, decreased concentration, hyperactivity, stereotypy, diarrhea, insomnia, and dry skin or pruritus. Conclusion Results of this trial do not support the use of citalopram for the treatment of repetitive behavior in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00086645 PMID:19487623

  11. Repetitive behavior and increased activity in mice with Purkinje cell loss: a model for understanding the role of cerebellar pathology in autism

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Loren A.; Goldowitz, Dan; Mittleman, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity are common features of developmental disorders, including autism. Neuropathology of the cerebellum is also a frequent occurrence in autism and other developmental disorders. Recent studies have indicated that cerebellar pathology may play a causal role in the generation of repetitive and hyperactive behaviors. In this study, we examined the relationship between cerebellar pathology and these behaviors in a mouse model of Purkinje cell loss. Specifically, we made aggregation chimeras between Lc/+ mutant embryos and +/+ embryos. Lc/+ mice lose 100% of their Purkinje cells postnatally due to a cell-intrinsic gain-of-function mutation. Through our histological examination, we demonstrated that Lc/+?+/+ chimeric mice have Purkinje cells ranging from zero to normal numbers. Our analysis of these chimeric cerebella confirmed previous studies on Purkinje cell lineage. The results of both open-field activity and hole-board exploration testing indicated negative relationships between Purkinje cell number and measures of activity and investigatory nose-poking. Additionally, in a progressive-ratio operant paradigm, we found that Lc/+ mice lever-pressed significantly less than +/+ controls, which led to significantly lower breakpoints in this group. In contrast, chimeric mice lever-pressed significantly more than controls and this repetitive lever-pressing behavior was significantly and negatively correlated with total Purkinje cell numbers. Although the performance of Lc/+ mice is probably related to their motor deficits, the significant relationships between Purkinje cell number and repetitive lever-pressing behavior as well as open-field activity measures provide support for a role of cerebellar pathology in generating repetitive behavior and increased activity in chimeric mice. PMID:20105240

  12. Repetitive behavior and increased activity in mice with Purkinje cell loss: a model for understanding the role of cerebellar pathology in autism.

    PubMed

    Martin, Loren A; Goldowitz, Dan; Mittleman, Guy

    2010-02-01

    Repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity are common features of developmental disorders, including autism. Neuropathology of the cerebellum is also a frequent occurrence in autism and other developmental disorders. Recent studies have indicated that cerebellar pathology may play a causal role in the generation of repetitive and hyperactive behaviors. In this study, we examined the relationship between cerebellar pathology and these behaviors in a mouse model of Purkinje cell loss. Specifically, we made aggregation chimeras between Lc/+ mutant embryos and +/+ embryos. Lc/+ mice lose 100% of their Purkinje cells postnatally due to a cell-intrinsic gain-of-function mutation. Through our histological examination, we demonstrated that Lc/+<-->+/+ chimeric mice have Purkinje cells ranging from zero to normal numbers. Our analysis of these chimeric cerebella confirmed previous studies on Purkinje cell lineage. The results of both open-field activity and hole-board exploration testing indicated negative relationships between Purkinje cell number and measures of activity and investigatory nose-poking. Additionally, in a progressive-ratio operant paradigm, we found that Lc/+ mice lever-pressed significantly less than +/+ controls, which led to significantly lower breakpoints in this group. In contrast, chimeric mice lever-pressed significantly more than controls and this repetitive lever-pressing behavior was significantly and negatively correlated with total Purkinje cell numbers. Although the performance of Lc/+ mice is probably related to their motor deficits, the significant relationships between Purkinje cell number and repetitive lever-pressing behavior as well as open-field activity measures provide support for a role of cerebellar pathology in generating repetitive behavior and increased activity in chimeric mice. PMID:20105240

  13. Behavioral and electrophysiological abnormalities in two rat models of antiretroviral drug-induced neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perez, Elizabeth; Sol, Rom; Sumalla, Mireia; Serra, Jordi

    2015-09-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy due to the antiretroviral therapy used to treat HIV is one of the most prevalent side effects occurring in at least 30% of patients living with this infection. We have evaluated the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of d4T and ddC on peripheral large and small nerve fibers in male rats treated with d4T (Sprague-Dawley, 50 mg/kg, twice within 1 week), ddC (Wistar, 50 mg/kg, 3 times per week for 3 weeks), or vehicle. The effect of the interventions was assessed using behavioral measures of mechanical sensitivity, conventional nerve conduction studies, and microneurographic single nerve C-fiber recordings. To mimic as much as possible the human clinical condition, all treated animals were included in the study. No statistically significant differences were observed in behavioral parameters of mechanical sensitivity. Nerve conduction studies did not reveal any significant change in the ddC-treated group. In contrast, we observed electrophysiological evidence of significant demyelinating neuropathy 1 week after the start of d4T treatment. Additionally, spontaneous activity in mechanoinsensitive C-nociceptors was observed in both drug-treated groups. No relationship could be established between measures of spontaneous activity in C-nociceptors and the results of the behavioral tests. Our results show that both models of antiretroviral-induced neuropathy differ in their effects on peripheral nerves. However, both groups present abnormal spontaneous activity in mechanoinsensitive C-nociceptors that can be used as a model for pharmacological intervention. PMID:25932691

  14. Stop and Change: Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, Mandy A.; Staal, Wouter G.; Houben, Renske H.; de Jonge, Maretha V.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning individuals with ASD and 53 control participants.

  15. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmentally Similar Peers--A Follow Up to Watt et al. (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Angela B.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Chambers, Nola W.

    2012-01-01

    The present study extended the findings of Watt et al. (J Autism Dev Disord 38:1518-1533, 2008) by investigating repetitive and stereotyped behaviors (RSB) demonstrated by children (n = 50) and typical development (TD; n = 50) matched on developmental age, gender, and parents' education level. RSB were coded from videotaped Communication and

  16. Stop and Change: Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, Mandy A.; Staal, Wouter G.; Houben, Renske H.; de Jonge, Maretha V.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning individuals with ASD and 53 control participants.…

  17. The Effects of Gender and Age on Repetitive and/or Restricted Behaviors and Interests in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic Assessment…

  18. Abnormal pre-attentive arousal in young children with autism spectrum disorder contributes to their atypical auditory behavior: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Stroganova, Tatiana A; Kozunov, Vladimir V; Posikera, Irina N; Galuta, Ilia A; Gratchev, Vitaliy V; Orekhova, Elena V

    2013-01-01

    Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks ('S1' and 'S2') separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the 'tangential' P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the 'radial' N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD. PMID:23935931

  19. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: younger 24 years; older 511 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  20. 100 Repetitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    One hundred repetitions--100 "useful" repetitions. This notion has guided the author's work in alternative education programs for almost 20 years, dealing with the most challenging students, from addicts to conduct-disordered adolescents to traumatized 5th graders. There are no magic tricks. The role of educators is to align with the healthy…

  1. [Abnormal behavior and adaptation problems in dogs and cats and their pharmacologic control].

    PubMed

    Jöchle, W

    1998-11-01

    Small animal practitioners are increasingly confronted with patients showing adaptation related problems (ARP) which are expressed as disturbed or abnormal behavior (DAB). As a result, practitioners are asked increasingly to euthanize animals which seemingly cannot be socialized. In healthy dogs and cats, three main causes for DAB can be detected: refusal of obedience because of the drive for dominance; anxiety and frustration; and geriatric DAB. Increasingly, disease conditions not readily diagnosed can cause DAB, especially hypothyroidism. Influencing and contributing factors to DAB are breed, sex, experiences as a puppy, behavior of owners, changes in the pet's environment. ARPs may also cause disturbances in the condition of skin and fur, e.g. atopic dermatitis, pruritus sine materia, lick granuloma, and of the intestinal organs (vomiting, irritated bowel syndrome) and may result in an immune deficiency. Therapeutic approaches include behavioral therapy, surgical or hormonal castration with progestins or antiandrogens, substitution with thyroxin in cases with hypothyroidism, and/or the use of psychopharmaca, most prominently of modern antidepressiva like amitriptyline; buspirone; clomipramine and fluoxetine, but also of selegiline, a mono-aminoxydase inhibitor. These compounds, among other effects, are elevating prolactin levels. This seems to allow to formulate a working hypothesis: in the canine species, prolactin is obviously a hormone enabling socialization; hence all drugs which safely cause an increase in prolactin production might be suitable to manage or control ARPs and DAB in the dog, but also in the cat. Higher levels of prolactin than those required for socialization, as seen in nursing bitches or some clinically overt cases of pseudopregnancy, may cause maternal aggression and can be controlled with prolactin inhibitors, if needed. PMID:9857423

  2. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello

    2010-02-15

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA{sub A}R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 mug/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 mug/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA{sub A}ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p < 0.05) and great (p < 0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatment sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p < 0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA{sub A}R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA{sub A}R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  3. Reduced expression of the NMDA receptor-interacting protein SynGAP causes behavioral abnormalities that model symptoms of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaochuan; Hamilton, Peter J; Reish, Nicholas J; Sweatt, J David; Miller, Courtney A; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2009-06-01

    Abnormal function of NMDA receptors is believed to be a contributing factor to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. NMDAR subunits and postsynaptic-interacting proteins of these channels are abnormally expressed in some patients with this illness. In mice, reduced NMDAR expression leads to behaviors analogous to symptoms of schizophrenia, but reports of animals with mutations in core postsynaptic density proteins having similar a phenotype have yet to be reported. Here we show that reduced expression of the neuronal RasGAP and NMDAR-associated protein, SynGAP, results in abnormal behaviors strikingly similar to that reported in mice with reduced NMDAR function. SynGAP mutant mice exhibited nonhabituating and persistent hyperactivity that was ameliorated by the antipsychotic clozapine. An NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, induced hyperactivity in normal mice but SynGAP mutants were less responsive, suggesting that NMDAR hypofunction contributes to this behavioral abnormality. SynGAP mutants exhibited enhanced startle reactivity and impaired sensory-motor gating. These mice also displayed a complete lack of social memory and a propensity toward social isolation. Finally, SynGAP mutants had deficits in cued fear conditioning and working memory, indicating abnormal function of circuits that control emotion and choice. Our results demonstrate that SynGAP mutant mice have gross neurological deficits similar to other mouse models of schizophrenia. Because SynGAP interacts with NMDARs, and the signaling activity of this protein is regulated by these channels, our data in dicate that SynGAP lies downstream of NMDARs and is a required intermediate for normal neural circuit function and behavior. Taken together, these data support the idea that schizophrenia may arise from abnormal signaling pathways that are mediated by NMDA receptors. PMID:19145222

  4. Loss of prion protein leads to age-dependent behavioral abnormalities and changes in cytoskeletal protein expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a multifunctional protein, whose exact physiological role remains elusive. Since previous studies indicated a neuroprotective function of PrPC, we investigated whether Prnp knockout mice(Prnp0/0)display age-dependent behavioral abnormalities. Matched sets of Prnp0/0 ...

  5. Genome-wide linkage analyses of two repetitive behavior phenotypes in Utah pedigrees with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that efforts to identify genetic risk markers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would benefit from the analysis of more narrowly defined ASD phenotypes. Previous research indicates that 'insistence on sameness' (IS) and 'repetitive sensory-motor actions' (RSMA) are two factors within the ASD 'repetitive and stereotyped behavior' domain. The primary aim of this study was to identify genetic risk markers of both factors to allow comparison of those markers with one another and with markers found in the same set of pedigrees using ASD diagnosis as the phenotype. Thus, we empirically addresses the possibilities that more narrowly defined phenotypes improve linkage analysis signals and that different narrowly defined phenotypes are associated with different loci. Secondary aims were to examine the correlates of IS and RSMA and to assess the heritability of both scales. Methods A genome-wide linkage analysis was conducted with a sample of 70 multiplex ASD pedigrees using IS and RSMA as phenotypes. Genotyping services were provided by the Center for Inherited Disease Research using the 6 K single nucleotide polymorphism linkage panel. Analysis was done using the multipoint linkage software program MCLINK, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method that allows for multilocus linkage analysis on large extended pedigrees. Results Genome-wide significance was observed for IS at 2q37.1-q37.3 (dominant model heterogeneity lod score (hlod) 3.42) and for RSMA at 15q13.1-q14 (recessive model hlod 3.93). We found some linkage signals that overlapped and others that were not observed in our previous linkage analysis of the ASD phenotype in the same pedigrees, and regions varied in the range of phenotypes with which they were linked. A new finding with respect to IS was that it is positively associated with IQ if the IS-RSMA correlation is statistically controlled. Conclusions The finding that IS and RSMA are linked to different regions that only partially overlap regions previously identified with ASD as the phenotype supports the value of including multiple, narrowly defined phenotypes in ASD genetic research. Further, we replicated previous reports indicating that RSMA is more strongly associated than IS with measures of ASD severity. PMID:20678246

  6. Dido mutations trigger perinatal death and generate brain abnormalities and behavioral alterations in surviving adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Villares, Ricardo; Gutirrez, Julio; Ftterer, Agnes; Trachana, Varvara; Gutirrez del Burgo, Fernando; Martnez-A, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all vertebrate cells have a single cilium protruding from their surface. This threadlike organelle, once considered vestigial, is now seen as a pivotal element for detection of extracellular signals that trigger crucial morphogenetic pathways. We recently proposed a role for Dido3, the main product of the death inducer-obliterator (dido) gene, in histone deacetylase 6 delivery to the primary cilium [Snchez de Diego A, et al. (2014) Nat Commun 5:3500]. Here we used mice that express truncated forms of Dido proteins to determine the link with cilium-associated disorders. We describe dido mutant mice with high incidence of perinatal lethality and distinct neurodevelopmental, morphogenetic, and metabolic alterations. The anatomical abnormalities were related to brain and orofacial development, consistent with the known roles of primary cilia in brain patterning, hydrocephalus incidence, and cleft palate. Mutant mice that reached adulthood showed reduced life expectancy, brain malformations including hippocampus hypoplasia and agenesis of corpus callosum, as well as neuromuscular and behavioral alterations. These mice can be considered a model for the study of ciliopathies and provide information for assessing diagnosis and therapy of genetic disorders linked to the deregulation of primary cilia. PMID:25825751

  7. hPSC-derived maturing GABAergic interneurons ameliorate seizures and abnormal behavior in epileptic mice.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Miles; Cho, Jun-Hyeong; Leung, Amanda; Savvidis, George; Ahn, Sandra; Moon, Minho; Lee, Paula K J; Han, Jason J; Azimi, Nima; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Bolshakov, Vadim Y; Chung, Sangmi

    2014-11-01

    Seizure disorders debilitate more than 65,000,000 people worldwide, with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) being the most common form. Previous studies have shown that transplantation of GABA-releasing cells results in suppression of seizures in epileptic mice. Derivation of interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has been reported, pointing to clinical translation of quality-controlled human cell sources that can enhance inhibitory drive and restore host circuitry. In this study, we demonstrate that hPSC-derived maturing GABAergic interneurons (mGINs) migrate extensively and integrate into dysfunctional circuitry of the epileptic mouse brain. Using optogenetic approaches, we find that grafted mGINs generate inhibitory postsynaptic responses in host hippocampal neurons. Importantly, even before acquiring full electrophysiological maturation, grafted neurons were capable of suppressing seizures and ameliorating behavioral abnormalities such as cognitive deficits, aggressiveness, and hyperactivity. These results provide support for the potential of hPSC-derived mGIN for restorative cell therapy for epilepsy. PMID:25517465

  8. RATS EXPOSED TO ISOFLURANE IN UTERO DURING EARLY GESTATION ARE BEHAVIORALLY ABNORMAL AS ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Arvind; Baxter, Mark G.; Keel, Pamela K.; Xie, Zhongcong; Crosby, Gregory; Culley, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Preclinical evidence suggests that commonly used anesthetic agents induce long-lasting neurobehavioral changes when administered early in life but there has been virtually no attention to the neurodevelopmental consequences for the fetus of maternal anesthesia. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal rats exposed to isoflurane during maternal anesthesia on gestational day 14, which corresponds to the second trimester in humans, would be behaviorally abnormal as adults. Methods Timed, pregnant rats were randomly assigned on gestational day 14 to receive 1.4% isoflurane in 100% oxygen (N = 3) or 100 % oxygen (N = 2) for 4 h. Beginning at 8 weeks of age, male offspring were evaluated for spontaneous locomotor activity, hippocampal dependent learning and memory (spontaneous alternations, novel object recognition, and radial arm maze), and anxiety (elevated plus maze). Results Isoflurane anesthesia was physiologically well tolerated by the dams. Adult rats exposed prenatally to isoflurane were not different than controls on spontaneous locomotor activity, spontaneous alternations, or object recognition memory but made more open arm entries on the elevated plus maze and took longer and made more errors of omission on the radial arm maze. Conclusions Rats exposed to isoflurane in utero at a time that corresponds to the second trimester in humans have impaired spatial memory acquisition and, reduced anxiety compared to controls. This suggests the fetal brain may be adversely affected by maternal anesthesia and raises the possibility that vulnerability to deleterious neurodevelopmental effects of isoflurane begins much earlier in life than previously recognized. PMID:21307768

  9. Human PSC-derived maturing GABAergic interneurons ameliorate seizures and abnormal behavior in epileptic mice

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Miles; Cho, Jun-Hyeong; Leung, Amanda; Savvidis, George; Ahn, Sandra; Moon, Minho; Lee, Paula KJ; Han, Jason J.; Azimi, Nima; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.; Chung, Sangmi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Seizure disorders debilitate more than 65,000,000 people worldwide, with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) being the most common form. Previous studies have shown that transplantation of GABA-releasing cells results in suppression of seizures in epileptic mice. Derivation of interneurons from human PSC has been reported, pointing to clinical translation of quality-controlled human cell sources that can enhance inhibitory drive and restore host circuitry. In this study, we demonstrate that human PSC-derived maturing GABAergic interneurons (mGIN) migrate extensively and integrate into dysfunctional circuitry of the epileptic mouse brain. Using optogenetic approaches, we find that grafted mGINs generate inhibitory postsynaptic responses in host hippocampal neurons. Importantly, even before acquiring full electrophysiological maturation, grafted neurons were capable of suppressing seizures and ameliorating behavioral abnormalities such as cognitive deficits, aggressiveness and hyperactivity. These results provide support for the potential of human PSC-derived mGIN for restorative cell therapy for epilepsy. PMID:25517465

  10. Are Structural Brain Abnormalities Associated With Suicidal Behavior In Patients With Psychotic Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2014-01-01

    Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception. PMID:23866739

  11. Pyrene induces a reduction in midbrain size and abnormal swimming behavior in early-hatched pufferfish larvae.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Itoyama, Tatsuya; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Tosa, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2014-08-30

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) have an adverse effect on marine life. We have demonstrated previously that exposure to HO by fertilized eggs of the pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) induces neural disruption and behavioral abnormality in early-hatched larvae. Here, two kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrene and phenanthrene, were selected to examine their toxic effects on larval behavior of another pufferfish species (T. niphobles). Larvae exposed to pyrene or phenanthrene exhibited no abnormalities in morphology. However, those exposed to pyrene but not phenanthrene swam in an uncoordinated manner, although their swimming distance and speed were normal. The optic tectum, a part of the midbrain, of pyrene-exposed larvae did not grow to full size. Thus, these findings are indicated that pyrene might be a contributor to the behavioral and neuro-developmental toxicity, although there is no indication that it is the only compound participating in the toxicity of the heavy oil mixture. PMID:24793779

  12. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Katharine; Woodside, Blake; Lam, Eileen; Olmsted, Marion; Colton, Patricia; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional treatments for eating disorders are associated with poor response rates and frequent relapse. Novel treatments are needed, in combination with markers to characterize and predict treatment response. Here, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to identify predictors and correlates of response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) at 10 Hz for eating disorders with refractory binge/purge symptomatology. Methods 28 subjects with anorexia nervosa, binge−purge subtype or bulimia nervosa underwent 20–30 sessions of 10 Hz dmPFC rTMS. rs-fMRI data were collected before and after rTMS. Subjects were stratified into responder and nonresponder groups using a criterion of ≥50% reduction in weekly binge/purge frequency. Neural predictors and correlates of response were identified using seed-based functional connectivity (FC), using the dmPFC and adjacent dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as regions of interest. Results 16 of 28 subjects met response criteria. Treatment responders had lower baseline FC from dmPFC to lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right posterior insula, and from dACC to right posterior insula and hippocampus. Responders had low baseline FC from the dACC to the ventral striatum and anterior insula; this connectivity increased over treatment. However, in nonresponders, frontostriatal FC was high at baseline, and dmPFC-rTMS suppressed FC in association with symptomatic worsening. Conclusions Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating. PMID:26199873

  13. Serotonergic involvement in the amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in dopamine transporter knockout mice by nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Uchiumi, Osamu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Asami; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Sora, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems. First, we observed that the marked hyperactivity displayed by DAT KO mice was reduced by administration of nicotine. This nicotine effect was blocked by pretreatment with the non-specific nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist mecamylamine, or the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Secondly, we examined the effects of nicotine on PPI in DAT KO mice. Treatment with nicotine significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in DAT KO mice. The ameliorating action of nicotine on PPI deficits in DAT KO mice was blocked by mecamylamine, the ?7 nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or WAY100635, while the ?4?2 nACh receptor antagonist dihydro-?-erythroidinehydrobromide (DH?E) produced only a non-significant trend toward attenuation of nicotine effects. Finally, we observed that administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also ameliorated the deficit in PPI observed in DAT KO mice. This amelioration was antagonized by pretreatment with WAY100635. These data support the idea that nicotine might ameliorate some of the cognitive dysfunctions found in schizophrenia in a 5-HT1A-dependent fashion. PMID:22809709

  14. Behavioral abnormalities are common and severe in patients with distal 22q11.2 microdeletions and microduplications.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Valerie; McRae, Anne; Dineen, Richard; Saulsberry, Alexandria; Hoganson, George; Schrift, Michael

    2015-07-01

    We describe six individuals with microdeletions and microduplications in the distal 22q11.2 region detected by microarray. Five of the abnormalities have breakpoints in the low-copy repeats (LCR) in this region and one patient has an atypical rearrangement. Two of the six patients with abnormalities in the region between LCR22 D-E have hearing loss, which has previously been reported only once in association with these abnormalities. We especially note the behavioral/neuropsychiatric problems, including the severity and early onset, in patients with distal 22q11.2 rearrangements. Our patients add to the genotype-phenotype correlations which are still being generated for these chromosomal anomalies. PMID:26247050

  15. Behavioral abnormalities are common and severe in patients with distal 22q11.2 microdeletions and microduplications

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Valerie; McRae, Anne; Dineen, Richard; Saulsberry, Alexandria; Hoganson, George; Schrift, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We describe six individuals with microdeletions and microduplications in the distal 22q11.2 region detected by microarray. Five of the abnormalities have breakpoints in the low-copy repeats (LCR) in this region and one patient has an atypical rearrangement. Two of the six patients with abnormalities in the region between LCR22 D–E have hearing loss, which has previously been reported only once in association with these abnormalities. We especially note the behavioral/neuropsychiatric problems, including the severity and early onset, in patients with distal 22q11.2 rearrangements. Our patients add to the genotype–phenotype correlations which are still being generated for these chromosomal anomalies. PMID:26247050

  16. Abnormal Sexual Behavior During Sleep in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999

  17. Abnormal social behaviors and altered gene expression rates in a mouse model for Potocki-Lupski syndrome.

    PubMed

    Molina, Jessica; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Chrast, Jacqueline; Krall, Paola M; Canales, César P; Lupski, James R; Reymond, Alexandre; Walz, Katherina

    2008-08-15

    The Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) is associated with a microduplication of 17p11.2. Clinical features include multiple congenital and neurobehavioral abnormalities and autistic features. We have generated a PTLS mouse model, Dp(11)17/+, that recapitulates some of the physical and neurobehavioral phenotypes present in patients. Here, we investigated the social behavior and gene expression pattern of this mouse model in a pure C57BL/6-Tyr(c-Brd) genetic background. Dp(11)17/+ male mice displayed normal home-cage behavior but increased anxiety and increased dominant behavior in specific tests. A subtle impairment in the preference for a social target versus an inanimate target and abnormal preference for social novelty (the preference to explore an unfamiliar mouse versus a familiar one) was also observed. Our results indicate that these animals could provide a valuable model to identify the specific gene(s) that confer abnormal social behaviors and that map within this delimited genomic deletion interval. In a first attempt to identify candidate genes and for elucidating the mechanisms of regulation of these important phenotypes, we directly assessed the relative transcription of genes within and around this genomic interval. In this mouse model, we found that candidates genes include not only most of the duplicated genes, but also normal-copy genes that flank the engineered interval; both categories of genes showed altered expression levels in the hippocampus of Dp(11)17/+ mice. PMID:18469339

  18. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-01-01

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV−/−) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV+/−) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV−/− and PV+/− mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a common link between apparently unrelated ASD-associated synapse structure/function phenotypes. PMID:25756808

  19. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-01-01

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV(-/-)) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV(+/-)) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV(-/-) and PV(+/-) mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a common link between apparently unrelated ASD-associated synapse structure/function phenotypes. PMID:25756808

  20. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

  1. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about

  2. Familial Associations of Intense Preoccupations, an Empirical Factor of the Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors and Interests Domain of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Lang, Colleen M.; Kryzak, Lauren; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hollander, Eric; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinical heterogeneity of autism likely hinders efforts to find genes associated with this complex psychiatric disorder. Some studies have produced promising results by restricting the sample according to the expression of specific familial factors or components of autism. Previous factor analyses of the restricted, repetitive

  3. Neural Basis of Repetition Priming during Mathematical Cognition: Repetition Suppression or Repetition Enhancement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Chang, Catie; Menon, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of repetition priming (RP) during mathematical cognition. Previous studies of RP have focused on repetition suppression as the basis of behavioral facilitation, primarily using word and object identification and classification tasks. More recently, researchers have suggested associative stimulus-response learning…

  4. Neural Basis of Repetition Priming during Mathematical Cognition: Repetition Suppression or Repetition Enhancement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Chang, Catie; Menon, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of repetition priming (RP) during mathematical cognition. Previous studies of RP have focused on repetition suppression as the basis of behavioral facilitation, primarily using word and object identification and classification tasks. More recently, researchers have suggested associative stimulus-response learning

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder as Early Neurodevelopmental Disorder: Evidence from the Brain Imaging Abnormalities in 2-3Years Old Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships

  6. Tau deposition drives neuropathological, inflammatory and behavioral abnormalities independently of neuronal loss in a novel mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Casey; Kang, Silvia S.; Carlomagno, Yari; Lin, Wen-Lang; Yue, Mei; Kurti, Aishe; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Jansen-West, Karen; Perkerson, Emilie; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Rousseau, Linda; Phillips, Virginia; Bu, Guojun; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Fryer, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant tau protein accumulation drives neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation in several neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, efforts to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and assess the efficacy of therapeutic targets are limited by constraints of existing models of tauopathy. In order to generate a more versatile mouse model of tauopathy, somatic brain transgenesis was utilized to deliver adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) encoding human mutant P301L-tau compared with GFP control. At 6 months of age, we observed widespread human tau expression with concomitant accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and abnormally folded proteinase K resistant tau. However, no overt neuronal loss was observed, though significant abnormalities were noted in the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD95. Neurofibrillary pathology was also detected with Gallyas silver stain and Thioflavin-S, and electron microscopy revealed the deposition of closely packed filaments. In addition to classic markers of tauopathy, significant neuroinflammation and extensive gliosis were detected in AAV1-TauP301L mice. This model also recapitulates the behavioral phenotype characteristic of mouse models of tauopathy, including abnormalities in exploration, anxiety, and learning and memory. These findings indicate that biochemical and neuropathological hallmarks of tauopathies are accurately conserved and are independent of cell death in this novel AAV-based model of tauopathy, which offers exceptional versatility and speed in comparison with existing transgenic models. Therefore, we anticipate this approach will facilitate the identification and validation of genetic modifiers of disease, as well as accelerate preclinical assessment of potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26276810

  7. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Nobuhiko; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Kawaguchi, Akiko; Sato, Junko; Kasai, Harumasa; Nakamae, Takashi; Narumoto, Jin; Miyata, Jun; Furukawa, Toshi A; Mimura, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT) modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24) and nonresponders (n=15) to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion These results suggest that the brain structures in several areas, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cingulate bundles, are related to the lack of a response to BT in patients with OCD. The use of a voxel-based morphometry approach may be advantageous to understanding differences in brain abnormalities between responders and nonresponders to BT. PMID:25349476

  8. Autism at the beginning: microstructural and growth abnormalities underlying the cognitive and behavioral phenotype of autism.

    PubMed

    Courchesne, Eric; Redcay, Elizabeth; Morgan, John T; Kennedy, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    Autistic symptoms begin in the first years of life, and recent magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered brain growth abnormalities that precede and overlap with the onset of these symptoms. Recent postmortem studies of the autistic brain provide evidence of cellular abnormalities and processes that may underlie the recently discovered early brain overgrowth and arrest of growth that marks the first years of life in autism. Alternative origins and time tables for these cellular defects and processes are discussed. These cellular and growth abnormalities are most pronounced in frontal, cerebellar, and temporal structures that normally mediate the development of those same higher order social, emotional, speech, language, speech, attention, and cognitive functions that characterize autism. Cellular and growth pathologies are milder and perhaps nonexistent in other structures (e.g., occipital cortex), which are known to mediate functions that are often either mildly affected or entirely unaffected in autistic patients. It is argued that in autism, higher order functions largely fail to develop normally in the first place because frontal, cerebellar, and temporal cellular and growth pathologies occur prior to and during the critical period when these higher order neural systems first begin to form their circuitry. It is hypothesized that microstructural maldevelopment results in local and short distance overconnectivity in frontal cortex that is largely ineffective and in a failure of long-distance cortical-cortical coupling, and thus a reduction in frontal-posterior reciprocal connectivity. This altered circuitry impairs the essential role of frontal cortex in integrating information from diverse functional systems (emotional, sensory, autonomic, memory, etc.) and providing context-based and goal-directed feedback to lower level systems. PMID:16262983

  9. 76 FR 22925 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Abnormal Behavior Detection Finds Malicious Actors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... card. Fraud detection algorithms (based on user behavior models) and procedures immediately set off... unusual behavior on the part of authorized users. The fraud detection algorithms use the financial... sets of values to be analyzed with well understood algorithms. For example, credit card purchases...

  10. Repetition reduction: Lexical repetition in the absence of referent repetition

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tuan Q.; Watson, Duane G.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated words are produced with reduced acoustic prominence compared to words that are new to a discourse. Although these effects are often attributed to priming in the production system, the locus of the effect within the production system remains unresolved because in natural speech, repetition often involves repetition of referents and lexical items simultaneously. Therefore, repetition reduction could be due to repeated mention of a referent, or repetition of a word or referring expression. In our study, we test whether repetition reduction is due to repetition of lexical items or repeated mention of referents using an event description task. The results show that repeated lexical items lead to reduced duration and intensity even in the absence of referent repetition whereas repeated referents lead to reduced intensity alone. The general pattern suggests that repetition reduction is due most strongly to repetition of the lexical item, rather than repeated mention of the referent. PMID:24548320

  11. Abnormal Social Behavior in Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor β4 Subunit–Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco addiction has a strong social component. Therefore, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) may influence social behavior. Because the β4 nicotinic receptor subunit is important for possibly related behaviors, such as anxiety-like behavior and the effects of nicotine, we studied the social behavior of mice null for the β4 nAChR subunit. Methods: To measure social behavior, we used the intruder test for social memory in wild-type and littermate β4 null mice. In addition, we used a nonsocial olfactory memory test as a control. Results: In the intruder test, β4 null mice showed social amnesia: Wild-type mice spent less time actively interacting with a younger intruder on Day 2 than on Day 1, but β4 null mice interacted for a similar time on both days. In the nonsocial olfactory memory test, control littermates and β4 null mice learnt the associations to a similar extent, showing that the amnesic phenotype in the intruder test is specific for social settings. Conclusions: We conclude that nAChRs that contain the β4 subunit are important for social behaviors. As those receptors are necessary to observe several effects of nicotine including withdrawal, it is tempting to speculate that the social component of tobacco use is related to the same neuronal circuits responsible for continuing tobacco use in smokers. PMID:23042983

  12. Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Nurmuhammat; Hoxur, Parida; Ming, Dang; Matsidik, Aynur; Kijjoa, Anake; Upur, Halmurat

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and ?-endorphin (?-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems. PMID:22919413

  13. Abnormal relationship between GABA, neurophysiology and impulsive behavior in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria J; Violante, Ins R; Bernardino, Ins; Edden, Richard A E; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and region dependent manner. PMID:25437375

  14. Abnormal relationship between GABA, neurophysiology and impulsive behavior in neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria J.; Violante, Ins R.; Bernardino, Ins; Edden, Richard A.E.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and region dependent manner. PMID:25437375

  15. The aggression and behavioral abnormalities associated with monoamine oxidase A deficiency are rescued by acute inhibition of serotonin reuptake

    PubMed Central

    Godar, Sean C.; Bortolato, Marco; Castelli, M. Paola; Casti, Alberto; Casu, Angelo; Chen, Kevin; Ennas, M. Grazia; Tambaro, Simone; Shih, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    The termination of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurotransmission is regulated by its uptake by the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), as well as its degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A. MAO-A deficiency results in a wide set of behavioral alterations, including perseverative behaviors and social deficits. These anomalies are likely related to 5-HTergic homeostatic imbalances; however, the role of 5-HTT in these abnormalities remains unclear. To ascertain the role of 5-HTT in the behavioral anomalies associated to MAO-A deficiency, we tested the behavioral effects of its blocker fluoxetine on perseverative, social and aggressive behaviors in transgenic animals with hypomorphic or null-allele MAO-A mutations. Acute treatment with 5-HTT blocker fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced aggressive behavior in MAO-A knockout (KO) mice and social deficits in hypomorphic MAO-ANeo mice. Furthermore, this treatment also reduced perseverative responses (including marble burying and water mist-induced grooming) in both MAO-A mutant genotypes. Both MAO-A mutant lines displayed significant reductions in 5-HTT expression across the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and striatum, as quantified by immunohistochemical detection; however, the down-regulation of 5-HTT in MAO-ANeo mice was more pervasive and widespread than in their KO counterparts, possibly indicating a greater ability of the hypomorphic line to enact compensatory mechanisms with respect to 5-HT homeostasis. Collectively, these findings suggest that the behavioral deficits associated with low MAO-A activity may reflect developmental alterations of 5-HTT within 5-HTergic neurons. Furthermore, the translational implications of our results highlight 5-HT reuptake inhibition as an interesting approach for the control of aggressive outbursts in MAO-A deficient individuals. PMID:24882701

  16. A prospective cohort study of childhood behavioral deviance and language abnormalities as predictors of adult schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bearden, C E; Rosso, I M; Hollister, J M; Sanchez, L E; Hadley, T; Cannon, T D

    2000-01-01

    Language and behavioral deviance in early childhood in preschizophrenia individuals suggests that the pathologic processes predisposing to schizophrenia are present from early in life. However, the etiologic antecedents of such impairments, and the degree to which they predict adult schizophrenia, have not been conclusively demonstrated. To address this, we examined language and behavioral predictors of adult psychiatric outcome in a population cohort (72 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 63 of their unaffected siblings, and 7,941 with no diagnosis) evaluated prospectively with behavioral examinations and a speech and language evaluation at 8 months, 4 years, and 7 years of age. Psychiatric outcome was ascertained via adult treatment contacts, and diagnoses were made by chart review according to DSM-IV criteria. Social maladjustment at age 7 was found to predict adult schizophrenia, and focal deviant behaviors (e.g., echolalia, meaningless laughter) at ages 4 and 7 were significantly associated with both schizophrenia and sibling status. Unintelligible speech at age 7 was a highly significant predictor of adult schizophrenia (odds ratio = 12.7), and poor expressive language ability predicted both schizophrenia and unaffected sibling outcome. Early behavioral and language dysfunction did not differentially characterize preschizophrenia subjects with a history of fetal hypoxia or an early age of first treatment contact. Given that unaffected siblings show similar signs of deviance, such problems may indicate genotypic susceptibility to the disorder, or shared environmental influences, or both. PMID:10885639

  17. LIN-41 inactivation leads to delayed centrosome elimination and abnormal chromosome behavior during female meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Rieko; Ashikawa, Tomoko; Nozaki, Yuka; Kitagawa, Daiju

    2016-03-01

    During oogenesis, two successive meiotic cell divisions occur without functional centrosomes because of the inactivation and subsequent elimination of maternal centrosomes during the diplotene stage of meiosis I. Despite being a conserved phenomenon in most metazoans, the means by which this centrosome behavior is controlled during female meiosis remain elusive. Here, we conducted a targeted RNAi screening in the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad to identify novel regulators of centrosome behavior during oogenesis. We screened 513 genes known to be essential for embryo production and directly visualized GFP-γ-tubulin to monitor centrosome behavior at all stages of oogenesis. In the screening, we found that RNAi-mediated inactivation of 33 genes delayed the elimination of GFP-γ-tubulin at centrosomes during oogenesis, whereas inactivation of nine genes accelerated the process. Depletion of the TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 led to a significant delay in centrosome elimination and to the separation and reactivation of centrosomes during oogenesis. Upon LIN-41 depletion, meiotic chromosomes were abnormally condensed and pulled toward one of the two spindle poles around late pachytene even though the spindle microtubules emanated from both centrosomes. Overall, our work provides new insights into the regulation of centrosome behavior to ensure critical meiotic events and the generation of intact oocytes. PMID:26764090

  18. Repetitive Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury Interacts with Post-Injury Foot Shock Stress to Worsen Social and Depression-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Klemenhagen, Kristen C.; O’Brien, Scott P.; Brody, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning) following brain injury (rcTBI). rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury. PMID:24058581

  19. Hypothesizing repetitive paraphilia behavior of a medication refractive Tourette's syndrome patient having rapid clinical attenuation with KB220Z-nutrigenomic amino-acid therapy (NAAT).

    PubMed

    Mclaughlin, Thomas; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Simpatico, Thomas; Giordano, John; Jones, Scot; Barh, Debmayla; Downs, William B; Waite, Roger L; Madigan, Margaret; Dushaj, Kristina; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R; Han, David; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-06-01

    Background and aims Many patients presenting multiple behaviors including drug and food abuse as well as other pathological repetitive unwanted activities such as gambling, self-mutilation and paraphilias may not be appropriately diagnosed. Here we present a case of a male presenting many of these seemingly diverse behaviors and finally diagnosed with reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) by his attending physician. Methods The use of the dopamine agonist, ropinirole after two weeks showed improvement in terms of sexual behavior but tolerance set in and was discontinued especially when an infraction occurred with the patient's insurance. In this article, we carefully explore the potential of ropinirole to downregulate dopamine receptors causing adenylate cyclase receptor supersensitivity and tolerance a feature of neurotransmitter cross-talk. Based on previous scientific evidence showing KB220Znutrigenomic amino-acid therapy (NAAT) to rapidly (post one-hour) activate dopaminergic pathways in both the pre-frontal cortex cingulate gyrus (relapse loci) and ventral tegmental area-caudate-accumbens-putamen (craving and emotion loci) the patient was prescribed NAAT. Results and discussion Within one week of utilization the repetitive paraphilia was eliminated. There were also a number of other positive effects such as enhanced focus that persisted even after the patient stopped using KB220Z suggesting neuroplasticity (e.g. altruistic thoughts). However, these observed profound benefits require more in-depth study, especially in a large cohort against a placebo. While this report focused on a rapid response rather than long-term benefits previously associated with NAAT, it is somewhat encouraging and longer term required follow-up and larger placebo controlled studies are warranted before any definitive conclusions could be gleaned from this case report. PMID:26165932

  20. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Ameliorates Anxiety-Like Behavior and Impaired Sensorimotor Gating in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-ning; Bai, Yuan-han; Chen, Yun-chun; Zhang, Rui-guo; Wang, Huai-hai; Zhang, Ya-hong; Gan, Jing-li; Peng, Zheng-wu; Tan, Qing-rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been employed for decades as a non-pharmacologic treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although a link has been suggested between PTSD and impaired sensorimotor gating (SG), studies assessing the effects of rTMS against PTSD or PTSD with impaired SG are scarce. Aim To assess the benefit of rTMS in a rat model of PTSD. Methods Using a modified single prolonged stress (SPS&S) rat model of PTSD, behavioral parameters were acquired using open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPMT), and prepulse inhibition trial (PPI), with or without 7 days of high frequency (10Hz) rTMS treatment of SPS&S rats. Results Anxiety-like behavior, impaired SG and increased plasma level of cortisol were observed in SPS&S animals after stress for a prolonged time. Interestingly, rTMS administered immediately after stress prevented those impairment. Conclusion Stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, increased plasma level of cortisol and impaired PPI occur after stress and high-frequency rTMS has the potential to ameliorate this behavior, suggesting that high frequency rTMS should be further evaluated for its use as a method for preventing PTSD. PMID:25659132

  1. 6q22.33 microdeletion in a family with intellectual disability, variable major anomalies, and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mackenroth, Luisa; Hackmann, Karl; Beyer, Anke; Schallner, Jens; Novotna, Barbara; Klink, Barbara; Schrck, Evelin; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2015-11-01

    Interstitial deletions on the long arm of chromosome six have been described for several regions including 6q16, 6q22.1, and 6q21q22.1, and with variable phenotypes such as intellectual disability/developmental delay, growth retardation, major and minor facial anomalies. However, an isolated microdeletion of the sub-band 6q22.33 has not been reported so far and thus, no information about the specific phenotype associated with such a copy number variant is available. Here, we define the clinical picture of an isolated 6q22.33 microdeletion based on the phenotype of six members of one family with loss of approximately 1?Mb in this region. Main clinical features include mild intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities as well as microcephaly, heart defect, and cleft lip and palate. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26334553

  2. Early life seizures in female rats lead to anxiety-related behavior and abnormal social behavior characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination.

    PubMed

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Ramos, Fabiane Ochai; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that male Wistar rats submitted to neonatal status epilepticus showed abnormal social behavior characterized by deficit in social discrimination and enhanced emotionality. Taking into account that early insult can produce different biological manifestations in a gender-dependent manner, we aimed to investigate the social behavior and anxiety-like behavior in female Wistar rats following early life seizures. Neonate female Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were subject to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and the control received saline. Behavioral tests started from 60 days postnatal and were carried out only during the diestrus phase of the reproductive cycle. In sociability test experimental animals exhibited reduced motivation for social encounter and deficit in social discrimination. In open field and the elevated plus maze, experimental animals showed enhanced emotionality with no changes in basal locomotor activity. The results showed that female rats submitted to neonatal status epipepticus showed impaired social behavior, characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination in addition to enhanced emotionality. PMID:25139483

  3. Behavioral abnormalities in APPSwe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD-like pathology: comparative analysis across multiple behavioral domains.

    PubMed

    Janus, Christopher; Flores, Abigail Y; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunction in cognitive and noncognitive domains with clinical diagnosis based on multiple neuropsychological tests. Here, we evaluated cognitive and noncognitive behaviors in 2 age cohorts (8 and 14 months at the start of the study) of APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice that model AD-like amyloidosis. We used a battery of tests that included fear-conditioned context and tone memories, swimming activity, and orientation to a proximal cue in a visible platform water maze test and burrowing and nest building activity. To compare the performance of mice across all tests, we used z-score normalization of data. The analyses revealed that the behavior of the transgenic mice was significantly compromised in cognitive as well as in noncognitive domains. Combining scores across multiple behavioral tests produced an integrated index characterizing the overall phenotypic abnormality in this model of AD-like amyloidosis. Assessing multiple behavioral domains provides a broader view of the breadth of impairments in multiple behavioral systems. Greater implementation of such approaches could enable reliable and clinically predictive evaluation of therapeutics in mouse models of amyloidosis. PMID:26089165

  4. Delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure abnormalities in youth with a family history of alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Megan M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high-risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH−). Methods Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH− = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH− youth. Results FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH− youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower reaction times on the delay discounting task. Conclusion Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing, and may act as an intrinsic risk-factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-risk youth. PMID:20586754

  5. Dietary glycemic index modulates the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Currais, A; Farrokhi, C; Dargusch, R; Goujon-Svrzic, M; Maher, P

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology, but very likely resulting from both genetic and environmental factors. There is good evidence for immune system dysregulation in individuals with ASD. However, the contribution of insults such as dietary factors that can also activate the immune system have not been explored in the context of ASD. In this paper, we show that the dietary glycemic index has a significant impact on the ASD phenotype. By using BTBR mice, an inbred strain that displays behavioral traits that reflect the diagnostic symptoms of human ASD, we found that the diet modulates plasma metabolites, neuroinflammation and brain markers of neurogenesis in a manner that is highly reflective of ASD in humans. Overall, the manuscript supports the idea that ASD results from gene-environment interactions and that in the presence of a genetic predisposition to ASD, diet can make a large difference in the expression of the condition. PMID:26055422

  6. Melancholic-Like Behaviors and Circadian Neurobiological Abnormalities in Melatonin MT1 Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Comai, Stefano; Ochoa-Sanchez, Rafael; Dominguez-Lopez, Sergio; Bambico, Francis Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melancholic depression, described also as endogenous depression, is a mood disorder with distinctive specific psychopathological features and biological homogeneity, including anhedonia, circadian variation of mood, psychomotor activation, weight loss, diurnal cortisol changes, and sleep disturbances. Although several hypotheses have been proposed, the etiology of this disorder is still unknown. Methods: Behavioral, electrophysiological and biochemical approaches were used to characterize the emotional phenotype, serotonergic and noradrenergic electrical activity, and corticosterone in melatonin MT1 receptor knockout mice and their wild type counterparts, during both light and dark phases. Results: Melatonin MT1 receptor knockout mice have decreased mobility in the forced swim and tail suspension tests as well as decreased sucrose consumption, mostly during the dark/inactive phase. These mood variations are reversed by chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine. In addition, MT1 receptor knockout mice exhibit psychomotor disturbances, higher serum levels of corticosterone the dark phase, and a blunted circadian variation of corticosterone levels. In vivo electrophysiological recordings show a decreased burst-firing activity of locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons during the dark phase. The circadian physiological variation in the spontaneous firing activity of high-firing neuronal subpopulations of both norepinephrine neurons and dorsal raphe serotonin neurons are abolished in MT1 knockout mice. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that melatonin MT1 receptor knockout mice recapitulate several behavioral and neurobiological circadian changes of human melancholic depression and, for the first time, suggest that the MT1 receptor may be implicated in the pathogenesis of melancholic depression and is a potential pharmacological target for this mental condition. PMID:25638817

  7. Consequences of long-term treatment with agomelatine on depressive-like behavior and neurobiological abnormalities in pinealectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Nenchovska, Zlatina; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Atanasova, Milena; Kortenska, Lidia; Stefanova, Miroslava; Alova, Liana; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Previous data have shown that the rat model of melatonin deficit can cause a number of neurobiological aberrations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the antidepressant drug agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatoninergic receptor agonist/5-HT2C receptor antagonist is able to prevent some of the behavioral, biochemical and cellular abnormalities induced by pinealectomy. The injection of agomelatine (40mg/kg, i.p. for 5 weeks)/vehicle started after pinealectomy/sham procedure in Wistar rats. Animals were tested in different behavioral tests for anxiety and depression during the period of agomelatine treatment (chronic effect) and two months later (plastic effect). The effect of agomelatine on KCl-evoked serotonin (5-HT) release from the hippocampus, the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuronal loss in pinealectomized rats were assessed. Our results showed that agomelatine not only did not prevent the disturbed emotional arousal/anxiety behavior in pinealectomized rats during the treatment but the enhanced motor activity and decreased anxiety state was still observed two months after the discontinuation of treatment. However, the drug corrected a depressive-like behavior (chronic and plastic effect), alleviated the enhanced KCl-evoked 5-HT release in the hippocampus, recovered the suppressed negative feedback inhibition of HPA axis and exerted a neuroprotection in pinealectomized rats. Our findings suggest that pinealectomy can model melancholic depression disorder while the antidepressant action of agomelatine is associated with a correction of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, dysregulated HPA system and neuroprotection in limbic structures. PMID:26779670

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder as Early Neurodevelopmental Disorder: Evidence from the Brain Imaging Abnormalities in 2-3 Years Old Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships…

  9. High Fat Diet Produces Brain Insulin Resistance, Synaptodendritic Abnormalities and Altered Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Steven E.; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R.; Carlson, Gregory C.; Browne, Carolyn A.; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F.; Kim, Sangwon F.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17 days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8 weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3? with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS616), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors. PMID:24686304

  10. Epilepsy, Behavioral Abnormalities, and Physiological Comorbidities in Syntaxin-Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1) Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Grone, Brian P.; Marchese, Maria; Hamling, Kyla R.; Kumar, Maneesh G.; Krasniak, Christopher S.; Sicca, Federico; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Patel, Manisha; Baraban, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the synaptic machinery gene syntaxin-binding protein 1, STXBP1 (also known as MUNC18-1), are linked to childhood epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Zebrafish STXBP1 homologs (stxbp1a and stxbp1b) have highly conserved sequence and are prominently expressed in the larval zebrafish brain. To understand the functions of stxbp1a and stxbp1b, we generated loss-of-function mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and studied brain electrical activity, behavior, development, heart physiology, metabolism, and survival in larval zebrafish. Homozygous stxbp1a mutants exhibited a profound lack of movement, low electrical brain activity, low heart rate, decreased glucose and mitochondrial metabolism, and early fatality compared to controls. On the other hand, homozygous stxbp1b mutants had spontaneous electrographic seizures, and reduced locomotor activity response to a movement-inducing “dark-flash” visual stimulus, despite showing normal metabolism, heart rate, survival, and baseline locomotor activity. Our findings in these newly generated mutant lines of zebrafish suggest that zebrafish recapitulate clinical phenotypes associated with human syntaxin-binding protein 1 mutations. PMID:26963117

  11. Epilepsy, Behavioral Abnormalities, and Physiological Comorbidities in Syntaxin-Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1) Mutant Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Grone, Brian P; Marchese, Maria; Hamling, Kyla R; Kumar, Maneesh G; Krasniak, Christopher S; Sicca, Federico; Santorelli, Filippo M; Patel, Manisha; Baraban, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the synaptic machinery gene syntaxin-binding protein 1, STXBP1 (also known as MUNC18-1), are linked to childhood epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Zebrafish STXBP1 homologs (stxbp1a and stxbp1b) have highly conserved sequence and are prominently expressed in the larval zebrafish brain. To understand the functions of stxbp1a and stxbp1b, we generated loss-of-function mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and studied brain electrical activity, behavior, development, heart physiology, metabolism, and survival in larval zebrafish. Homozygous stxbp1a mutants exhibited a profound lack of movement, low electrical brain activity, low heart rate, decreased glucose and mitochondrial metabolism, and early fatality compared to controls. On the other hand, homozygous stxbp1b mutants had spontaneous electrographic seizures, and reduced locomotor activity response to a movement-inducing "dark-flash" visual stimulus, despite showing normal metabolism, heart rate, survival, and baseline locomotor activity. Our findings in these newly generated mutant lines of zebrafish suggest that zebrafish recapitulate clinical phenotypes associated with human syntaxin-binding protein 1 mutations. PMID:26963117

  12. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function.

    PubMed

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert; Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert; Liebisch, Gerhard; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Langmann, Thomas

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase(-/-) mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase(-/-) mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase(-/-) mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. PMID:26129774

  13. Behavioral, Pharmacological, and Immunological Abnormalities after Streptococcal Exposure: A Novel Rat Model of Sydenham Chorea and Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brimberg, Lior; Benhar, Itai; Mascaro-Blanco, Adita; Alvarez, Kathy; Lotan, Dafna; Winter, Christine; Klein, Julia; Moses, Allon E; Somnier, Finn E; Leckman, James F; Swedo, Susan E; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Joel, Daphna

    2012-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and autoimmunity are associated with the onset of a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders in children, with the prototypical disorder being Sydenham chorea (SC). Our aim was to develop an animal model that resembled the behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities of SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Male Lewis rats exposed to GAS antigen exhibited motor symptoms (impaired food manipulation and beam walking) and compulsive behavior (increased induced-grooming). These symptoms were alleviated by the D2 blocker haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, respectively, drugs that are used to treat motor symptoms and compulsions in streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Streptococcal exposure resulted in antibody deposition in the striatum, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and concomitant alterations in dopamine and glutamate levels in cortex and basal ganglia, consistent with the known pathophysiology of SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Autoantibodies (IgG) of GAS rats reacted with tubulin and caused elevated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling in SK-N-SH neuronal cells, as previously found with sera from SC and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Our new animal model translates directly to human disease and led us to discover autoantibodies targeted against dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the rat model as well as in SC and other streptococcal-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22534626

  14. Risperidone Administered During Asymptomatic Period of Adolescence Prevents the Emergence of Brain Structural Pathology and Behavioral Abnormalities in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Piontkewitz, Yael; Arad, Michal; Weiner, Ina

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of a neurodevelopmental origin manifested symptomatically after puberty. Structural neuroimaging studies show that neuroanatomical aberrations precede onset of symptoms, raising a question of whether schizophrenia can be prevented. Early treatment with atypical antipsychotics may reduce the risk of transition to psychosis, but it remains unknown whether neuroanatomical abnormalities can be prevented. We have recently shown, using in vivo structural magnetic resonance imaging, that treatment with the atypical antipsychotic clozapine during an asymptomatic period of adolescence prevents the emergence of schizophrenia-like brain structural abnormalities in adult rats exposed to prenatal immune challenge, in parallel to preventing behavioral abnormalities. Here we assessed the preventive efficacy of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone (RIS). Pregnant rats were injected on gestational day 15 with the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) or saline. Their male offspring received daily RIS (0.045 or 1.2 mg/kg) or vehicle injection in peri-adolescence (postnatal days [PND] 34–47). Structural brain changes and behavior were assessed at adulthood (from PND 90). Adult offspring of poly I:C–treated dams exhibited hallmark structural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia, enlarged lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampus. Both of these abnormalities were absent in the offspring of poly I:C dams that received RIS at peri-adolescence. This was paralleled by prevention of schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities, attentional deficit, and hypersensitivity to amphetamine in these offspring. We conclude that pharmacological intervention during peri-adolescence can prevent the emergence of behavioral abnormalities and brain structural pathology resulting from in utero insult. Furthermore, highly selective 5HT2A receptor antagonists may be promising targets for psychosis prevention. PMID:20439320

  15. Aberrant IgG isotype generation in mice with abnormal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Nam; Jo, Gwang-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice were recently cited as a suitable animal model for the study of autism because of their behavioral characteristics and immunological changes similar to those reported from autistic subjects. The BTBR mouse was reported to have significantly higher levels of serum IgG, brain IgG deposits and anti-brain IgG than highly social C57BL/6 mice, suggesting involvement of aberrant immune responses in the occurrence of autism. Up-regulation of IgG production was investigated here, with a focus on the pattern of IgG isotype distribution compared with that in FVB/NJ (FVB) mice, another highly social control strain. The results indicated that levels of serum IgG1, IgG2b and IgG3 in post-natal day 21 BTBR mice was significantly higher than FVB mice, regardless of sex, resulting in higher IgG1:IgG2a ratios in BTBR mice than in FVB mice (statistical significance in males). A similar outcome regarding the IgG1:IgG2a ratio was observed in culture supernatants of bone marrow cells from these hosts. A presence of brain-reactive IgG in the sera of BTBR was higher than in FVB mice; levels of brain-reactive IgG against whole brain homogenates were higher in BTBR than in FVB mice, with significant differences seen in the striatum and substantia nigra regions. Levels of IgG1 deposited in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus or striatum of both BTBR male and female mice were significantly higher than in FVB counterparts. Overall, these results suggest that alterations in IgG isotype production or deposition in the brain could be implicated in the aberrant immune reactivities of BTBR mice. PMID:25691089

  16. Motor abnormalities as a putative endophenotype for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Gianluca; Pa?ca, Sergiu P.

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) represent a complex group of behaviorally defined conditions with core deficits in social communication and the presence of repetitive and restrictive behaviors. To date, neuropathological studies have failed to identify pathognomonic cellular features for ASDs and there remains a fundamental disconnection between the complex clinical aspects of ASDs and the underlying neurobiology. Although not listed among the core diagnostic domains of impairment in ASDs, motor abnormalities have been consistently reported across the spectrum. In this perspective article, we summarize the evidence that supports the use of motor abnormalities as a putative endophenotype for ASDs. We argue that because these motor abnormalities do not directly depend on social or linguistic development, they may serve as an early disease indicator. Furthermore, we propose that stratifying patients based on motor development could be useful not only as an outcome predictor and in identifying more specific treatments for different ASDs categories, but also in exposing neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:23781177

  17. Gestational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Reciprocal Social, Repetitive, and Stereotypic Behaviors in 4- and 5-Year-Old Children: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Just, Allan C.; Yolton, Kimberly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sjdin, Andreas; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Glenys M.; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, but identifying relevant chemicals within mixtures of EDCs is difficult. Objective: Our goal was to identify gestational EDC exposures associated with autistic behaviors. Methods: We measured the concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 organochlorine pesticides, 8 brominated flame retardants, and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances in blood or urine samples from 175 pregnant women in the HOME (Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment) Study (Cincinnati, OH). When children were 4 and 5 years old, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic behaviors. We examined confounder-adjusted associations between 52 EDCs and SRS scores using a two-stage hierarchical analysis to account for repeated measures and confounding by correlated EDCs. Results: Most of the EDCs were associated with negligible absolute differences in SRS scores (? 1.5). Each 2-SD increase in serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether-28 (PBDE-28) (? = 2.5; 95% CI: 0.6, 5.6) or trans-nonachlor (? = 4.1; 95% CI: 0.87.3) was associated with more autistic behaviors. In contrast, fewer autistic behaviors were observed among children born to women with detectable versus nondetectable concentrations of PCB-178 (? = 3.0; 95% CI: 6.3, 0.2), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (? = 3.3; 95% CI: 6.1, 0.5), or PBDE-85 (? = 3.2; 95% CI: 5.9, 0.5). Increasing perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations were also associated with fewer autistic behaviors (? = 2.0; 95% CI: 4.4, 0.4). Conclusions: Some EDCs were associated with autistic behaviors in this cohort, but our modest sample size precludes us from dismissing chemicals with null associations. PFOA, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB-178, PBDE-28, PBDE-85, and trans-nonachlor deserve additional scrutiny as factors that may be associated with childhood autistic behaviors. Citation: Braun JM, Kalkbrenner AE, Just AC, Yolton K, Calafat AM, Sjdin A, Hauser R, Webster GM, Chen A, Lanphear BP. 2014. Gestational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and reciprocal social, repetitive, and stereotypic behaviors in 4- and 5-year-old children: the HOME Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:513520;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307261 PMID:24622245

  18. Repetition Reduction: Lexical Repetition in the Absence of Referent Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tuan Q.; Watson, Duane G.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to words that are new to a discourse, repeated words are produced with reduced acoustic prominence. Although these effects are often attributed to priming in the production system, the locus of the effect within the production system remains unresolved because, in natural speech, repetition often involves repetition of referents and

  19. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  20. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,

  1. Behavioral abnormalities in prion protein knockout mice and the potential relevance of PrPC for the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Matthias; Zafar, Saima; Silva, Christopher J; Zerr, Inga

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a highly conserved protein, which is anchored to the outer surface of the plasma membrane. Even though its physiological function has already been investigated in different cell or mouse models where PrPC expression is either upregulated or depleted, its exact physiological role in a mammalian organism remains elusive. Recent studies indicate that PrPC has multiple functions and is involved in cognition, learning, anxiety, locomotion, depression, offensive aggression and nest building behavior. While young animals (3 months of age) show only marginal abnormalities, most of the deficits become apparent as the animals age, which might indicate its role in neurodegeneration or neuroprotection. However, the exact biochemical mechanism and signal transduction pathways involving PrPC are only gradually becoming clearer. We report the observations made in different studies using different Prnp0/0 mouse models and propose that PrPC plays an important role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and associated proteins. In particular, we showed a nocodazole treatment influenced colocalization of PrPC and α tubulin 1. In addition, we confirmed the observed deficits in nest building using a different backcrossed Prnp0/0 mouse line. PMID:25517431

  2. Large scale hippocampal cellular distress may explain the behavioral consequences of repetitive traumatic experiences--a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Uys, Joachim D K; Hattingh, Suzl M; Stein, Dan J; Daniels, Willie M U

    2008-09-01

    Early life traumatic experiences are associated with psychopathology in adulthood. This may be due in part to the effects of trauma on hippocampal development and protein expression. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of early life trauma and adult re-stress on ventral hippocampal protein expression. Adolescent rats (n = 19) were subjected to a triple stressor on post-natal day 28 followed 7 days later by the first re-stress session and 25 days later (post-natal day 60 = adulthood) by the second re-stress session. Ventral hippocampi were collected on post-natal day 68 for protein expression determinations using protein arrays and 2D-gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to controls, traumatized animals showed an increase in Ca(2+) homeostatic proteins, dysregulated signaling pathways and energy metabolism enzymes, cytoskeletal protein changes, a decrease in neuroplasticity regulators, energy metabolism enzymes and an increase in apoptotic initiator proteins. These results indicate the extensive impact of trauma on adult brain development and behavior. PMID:18307038

  3. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  4. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates autism-like behavioral and motor abnormalities in pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Kenshi; Suemaru, Katsuya; Kiyoi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akihiro; Araki, Hiroaki

    2016-03-15

    Epilepsy is associated with several psychiatric disorders, including cognitive impairment, autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the psychopathology of epilepsy is frequently unrecognized and untreated in patients. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ABT-418, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled mice with behavioral and motor abnormalities. PTZ-kindled mice displayed impaired motor coordination (in the rotarod test), anxiety (in the elevated plus maze test) and social approach impairment (in the three-chamber social test) compared with control mice. ABT-418 treatment (0.05mg/kg, intraperitoneally) alleviated these behavioral abnormalities in PTZ-kindled mice. Immunolabeling of tissue sections demonstrated that expression of the α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in the medial habenula was similar in control and PTZ-kindled mice. However, expression was significantly decreased in the piriform cortex in PTZ-kindled mice. In addition, we examined the expression of the synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin 3 (NLG3). NLG3 expression in the piriform cortex was significantly higher in PTZ-kindled mice compared with control mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that ADHD-like or autistic-like behavioral abnormalities associated with epilepsy are closely related to the downregulation of the α4 nicotinic receptor and the upregulation of NLG3 in the piriform cortex. In summary, this study indicates that ABT-418 might have therapeutic potential for attentional impairment in epileptic patients with psychiatric disorders such as autism and ADHD. PMID:26868186

  5. The interaction of force and repetition on musculoskeletal and neural tissue responses and sensorimotor behavior in a rat model of work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship of musculoskeletal risk factors underlying force and repetition on tissue responses in an operant rat model of repetitive reaching and pulling, and if force x repetition interactions were present, indicative of a fatigue failure process. We examined exposure-dependent changes in biochemical, morphological and sensorimotor responses occurring with repeated performance of a handle-pulling task for 12 weeks at one of four repetition and force levels: 1) low repetition with low force, 2) high repetition with low force, 3) low repetition with high force, and 4) high repetition with high force (HRHF). Methods Rats underwent initial training for 4–6 weeks, and then performed one of the tasks for 12 weeks, 2 hours/day, 3 days/week. Reflexive grip strength and sensitivity to touch were assayed as functional outcomes. Flexor digitorum muscles and tendons, forelimb bones, and serum were assayed using ELISA for indicators of inflammation, tissue stress and repair, and bone turnover. Histomorphometry was used to assay macrophage infiltration of tissues, spinal cord substance P changes, and tissue adaptative or degradative changes. MicroCT was used to assay bones for changes in bone quality. Results Several force x repetition interactions were observed for: muscle IL-1alpha and bone IL-1beta; serum TNFalpha, IL-1alpha, and IL-1beta; muscle HSP72, a tissue stress and repair protein; histomorphological evidence of tendon and cartilage degradation; serum biomarkers of bone degradation (CTXI) and bone formation (osteocalcin); and morphological evidence of bone adaptation versus resorption. In most cases, performance of the HRHF task induced the greatest tissue degenerative changes, while performance of moderate level tasks induced bone adaptation and a suggestion of muscle adaptation. Both high force tasks induced median nerve macrophage infiltration, spinal cord sensitization (increased substance P), grip strength declines and forepaw mechanical allodynia by task week 12. Conclusions Although not consistent in all tissues, we found several significant interactions between the critical musculoskeletal risk factors of force and repetition, consistent with a fatigue failure process in musculoskeletal tissues. Prolonged performance of HRHF tasks exhibited significantly increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders, while performance of moderate level tasks exhibited adaptation to task demands. PMID:24156755

  6. Abnormal Eu behavior at formation of H2O- and Cl-bearing fluids during degassing of granite magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukanin, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    One of the important features of REE behavior in the process of decompression degassing of granite melts is the presence of europium anomalies in REE spectrum of forming fluid phase. Negative Eu anomaly in REE spectrum of fluids enriched by chlorine that were formed under high pressures at early stages of degassing relative to REE spectrum of granite melts may take place. Negative Eu anomaly in fluid is replaced by positive one with pressure decrease and decline of Cl concentration in fluid [1, 2]. Observable unique features of europium redistribution between fluid and melt find an explanation in such a fact that Eu in contrast to the other REE under oxidation-reduction conditions, being typical for magmatic process, is present in acidic silica-alumina melts in two valency forms Eu3+ and Eu2+ whereas the dominant form for the other REE in such a melts is (REE)3+ [3, 4]. From the analysis of melt-fluid exchange reactions with participation of two valency forms of europium Eu3+ and Eu2+ follows that the total distribution coefficient of Eu between fluid and melt D(Eu)f-m is equal as a first approximation to [5, 6]: D(Eu)f-m = a1? [C(Cl)f]3 + a2 (1 - ?)[C(Cl)f]2, where C(Cl)f - the concentration of Cl in fluid, ? = Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+), i.e. fraction of Eu3+ from the general amount of europium in the melt, and, a1anda2- constants that can be approximately estimated from empirical data upon Eu fluid/melt distribution. The equation given allows to estimate the influence of oxidizing condition of europium on sign and size of Eu anomaly, which is expressed by Eu/Eu# ratio, where Eu is real concentration of europium in fluid being in equilibrium with melt with constant Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+) ratio, and Eu# is possible "virtual" concentration of europium that could be in the same fluid provided that all europium as other REE as well were exclusively present in trivalent form. The sign and size of Eu anomaly in fluid depends upon Cl concentration in fluid and Eu3+/Eu2+ ratio in melt. The abnormal behavior of Eu shows itself the stronger, the lower fO2and, accordingly, the more fraction of Eu2+is present in melt. The work is supported of the Geosciences Department of the Russian Academy of Science (the program 2- 2010) and RFBR (grant 08-05-00022). References [1] Reed M.J., Candela Ph.A., Piccoli Ph.M. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 2000. V. 140. P. 251-262. [2] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Vestnik Otd. Nauk Zemle RAN, No 1(25)'2007 URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2007/informbul-1_2007/term-30e.pdf [3] Drake M.J. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 1975. V. 39. P. 55-64. [4] Wilke M. Behrens H. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 1999. V. 137. P. 102-114. [5] Lukanin O.A. Vestnik Otd. Nauk o Zemle RAN, No 1(26)'2008. URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2008/informbul-1_2008/magm-20e.pdf [6] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Geochemistry International, 2010 (in press)

  7. ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Grin1 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA1) gene expresses a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is considered to play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. Grin1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In our previous study, we examined an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-generated mutant mouse strain (Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+) that has a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1. These mutant mice showed hyperactivity, increased novelty-seeking to objects, and abnormal social interactions. Therefore, Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice may serve as a potential animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, other behavioral characteristics related to these disorders, such as working memory function and sensorimotor gating, have not been fully explored in these mutant mice. In this study, to further investigate the behavioral phenotypes of Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice, we subjected them to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. Results There was no significant difference in nociception between Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ and wild-type mice. The mutants did not display any abnormalities in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. We confirmed the previous observations that the locomotor activity of these mutant mice increased in the open field and home cage activity tests. They displayed abnormal anxiety-like behaviors in the light/dark transition and the elevated plus maze tests. Both contextual and cued fear memory were severely deficient in the fear conditioning test. The mutant mice exhibited slightly impaired working memory in the eight-arm radial maze test. The startle amplitude was markedly decreased in Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice, whereas no significant differences between genotypes were detected in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. The mutant mice showed no obvious deficits in social behaviors in three different social interaction tests. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mutation causes abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, a deficiency in fear memory, and a decreased startle amplitude in mice. Although Grin1Rgsc174/Grin1+ mice only partially recapitulate symptoms of patients with ADHD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, they may serve as a unique animal model of a certain subpopulation of patients with these disorders. PMID:23688147

  8. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  10. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and

  11. Roles of repetitive sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  12. Microduplications of 3p26.3p26.2 containing CRBN gene in patients with intellectual disability and behavior abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Papuc, Sorina M; Hackmann, Karl; Andrieux, Joris; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Budi?teanu, Magdalena; Arghir, Aurora; Schrock, Evelin; ?u?ulan-Cuni??, Andreea C; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2015-05-01

    We report on the clinical data and molecular cytogenetic findings in three unrelated patients presenting with intellectual disability and behavior abnormalities. An overlapping microduplication involving 3p26.2-26.3 was identified in these patients. All three aberrations were confirmed and proven to be parentally inherited. The sizes of the duplications were different, with a common minimal region of 423,754bp containing two genes - TRNT1 and CRBN. Here, we hypothesize that the copy number gain of CRBN gene might be responsible for developmental delay/intellectual disability. PMID:25858704

  13. Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these behavioral

  14. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kron, Miriam; Lang, Min; Adams, Ian T.; Sceniak, Michael; Longo, Frank; Katz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to behavioral arousal in symptomatic RTT mice. PMID:25147297

  15. Genetic damage and the expression of behavioral abnormalities in the progeny of male rats exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the possible genetic nature of behavioral anomalies, an identifiable genetic endpoint, inherited chromosome translocations in the offspring, was selected to evaluate the relationship to behavior. Young adult male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 50-300 rads of ionizing radiation. Two weeks following their irradiation, the males were mated with four virgin females for one week. During this time, fertilizing sperm were derived from post-meiotic spermatids, the stage of the spermatogenic cycle most sensitive to the mutagenic effects of radiation. Behavioral analyses of the resulting 390 offspring consisted of both motor reflex and motor coordination measurements as well as learning and retention parameters. Significant differences in performance were seen in several of the motor reflex measurements in progeny of males exposed to some of the higher doses of irradiation. A similar phenomenon was observed in the performance of a single learned behavior.

  16. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... teens, overuse injuries most often occur at growth plates (areas at the ends of bones where bone ... stress fractures. Stress fractures. Stress fractures are tiny cracks in the bone's surface caused by rhythmic, repetitive ...

  17. Repetition priming in music.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance (measured in events). Experiment 1 used variable-length melodies, whereas Experiments 2 and 3 used fixed-length melodies. Experiment 3 changed the timbre of the target tone. In all experiments, fast-responding participants produced repeated tones faster than nonrepeated tones, and this repetition benefit decreased as prime-target distances increased. All participants produced expected tonic endings faster than less expected nontonic endings. Repetition and tonal priming effects are compared with harmonic priming effects in music and with repetition priming effects in language. PMID:18505332

  18. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for

  19. Characterizing temporal repetition

    SciTech Connect

    Cukierman, D.; Delgrande, J.

    1996-12-31

    We are investigating the representation and reasoning about schedulable, repeated activities, specified using calendars. Examples of such activities include meeting every Tuesday and Thursday during a semester and attending a seminar every first day of a month. This research provides for a valuable framework for scheduling systems, financial systems and, in general, date-based systems. Very recently work has been done related to reasoning about repetition in the Artificial Intelligence community and others. A partial reference list is provided here. However, to our knowledge no extensive taxonomy of repetition has been proposed in the literature. We believe that reasoning about repeated activities calls for a study and precise definition of the topological characteristics in a repetitive series. In this abstract we summarize a proposal to classify types of repetition according to parameters. The combination of all possible values of these parameters provides a complete taxonomy of repetitive classes with respect to the proposed parameters. Several notions of repetition are considered, some are extremely general, some are very specific.

  20. Indirect decentralized repetitive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect decentralized learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the indirect repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized indirect repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.

  1. Chronic exposure to environmentally-relevant concentrations of fluoxetine (Prozac) decreases survival, increases abnormal behaviors, and delays predator escape responses in guppies.

    PubMed

    Pelli, Marco; Connaughton, Victoria P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the impact of fluoxetine, an antidepressant drug and common pollutant in aquatic environments, on growth, survival, and behavior in juvenile guppies and on predator escape responses in adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata). In juveniles, the effects of acute (4d) and chronic (35d) exposure on growth and survival were examined, and behavioral changes were noted throughout the chronic experiment. In adults, escape responses to a mock predator during chronic (28d) fluoxetine exposure were videotaped to determine the overall speed of response in treated vs. control fish. The effects of fish gender and the presence of a group/school on escape responses were also determined. Our results show that acute exposure to nominal concentrations of 0.03 and 0.5μg/L, levels within the environment, did not adversely impact juvenile guppy survival. However, chronic exposure significantly reduced weight, length, and belly width/girth measurements compared to controls. Chronic exposure also resulted in abnormal swimming behavior and reduced survival in juveniles. In adults, fluoxetine exposure significantly delayed predator escape responses in both males and females. Escape responses were also reduced when adults were tested either individually or in a group, with significantly more delayed responses seen in individually tested fish. Taken together, these findings suggest that fluoxetine can impact guppy populations, during both juvenile and adult stages, with chronic exposure resulting in decreased survival and growth and altered behavioral responses. PMID:26126230

  2. Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these behavioral…

  3. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane may not cause learning and memory deficits and behavioral abnormality in the childhood of Cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lisheng; Wang, Zhi; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Ting; Lu, Fudin; Wang, Shouping; Li, Jing; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2015-01-01

    Results of animal studies have raised a significant concern that commonly used general anesthetics may induce neurotoxicity in children. It may be difficult to resolve this concern with human studies because randomizing children only for testing anesthetic toxicity may not be feasible. We randomized 6-day old male Cynomolgus monkeys to receive or not to receive sevoflurane anesthesia at surgical plane for 5?h. Sevoflurane is the most commonly used general anesthetic in children in the U.S.A. Here, we showed that sevoflurane anesthesia did not affect the behavior evaluated by holding cage method when the monkeys were 3 and 7 months old. However, there was an age-dependent decrease in the frequency of stress events and environmental exploration behavior during the test. Sevoflurane also did not affect the learning and memory of the monkeys when they were assessed from the age of 7 months. Finally, sevoflurane did not affect the expression of multiple neuron-specific proteins in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-month old monkeys after all behavioral and cognitive tests were completed. These results suggest that exposure of neonatal monkey to sevoflurane may not affect cognition, behavior and neuronal structures in childhood, indicating the safety of sevoflurane anesthesia in children. PMID:26046459

  4. Abnormal functional behavior of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Hashimoto's disease patients. Immunomodulatory effects of cyclosporin A.

    PubMed

    Guillen, C; Prieto, A; Alvarez-Escola, C; Reyes, E; Diaz, D; San Antonio, E; De La Hera, A; Alvarez-Mon, M

    1999-02-01

    In vitro studies of activation and proliferation induced by mitogens in the presence of Cyclosporin A (CsA) and or cytokines were carried out to determine the effects of CsA and cytokines on mitogen activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from thirteen Hashimoto's disease patients (HP) and ten healthy controls. The proliferative response (PR) of PBMC from HP to mitogens at 7 days of culture was higher than in controls. Interleukin 2 (IL-2) addition significantly increased the PR in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated PBMC from HP, but not in controls. CsA inhibited in a dose dependent manner the PR, as well as the expression of activation antigens induced by mitogens in both groups of subjects, but PBMC from HP were sensitive to CsA at lower doses than those that were effective on PBMC from controls. Both IL-2 or IL-4 overcame the inhibitory effect of CsA on PBMC from HP and controls. Conversely, IL-10 or IFN-alpha addition increases the inhibitory effect of CsA on the PR of PBMC from both HP and controls. We conclude that PBMC from Hashimoto's disease patients shown an abnormal pattern of PR that is associated to increased PR to mitogens and higher sensitivity to immunomodulatory effects of IL-2 and CsA. PMID:10084328

  5. Behavioral Abnormalities and Circuit Defects in the Basal Ganglia of a Mouse Model of 16p11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Portmann, Thomas; Ellegood, Jacob; Dolen, Gul; Bader, Patrick L.; Grueter, Brad A.; Goold, Carleton; Fisher, Elaine; Clifford, Katherine; Rengarajan, Pavitra; Kalikhman, David; Loureiro, Darren; Saw, Nay L.; Zhengqui, Zhou; Miller, Michael A.; Lerch, Jason P.; Henkelman, Mark; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Malenka, Robert C.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A deletion on human chromosome 16p11.2 is associated with autism spectrum disorders. We deleted the syntenic region on mouse chromosome 7F3. MRI and high-throughput single-cell transcriptomics revealed anatomical and cellular abnormalities, particularly in cortex and striatum of juvenile mutant mice (16p11+/−). We found elevated numbers of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing the dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2+) and fewer dopamine-sensitive (Drd1+) neurons in deep layers of cortex. Electrophysiological recordings of Drd2+ MSN revealed synaptic defects, suggesting abnormal basal ganglia circuitry function in 16p11+/− mice. This is further supported by behavioral experiments showing hyperactivity, circling, and deficits in movement control. Strikingly, 16p11+/− mice showed a complete lack of habituation reminiscent of what is observed in some autistic individuals. Our findings unveil a fundamental role of genes affected by the 16p11.2 deletion in establishing the basal ganglia circuitry and provide insights in the pathophysiology of autism. PMID:24794428

  6. Comparative characterization of GPRC5B and GPRC5CLacZ knockin mice; behavioral abnormalities in GPRC5B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sano, Takamitsu; Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Oshima, Eriko; Shimizu, Chika; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Abe, Takaya; Higashi, Hideyoshi; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Hirabayashi, Yoshio

    2011-09-01

    Although GPRC5B and GPRC5C are categorized into the G protein-coupled receptor family C, including glutamate receptors, GABA receptors, and taste receptors, their physiological functions remain unknown. Since both receptors are expressed in the brain and evolutionarily conserved from fly to human, it is conceivable that they have significant biological roles particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). We generated GPRC5B- and GPRC5C-deficient mice to examine their roles in the CNS. Both homozygous mice were viable, fertile, and showed no apparent histological abnormalities, though GPRC5B-deficient mice resulted in partial perinatal lethality. We demonstrated that the expressions of GPRC5B and GPRC5C are developmentally regulated and differentially distributed in the brain. GPRC5B-deficient mice exhibited altered spontaneous activity pattern and decreased response to a new environment, while GPRC5C-deficient mice have no apparent behavioral deficits. Thus, GPRC5B has important roles for animal behavior controlled by the CNS. In contrast, GPRC5C does not affect behavior, though it has a high sequence similarity to GPRC5B. These findings suggest that family C, group 5 (GPRC5) receptors in mammals are functionally segregated from their common ancestor. PMID:21840300

  7. Hierarchical representation and machine learning from faulty jet engine behavioral examples to detect real time abnormal conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, U. K.; Ali, M.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical basis and operation of LEBEX, a machine-learning system for jet-engine performance monitoring, are described. The behavior of the engine is modeled in terms of four parameters (the rotational speeds of the high- and low-speed sections and the exhaust and combustion temperatures), and parameter variations indicating malfunction are transformed into structural representations involving instances and events. LEBEX extracts descriptors from a set of training data on normal and faulty engines, represents them hierarchically in a knowledge base, and uses them to diagnose and predict faults on a real-time basis. Diagrams of the system architecture and printouts of typical results are shown.

  8. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. PMID:26122892

  9. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

  10. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating

  11. Long-term recovery from hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical abnormalities induced by noise exposure during brain development. Evaluation of auditory pathway integrity.

    PubMed

    Uran, S L; Gmez-Casati, M E; Guelman, L R

    2014-10-01

    Sound is an important part of man's contact with the environment and has served as critical means for survival throughout his evolution. As a result of exposure to noise, physiological functions such as those involving structures of the auditory and non-auditory systems might be damaged. We have previously reported that noise-exposed developing rats elicited hippocampal-related histological, biochemical and behavioral changes. However, no data about the time lapse of these changes were reported. Moreover, measurements of auditory pathway function were not performed in exposed animals. Therefore, with the present work, we aim to test the onset and the persistence of the different extra-auditory abnormalities observed in noise-exposed rats and to evaluate auditory pathway integrity. Male Wistar rats of 15 days were exposed to moderate noise levels (95-97 dB SPL, 2 h a day) during one day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or during 15 days (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal biochemical determinations as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) behavioral assessments were performed. In addition, histological and functional evaluations of the auditory pathway were carried out in exposed animals. Our results show that hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical changes (impairments in habituation, recognition and associative memories as well as distortion of anxiety-related behavior, decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increases in antioxidant enzymes activities) induced by noise exposure were almost completely restored by PND 90. In addition, auditory evaluation shows that increased cochlear thresholds observed in exposed rats were re-established at PND 90, although with a remarkable supra-threshold amplitude reduction. These data suggest that noise-induced hippocampal and auditory-related alterations are mostly transient and that the effects of noise on the hippocampus might be, at least in part, mediated by the damage on the auditory pathway. However, we cannot exclude that a different mechanism might be responsible for the observed hippocampal-related changes. PMID:24911434

  12. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analysis of 220 fully sequenced porcine BACs generated by the Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative (http://www.nisc.nih.gov/) revealed 27 distinct, novel porcine repetitive elements ranging in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. This set of fully sequenced BACs covers approximately 1% of...

  13. Repetition through Successive Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littell, Katherine M.

    This study was conducted in an attempt to provide an alternative to the long-established method of tape listening and repetition drills, a method that has had disappointing results. It is suggested that the rate of speed of phonic presentation is not commensurate with the rate of comprehension. The proposed method seeks to prevent cognitive

  14. Repetition Priming in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance

  15. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and activated microglia in perivascular areas and brain parenchyma. Genetically resistant, chronically infected mice had substantially less inflammation. Conclusion In outbred mice, chronic, adult acquired T. gondii infection causes neurologic and behavioral abnormalities secondary to inflammation and loss of brain parenchyma. Perivascular inflammation is prominent particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus. Even resistant mice have perivascular inflammation. This mouse model of chronic T. gondii infection raises questions of whether persistence of this parasite in brain can cause inflammation or neurodegeneration in genetically susceptible hosts. PMID:18947414

  16. L-NAME cotreatment did prevent neither mitochondrial impairment nor behavioral abnormalities in adult Wistar rats treated with vitamin A supplementation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moreira, Jos Cludio Fonseca

    2012-08-01

    Vitamin A has been characterized as a potential neurotoxin, because ingestion of such vitamin - or its derivatives, the retinoids - at moderate to high doses elicits a myriad of deleterious effects, from acute intoxication involving head-ache, confusion, and 'pseudo tumor cerebri' to chronic, and perhaps irreversible, abnormalities, including irritability, anxiety, depression, and suicide ideation. Nevertheless, it still remains to be found the mechanism by which vitamin A induces cognitive decline. Based on the fact that vitamin A at clinical doses is a potent pro-oxidant agent to the central nervous system, we performed the present work to analyze whether a cotreatment with L-NAME at 30 mg/kg (four times a week) was able to prevent (or minimize) the biochemical and/or behavioral disturbances resulting from a 28-day daily supplementation with retinol palmitate at doses from 1000 to 9000 IU/kg/day. Then, we investigated mitochondrial function, redox parameters, and the levels of proteins potentially involved in neurodegenerative events, as for instance ?-synuclein and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts. Besides, monoamine oxidase enzyme activity was quantified in this work. We observed that L-NAME cotreatment was not completely effective in preventing the redox disturbances induced by vitamin A supplementation. Moreover, L-NAME cotreatment did not affect the behavioral deficits elicited by vitamin A supplementation. We conclude that other parameters rather than NO levels or its derivatives, as for example ONOO(-), take a more important role in mediating the negative effects triggered by vitamin A supplementation. PMID:21521362

  17. Deletion of densin-180 results in abnormal behaviors associated with mental illness and reduces mGluR5 and DISC1 in the postsynaptic density fraction

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Holly J.; Luong, Tinh N.; Medina-Marino, Andrew; Schenker, Leslie; Khorosheva, Eugenia; Indersmitten, Tim; Gunapala, Keith M.; Steele, Andrew D.; O'Dell, Thomas J.; Patterson, Paul H.; Kennedy, Mary B.

    2011-01-01

    Densin is an abundant scaffold protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that forms a high affinity complex with ?CaMKII and ?-actinin. To assess the function of densin, we created a mouse line with a null mutation in the gene encoding it (LRRC7). Homozygous knockout mice display a wide variety of abnormal behaviors that are often considered endophenotypes of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. At the cellular level, loss of densin results in reduced levels of ?-actinin in the brain and selective reduction in the localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction; whereas, the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors and other prominent PSD proteins are unchanged. In addition, deletion of densin results in impairment of mGluR- and NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD), alters the early dynamics of regulation of CaMKII by NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), and produces a change in spine morphology. These results indicate that densin influences the function of mGluRs and CaMKII at synapses, and contributes to localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction. They are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations that disrupt the organization and/or dynamics of postsynaptic signaling complexes in excitatory synapses can cause behavioral endophenotypes of mental illness. PMID:22072671

  18. The duplication 17p13.3 phenotype: analysis of 21 families delineates developmental, behavioral and brain abnormalities, and rare variant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Curry, Cynthia J; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Grant, Erica; Gripp, Karen W; Anderson, Carol; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Saad, Taha Ben; Chizhikov, Victor V; Dybose, Giedre; Fagerberg, Christina; Falco, Michelle; Fels, Christina; Fichera, Marco; Graakjaer, Jesper; Greco, Donatella; Hair, Jennifer; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Huggins, Marlene; Ladda, Roger; Li, Chumei; Moeschler, John; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J M; Ozmore, Jillian R; Reitano, Santina; Romano, Corrado; Roos, Laura; Schnur, Rhonda E; Sell, Susan; Suwannarat, Pim; Svaneby, Dea; Szybowska, Marta; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Tervo, Raymond; Tsai, Anne Chun-Hui; Tucker, Megan; Vallee, Stephanie; Wheeler, Ferrin C; Zand, Dina J; Barkovich, A James; Aradhya, Swaroop; Shaffer, Lisa G; Dobyns, William B

    2013-08-01

    Chromosome 17p13.3 is a gene rich region that when deleted is associated with the well-known Miller-Dieker syndrome. A recently described duplication syndrome involving this region has been associated with intellectual impairment, autism and occasional brain MRI abnormalities. We report 34 additional patients from 21 families to further delineate the clinical, neurological, behavioral, and brain imaging findings. We found a highly diverse phenotype with inter- and intrafamilial variability, especially in cognitive development. The most specific phenotype occurred in individuals with large duplications that include both the YWHAE and LIS1 genes. These patients had a relatively distinct facial phenotype and frequent structural brain abnormalities involving the corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis, and cranial base. Autism spectrum disorders were seen in a third of duplication probands, most commonly in those with duplications of YWHAE and flanking genes such as CRK. The typical neurobehavioral phenotype was usually seen in those with the larger duplications. We did not confirm the association of early overgrowth with involvement of YWHAE and CRK, or growth failure with duplications of LIS1. Older patients were often overweight. Three variant phenotypes included cleft lip/palate (CLP), split hand/foot with long bone deficiency (SHFLD), and a connective tissue phenotype resembling Marfan syndrome. The duplications in patients with clefts appear to disrupt ABR, while the SHFLD phenotype was associated with duplication of BHLHA9 as noted in two recent reports. The connective tissue phenotype did not have a convincing critical region. Our experience with this large cohort expands knowledge of this diverse duplication syndrome. PMID:23813913

  19. The effects of fear appeal message repetition on perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and behavioral intention in the extended parallel process model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingyuan Jolie; Smith, Sandi W

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of moderately repeated exposure (three times) to a fear appeal message on the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM) variables of threat, efficacy, and behavioral intentions for the recommended behaviors in the message, as well as the proportions of systematic and message-related thoughts generated after each message exposure. The results showed that after repeated exposure to a fear appeal message about preventing melanoma, perceived threat in terms of susceptibility and perceived efficacy in terms of response efficacy significantly increased. The behavioral intentions of all recommended behaviors did not change after repeated exposure to the message. However, after the second exposure the proportions of both systematic and all message-related thoughts (relative to total thoughts) significantly decreased while the proportion of heuristic thoughts significantly increased, and this pattern held after the third exposure. The findings demonstrated that the predictions in the EPPM are likely to be operative after three exposures to a persuasive message. PMID:26305152

  20. Neuroimaging, behavioral, and psychological sequelae of repetitive combined blast/impact mild traumatic brain injury in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Eric C; Cross, Donna J; Yarnykh, Vasily L; Richards, Todd; Martin, Nathalie M; Pagulayan, Kathleen; Hoff, David; Hart, Kim; Mayer, Cynthia; Tarabochia, Matthew; Raskind, Murray A; Minoshima, Satoshi; Peskind, Elaine R

    2014-03-01

    Abstract Whether persisting cognitive complaints and postconcussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with blast- and/or combined blast/impact-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are associated with enduring structural and/or functional brain abnormalities versus comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. We sought to characterize relationships among these variables in a convenience sample of Iraq and Afghanistan-deployed veterans with (n=34) and without (n=18) a history of one or more combined blast/impact-related mTBIs. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of fractional anisotropy (FA) and macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) to assess brain white matter (WM) integrity; [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu); structured clinical assessments of blast exposure, psychiatric diagnoses, and PTSD symptoms; neurologic evaluations; and self-report scales of PCS, combat exposure, depression, sleep quality, and alcohol use. Veterans with versus without blast/impact-mTBIs exhibited reduced FA in the corpus callosum; reduced MPF values in subgyral, longitudinal, and cortical/subcortical WM tracts and gray matter (GM)/WM border regions (with a possible threshold effect beginning at 20 blast-mTBIs); reduced CMRglu in parietal, somatosensory, and visual cortices; and higher scores on measures of PCS, PTSD, combat exposure, depression, sleep disturbance, and alcohol use. Neuroimaging metrics did not differ between participants with versus without PTSD. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with one or more blast-related mTBIs exhibit abnormalities of brain WM structural integrity and macromolecular organization and CMRglu that are not related to comorbid PTSD. These findings are congruent with recent neuropathological evidence of chronic brain injury in this cohort of veterans. PMID:24102309

  1. Neuroimaging, Behavioral, and Psychological Sequelae of Repetitive Combined Blast/Impact Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Donna J.; Yarnykh, Vasily L.; Richards, Todd; Martin, Nathalie M.; Pagulayan, Kathleen; Hoff, David; Hart, Kim; Mayer, Cynthia; Tarabochia, Matthew; Raskind, Murray A.; Minoshima, Satoshi; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Whether persisting cognitive complaints and postconcussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with blast- and/or combined blast/impact-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are associated with enduring structural and/or functional brain abnormalities versus comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. We sought to characterize relationships among these variables in a convenience sample of Iraq and Afghanistan-deployed veterans with (n=34) and without (n=18) a history of one or more combined blast/impact-related mTBIs. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of fractional anisotropy (FA) and macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) to assess brain white matter (WM) integrity; [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu); structured clinical assessments of blast exposure, psychiatric diagnoses, and PTSD symptoms; neurologic evaluations; and self-report scales of PCS, combat exposure, depression, sleep quality, and alcohol use. Veterans with versus without blast/impact-mTBIs exhibited reduced FA in the corpus callosum; reduced MPF values in subgyral, longitudinal, and cortical/subcortical WM tracts and gray matter (GM)/WM border regions (with a possible threshold effect beginning at 20 blast-mTBIs); reduced CMRglu in parietal, somatosensory, and visual cortices; and higher scores on measures of PCS, PTSD, combat exposure, depression, sleep disturbance, and alcohol use. Neuroimaging metrics did not differ between participants with versus without PTSD. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with one or more blast-related mTBIs exhibit abnormalities of brain WM structural integrity and macromolecular organization and CMRglu that are not related to comorbid PTSD. These findings are congruent with recent neuropathological evidence of chronic brain injury in this cohort of veterans. PMID:24102309

  2. Absence of CNTNAP2 leads to epilepsy, neuronal migration abnormalities and core autism-related deficits

    PubMed Central

    Peñagarikano, Olga; Abrahams, Brett S.; Herman, Edward I.; Winden, Kellen C.; Gdalyahu, Amos; Dong, Hongmei; Sonnenblick, Lisa I.; Gruver, Robin; Almajano, Joel; Bragin, Anatol; Golshani, Peyman; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.; Peles, Elior; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Although many genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been identified, the biological mechanism(s) remain unclear. Mouse models based on human disease-causing mutations provide the potential for understanding gene function and novel treatment development. Here we characterize a mouse knockout of the Cntnap2 gene, which is strongly associated with ASD and allied neurodevelopmental disorders. Cntnap2−/− mice show deficits in the three core ASD behavioral domains, as well as hyperactivity and epileptic seizures, as has been reported in humans with CNTNAP2 mutations. Neuropathological and physiological analyses of these mice before the onset of seizures reveal neuronal migration abnormalities, reduced number of interneurons and abnormal neuronal network activity. In addition, treatment with the FDA approved drug risperidone, ameliorates the targeted repetitive behaviors in the mutant mice. These data demonstrate a functional role for CNTNAP2 in brain development and provide a new tool for mechanistic and therapeutic research in ASD. PMID:21962519

  3. Constructive and Unconstructive Repetitive Thought

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive preparation and anticipatory planning, (c) recovery from depression, and (d) uptake of health-promoting behaviors. Several potential principles accounting for these distinct consequences of RT are identified within this review: (a) the valence of thought content, (b) the intrapersonal and situational context in which RT occurs, and (c) the level of construal (abstract vs. concrete processing) adopted during RT. Of the existing models of RT, it is proposed that an elaborated version of the control theory account provides the best theoretical framework to account for its distinct consequences. PMID:18298268

  4. Attentive, Affective, and Adaptive Behavior in the Cat: Sensory deprivation of the forebrain by lesions in the brain stem results in striking behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sprague, J M; Chambers, W W; Stellar, E

    1961-01-20

    Lesions of the lateral portion of the upper midbrain, involving medial, lateral, spinal, and trigeminal lemnisci primarily, result in a consistent syndrome of symptoms in the cat. (i) There is a marked sensory deficit, characterized mainly by sensory inattention and poor localization in the tactile, proprioceptive, auditory, gustatory, and nociceptive modalities, where direct pathways are interrupted. Similar defectsappear in vision and olfaction where no known direct or primary paths are interrupted. (ii) These cats are characterized by a lack of affect, showing little or no defensive and aggressive reaction to noxious and aversive situations and no response to pleasurable stimulation or solicitation of affection or petting. The animals are mute, lack facial expression, and show minimal autonomic responses. (iii) They show a hyperexploratory activity characterized by incessant, stereotyped wandering, sniffing, and visual searching, as though hallucinating. This behavior appears to be centrally directed and is very difficult to interrupt with environmental stimuli. (iv) They also demonstrate exaggerated oral activities: they snap in response to tactile stimulation of the lips, seizing and swallowing small objects even if inedible; they overeat; they hold objects too large to swallow (a mouse, a catnip ball) firmly clamped in the mouth for long periods of time; they mount and seize other animals (rat, cat, dog, monkey) by the back or the neck; they lick and chew the hair and skin of the back or tail incessantly when confined in a cage. In interpreting these results we emphasize the view that the syndrome is due chiefly to the extensive, specific, sensory deprivation produced by interruption of the lemnisci at the rostral midbrain. The relation of these findings to the effects of sensory isolation in man and animals, to the effects of midbrain lesions and neodecortication, to parietal lobe syndrome in primates, and to the behavior of autistic children is discussed. It is our belief, from these studies, that the symptoms produced by interruption of the lemnisci, characterized by a high degree of somatotopic and modality localization, are due to a loss of patterned sensory input to the forebrain, particularly to the neocortex and to the rostral midbrain. Without a patterned afferent input to the forebrain via the lemnisci, the remaining portions of the central nervous system, which include a virtually intact reticular formation, seem incapable of elaborating a large part of the animal's repertoire of adaptive behavior (45). PMID:17819594

  5. Association of DRD4 polymorphism with severity of oppositional defiant disorder, separation anxiety disorder and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Devincent, Carla J; Olvet, Doreen M; Pisarevskaya, Victoria; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to examine whether a common polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) might be a potential biomarker for behavioral variation within the autism spectrum disorder clinical phenotype. Children (N=66) were evaluated with a validated mother- and teacher-completed DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. Partial eta-squared (?p(2) ) was used to gauge the magnitude of group differences: 0.01-0.06=small, 0.06-0.14=moderate and >0.14=large. Children who were 7-repeat allele carriers had more severe oppositional defiant disorder behaviors according to mothers' (?p(2)=0.10) and teachers' (?p(2)=0.06) ratings than noncarriers, but the latter was marginally significant (P=0.07). Children who were 7-repeat allele carriers also obtained more severe maternal ratings of tics (?p(2)=0.07) and obsessions-compulsions (?p(2)=0.08). Findings for maternal ratings of separation anxiety were marginally significant (P=0.08, ?p(2) =0.05). Analyses of combined DRD4 and dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) genotypes approached significance (P=0.05) for teachers' ratings of oppositional behavior and mothers' ratings of tics. DRD4 allelic variation may be a prognostic biomarker for challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder, but these exploratory findings remain tentative pending replication with larger independent samples. PMID:20731709

  6. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Palsy: Caring for Your Child Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Computer-Related Repetitive Stress ... injuries and how to prevent them. About Repetitive Stress Injuries Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are conditions caused ...

  7. X-linked Christianson syndrome: heterozygous female Slc9a6 knockout mice develop mosaic neuropathological changes and related behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Jakub; Leddy, Jennifer; Gulinello, Maria; Walkley, Steven U

    2016-01-01

    Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental and neurological disorder characterized in males by core symptoms that include non-verbal status, intellectual disability, epilepsy, truncal ataxia, postnatal microcephaly and hyperkinesis. CS is caused by mutations in the SLC9A6 gene, which encodes a multipass transmembrane sodium (potassium)-hydrogen exchanger 6 (NHE6) protein, functional in early recycling endosomes. The extent and variability of the CS phenotype in female heterozygotes, who presumably express the wild-type and mutant SLC9A6 alleles mosaically as a result of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), have not yet been systematically characterized. Slc9a6 knockout mice (Slc9a6 KO) were generated by insertion of the bacterial lacZ/?-galactosidase (?-Gal) reporter into exon 6 of the X-linked gene. Mutant Slc9a6 KO male mice have been shown to develop late endosomal/lysosomal dysfunction associated with glycolipid accumulation in selected neuronal populations and patterned degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). In heterozygous female Slc9a6 KO mice, ?-Gal serves as a transcriptional/XCI reporter and thus facilitates testing of effects of mosaic expression of the mutant allele on penetrance of the abnormal phenotype. Using ?-Gal, we demonstrated mosaic expression of the mutant Slc9a6 allele and mosaically distributed lysosomal glycolipid accumulation and PC pathology in the brains of heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice. At the behavioral level, we showed that heterozygous female mice suffer from visuospatial memory and motor coordination deficits similar to but less severe than those observed in X-chromosome hemizygous mutant males. Our studies in heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice provide important clues for understanding the likely phenotypic range of Christianson syndrome among females heterozygous for SLC9A6 mutations and might improve diagnostic practice and genetic counseling by helping to characterize this presumably underappreciated patient/carrier group. PMID:26515654

  8. The Impacts of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome Severity and Surgery Intervention on Psychological and Behavioral Abnormalities and Postoperative Recovery in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Xin; Wang, Haifei; Teng, Yaoshu; Yu, Daojun; Zhang, Haisheng; Shen, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of impact of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) severity on pediatric psychological and behavioral abnormalities. Material/Methods Fifty-one children aged 512 years with a confirmed diagnosis of OSAHS were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of OSAHS. They underwent bilateral tonsillectomy plus adenoidectomy or adenoidectomy alone. Repeated polysomnography and integrated visual and auditory continuous performance testing (IVA-CPT) was performed to assess full-scale response control quotient (FRCQ), full-scale attention quotient (FAQ), and hyperactivity (HYP) before surgery and 3 and 6 months after surgery. Results Mean FRCQ, FAQ, and HYP significantly improved over time in the 3 groups (FRCQ, F=292.05; FAQ, F=258.27; HYP, F=295.10, all P<0.001). FRCQ and HYP were not significantly different among the groups at the 3 time points. FAQ was significantly different among the groups (F=3.89, P<0.05). For FRCQ, FAQ, and HYP, there was no interaction between time and disease severity. Within groups, the effect of time on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and lowest oxygen saturation (LaSO2) were significant for each group and they were significantly different among the 3 groups at each time point (all P<0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that OSAHS may have a significant impact on self-control, attention, and hyperactivity in children, which is gradually alleviated after surgery. Disease severity was not closely related to preoperative mental and psychological function or postoperative recovery. Thus, we find it difficult to determine the impact degree of OSAHS severity on mental and psychological function or predict postoperative recovery by using OSAHS severity alone in children. PMID:25141885

  9. Adjunctive treatment with high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the behavioral and psychological symptoms of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    WU, Yue; XU, Wenwei; LIU, Xiaowei; XU, Qing; TANG, Li; WU, Shuyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) occur in 70-90% of patients at different stages of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), but the available methods for managing these problems are of limited effectiveness. Aim Assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), on BPSD and cognitive function in persons with AD. Methods Fifty-four patients with AD and accompanying BPSD were randomly divided into an intervention group (n=27) and a control group (n=27). In addition to standard antipsychotic treatment, the intervention group was treated with 20Hz rTMS five days a week for four weeks, while the control group was treated with sham rTMS.The Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD), the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were administered by raters who were blind to the group assignment of patients before and after four weeks of treatment. Results Twenty-six subjects from each group completed the study. After four weeks of antipsychotic treatment with adjunctive real or sham rTMS treatment, the mean (sd) total BEHAVE-AD scores and mean total ADAS-Cog scores of both groups significantly decreased from baseline. After adjusting for baseline values, the intervention group had significantly lower scores (i.e., greater improvement) than the control group on the BEHAVE-AD total score, on five of the seven BEHAVE-AD factor scores (activity disturbances, diurnal rhythm, aggressiveness, affective disturbances, anxieties and phobias), on the ADAS-Cog total score, and on all four ADAS-Cog factor scores (memory, language, constructional praxis, and attention). The proportion of individuals whose behavioral symptoms met a predetermined level of improvement (i.e., a drop in BEHAVE-AD total score of > 30% from baseline) in the intervention group was greater than that in the control group (73.1% vs.42.3%, X2=5.04, p=0.025). Conclusion Compared to treatment of AD with low-dose antipsychotic medications alone, the combination of low-dose antipsychotic medication with adjunctive treatment with high frequency rTMS can significantly improve both cognitive functioning and the behavioral and psychological symptoms that often accompany AD. PMID:26977125

  10. X-linked Christianson syndrome: heterozygous female Slc9a6 knockout mice develop mosaic neuropathological changes and related behavioral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Jakub; Leddy, Jennifer; Gulinello, Maria; Walkley, Steven U.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental and neurological disorder characterized in males by core symptoms that include non-verbal status, intellectual disability, epilepsy, truncal ataxia, postnatal microcephaly and hyperkinesis. CS is caused by mutations in the SLC9A6 gene, which encodes a multipass transmembrane sodium (potassium)-hydrogen exchanger 6 (NHE6) protein, functional in early recycling endosomes. The extent and variability of the CS phenotype in female heterozygotes, who presumably express the wild-type and mutant SLC9A6 alleles mosaically as a result of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), have not yet been systematically characterized. Slc9a6 knockout mice (Slc9a6 KO) were generated by insertion of the bacterial lacZ/β-galactosidase (β-Gal) reporter into exon 6 of the X-linked gene. Mutant Slc9a6 KO male mice have been shown to develop late endosomal/lysosomal dysfunction associated with glycolipid accumulation in selected neuronal populations and patterned degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). In heterozygous female Slc9a6 KO mice, β-Gal serves as a transcriptional/XCI reporter and thus facilitates testing of effects of mosaic expression of the mutant allele on penetrance of the abnormal phenotype. Using β-Gal, we demonstrated mosaic expression of the mutant Slc9a6 allele and mosaically distributed lysosomal glycolipid accumulation and PC pathology in the brains of heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice. At the behavioral level, we showed that heterozygous female mice suffer from visuospatial memory and motor coordination deficits similar to but less severe than those observed in X-chromosome hemizygous mutant males. Our studies in heterozygous Slc9a6 KO female mice provide important clues for understanding the likely phenotypic range of Christianson syndrome among females heterozygous for SLC9A6 mutations and might improve diagnostic practice and genetic counseling by helping to characterize this presumably underappreciated patient/carrier group. PMID:26515654

  11. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  12. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  13. Repetition Blindness for Rotated Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, William G.; Zhou, Guomei; Man, Wai-Fung; Harris, Irina M.

    2010-01-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) is the finding that observers often miss the repetition of an item within a rapid stream of words or objects. Recent studies have shown that RB for objects is largely unaffected by variations in viewpoint between the repeated items. In 5 experiments, we tested RB under different axes of rotation, with different types of

  14. Disturbance rejection in repetitive controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solcz, Edward J.; Longman, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    The p-integrator is a digital controller that learns from previous experience executing a repetitive command in order to improve its performance in future repetitions. This class of repetitive controller is an analog of the integral controller of classical control theory. This paper addresses several issues related to the performance of the p-integrator. This is followed by a derivation that will demonstrate the repetitive disturbance rejection capabilities of the controller. The effect of the tracking performance in practical implementations with prefiltering and postfiltering devices are studied - using an exact and approximate formulation. Relations showing the actual system response during steady state operation with these filters are derived. The results are then extended to include the tracking error performance of systems subjected to repetitive disturbances. Finally, the system response between sample times is developed.

  15. Orthographic repetition blindness.

    PubMed

    Harris, C L; Morris, A L

    2000-11-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) is the failure to report the second occurrence of a repeated word, when words are sequentially and briefly displayed (Kanwisher, 1987). RB is also observed for non-identical words, such as home, dome. Explanations for non-identity RB assume that similarity at the level of the whole word causes the second word to be suppressed ("similarity inhibition"). Three experiments demonstrate that RB is robust for diverse types of orthographic relatedness, including critical words that share only their first initial letter, their last two letters, first three letters, middle three letters, beginning and final letters, three alternating letters, and three non-aligned letters (as in chance hand). The theoretical construct of similarity inhibition may be able to account for these data, although one mechanism previously proposed in the literature, neighbourhood inhibition, is probably not a useful way to explain the data on RB for words sharing only one or two letters. We introduce an alternative explanation for orthographic RB: Only the repeated letters are suppressed, and amount of RB depends on how easily the perceiver can reconstruct the target word from the non-suppressed letters. PMID:11131812

  16. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy (XXXX). Results of five experiments show that perceptual sensitivity is strikingly and significantly reduced in the RB condition relative to both baseline control conditions. The data show RB can be obtained under conditions in which memory problems are minimal and where perceptual sensitivity is assessed independently of biases.

  17. Modifying Repetitive Verbalizations of Community-Dwelling Patients with AD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Michelle S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports on behavior management training given to seven caregivers of a home-dwelling spouse with Alzheimer's disease. Results reveal that trained caregivers were successful at decreasing patient repetitions using written cues. Patients of control subjects showed no systematic changes in behavioral disturbances. Intervention effects lasted for 16…

  18. Modifying Repetitive Verbalizations of Community-Dwelling Patients with AD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Michelle S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports on behavior management training given to seven caregivers of a home-dwelling spouse with Alzheimer's disease. Results reveal that trained caregivers were successful at decreasing patient repetitions using written cues. Patients of control subjects showed no systematic changes in behavioral disturbances. Intervention effects lasted for 16

  19. [Repetitive work and psychosomatic complaints].

    PubMed

    Liebrich, J; Geiger, L; Rupp, M

    1978-08-01

    200 workers of the Swiss watch industry were examined in an interdisciplinary study on the effect of repetitive work on the wellbeing of the worker. Women doing repetitive work with little autonomy complained more often about psychosomatic problems than the male workers doing non-repetitive work. This difference is interpreted as a difference of sexe rather than one of the work situation. However, there is a significant difference in the complaint about nervosity between women being paid monthly and women who were paid by piece or by hour with a premium. PMID:706840

  20. Minicolumnar abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Manuel F; van Kooten, Imke A J; Switala, Andrew E; van Engeland, Herman; Heinsen, Helmut; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Hof, Patrick R; Trippe, Juan; Stone, Janet; Schmitz, Christoph

    2006-09-01

    Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The patient population consisted of six age-matched pairs of patients (DSM-IV-TR and ADI-R diagnosed) and controls. Digital micrographs were taken from cortical areas S1, 4, 9, and 17. The image analysis produced estimates of minicolumnar width (CW), mean interneuronal distance, variability in CW (V (CW)), cross section of Nissl-stained somata, boundary length of stained somata per unit area, and the planar convexity. On average CW was 27.2 microm in controls and 25.7 microm in autistic patients (P = 0.0234). Mean neuron and nucleolar cross sections were found to be smaller in autistic cases compared to controls, while neuron density in autism exceeded the comparison group by 23%. Analysis of inter- and intracluster distances of a Delaunay triangulation suggests that the increased cell density is the result of a greater number of minicolumns, otherwise the number of cells per minicolumns appears normal. A reduction in both somatic and nucleolar cross sections could reflect a bias towards shorter connecting fibers, which favors local computation at the expense of inter-areal and callosal connectivity. PMID:16819561

  1. Repetition suppression of faces is modulated by emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishai, Alumit; Pessoa, Luiz; Bikle, Philip C.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2004-06-01

    Single-unit recordings and functional brain imaging studies have shown reduced neural responses to repeated stimuli in the visual cortex. By using event-related functional MRI, we compared the activation evoked by repetitions of neutral and fearful faces, which were either task relevant (targets) or irrelevant (distracters). We found that within the inferior occipital gyri, lateral fusiform gyri, superior temporal sulci, amygdala, and the inferior frontal gyri/insula, targets evoked stronger responses than distracters and their repetition was associated with significantly reduced responses. Repetition suppression, as manifested by the difference in response amplitude between the first and third repetitions of a target, was stronger for fearful than neutral faces. Distracter faces, regardless of their repetition or valence, evoked negligible activation, indicating top-down attenuation of behaviorally irrelevant stimuli. Our findings demonstrate a three-way interaction between emotional valence, repetition, and task relevance and suggest that repetition suppression is influenced by high-level cognitive processes in the human brain. face perception | functional MRI

  2. Abnormal glutamate release in aged BTBR mouse model of autism

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hongen; Ding, Caiyun; Jin, Guorong; Yin, Haizhen; Liu, Jianrong; Hu, Fengyun

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Most of the available research on autism is focused on children and young adults and little is known about the pathological alternation of autism in older adults. In order to investigate the neurobiological alternation of autism in old age stage, we compared the morphology and synaptic function of excitatory synapses between the BTBR mice with low level sociability and B6 mice with high level sociability. The results revealed that the number of excitatory synapse colocalized with pre- and post-synaptic marker was not different between aged BTBR and B6 mice. The aged BTBR mice had a normal structure of dendritic spine and the expression of Shank3 protein in the brain as well as that in B6 mice. The baseline and KCl-evoked glutamate release from the cortical synaptoneurosome in aged BTBR mice was lower than that in aged B6 mice. Overall, the data indicate that there is a link between disturbances of the glutamate transmission and autism. These findings provide new evidences for the hypothesis of excitation/inhibition imbalance in autism. Further work is required to determine the cause of this putative abnormality. PMID:26617779

  3. Repetitively pumped electron beam device

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, L.G.

    1979-07-24

    Disclosed is an apparatus for producing fast, repetitive pulses of controllable length of an electron beam by phased energy storage in a transmission line of length matched to the number of pulses and specific pulse lengths desired. 12 figs.

  4. A Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Before concluding Repetition Blindness is a perceptual phenomenon, alternative explanations based on memory retrieval problems and report bias must be rejected. Memory problems were minimized by requiring a judgment about only a single briefly displayed field. Bias and sensitivity effects were empirically measured with an ROC-curve analysis method based on confidence ratings. Results from five experiments support the hypothesis that Repetition Blindness can be a perceptual phenomenon.

  5. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  6. Variation, Repetition, And Choice

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele; Lattal, Kennon A; dos Santos, Cristiano V; Matos, Ricardo A

    2005-01-01

    Experiment 1 investigated the controlling properties of variability contingencies on choice between repeated and variable responding. Pigeons were exposed to concurrent-chains schedules with two alternatives. In the REPEAT alternative, reinforcers in the terminal link depended on a single sequence of four responses. In the VARY alternative, a response sequence in the terminal link was reinforced only if it differed from the n previous sequences (lag criterion). The REPEAT contingency generated low, constant levels of sequence variation whereas the VARY contingency produced levels of sequence variation that increased with the lag criterion. Preference for the REPEAT alternative tended to increase directly with the degree of variation required for reinforcement. Experiment 2 examined the potential confounding effects in Experiment 1 of immediacy of reinforcement by yoking the interreinforcer intervals in the REPEAT alternative to those in the VARY alternative. Again, preference for REPEAT was a function of the lag criterion. Choice between varying and repeating behavior is discussed with respect to obtained behavioral variability, probability of reinforcement, delay of reinforcement, and switching within a sequence. PMID:15828592

  7. Cytogenetic abnormalities and fragile-x syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Kavita S

    2005-01-01

    Background Autism is a behavioral disorder with impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. About 510 % of individuals with autism have 'secondary' autism in which an environmental agent, chromosome abnormality, or single gene disorder can be identified. Ninety percent have idiopathic autism and a major gene has not yet been identified. We have assessed the incidence of chromosome abnormalities and Fragile X syndrome in a population of autistic patients referred to our laboratory. Methods Data was analyzed from 433 patients with autistic traits tested using chromosome analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or molecular testing for fragile X syndrome by Southern and PCR methods. Results The median age was 4 years. Sex ratio was 4.5 males to 1 female [354:79]. A chromosome (cs) abnormality was found in 14/421 [3.33 %] cases. The aberrations were: 4/14 [28%] supernumerary markers; 4/14 [28%] deletions; 1/14 [7%] duplication; 3/14 [21%] inversions; 2/14 [14%] translocations. FISH was performed on 23 cases for reasons other than to characterize a previously identified cytogenetic abnormality. All 23 cases were negative. Fragile-X testing by Southern blots and PCR analysis found 7/316 [2.2 %] with an abnormal result. The mutations detected were: a full mutation (fM) and abnormal methylation in 3 [43 %], mosaic mutations with partial methylation of variable clinical significance in 3 [43%] and a permutation carrier [14%]. The frequency of chromosome and fragile-X abnormalities appears to be within the range in reported surveys (cs 4.8-1.7%, FRAX 24%). Limitations of our retrospective study include paucity of behavioral diagnostic information, and a specific clinical criterion for testing. Conclusions Twenty-eight percent of chromosome abnormalities detected in our study were subtle; therefore a high resolution cytogenetic study with a scrutiny of 15q11.2q13, 2q37 and Xp23.3 region should be standard practice when the indication is autism. The higher incidence of mosaic fragile-X mutations with partial methylation compared to FRAXA positive population [50% vs 1540%] suggests that faint bands and variations in the Southern band pattern may occur in autistic patients. PMID:15655077

  8. Chronic sleep restriction during development can lead to long-lasting behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Sar, R Michelle; Levine, Merlin; Hildreth, Christine; Picchioni, Dante; Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    2016-03-01

    Sleep abnormalities are highly correlated with neurodevelopmental disorders, and the severity of behavioral abnormalities correlates with the presence of sleep abnormalities. Given the importance of sleep in developmental plasticity, we sought to determine the effects of chronic sleep-restriction during development on subsequent adult behavior. We sleep-restricted developing wild-type mice from P5-P42 for 3h per day by means of gentle handling (n=30) and compared behavioral outputs to controls that were handled 10min daily (n=33). We assayed activity in the open field, social behavior, repetitive behavior, and anxiety immediately following sleep restriction and after four weeks of recovery. At six weeks of age, immediately following chronic sleep-restriction, mice were less active in an open field arena. Sociability was increased, but repetitive behaviors were unchanged in both males and females. After a 4-week period of recovery, some behavioral abnormalities persisted and some became apparent. Sleep-restricted mice had decreased activity in the beginning of an open field test. Female mice continued to have increased sociability and, in addition, increased preference for social novelty. In contrast, male mice demonstrated decreased sociability with medium effect sizes. Repetitive behavior was decreased in sleep-restricted female mice and increased in males. Measures of anxiety were not affected in the sleep-restricted mice. These results indicate that chronic sleep restriction during development can lead to long-lasting behavioral changes that are modulated by sex. Our study may have implications for a role of disrupted sleep in childhood on the unfolding of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26712276

  9. Repetitive RNA unwinding by RNA helicase A facilitates RNA annealing

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hye Ran; Xing, Li; Kleiman, Lawrence; Myong, Sua

    2014-01-01

    Helicases contribute to diverse biological processes including replication, transcription and translation. Recent reports suggest that unwinding of some helicases display repetitive activity, yet the functional role of the repetitiveness requires further investigation. Using single-molecule fluorescence assays, we elucidated a unique unwinding mechanism of RNA helicase A (RHA) that entails discrete substeps consisting of binding, activation, unwinding, stalling and reactivation stages. This multi-step process is repeated many times by a single RHA molecule without dissociation, resulting in repetitive unwinding/rewinding cycles. Our kinetic and mutational analysis indicates that the two double stand RNA binding domains at the N-terminus of RHA are responsible for such repetitive unwinding behavior in addition to providing an increased binding affinity to RNA. Further, the repetitive unwinding induces an efficient annealing of a complementary RNA by making the unwound strand more accessible. The complex and unusual mechanism displayed by RHA may help in explaining how the repetitive unwinding of helicases contributes to their biological functions. PMID:24914047

  10. Repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, S.-Y.

    1990-03-13

    I show that two spin rotators 180{degree} apart may be desirable for the repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect. I also calculate the effect of depolarization resonance on the repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect. It is shown that to first order in resonance strength, we can avoid the imperfection resonance if the energy of the beam is at G{gamma} = n + 1/2. The time available for accumulating the Stern-Gerlach kick is then limited by the intrinsic resonance. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Repetition Blindness Occurs in Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Catherine L.; Morris, Alison L.

    2004-01-01

    Theorists have predicted that repetition blindness (RB) should be absent for nonwords because they do not activate preexisting mental types. The authors hypothesized that RB would be observed for nonwords because RB can occur at a sublexical level. Four experiments showed that RB is observed for word-nonword pairs (noon noof), orthographically

  12. Constructive and Unconstructive Repetitive Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive

  13. Unintended Imitation in Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappes, Juliane; Baumgaertner, Annette; Peschke, Claudia; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    Verbal repetition is conventionally considered to require motor-reproduction of only the phonologically relevant content of a perceived linguistic stimulus, while imitation of incidental acoustic properties of the stimulus is not an explicit part of this task. Exemplar-based theories of speech processing, however, would predict that imitation

  14. Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In

  15. Repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Olmo, Ettore; Heslop-Harrison, J S Pat

    2015-09-01

    Repetitive DNA--sequence motifs repeated hundreds or thousands of times in the genome--makes up the major proportion of all the nuclear DNA in most eukaryotic genomes. However, the significance of repetitive DNA in the genome is not completely understood, and it has been considered to have both structural and functional roles, or perhaps even no essential role. High-throughput DNA sequencing reveals huge numbers of repetitive sequences. Most bioinformatic studies focus on low-copy DNA including genes, and hence, the analyses collapse repeats in assemblies presenting only one or a few copies, often masking out and ignoring them in both DNA and RNA read data. Chromosomal studies are proving vital to examine the distribution and evolution of sequences because of the challenges of analysis of sequence data. Many questions are open about the origin, evolutionary mode and functions that repetitive sequences might have in the genome. Some, the satellite DNAs, are present in long arrays of similar motifs at a small number of sites, while others, particularly the transposable elements (DNA transposons and retrotranposons), are dispersed over regions of the genome; in both cases, sequence motifs may be located at relatively specific chromosome domains such as centromeres or subtelomeric regions. Here, we overview a range of works involving detailed characterization of the nature of all types of repetitive sequences, in particular their organization, abundance, chromosome localization, variation in sequence within and between chromosomes, and, importantly, the investigation of their transcription or expression activity. Comparison of the nature and locations of sequences between more, and less, related species is providing extensive information about their evolution and amplification. Some repetitive sequences are extremely well conserved between species, while others are among the most variable, defining differences between even closely relative species. These data suggest contrasting modes of evolution of repetitive DNA of different types, including selfish sequences that propagate themselves and may even be transferred horizontally between species rather than by descent, through to sequences that have a tendency to amplification because of their sequence motifs, to those that have structural significance because of their bulk rather than precise sequence. Functional consequences of repeats include generation of variability by movement and insertion in the genome (giving useful genetic markers), the definition of centromeres, expression under stress conditions and regulation of gene expression via RNA moieties. Molecular cytogenetics and bioinformatic studies in a comparative context are now enabling understanding of the nature and behaviour of this major genomic component. PMID:26514350

  16. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviours in Greek Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Stelios; Papageorgiou, Vaya; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the factor structure of restricted repetitive behaviours (RRBs) in a sample of 205 Greek individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Results show that the structure of RRBs in this Greek sample can be described using a 2-factor solution. The…

  17. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePLUS

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  18. Pilot randomized trial demonstrating reversal of obesity-related abnormalities in reward system responsivity to food cues with a behavioral intervention

    PubMed Central

    Deckersbach, T; Das, S K; Urban, L E; Salinardi, T; Batra, P; Rodman, A M; Arulpragasam, A R; Dougherty, D D; Roberts, S B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Obesity is associated with hyperactivation of the reward system for high-calorie (HC) versus low-calorie (LC) food cues, which encourages unhealthy food selection and overeating. However, the extent to which this hyperactivation can be reversed is uncertain, and to date there has been no demonstration of changes by behavioral intervention. Subjects and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure changes in activation of the striatum for food images at baseline and 6 months in a pilot study of 13 overweight or obese adults randomized to a control group or a novel weight-loss intervention. Results: Compared to controls, intervention participants achieved significant weight loss (?6.31.0?kg versus +2.11.1?kg, P<0.001) and had increased activation for LC food images with a composition consistent with that recommended in the behavioral intervention at 6 months versus baseline in the right ventral putamen (P=0.04), decreased activation for HC images of typically consumed foods in the left dorsal putamen (P=0.01). There was also a large significant shift in relative activation favoring LC versus HC foods in both regions (P<0.04). Conclusions: This study provides the first demonstration of a positive shift in activation of the reward system toward healthy versus unhealthy food cues in a behavioral intervention, suggesting new avenues to enhance behavioral treatments of obesity. PMID:25177910

  19. Abnormal behavior of threshold voltage shift in bias-stressed a-Si:H thin film transistor under extremely high intensity illumination.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Youn; Park, Kyung Tea; Kim, Cheolkyu; Jeon, Sanghyun; Yang, Sung-Hoon; Kong, Hyang-Shik

    2015-07-22

    We report on the unusual behavior of threshold voltage turnaround in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) when biased under extremely high intensity illumination. The threshold voltage shift changes from negative to positive gate bias direction after ?30 min of bias stress even when the negative gate bias stress is applied under high intensity illumination (>400?000 Cd/cm(2)), which has not been observed in low intensity (?6000 Cd/cm(2)). This behavior is more pronounced in a low work function gate metal structure (Al: 4.1-4.3 eV), compared to the high work function of Cu (4.5-5.1 eV). Also this is mainly observed in shorter wavelength of high photon energy illumination. However, this behavior is effectively prohibited by embedding the high energy band gap (?8.6 eV) of SiOx in the gate insulator layer. These imply that this behavior could be originated from the injection of electrons from gate electrode, transported and trapped in the electron trap sites of the SiNx/a-Si:H interface, which causes the shift of threshold voltage toward positive gate bias direction. The results reported here can be applicable to the large-sized outdoor displays which are usually exposed to the extremely high intensity illumination. PMID:26132513

  20. Autism-Relevant Social Abnormalities and Cognitive Deficits in Engrailed-2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brielmaier, Jennifer; Matteson, Paul G.; Silverman, Jill L.; Senerth, Julia M.; Kelly, Samantha; Genestine, Matthieu; Millonig, James H.

    2012-01-01

    ENGRAILED 2 (En2), a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22829897

  1. An Adapting Auditory-motor Feedback Loop Can Contribute to Generating Vocal Repetition

    PubMed Central

    Brainard, Michael S.; Jin, Dezhe Z.

    2015-01-01

    Consecutive repetition of actions is common in behavioral sequences. Although integration of sensory feedback with internal motor programs is important for sequence generation, if and how feedback contributes to repetitive actions is poorly understood. Here we study how auditory feedback contributes to generating repetitive syllable sequences in songbirds. We propose that auditory signals provide positive feedback to ongoing motor commands, but this influence decays as feedback weakens from response adaptation during syllable repetitions. Computational models show that this mechanism explains repeat distributions observed in Bengalese finch song. We experimentally confirmed two predictions of this mechanism in Bengalese finches: removal of auditory feedback by deafening reduces syllable repetitions; and neural responses to auditory playback of repeated syllable sequences gradually adapt in sensory-motor nucleus HVC. Together, our results implicate a positive auditory-feedback loop with adaptation in generating repetitive vocalizations, and suggest sensory adaptation is important for feedback control of motor sequences. PMID:26448054

  2. An Adapting Auditory-motor Feedback Loop Can Contribute to Generating Vocal Repetition.

    PubMed

    Wittenbach, Jason D; Bouchard, Kristofer E; Brainard, Michael S; Jin, Dezhe Z

    2015-10-01

    Consecutive repetition of actions is common in behavioral sequences. Although integration of sensory feedback with internal motor programs is important for sequence generation, if and how feedback contributes to repetitive actions is poorly understood. Here we study how auditory feedback contributes to generating repetitive syllable sequences in songbirds. We propose that auditory signals provide positive feedback to ongoing motor commands, but this influence decays as feedback weakens from response adaptation during syllable repetitions. Computational models show that this mechanism explains repeat distributions observed in Bengalese finch song. We experimentally confirmed two predictions of this mechanism in Bengalese finches: removal of auditory feedback by deafening reduces syllable repetitions; and neural responses to auditory playback of repeated syllable sequences gradually adapt in sensory-motor nucleus HVC. Together, our results implicate a positive auditory-feedback loop with adaptation in generating repetitive vocalizations, and suggest sensory adaptation is important for feedback control of motor sequences. PMID:26448054

  3. Place field repetition and spatial learning in a multicompartment environment.

    PubMed

    Grieves, Roddy M; Jenkins, Bryan W; Harland, Bruce C; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampus possess firing fields that repeat in physically similar, parallel environments. These results imply that it should be difficult for animals to distinguish parallel environments at a behavioral level. To test this, we trained rats on a novel odor-location task in an environment with four parallel compartments which had previously been shown to yield place field repetition. A second group of animals was trained on the same task, but with the compartments arranged in different directions, an arrangement we hypothesised would yield less place field repetition. Learning of the odor-location task in the parallel compartments was significantly impaired relative to learning in the radially arranged compartments. Fewer animals acquired the full discrimination in the parallel compartments compared to those trained in the radial compartments, and the former also required many more sessions to reach criterion compared to the latter. To confirm that the arrangement of compartments yielded differences in place cell repetition, in a separate group of animals we recorded from CA1 place cells in both environments. We found that CA1 place cells exhibited repeated fields across four parallel local compartments, but did not do so when the same compartments were arranged radially. To confirm that the differences in place field repetition across the parallel and radial compartments depended on their angular arrangement, and not incidental differences in access to an extra-maze visual landmark, we repeated the recordings in a second set of rats in the absence of the orientation landmark. We found, once again, that place fields showed repetition in parallel compartments, and did not do so in radially arranged compartments. Thus place field repetition, or lack thereof, in these compartments was not dependent on extra-maze cues. Together, these results imply that place field repetition constrains spatial learning. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26190393

  4. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  5. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs). ... The term skeletal limb abnormalities is most often used to describe defects in the legs or arms that are due to a problem with your ...

  6. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Repetition blindness: levels of processing.

    PubMed

    Kanwisher, N G; Potter, M C

    1990-02-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) is the failure to detect or recall repetitions of words in rapid serial visual presentation. Experiment 1 showed that synonym pairs are not susceptible to RB. In Experiments 2 and 3, RB was still found when one occurrence of the word was part of a compound noun phrase. In Experiment 4, homonyms produced RB if they were spelled identically (even if pronounced differently) but not if spelled differently and pronounced the same. Similarly spelled but otherwise unrelated word pairs appeared to generate RB (Experiment 5), but Experiment 6 produced an alternative account. Experiments 7 and 8 demonstrated that repeated letters are susceptible to RB only when displayed individually, not as part of two otherwise different words. It is concluded that RB can occur at either an orthographic (possibly morphemic) level or a case-independent letter level, depending on which unit (words or single letters) is the focus of processing. PMID:2137522

  8. Brief Report: Exploring the Relationship between Sensory Processing and Repetitive Behaviours in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours in children with Williams Syndrome (WS; n = 21). This is a novel investigation bringing together two clinical phenomena for the first time in this neuro-developmental disorder. Parents completed the Sensory Profile (Short Form; Dunn in The

  9. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours, Sensory Processing and Cognitive Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the

  10. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, Robert K.; Meyne, Julianne

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  11. How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Anas; Trbuchon, Agns; Ris, Stphanie; Ligeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

  12. Omega-3 fatty acid deficient male rats exhibit abnormal behavioral activation in the forced swim test following chronic fluoxetine treatment: association with altered 5-HT1A and alpha2A adrenergic receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2014-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n=34) or without (DEF, n=30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n=14) and DEF (n=12) rats were administered FLX (10mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-26%, p=0.0001) and DEF+FLX (-32%, p=0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF+FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON+FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF+FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF+FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON+FLX rats. DEF+FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats. PMID:24360505

  13. Repeated stress-induced expression pattern alterations of the hippocampal chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 associated with behavioral abnormalities in female mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Takao; Masuhara, Masaaki; Iwai, Haruki; Sonomura, Takahiro; Sato, Tomoaki

    2015-09-11

    The balance of cation-chloride co-transporters, particularly KCC2 and NKCC1, is critical for GABAergic inhibitory signaling. However, KCC2/NKCC1 balance is disrupted in many neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, correlations between chronic stress, KCC2 and NKCC1 in the hippocampus remain poorly understood. Despite the fact that emotional disorders in humans are far more prevalent in women, there have been relatively few studies about female subjects. Here we investigated behaviors and expression patterns of KCC2 and NKCC1 in the hippocampi of female mice under chronic stress. Repeated stress (RS) was induced in experimental mice by repeated forced water administration. Then, expression patterns of GABAergic signaling molecules were identified by immunohistochemical analysis and performance was assessed using several behavioral tests. The results of semi-quantitative analysis showed that RS decreased KCC2 expression and increased NKCC1 expression in membranes of granular and pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. The novel object recognition (NOR) test and sociability test revealed that RS induced cognitive and sociability deficits, whereas RS increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze test and induced attention deficits in other tests. In summary, RS induced alterations in membrane KCC2/NKCC1 balance in the hippocampus of female mice, which may contribute to GABAergic disinhibition associated with cognitional, sociability and attention deficits. PMID:26239662

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Plachot, M

    2001-10-22

    Since the beginning of in vitro fertilization (IVF), basic research has provided insight in the field of human reproduction, especially in genetics. Indeed, the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to oocyte disorders and impaired embryonic development is now well known. Of oocytes that fail to fertilize after in vitro insemination, 26.5% have been found to be abnormal, with 13.3% showing hypohaploidy, 8.1% hyperhaploidy, 1.6% structural abnormalities and 3.5% diploidy. The total incidence of abnormalities seems to be correlated with the fertility status of the woman. It is higher in oocytes from women with tubal or unexplained infertility than in those from women whose husband's infertility is the sole cause of infertility in the couple. Although few oocytes recovered during natural cycles have been studied, gonadotropins, which are widely used to stimulate follicle growth and ovulation, do not increase the risk of abnormalities. The effect of maternal age on fetal aneuploidy, well documented at birth, has not been unambiguously shown to result from an increase in the frequency of aneuploid oocytes. Intra- and extra-follicular influences (perifollicular microvasculature, oxygenation, and the presence of residues from cigarette smoke) may disturb maturation, leading to immaturity and aneuploidy. Thus, oocyte meiosis is very sensitive to endogenous and exogenous factors that could result in oocytes with chromosomal abnormalities and therefore, abnormal zygotes. PMID:11576735

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  16. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  17. Detecting, grouping, and structure inference for invariant repetitive patterns in images.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunliang; Baciu, George

    2013-06-01

    The efficient and robust extraction of invariant patterns from an image is a long-standing problem in computer vision. Invariant structures are often related to repetitive or near-repetitive patterns. The perception of repetitive patterns in an image is strongly linked to the visual interpretation and composition of textures. Repetitive patterns are products of both repetitive structures as well as repetitive reflections or color patterns. In other words, patterns that exhibit near-stationary behavior provide rich information about objects, their shapes, and their texture in an image. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for repetitive pattern detection and grouping. The algorithm follows the classical region growing image segmentation scheme. It utilizes a mean-shift-like dynamic to group local image patches into clusters. It exploits a continuous joint alignment to: 1) match similar patches, and 2) refine the subspace grouping. We also propose an algorithm for inferring the composition structure of the repetitive patterns. The inference algorithm constructs a data-driven structural completion field, which merges the detected repetitive patterns into specific global geometric structures. The result of higher level grouping for image patterns can be used to infer the geometry of objects and estimate the general layout of a crowded scene. PMID:23481858

  18. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza; Strandgren, Charlotte; Pernold, Karin; Richard, Thibaud J. C.; Van Leeuwen, Fred W.; Dantuma, Nico P.; Damberg, Peter; Hultenby, Kjell; Ulfhake, Brun; Mugnaini, Enrico; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824C>T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin. PMID:25343989

  19. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  20. Targeted Mutations in the Na,K-ATPase Alpha 2 Isoform Confer Ouabain Resistance and Result in Abnormal Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Tori L.; Lingrel, Jerry B; Moseley, Amy E.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Williams, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatases (Na,K-ATPase) are ubiquitous, participate in osmotic balance and membrane potential, and are composed of α, β, and γ subunits. The α subunit is required for the catalytic and transport properties of the enzyme and contains binding sites for cations, ATP, and digitalis-like compounds including ouabain. There are four known α isoforms; three that are expressed in the CNS in a regional and cell-specific manner. The α2 isoform is most commonly found in astrocytes, pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adults, and developmentally in several other neuronal types. Ouabain-like compounds are thought to be produced endogenously in mammals, bind the Na,K-ATPase, and function as a stress-related hormone, however, the impact of the Na,K-ATPase ouabain binding site on neurobehavioral function is largely unknown. To determine if the ouabain binding site of the α2 isoform plays a physiological role in CNS function, we examined knock-in mice in which the normally ouabain-sensitive α2 isoform was made resistant (α2R/R) while still retaining basal Na,K-ATPase enzymatic function. Egocentric learning (Cincinnati water maze) was impaired in adult α2R/R mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. They also exhibited decreased locomotor activity in a novel environment and increased responsiveness to a challenge with an indirect sympathomimetic agonist (methamphetamine) relative to WT mice. The α2R/R mice also demonstrated a blunted acoustic startle reflex and a failure to habituate to repeated acoustic stimuli. The α2R/R mice showed no evidence of altered anxiety (elevated zero maze) nor were they impaired in spatial learning or memory in the Morris water maze and neither group could learn in a large Morris maze. These results suggest that the ouabain binding site is involved in specific types of learning and the modulation of dopamine-mediated locomotor behavior. PMID:20936682

  1. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  2. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas Sc; Lin, Alexander P; Koerte, Inga K; Pasternak, Ofer; Liao, Huijun; Merugumala, Sai; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  3. Congenital bronchial abnormalities revisited.

    PubMed

    Ghaye, B; Szapiro, D; Fanchamps, J M; Dondelinger, R F

    2001-01-01

    Bronchial anatomy is adequately demonstrated with the appropriate spiral computed tomographic technique on cross-sectional images, multiplanar reconstruction images, and three-dimensional reconstruction images. Contrary to the numerous variations of lobar or segmental bronchial subdivisions, abnormal bronchi originating from the trachea or main bronchi are rare. Major bronchial abnormalities include accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) and "tracheal" bronchus. An ACB is a supernumerary bronchus from the inner wall of the right main bronchus or intermediate bronchus that progresses toward the pericardium. Fourteen ACBs were found in 17,500 consecutive patients (frequency, 0.08%). The term tracheal bronchus encompasses a variety of bronchial anomalies originating from the trachea or main bronchus and directed to the upper lobe. In a series of 35 tracheal bronchi, only eight originated from the trachea, three originated from the carina, and 24 originated from the bronchi. Displaced tracheal bronchi (27 of 35) are more frequent than supernumerary tracheal bronchi (eight of 35). Minor bronchial abnormalities include variants of tracheal bronchus, displaced segmental bronchi, and bronchial agenesis. The main embryogenic hypotheses for congenital bronchial abnormalities are the reduction, migration, and selection theories. Knowledge and understanding of congenital bronchial abnormalities may have important implications for diagnosis, bronchoscopy, surgery, brachytherapy, and intubation. PMID:11158647

  4. The ABCs of Organizational Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Mike M.; Inbar, Dan E.

    To penetrate the growing complexity of theoretical perspectives and research methodologies surrounding organizational behavior, this paper introduces the ABC Matrix. This conceptual framework clarifies complex, repetitive organizational behavior by grouping behaviors (avoidance, buffering, and confronting) into readily understood categories.

  5. Models of Abnormal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

    2013-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

  6. Information Density and Syntactic Repetition.

    PubMed

    Temperley, David; Gildea, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In noun phrase (NP) coordinate constructions (e.g., NP and NP), there is a strong tendency for the syntactic structure of the second conjunct to match that of the first; the second conjunct in such constructions is therefore low in syntactic information. The theory of uniform information density predicts that low-information syntactic constructions will be counterbalanced by high information in other aspects of that part of the sentence, and high-information constructions will be counterbalanced by other low-information components. Three predictions follow: (a) lexical probabilities (measured by N-gram probabilities and head-dependent probabilities) will be lower in second conjuncts than first conjuncts; (b) lexical probabilities will be lower in matching second conjuncts (those whose syntactic expansions match the first conjunct) than nonmatching ones; and (c) syntactic repetition should be especially common for low-frequency NP expansions. Corpus analysis provides support for all three of these predictions. PMID:25557056

  7. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4-9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2016-03-01

    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4-9 (Shank3(e4-9) KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3(e4-9) heterozygous (HET) and Shank3(e4-9) KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3(e4-9) KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3(e4-9) KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3(e4-9) HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3(e4-9) KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3(e4-9) mutant mouse model of autism. Autism Res 2016, 9: 350-375. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26559786

  8. Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2014-01-01

    In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 s, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1) a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2) a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The “paradoxically” high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception. PMID:25018691

  9. Repetitive Sequences in Plant Nuclear DNA: Types, Distribution, Evolution and Function

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Shweta; Goyal, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences are a major component of eukaryotic genomes and may account for up to 90% of the genome size. They can be divided into minisatellite, microsatellite and satellite sequences. Satellite DNA sequences are considered to be a fast-evolving component of eukaryotic genomes, comprising tandemly-arrayed, highly-repetitive and highly-conserved monomer sequences. The monomer unit of satellite DNA is 150–400 base pairs (bp) in length. Repetitive sequences may be species- or genus-specific, and may be centromeric or subtelomeric in nature. They exhibit cohesive and concerted evolution caused by molecular drive, leading to high sequence homogeneity. Repetitive sequences accumulate variations in sequence and copy number during evolution, hence they are important tools for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, and are known as “tuning knobs” in the evolution. Therefore, knowledge of repetitive sequences assists our understanding of the organization, evolution and behavior of eukaryotic genomes. Repetitive sequences have cytoplasmic, cellular and developmental effects and play a role in chromosomal recombination. In the post-genomics era, with the introduction of next-generation sequencing technology, it is possible to evaluate complex genomes for analyzing repetitive sequences and deciphering the yet unknown functional potential of repetitive sequences. PMID:25132181

  10. Congenital midface abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Daniel J G; Shroff, Manohar

    2011-08-01

    There are a wide variety of congenital midface abnormalities that originate during transformation of the first pair of pharyngeal arches into adult structures. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are important components in the comprehensive evaluation of these lesions. A detailed understanding of midface embryogenesis and developmental anatomy is important in directing appropriate patient management. PMID:21807312

  11. Autism spectrum disorder as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence from the brain imaging abnormalities in 2-3 years old toddlers.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

    2014-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships in adolescents and adults with ASD, literature is still limited in information about the neurobiology of ASD in the early age of life. Brain images of 50 toddlers with ASD and 28 age, gender, and developmental quotient matched toddlers with developmental delay (DD) (control group) between ages 2 and 3 years were captured using combined magnetic resonance-based structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was applied to assess overall gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and regional alterations were assessed by voxel-based morphometry. DTI was used to investigate the white matter tract integrity. Compared with DD, significant increases were observed in ASD, primarily in global GM and WM volumes and in right superior temporal gyrus regional GM and WM volumes. Higher fractional anisotropy value was also observed in the corpus callosum, posterior cingulate cortex, and limbic lobes of ASD. The converging findings of structural and white matter abnormalities in ASD suggest that alterations in neural-anatomy of different brain regions may be involved in behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with ASD, especially in an early age of 2-3 years old toddlers. PMID:24419870

  12. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Gavett, Brandon E.; Budson, Andrew E.; Santini, Veronica E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Stern, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed “dementia pugilistica” and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review the 47 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 professional athletes: one football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes, Parkinsonism, and speech and gait abnormalities. Neuropathologically, CTE is characterized by atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem, with ventricular dilatation and a fenestrated cavum septum pellucidum. Microscopically, there are extensive tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles, and spindle-shaped and threadlike neurites throughout the brain. The neurofibrillary degeneration of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies by preferential involvement of the superficial cortical layers, irregular, patchy distribution in the frontal and temporal cortices, propensity for sulcal depths, prominent perivascular, periventricular and subpial distribution, and marked accumulation of tau-immunoreactive astrocytes. Deposition of beta amyloid, most commonly as diffuse plaques, occurs in fewer than half the cases. CTE is a neuropathologically distinct, slowly progressive tauopathy with a clear environmental etiology. PMID:19535999

  13. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) word repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. In this article, the authors (a) describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetition Task

  14. Heart Rate Variability and Skin Conductance During Repetitive TMS Course in Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Hensley, Marie K; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder marked by difficulty in social interactions and communication. ASD also often present symptoms of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning abnormalities. In individuals with autism the sympathetic branch of the ANS presents an over-activation on a background of the parasympathetic activity deficits, creating an autonomic imbalance, evidenced by a faster heart rate with little variation and increased tonic electrodermal activity. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of 12 sessions of 0.5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on autonomic activity in children with ASD. Electrocardiogram and skin conductance level (SCL) were recorded and analyzed during each session of rTMS. The measures of interest were time domain (i.e., R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, NN50-cardio-intervals >50 ms different from preceding interval) and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) indices [i.e., power of high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio]. Based on our prior pilot studies it was proposed that the course of 12 weekly inhibitory low-frequency rTMS bilaterally applied to the DLPFC will improve autonomic balance probably through improved frontal inhibition of the ANS activity, and will be manifested in an increased length of cardiointervals and their variability, and in higher frequency-domain HRV in a form of increased HF power, decreased LF power, resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio, and in decreased SCL. Our post-12 TMS results showed significant increases in cardiac intervals variability measures and decrease of tonic SCL indicative of increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal. Behavioral evaluations showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings that correlated with several autonomic variables. PMID:26341093

  15. [Ocular motor abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy].

    PubMed

    Okuma, Y; Nagashima, T; Hirose, K; Tanabe, H; Tsubaki, T; Mizuno, M

    1989-02-01

    Eleven patients, 7 males and 4 females, of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) were examined neuro-otologically for the purpose of elucidating the characteristics of ocular motor abnormalities. All cases were admitted to our hospital and age at onset was from 52 to 71 years old, duration of illness was 2 to 11 years. Range of voluntary eye movements and abnormal eye movements including nystagmus were examined on naked eyes and with electronystagmography (ENG). Smooth pursuit movements and saccadic eye movements were tested both horizontally and vertically by using visual tracking method with ENG recordings. Optokinetic nystagmus test and caloric test with visual suppression test were also performed. These neurotological examinations were made repetitively in 5 cases and their progressions were observed. Vertical gaze palsy and convergence palsy were observed in all cases as the initial symptom. In this study downward gaze was more severely disturbed than upward gaze. Using ENG, saccadic eye movements (saccades) were disturbed earlier than smooth pursuit movements. Hypometric saccades and decreased saccadic velocity were common abnormalities. In the later stage of the disease, horizontal eye movements were also disturbed. In four cases bilateral adduction palsy was added to vertical gaze paralysis so that the lesion of the MLF to oculomotor nucleus was suggested to exist. These voluntary eye movements were worsened gradually as the disease progressed. By using ENG we could find so called abnormal eye movements more frequently than the previous reports. Eight patients demonstrated horizontal gaze nystagmus, and rebound nystagmus were observed in four cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2736143

  16. Repetition priming results in sensitivity attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Allenmark, Fredrik; Hsu, Yi-Fang; Roussel, Cedric; Waszak, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Repetition priming refers to the change in the ability to perform a task on a stimulus as a consequence of a former encounter with that very same item. Usually, repetition results in faster and more accurate performance. In the present study, we used a contrast discrimination protocol to assess perceptual sensitivity and response bias of Gabor gratings that are either repeated (same orientation) or alternated (different orientation). We observed that contrast discrimination performance is worse, not better, for repeated than for alternated stimuli. In a second experiment, we varied the probability of stimulus repetition, thus testing whether the repetition effect is due to bottom-up or top-down factors. We found that it is top-down expectation that determines the effect. We discuss the implication of these findings for repetition priming and related phenomena as sensory attenuation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25819554

  17. Repetition priming results in sensitivity attenuation.

    PubMed

    Allenmark, Fredrik; Hsu, Yi-Fang; Roussel, Cedric; Waszak, Florian

    2015-11-11

    Repetition priming refers to the change in the ability to perform a task on a stimulus as a consequence of a former encounter with that very same item. Usually, repetition results in faster and more accurate performance. In the present study, we used a contrast discrimination protocol to assess perceptual sensitivity and response bias of Gabor gratings that are either repeated (same orientation) or alternated (different orientation). We observed that contrast discrimination performance is worse, not better, for repeated than for alternated stimuli. In a second experiment, we varied the probability of stimulus repetition, thus testing whether the repetition effect is due to bottom-up or top-down factors. We found that it is top-down expectation that determines the effect. We discuss the implication of these findings for repetition priming and related phenomena as sensory attenuation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25819554

  18. The repetition of large-earthquake ruptures.

    PubMed Central

    Sieh, K

    1996-01-01

    This survey of well-documented repeated fault rupture confirms that some faults have exhibited a "characteristic" behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault lengths contrast markedly for two consecutive ruptures, but the amount of offset at individual sites was similar. Adjacent individual patches, 10 km or more in length, failed singly during one event and in tandem during the other. More complex cases of repetition may also represent the failure of several distinct patches. The faults of the 1992 Landers earthquake provide an instructive example of such complexity. Together, these examples suggest that large earthquakes commonly result from the failure of one or more patches, each characterized by a slip function that is roughly invariant through consecutive earthquake cycles. The persistence of these slip-patches through two or more large earthquakes indicates that some quasi-invariant physical property controls the pattern and magnitude of slip. These data seem incompatible with theoretical models that produce slip distributions that are highly variable in consecutive large events. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 PMID:11607662

  19. Neuro-Immune Abnormalities in Autism and Their Relationship with the Environment: A Variable Insult Model for Autism

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Daniel K.; Miyan, Jaleel A.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous condition affecting an individual’s ability to communicate and socialize and often presents with repetitive movements or behaviors. It tends to be severe with less than 10% achieving independent living with a marked variation in the progression of the condition. To date, the literature supports a multifactorial model with the largest, most detailed twin study demonstrating strong environmental contribution to the development of the condition. Here, we present a brief review of the neurological, immunological, and autonomic abnormalities in ASD focusing on the causative roles of environmental agents and abnormal gut microbiota. We present a working hypothesis attempting to bring together the influence of environment on the abnormal neurological, immunological, and neuroimmunological functions and we explain in brief how such pathophysiology can lead to, and/or exacerbate ASD symptomatology. At present, there is a lack of consistent findings relating to the neurobiology of autism. Whilst we postulate such variable findings may reflect the marked heterogeneity in clinical presentation and as such the variable findings may be of pathophysiological relevance, more research into the neurobiology of autism is necessary before establishing a working hypothesis. Both the literature review and hypothesis presented here explore possible neurobiological explanations with an emphasis of environmental etiologies and are presented with this bias. PMID:24639668

  20. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  1. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  2. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  3. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.

  4. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  5. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  6. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

  7. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many

  8. The spectrum of neurobehavioral sequelae after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury: a novel mouse model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, Anthony L; Plog, Benjamin A; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H

    2014-07-01

    There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury. PMID:24766454

  9. The Spectrum of Neurobehavioral Sequelae after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Mouse Model of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L.; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T.; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury. PMID:24766454

  10. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  11. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a spectrum of neuropathological changes following repetitive brain trauma in athletes and military personnel.

    PubMed

    Stein, Thor D; Alvarez, Victor E; McKee, Ann C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive traumatic brain injury experienced in sport and military service. In most instances, the clinical symptoms of the disease begin after a long period of latency ranging from several years to several decades. The initial symptoms are typically insidious, consisting of irritability, impulsivity, aggression, depression, short-term memory loss and heightened suicidality. The symptoms progress slowly over decades to include cognitive deficits and dementia. The pathology of CTE is characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and astrocytes in a pattern that is unique from other tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. The hyperphosphorylated tau abnormalities begin focally, as perivascular neurofibrillary tangles and neurites at the depths of the cerebral sulci, and then spread to involve superficial layers of adjacent cortex before becoming a widespread degeneration affecting medial temporal lobe structures, diencephalon and brainstem. Most instances of CTE (>85% of cases) show abnormal accumulations of phosphorylated 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein that are partially colocalized with phosphorylated tau protein. As CTE is characterized pathologically by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, by abnormal deposits of phosphorylated tau and by 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein and is associated clinically with behavioral and personality changes, as well as cognitive impairments, CTE is increasingly categorized as an acquired frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Currently, some of the greatest challenges are that CTE cannot be diagnosed during life and the incidence and prevalence of the disorder remain uncertain. Furthermore, the contribution of age, gender, genetics, stress, alcohol and substance abuse to the development of CTE remains to be determined. PMID:24423082

  12. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a spectrum of neuropathological changes following repetitive brain trauma in athletes and military personnel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive traumatic brain injury experienced in sport and military service. In most instances, the clinical symptoms of the disease begin after a long period of latency ranging from several years to several decades. The initial symptoms are typically insidious, consisting of irritability, impulsivity, aggression, depression, short-term memory loss and heightened suicidality. The symptoms progress slowly over decades to include cognitive deficits and dementia. The pathology of CTE is characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and astrocytes in a pattern that is unique from other tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease. The hyperphosphorylated tau abnormalities begin focally, as perivascular neurofibrillary tangles and neurites at the depths of the cerebral sulci, and then spread to involve superficial layers of adjacent cortex before becoming a widespread degeneration affecting medial temporal lobe structures, diencephalon and brainstem. Most instances of CTE (>85% of cases) show abnormal accumulations of phosphorylated 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein that are partially colocalized with phosphorylated tau protein. As CTE is characterized pathologically by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, by abnormal deposits of phosphorylated tau and by 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein and is associated clinically with behavioral and personality changes, as well as cognitive impairments, CTE is increasingly categorized as an acquired frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Currently, some of the greatest challenges are that CTE cannot be diagnosed during life and the incidence and prevalence of the disorder remain uncertain. Furthermore, the contribution of age, gender, genetics, stress, alcohol and substance abuse to the development of CTE remains to be determined. PMID:24423082

  13. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  14. An Introduction to Ethological Approaches With Abnormal Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Robert H.; Zabel, Mary Kay

    The paper presents an overview of an ethological approach to the study of abnormal human behavior and a review of research using ethological approaches (with an emphasis on autism research). Ethology is defined as the study of behavior as it occurs in its natural habitat. The four types of questions ethologists ask about behavior, such as what is

  15. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  16. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ TPrA] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ TPrA] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  17. A repetitive probe for FISH analysis of bovine interphase nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Slimane, Wafa; Vaiman, Daniel; Godard, Sophie; Vaiman, Anne; Cribiu, Edmond; Renard, Jean-Paul

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate repetitive DNA sequence probes for the analysis of interphase nuclei by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Such probes are useful for the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplanted embryos. Of the seven probes (E1A, E4A, Ba, H1A, W18, W22, W5) that were generated and partially sequenced, five corresponded to previously described Bos taurus repetitive DNA (E1A, E4A, Ba, W18, W5), one probe (W22) shared no homology with other DNA sequences and one (H1A) displayed a significant homology with Rattus norvegicus mRNA for secretin receptor transmembrane domain 3. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation was performed on metaphase bovine fibroblast cells and showed that five of the seven probes hybridised most centromeres (E1A, E4A, Ba, W18, W22), one labelled the arms of all chromosomes (W5) and the H1A probe was specific to three chromosomes (ch14, ch20, and ch25). Moreover, FISH with H1A resulted in interpretable signals on interphase nuclei in 88% of the cases, while the other probes yielded only dispersed overlapping signals. PMID:14736403

  18. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A multivariate statistical tool called canonical correlation analysis was adopted to seek out relationships between a set of input variables and the abnormal character values. The input variables include the MgO, CaO, Na 2O, and SiO2 contents, the ratio of MgO:(CaO+SiO2), and the annealing time and temperature. The analysis was applied to 33 different samples and showed that the composition ratio and MgO content were the strongest processing variables. These variables are most closely related to the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio, the average magnitude of abnormality, and the variance in grain size. The physical implications of these relationships are explored for a number of samples with different abnormal grain growth behaviors. Several of the samples contained a beta"-alumina phase that is shown to have a dampening effect on abnormal grain growth. TEM investigation provides evidence that there is a grain boundary complexion with a different composition and structure than the second phase. A series of samples are compared after annealing for different times and are shown to have very different behaviors as a result of the second phase competing with complexions for control over the microstructure.

  19. Autism-Like Behavior in BTBR Mice Is Improved by Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Eunice; Shprung, Dana; Minakova, Elena; Washington, James; Kumar, Udaya; Shin, Don; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey

    2015-07-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities, as well as by restricted and repetitive behaviors. Incidence of autism is higher than earlier estimates, and treatments have limited efficacy and are costly. Limited clinical and experimental evidence suggest that patients with autism may benefit from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We examined the therapeutic potential of ECT in BTBR T+ tf/j mice, which represent a validated model of autism. A series of 13 electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) delivered twice a day over 7 days reversed core autism-like behavioral abnormalities-impaired sociability, social novelty, and repetitive behavior-when the animals were tested 24 h after the last ECS. The effect lasted up to 2 weeks after ECT. Neither single ECS nor a series of 6 ECS modified animals' behavior. Chronic infusion into the lateral brain ventricle of a preferential oxytocin receptor blocker (2S)-2-Amino-N-[(1S,2S,4R)-7,7-dimethyl-1-[[[4-(2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]sulfonyl]methyl]bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-4-(methylsulfonyl)butanamide hydrochloride abolished ECT-induced improvement of sociability and mitigated improvement of social novelty but did not affect ECT-induced reversal of repetitive behavior. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that ECT may, indeed, be useful in the treatment of autism, and that its therapeutic effects may be mediated, in part, by central oxytocin signaling. PMID:25916397

  20. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  1. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... instruments, or the repetitive motion of sports like tennis. An RSI occurs when stress is placed on ... on the shoulder Epicondylitis: elbow soreness often called "tennis elbow" Ganglion cyst: swelling or lump in the ...

  2. Pathophysiological Tissue Changes Associated With Repetitive Movement: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ann E; Barbe, Mary F

    2006-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) represent approximately one third of workers’ compensation costs in US private industry, yet estimates of acceptable exposure levels for forceful and repetitive tasks are imprecise, in part, due to lack of measures of tissue injury in humans. In this review, the authors discuss the scope of upper-extremity WMSDs, the relationship between repetition rate and forcefulness of reaching tasks and WMSDs, cellular responses to injury in vivo and in vitro, and animal injury models of repetitive, forceful tasks. The authors describe a model using albino rats and present evidence related to tissue injury and inflammation due to a highly repetitive reaching task. A conceptual schematic for WMSD development and suggestions for further research are presented. Animal models can enhance our ability to predict risk and to manage WMSDs in humans because such models permit the direct observation of exposed tissues as well as motor behavior. PMID:11856068

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Absent event-related potential (ERP) word repetition effects in mild Alzheimers disease

    PubMed Central

    Olichney, John M.; Iragui, Vicente J.; Salmon, David P.; Riggins, Brock R.; Morris, Shaunna K.; Kutas, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that an ERP word repetition paradigm, which reliably elicits and modulates the P600 and N400 components, would be particularly sensitive to the memory deficits and altered synaptic plasticity in mild Alzheimers disease (AD). The P600 (a late positive component, or LPC), and the N400, are sensitive indices of memory encoding and semantic processing, respectively. Methods We studied 11 patients with mild AD (mean MMSE = 22.9) and 11 elderly (mean age = 77.1) normal controls (NC) on a paradigm in which semantically congruous category statement/exemplar pairs (50%) and incongruous category statement/non-exemplar pairs (50%) repeat at 10140 s intervals. A minimum of 19 channels ERP data were recorded and submitted to split-plot ANOVAs. Results Normal ERP data showed: (1) a significant word repetition effect for congruous words, with a wide-spread late positivity between ~300 and 800 ms post-stimulus (P600) that is larger for New than Old words; (2) a significant N400 repetition effect for incongruous words, with a right posterior negativity that is reduced for Old relative to New words. By contrast, neither of these word repetition effects was reliably present in the mild AD group. Good group discrimination was achieved by requiring that both these repetition effects were ? the 10th percentile, with 100% sensitivity and 82% specificity. Conclusions We found significant abnormalities of the N400 and P600 in mild AD, with both potentials showing markedly reduced sensitivity to word repetition. Significance The absence of normal N400 and LPC/P600 word repetition effects suggests impaired functioning of their neural generators, several of which are located in medial temporal lobe predilection sites (e.g. anterior fusiform, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus) for AD/tau pathology. PMID:16644278

  5. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Biswa Ranjan; Sarkar, Sukanto; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Mehta, Varun S.; Diwedi, Shreyansh; Nizamie, S. Haque

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive and relatively painless tool that has been used to study various cognitive functions as well as to understand the brain–behavior relationship in normal individuals as well as in those with various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has also been used as a therapeutic tool in various neuropsychiatric disorders because of its ability to specifically modulate distinct brain areas. Studies have shown that repeated stimulation at low frequency produces long-lasting inhibition, which is called as long-term depression, whereas repeated high-frequency stimulation can produce excitation through long-term potentiation. This paper reviews the current status of rTMS as an investigative and therapeutic modality in various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been used to study the cortical and subcortical functions, neural plasticity and brain mapping in normal individuals and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. rTMS has been most promising in the treatment of depression, with an overall milder adverse effect profile compared with electroconvulsive therapy. In other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, epilepsy and substance abuse, it has been found to be useful, although further studies are required to establish therapeutic efficacy. It appears to be ineffective in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. There is a paucity of studies of efficacy and safety of rTMS in pediatric and geriatric population. Although it appears safe, further research is required to optimize its efficacy and reduce the side-effects. Magnetic seizure therapy, which involves producing seizures akin to electroconvulsive therapy, appears to be of comparable efficacy in the treatment of depression with less cognitive adverse effects. PMID:22346010

  6. Relationship between redistribution on exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and repetitive ventricular premature beats in patients with recent myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, H.; Iwasaka, T.; Sugiura, T.; Shimada, T.; Nakamori, H.; Kimura, Y.; Inada, M. )

    1991-06-01

    The relationship between myocardial ischemia detected by exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and repetitive ventricular premature beats (VPBs) during ambulatory monitoring was evaluated in 57 patients with recent myocardial infarction. Multivariate analysis was performed to obtain the relatively important factor related to repetitive VPBs with the use of the following variables: age, redistribution, left ventricular ejection fraction, serum potassium and magnesium concentration, QRS score, left ventricular aneurysm, and the number of diseased vessels. Thirty-five patients had redistribution, but only three of them had repetitive VPBs during exercise testing. The average heart rate before 79% of 398 episodes of repetitive VPBs during ambulatory monitoring was in the range of 56 to 70/min. These data indicate that most of repetitive VPBs during ambulatory monitoring were not provoked by exercise-induced acute myocardial ischemia. However, redistribution was found to be an important factor associated with repetitive VPBs. The electrical abnormality relating to a substrate characterized by chronic reversible ischemia may explain the association between redistribution and repetitive VPBs.

  7. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  8. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the

  9. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  10. 21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation....5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an external device that delivers transcranial repetitive pulsed...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation....5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an external device that delivers transcranial repetitive pulsed...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation....5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an external device that delivers transcranial repetitive pulsed...

  13. Behavioral Phenotype and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Lucia; Di Filippo, Teresa; Roccella, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a congenital disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, growth retardation, limb abnormalities, intellectual disability, and behavioral problems. Cornelia de Lange syndrome is associated with abnormalities on chromosomes 5, 10 and X. Heterozygous point mutations in three genes (NIPBL, SMC3 and SMC1A), are responsible for approximately 50-60% of CdLS cases. CdLS is characterized by autistic features, notably excessive repetitive behaviors and expressive language deficits. The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology is comparatively high in CdLS. However, the profile and developmental trajectories of these ASD characteristics are potentially different to those observed in individuals with idiopathic ASD. A significantly higher prevalence of self-injury are evident in CdLS. Self-injury was associated with repetitive and impulsive behavior. This study describes the behavioral phenotype of four children with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and ASDs and rehabilitative intervention that must be implemented. PMID:26605036

  14. Chromatin diminution in the copepod Mesocyclops edax: elimination of both highly repetitive and nonhighly repetitive DNA.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Christian; Drouin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin diminution, a developmentally regulated process of DNA elimination, is found in numerous eukaryotic species. In the copepod Mesocyclops edax, some 90% of its genomic DNA is eliminated during the differentiation of embryonic cells into somatic cells. Previous studies have shown that the eliminated DNA contains highly repetitive sequences. Here, we sequenced DNA fragments from pre- and postdiminution cells to determine whether nonhighly repetitive sequences are also eliminated during the process of chromatin diminution. Comparative analyses of these sequences, as well as the sequences eliminated from the genome of the copepod Cyclops kolensis, show that they all share similar abundances of tandem repeats, dispersed repeats, transposable elements, and various coding and noncoding sequences. This suggests that, in the chromatin diminution observed in M. edax, both highly repetitive and nonhighly repetitive sequences are eliminated and that there is no bias in the type of nonhighly repetitive DNA being eliminated. PMID:23379333

  15. Repetitive foreign body ingestion: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Sarah; Stagno, Susan J; Daly, Barb

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of persons who frequently present to the healthcare system following repetitive foreign body ingestion has been addressed in the psychiatric literature. However, there has been little exploration of the ethical considerations regarding the treatment of these patients. The complexity of their medical and psychiatric presentation raises fundamental ethical questions regarding the duty to treat, patient autonomy, justice, and futility. Careful ethical analysis is particularly important in this context, since the frustration that medical professionals may feel in response may lead to false assumptions that can negatively impact patient care. A careful exploration of these questions can increase awareness and understanding, which in turn can lead to improved treatment of patients who repetitively ingest foreign bodies. Care for patients who inflict self-harm, particularly by repetitive foreign body ingestion, is not futile. The patients have a right to treatment and are entitled to resources. Efforts should be made to provide a more comprehensive treatment approach to these patients. PMID:23923808

  16. Abnormal Leg Muscle Latencies and Relationship to Dyscoordination and Walking Disability after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Janis J.; Roenigk, Kristen; Cheng, Roger; Ruff, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to determine timing characteristics of leg muscle latencies for patients following stroke (>12 months) who had persistent coordination and gait deficits, and to determine the relationships among abnormal latencies, dyscoordination, and gait deficits. We compared nine healthy controls and 27 stroke survivors. Surface electromyography measured activation and deactivation latencies of knee flexor and extensor muscles during a ballistic knee flexion task, consistency of latencies across repetitions, and close coupling between agonist and antagonist muscle latencies. We measured Fugl-Meyer (FM) coordination and the functional gait measure, six minute walk test (6MWT). For stroke subjects, there were significant delays of muscle activation and deactivation, abnormal inconsistency, and abnormal decoupled agonist and antagonist activations. There was good correlation between activation latencies and FM and 6MWT. Results suggest abnormal timing characteristics underlie coordination impairment and dysfunctional gait. These abnormal muscle activation and deactivation timing characteristics are important targets for rehabilitation. PMID:22110973

  17. Repetitive speech elicits widespread deactivation in the human cortex: the “Mantra” effect?

    PubMed Central

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Wilf, Meytal; Kahana, Roni; Arieli, Amos; Malach, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Mantra (prolonged repetitive verbal utterance) is one of the most universal mental practices in human culture. However, the underlying neuronal mechanisms that may explain its powerful emotional and cognitive impact are unknown. In order to try to isolate the effect of silent repetitive speech, which is used in most commonly practiced Mantra meditative practices, on brain activity, we studied the neuronal correlates of simple repetitive speech in nonmeditators – that is, silent repetitive speech devoid of the wider context and spiritual orientations of commonly practiced meditation practices. Methods We compared, using blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a simple task of covertly repeating a single word to resting state activity, in 23 subjects, none of which practiced meditation before. Results We demonstrate that the repetitive speech was sufficient to induce a widespread reduction in BOLD signal compared to resting baseline. The reduction was centered mainly on the default mode network, associated with intrinsic, self-related processes. Importantly, contrary to most cognitive tasks, where cortical-reduced activation in one set of networks is typically complemented by positive BOLD activity of similar magnitude in other cortical networks, the repetitive speech practice resulted in unidirectional negative activity without significant concomitant positive BOLD. A subsequent behavioral study showed a significant reduction in intrinsic thought processes during the repetitive speech condition compared to rest. Conclusions Our results are compatible with a global gating model that can exert a widespread induction of negative BOLD in the absence of a corresponding positive activation. The triggering of a global inhibition by the minimally demanding repetitive speech may account for the long-established psychological calming effect associated with commonly practiced Mantra-related meditative practices. PMID:26221571

  18. Abnormal grain growth in TD-nickel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of the coarse grain transformation occurring in TD-nickel 1 in. bar under certain conditions of deformation and annealing were examined. The transformation exhibits Avrami-type kinetics, with an activation energy of 250 kcal per mole. Characteristics of untransformed regions are like those of the as-received state. The transformed grain size increases with increasing deformation and decreasing annealing temperature. The coarse grain transformation is significantly different from primary recrystallization in pure nickel. Its characteristics cannot be rationalized in terms of primary recrystallization concepts, but may be explained in terms of an abnormal grain growth description. The coarse grain transformation in TD-nickel is abnormal grain growth rather than primary recrystallization. The analysis suggests an explanation for the effect of thermomechanical history on the deformation and annealing behavior of TD-nickel.

  19. The Effects of Delayed Reinforcement on Variability and Repetition of Response Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Amy L.; Ward, Ryan D.; Burke, K. Anne; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of delays to reinforcement on key peck sequences of pigeons maintained under multiple schedules of contingencies that produced variable or repetitive behavior. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4, in the repeat component only the sequence right-right-left-left earned food, and in the vary component four-response

  20. Learning Words over Time: The Role of Stimulus Repetition in Mutual Exclusivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Emily; Plunkett, Kim

    2009-01-01

    During the second year of life, infants develop a preference to attach novel labels to novel objects. This behavior is commonly known as "mutual exclusivity" (Markman, 1989). In an intermodal preferential looking experiment with 19.5- and 22.5-month-olds, stimulus repetition was critical for observing mutual exclusivity. On the first occasion that

  1. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  2. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  3. Large-scale detection of repetitions

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, W. F.

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorics on words began more than a century ago with a demonstration that an infinitely long string with no repetitions could be constructed on an alphabet of only three letters. Computing all the repetitions (such as ?TTT??or ?CGACGA??) in a given string x of length n is one of the oldest and most important problems of computational stringology, requiring time in the worst case. About a dozen years ago, it was discovered that repetitions can be computed as a by-product of the ?(n)-time computation of all the maximal periodicities or runs in x. However, even though the computation is linear, it is also brute force: global data structures, such as the suffix array, the longest common prefix array and the LempelZiv factorization, need to be computed in a preprocessing phase. Furthermore, all of this effort is required despite the fact that the expected number of runs in a string is generally a small fraction of the string length. In this paper, I explore the possibility that repetitions (perhaps also other regularities in strings) can be computed in a manner commensurate with the size of the output. PMID:24751872

  4. Repetitive strain disorder: towards diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, H A; Hill, J

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen women (mean age 48.2 years; range 25-60 years) all of whom had developed musculoskeletal symptoms during employment in an industrial job with repetitive tasks were referred by their trade unions for adjudication on the cause of symptoms. One had rheumatoid arthritis. A study of the other 12 women provided an opportunity to document the natural history of repetitive strain disorder. Early symptoms of weakness were diffuse but were always relieved by rest. Several months later localisation of symptoms at a tendon, nerve, or enthesis could be predicted from the analysis of the action required in the particular repetitive task. Six of the 12 women required an operation several years later, thus providing histological confirmation of the presence of a lesion. Early loss of grip strength measured by a sphygmomanometer cuff compared with an unaffected control subject and improved by rest may be the most valuable sign in excluding compensation neurosis. The estimated prevalence of repetitive strain disorder defined by these strict criteria was at least 2% in conveyor belt workers. PMID:1417124

  5. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be

  6. Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

    2009-01-01

    The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment at…

  7. Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

  8. Using Repetition to Make Ideas Stick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykins, Alicia N.

    2015-01-01

    In elementary school, the use of repetitive songs to help children remember concepts is commonplace and is usually very effective. Unfortunately for many students, this strategy is generally not used in later grades. A group of mathematics teachers at Westerville South High School in Westerville, Ohio, have taken this approach to a new creative

  9. The Value of Repetition in Articulation Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, John L.

    1970-01-01

    Exact analysis of an experiment involving children from the ages of 4 to 12 learning three new articulations revealed that most of the articulation learning took place on the second attempt with relatively moderate improvement in subsequent trials, thus placing the value of repetition in articulation learning in question. (FB)

  10. Sentence Repetition: What Does the Task Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliensk, Kamila; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition is gaining increasing attention as a source of information about children's sentence-level abilities in clinical assessment, and as a clinical marker of specific language impairment. However, it is widely debated what the task is testing and therefore how informative it is. Aims: (1) To evaluate the effects of

  11. Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

    2009-01-01

    The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment at

  12. Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise

  13. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  14. FRB repetition and non-Poissonian statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Liam; Pen, Ue-Li; Oppermann, Niels

    2016-02-01

    We discuss some of the claims that have been made regarding the statistics of fast radio bursts (FRBs). In an earlier paper (Connor et al. 2015) we conjectured that flicker noise associated with FRB repetition could show up in non-cataclysmic neutron star emission models, like supergiant pulses. We show how the current limits of repetition would be significantly weakened if their repeat rate really were non-Poissonian and had a pink or red spectrum. Repetition and its statistics have implications for observing strategy, generally favouring shallow wide-field surveys, since in the non-repeating scenario survey depth is unimportant. We also discuss the statistics of the apparent latitudinal dependence of FRBs, and offer a simple method for calculating the significance of this effect. We provide a generalized Bayesian framework for addressing this problem, which allows for direct model comparison. It is shown how the evidence for a steep latitudinal gradient of the FRB rate is less strong than initially suggested and simple explanations like increased scattering and sky temperature in the plane are sufficient to decrease the low-latitude burst rate, given current data. The reported dearth of bursts near the plane is further complicated if FRBs have non-Poissonian repetition, since in that case the event rate inferred from observation depends on observing strategy.

  15. Pressure wave charged repetitively pulsed gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarny, Vijay A. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A repetitively pulsed gas laser in which a system of mechanical shutters bracketing the laser cavity manipulate pressure waves resulting from residual energy in the cavity gas following a lasing event so as to draw fresh gas into the cavity and effectively pump spent gas in a dynamic closed loop.

  16. Sentence Repetition: What Does the Task Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polišenská, Kamila; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition is gaining increasing attention as a source of information about children's sentence-level abilities in clinical assessment, and as a clinical marker of specific language impairment. However, it is widely debated what the task is testing and therefore how informative it is. Aims: (1) To evaluate the effects of…

  17. CHROMOSOMAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAIZE REPETITIVE SEQUENCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarray technology used in conjunction with labeled DNA from oat-maize addition (OMA) lines enable chromosomal analysis of the organization and distribution of maize repetitive elements. Each OMA line contains an individual maize chromosome allowing for an analysis of its composition. The probes ...

  18. The Effects of Repetition on Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of repetition (1, 3, 7, and 10 encounters) on word knowledge in a carefully controlled study of 121 Japanese students learning English. The study is innovative and original in several aspects. (1) The study uses 10 tests to measure knowledge of orthography, association, grammatical functions, syntax, and meaning

  19. Armor materials behavior under repetitive dense plasma shots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokova, V.; Laas, T.; Ainsaar, A.; Priimets, J.; Ugaste, .; Vli, B.; Gribkov, V. A.; Maslyaev, S. A.; Demina, E. V.; Dubrovsky, A. V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Prusakova, M. D.; Mikli, V.

    2014-05-01

    Experiments on the plasma focus device PF-12 have been carried out to investigate changes in the structure of the surface and bulk of tungsten and tungsten doped with 1% lanthanum oxide after repeated powerful deuterium plasma shots (8, 25 and 100). The surface morphology of the targets exposed to plasma streams is analyzed by electron and optical microscopy. Due to the plasma effect, different surface structures, such as wave-like structures, a melted layer, a mesh of microcracks, droplets, craters, crevices and holes, appear. The change of cross-section hardness after a number of shots in different materials is investigated.

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  1. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  2. Echocardiographic abnormalities following cardiac radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrault, D.J.; Levy, M.; Herman, J.D.; Burns, R.J.; Bar Shlomo, B.Z.; Druck, M.N.; Wu, W.Q.; McLaughlin, P.R.; Gilbert, B.W.

    1985-04-01

    Five years or more after receiving cardiac radiation, 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease and seminoma in remission were subjected to echocardiography. The abnormalities detected included pericardial thickening in 70%, thickening of the aortic and/or mitral valves in 28%, right ventricular dilatation or hypokinesis in 39%, and left ventricular dysfunction in 39%. In the 23 patients treated by an upper mantle technique with shielding, the incidence of right ventricular abnormalities and valvular thickening was significantly lower than in patients treated with modified techniques. Although no symptoms were attributable to the observed abnormalities, longer follow-up time may reveal important functional implications.

  3. Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes by trajectory cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shifu; Zhang, Zhijiang; Zeng, Dan; Shen, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal events detection in crowded scenes has been a challenge due to volatility of the definitions for both normality and abnormality, the small number of pixels on the target, appearance ambiguity resulting from the dense packing, and severe inter-object occlusions. A novel framework was proposed for the detection of unusual events in crowded scenes using trajectories produced by moving pedestrians based on an intuition that the motion patterns of usual behaviors are similar to these of group activity, whereas unusual behaviors are not. First, spectral clustering is used to group trajectories with similar spatial patterns. Different trajectory clusters represent different activities. Then, unusual trajectories can be detected using these patterns. Furthermore, behavior of a mobile pedestrian can be defined by comparing its direction with these patterns, such as moving in the opposite direction of the group or traversing the group. Experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm could be used to reliably locate the abnormal events in crowded scenes.

  4. Resistance to change of operant variation and repetition.

    PubMed

    Doughty, A H; Lattal, K A

    2001-09-01

    A multiple chained schedule was used to compare the relative resistance to change of variable and fixed four-peck response sequences in pigeons. In one terminal link, a response sequence produced food only if it occurred infrequently relative to 15 other response sequences (vary). In the other terminal link, a single response sequence produced food (repeat). Identical variable-interval schedules operated in the initial links. During baseline, lower response rates generally occurred in the vary initial link, and similar response and reinforcement rates occurred in each terminal link. Resistance of responding to prefeeding and three rates of response-independent food delivered during the intercomponent intervals then was compared between components. During each disruption condition, initial- and terminal-link response rates generally were more resistant in the vary component than in the repeat component. During the response-independent food conditions, terminal-link response rates were more resistant than initial-link response rates in each component, but this did not occur during prefeeding. Variation (in vary) and repetition (in repeat) both decreased during the response-independent food conditions in the respective components, but with relatively greater disruption in repeat. These results extend earlier findings demonstrating that operant variation is more resistant to disruption than is operant repetition and suggest that theories of response strength, such as behavioral momentum theory, must consider factors other than reinforcement rate. The implications of the results for understanding operant response classes are discussed. PMID:11599639

  5. Specificity of Repetition Priming: The Role of Chemical Coding

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Allyson K.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate stimulus specificity of repetition priming in a tractable model system; the feeding network of Aplysia. Previous studies primarily focused on an aspect of behavior that is altered during ingestive priming, radula opening. Priming of radula opening occurs when two modulatory peptides [feeding circuit activating peptide (FCAP) and cerebral peptide-2 (CP-2)] are released from the cholinergic command-like neuron cerebral buccal interneuron 2. Effects of FCAP/CP-2 on radula opening motor neurons are cAMP mediated. The present experiments sought to determine whether FCAP/CP-2 and cAMP are also involved in the priming of radula opening during an incompatible activity, i.e., during egestive motor programs. Egestive priming is induced when motor programs are triggered by afferents with processes in the esophageal nerve. We demonstrate that egestive priming is not FCAP/CP-2 mediated. Instead, it is induced by an unrelated peptide (small cardioactive peptide), which exerts PKC-mediated effects. Our data, therefore, suggest that different feeding motor programs are primed via actions of different sets of intercellular and intracellular substances. We suggest that this accounts for the stimulus specificity that can be characteristic of repetition priming. Different stimuli activate different central pattern generator inputs. These inputs release different modulators, which induce functionally distinct motor programs. PMID:25904786

  6. Specificity of repetition priming: the role of chemical coding.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Allyson K; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2015-04-22

    We investigate stimulus specificity of repetition priming in a tractable model system; the feeding network of Aplysia. Previous studies primarily focused on an aspect of behavior that is altered during ingestive priming, radula opening. Priming of radula opening occurs when two modulatory peptides [feeding circuit activating peptide (FCAP) and cerebral peptide-2 (CP-2)] are released from the cholinergic command-like neuron cerebral buccal interneuron 2. Effects of FCAP/CP-2 on radula opening motor neurons are cAMP mediated. The present experiments sought to determine whether FCAP/CP-2 and cAMP are also involved in the priming of radula opening during an incompatible activity, i.e., during egestive motor programs. Egestive priming is induced when motor programs are triggered by afferents with processes in the esophageal nerve. We demonstrate that egestive priming is not FCAP/CP-2 mediated. Instead, it is induced by an unrelated peptide (small cardioactive peptide), which exerts PKC-mediated effects. Our data, therefore, suggest that different feeding motor programs are primed via actions of different sets of intercellular and intracellular substances. We suggest that this accounts for the stimulus specificity that can be characteristic of repetition priming. Different stimuli activate different central pattern generator inputs. These inputs release different modulators, which induce functionally distinct motor programs. PMID:25904786

  7. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    PubMed Central

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. We describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetiton Task (SRT) that eliminates this confound and report findings from three validity studies. Method Ninety-five preschool children with Speech Delay and 63 with Typical Speech, completed an assessment battery that included the Nonword Repetition Task (NRT: Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) and the SRT. SRT stimuli include only four of the earliest occurring consonants and one early occurring vowel. Results Study 1 findings indicated that the SRT eliminated the speech confound in nonword testing with speakers who misarticulate. Study 2 findings indicated that the accuracy of the SRT to identify expressive language impairment was comparable to findings for the NRT. Study 3 findings illustrated the SRTs potential to interrogate speech processing constraints underlying poor nonword repetition accuracy. Results supported both memorial and auditory-perceptual encoding constraints underlying nonword repetition errors in children with speech-language impairment. Conclusion The SRT appears to be a psychometrically stable and substantively informative nonword repetition task for emerging genetic and other research with speakers who misarticulate. PMID:19635944

  8. Differential Preparation Intervals Modulate Repetition Processes in Task Switching: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Qian-Jing; Wang, Meng; Jin, Zhenlan; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, reaction times (RTs) switch cost (SC) and the neural correlates underlying the SC are affected by different preparation intervals. However, little is known about the effect of the preparation interval on the repetition processes in task-switching. To examine this effect we utilized a cued task-switching paradigm with long sequences of repeated trials. Response-stimulus intervals (RSI) and cue-stimulus intervals (CSI) were manipulated in short and long conditions. Electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral data were recorded. We found that with increasing repetitions, RTs were faster in the short CSI conditions, while P3 amplitudes decreased in the LS (long RSI and short CSI) conditions. Positive correlations between RT benefit and P3 activation decrease (repeat 1 - repeat 5), and between the slope of the RT and P3 regression lines were observed only in the LS condition. Our findings suggest that differential preparation intervals modulate repetition processes in task switching. PMID:26924974

  9. Differential Preparation Intervals Modulate Repetition Processes in Task Switching: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Qian-Jing; Wang, Meng; Jin, Zhenlan; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, reaction times (RTs) switch cost (SC) and the neural correlates underlying the SC are affected by different preparation intervals. However, little is known about the effect of the preparation interval on the repetition processes in task-switching. To examine this effect we utilized a cued task-switching paradigm with long sequences of repeated trials. Response-stimulus intervals (RSI) and cue-stimulus intervals (CSI) were manipulated in short and long conditions. Electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral data were recorded. We found that with increasing repetitions, RTs were faster in the short CSI conditions, while P3 amplitudes decreased in the LS (long RSI and short CSI) conditions. Positive correlations between RT benefit and P3 activation decrease (repeat 1 − repeat 5), and between the slope of the RT and P3 regression lines were observed only in the LS condition. Our findings suggest that differential preparation intervals modulate repetition processes in task switching. PMID:26924974

  10. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, Craig A; Burnette, John R

    2011-03-22

    Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

  11. Hijacking Cortical Motor Output with Repetitive Microstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, D.M.; Hudson, H.M.; Belhaj-Sa?f, A.; Cheney, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    High frequency repetitive microstimulation has been widely used as a method of investigating the properties of cortical motor output. Despite its widespread use, few studies have investigated how activity evoked by high frequency stimulation may interact with the existing activity of cortical cells resulting from natural synaptic inputs. A reasonable assumption might be that the stimulus-evoked activity sums with the existing natural activity. However, another possibility is that the stimulus-evoked firing of cortical neurons might block and replace the natural activity. We refer to this latter possibility as neural hijacking. Evidence from analysis of EMG activity evoked by repetitive microstimulation (200 Hz, 500 ms) of primary motor cortex in two rhesus monkeys during performance of a reach-to-grasp task strongly supports the neural hijacking hypothesis. PMID:21917792

  12. A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Casa, Valentina; Gabellini, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non-functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression, and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome re-arrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements' activity is fundamental. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins. Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space. PMID:23060903

  13. Timing variability of repetitive saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Collins, C J; Jahanshahi, M; Barnes, G R

    1998-06-01

    We assessed the suitability of using the Wing and Kristofferson model for timing repetitive motor responses to analyse timing variability during repetitive saccadic eye movements. The model decomposes total timing variability (TV) into a central timing component (CV) and a peripheral motor delay component (MV). Eight normal subjects made voluntary horizontal saccades, in darkness, in synchrony with a regular auditory metronome. After 20 saccades had been produced, the metronome was switched off and subjects continued responding at the same frequency until 31 further saccades had been made. Inter-saccade intervals (ISIs) from the unpaced phase were used to calculate TV, CV and MV. Three different target intervals, paced by auditory cues, were used - 496 ms, 752 ms and 1000 ms. In the paced phase, subjects' ISIs closely matched the auditory cue intervals. In the unpaced phase, subjects were clearly able to respond at three different frequencies. As predicted by the Wing and Kristofferson model, the durations of successive ISIs tended to be negatively correlated. As expected, TV and CV increased with increasing ISI. Contrary to the expectation of the model that MV would remain constant, we found that it increased with increasing interval. Our results do not conclusively demonstrate the validity of applying the Wing and Kristofferson model to the analysis of timing variability during repetitive saccadic eye movements. However, comparison with previous studies shows that, at least in normal subjects, it is equally valid to apply the model to the analysis of repetitive saccadic eye movements as it is to apply it to the analysis of data from other effectors. PMID:9628419

  14. A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Valentina; Gabellini, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non-functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression, and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome re-arrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins. Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space. PMID:23060903

  15. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015;38(5):833–837. PMID:25409105

  16. The Dfam database of repetitive DNA families.

    PubMed

    Hubley, Robert; Finn, Robert D; Clements, Jody; Eddy, Sean R; Jones, Thomas A; Bao, Weidong; Smit, Arian F A; Wheeler, Travis J

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive DNA, especially that due to transposable elements (TEs), makes up a large fraction of many genomes. Dfam is an open access database of families of repetitive DNA elements, in which each family is represented by a multiple sequence alignment and a profile hidden Markov model (HMM). The initial release of Dfam, featured in the 2013 NAR Database Issue, contained 1143 families of repetitive elements found in humans, and was used to produce more than 100 Mb of additional annotation of TE-derived regions in the human genome, with improved speed. Here, we describe recent advances, most notably expansion to 4150 total families including a comprehensive set of known repeat families from four new organisms (mouse, zebrafish, fly and nematode). We describe improvements to coverage, and to our methods for identifying and reducing false annotation. We also describe updates to the website interface. The Dfam website has moved to http://dfam.org. Seed alignments, profile HMMs, hit lists and other underlying data are available for download. PMID:26612867

  17. The Dfam database of repetitive DNA families

    PubMed Central

    Hubley, Robert; Finn, Robert D.; Clements, Jody; Eddy, Sean R.; Jones, Thomas A.; Bao, Weidong; Smit, Arian F.A.; Wheeler, Travis J.

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive DNA, especially that due to transposable elements (TEs), makes up a large fraction of many genomes. Dfam is an open access database of families of repetitive DNA elements, in which each family is represented by a multiple sequence alignment and a profile hidden Markov model (HMM). The initial release of Dfam, featured in the 2013 NAR Database Issue, contained 1143 families of repetitive elements found in humans, and was used to produce more than 100 Mb of additional annotation of TE-derived regions in the human genome, with improved speed. Here, we describe recent advances, most notably expansion to 4150 total families including a comprehensive set of known repeat families from four new organisms (mouse, zebrafish, fly and nematode). We describe improvements to coverage, and to our methods for identifying and reducing false annotation. We also describe updates to the website interface. The Dfam website has moved to http://dfam.org. Seed alignments, profile HMMs, hit lists and other underlying data are available for download. PMID:26612867

  18. Overview of repetitively pulsed photolytic iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlie, L. A. V.

    1996-02-01

    The performance of a repetitively pulsed, 70 joule, closed cycle 1.3 (mu) M photolytic atomic iodine laser with excellent beam quality (BQ equals 1.15) is presented. This BQ was exhibited in the fundamental mode from a M equals 3.1 confocal unstable resonator at a 0.5 Hz repetition rate. A closed cycle scrubber/laser fuel system consisting of a condensative- evaporative section, two Cu wool I2 reactor regions, and an internal turbo-blower enabled the laser to operate very reliably with low maintenance. The fuel system provided C3F7I gas at 10 - 60 torr absent of the photolytic quenching by-product I2. Using a turbo- molecular blower longitudinal flow velocities greater than 10 m/s were achieved through the 150 cm long by 7.5 multiplied by 7.5 cm2 cross sectional photolytic iodine gain region. In addition to the high laser output and excellent BQ, the resulting 8 - 12 microsecond laser pulse had a coherence length greater than 45 meters and polarization extinction ratio better than 100:1. Projections from this pulsed photolytic atomic iodine laser technology to larger energies, higher repetition rates, and variable pulse widths are discussed.

  19. Destabilization of Simple Repetitive DNA Sequences by Transcription in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wierdl, M.; Greene, C. N.; Datta, A.; Jinks-Robertson, S.; Petes, T. D.

    1996-01-01

    Simple repetitive DNA sequences in the eukaryotic genome frequently alter in length. In wild-type strains, we find that transcription through a repetitive poly GT tract destabilizes the tract four- to ninefold. In mismatch repair-deficient yeast strains, simple repeats are very unstable. High levels of transcription in such strains destabilize repetitive tracts an additional two- to threefold. PMID:8725221

  20. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric

  1. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  2. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Michael J.; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an impact to the cranium of an unrestrained subject allowing rapid acceleration of the free-moving head and torso, an essential characteristic known to be important for concussive injury in humans, and a factor that is missing from existing animal models of TBI. Our method does not require scalp incision, emplacement of protective skull helmets or surgery and the procedure can be completed in 1-2 minutes. Mice spontaneously recover the righting reflex and show no evidence of seizures, paralysis or impaired behavior. Skull fractures and intracranial bleeding are very rare. Minor deficits in motor coordination and locomotor hyperactivity recover over time. Histological analyses reveal mild astrocytic reactivity (increased expression of GFAP) and increased phospho-tau but a lack of blood-brain-barrier disruption, edema and microglial activation. This new animal model is simple and cost-effective and will facilitate characterization of the neurobiological and behavioral consequences of rmTBI. It is also ideal for high throughput screening of potential new therapies for mild concussive injuries as experienced by athletes and military personnel. PMID:21930157

  3. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  4. Experimental models of repetitive brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Weber, John T

    2007-01-01

    Repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs in a significant portion of trauma patients, especially in specific populations, such as child abuse victims or athletes involved in contact sports (e.g. boxing, football, hockey, and soccer). A continually emerging hypothesis is that repeated mild injuries may cause cumulative damage to the brain, resulting in long-term cognitive dysfunction. The growing attention to this hypothesis is reflected in several recent experimental studies of repeated mild TBI in vivo. These reports generally demonstrate cellular and cognitive dysfunction after repetitive injury using rodent TBI models. In some cases, data suggests that the effects of a second mild TBI may be synergistic, rather than additive. In addition, some studies have found increases in cellular markers associated with Alzheimer's disease after repeated mild injuries, which demonstrates a direct experimental link between repetitive TBI and neurodegenerative disease. To complement the findings from humans and in vivo experimentation, my laboratory group has investigated the effects of repeated trauma in cultured brain cells using a model of stretch-induced mechanical injury in vitro. In these studies, hippocampal cells exhibited cumulative damage when mild stretch injuries were repeated at either 1-h or 24-h intervals. Interestingly, the extent of damage to the cells was dependent on the time between repeated injuries. Also, a very low level of stretch, which produced no cell damage on its own, induced cell damage when it was repeated several times at a short interval (every 2 min). Although direct comparisons to the clinical situation are difficult, these types of repetitive, low-level, mechanical stresses may be similar to the insults received by certain athletes, such as boxers, or hockey and soccer players. This type of in vitro model could provide a reliable system in which to study the mechanisms underlying cellular dysfunction following repeated injuries. As this area of TBI research continues to evolve, it will be imperative that models of repetitive injury replicate injuries in humans as closely as possible. For example, it will be important to model appropriately concussive episodes versus even lower level injuries (such as those that might occur during boxing matches). Suitable inter-injury intervals will also be important parameters to incorporate into models. Additionally, it will be crucial to design and utilize proper controls, which can be more challenging than experimental approaches to single mild TBI. It will also be essential to combine, and compare, data derived from in vitro experiments with those conducted with animals in vivo. These issues, as well as a summary of findings from repeated TBI research, are discussed in this review. PMID:17618983

  5. The Adult Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 (RBQ-2A): A Self-Report Measure of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sarah L.; Uljarevic, Mirko; Baker, Emma K.; Richdale, Amanda L.; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Leekam, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    In two studies we developed and tested a new self-report measure of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) suitable for adults. In Study 1, The Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 for adults (RBQ-2A) was completed by a sample of 163 neurotypical adults. Principal components analysis revealed two components: Repetitive Motor Behaviours and

  6. The Adult Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 (RBQ-2A): A Self-Report Measure of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sarah L.; Uljarevic, Mirko; Baker, Emma K.; Richdale, Amanda L.; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Leekam, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    In two studies we developed and tested a new self-report measure of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) suitable for adults. In Study 1, The Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 for adults (RBQ-2A) was completed by a sample of 163 neurotypical adults. Principal components analysis revealed two components: Repetitive Motor Behaviours and…

  7. Repetitive control in the presence of multiple periodic disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solcz, Edward J.; Longman, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce several methods for implementing repetitive control of systems subjected to noninteger multiple periodic disturbances. One method uses a single repetitive controller to learn at the common period of the disturbances. The second employs multiple p-integrator based repetitive controllers operating in parallel. The third method introduces the concept of sequenced repetitive controllers. Cross-talk elimination algorithms are proposed to improve the repetitive control performance in the presence of transients. A novel averaging algorithm is introduced for on-line and off-line control strategies.

  8. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  9. Abnormalities of the external genitalia.

    PubMed

    Baldinger, Lauren; Mudegowdar, Abhijith; Shukla, Aseem R

    2014-09-01

    Abnormalities of the external genitalia span the spectrum from subtle findings of limited clinical significance to profound anomalies that call into question such essential questions as sex determination. In addition, missing a diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a newborn female child with virilized external genitalia can result in near-term mortality, whereas a large inguinal hernia could present rapidly with incarceration if undetected. To that end, this article seeks to present a survey of commonly encountered genital abnormalities while highlighting those scenarios that require multidisciplinary interventions. PMID:25155737

  10. [Guidelines for redesigning jobs with repetitive tasks].

    PubMed

    Colombini, D; Occhipinti, E; Meroni, M; Menoni, O; Bergamasco, R; Girola, C; Grea, V; Vendola, D

    1996-01-01

    Preventive measures aimed at minimising the occurrence of work-related musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs (WMSDs) associated with repetitive tasks can be divided into 3 categories: structural, organisational and educational. Whenever specific risk and injury assessments have shown the need for preventive action, this is most often implemented within the framework of a range of assorted measures. In particular, structural measures pertain to optimising the layout of the work area and furnishings, and the "ergonomic" properties of work tools and equipment. Such measures serve to alleviate the problems caused by the use of excessive force and improper postures. The authors refer to the principles guiding such structural measures, in the light of the extensive literature that has been published on the subject. Organisational (or re-organisational) measures essentially relate to job design (i.e. distribution of tasks, speeds and pauses). They serve to alleviate problems connected with highly repetitive and frequent actions, excessively lengthy tasks and inadequate recovery periods. Very few relevant findings are available: the authors therefore illustrate in some detail a practical trial conducted in a major engineering firm. The objective was to lower to acceptable limits the frequency of certain repetitive tasks performed by workers using their upper limbs. The trial made it possible to identify a suitable plan and schedule of measures taking into due consideration the impact of the plan on production levels (and costs). The fundamental principles guiding the adoption of specific educational and training programmes for the workers and their supervisors are presented and discussed. PMID:9148129

  11. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

  12. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial

  13. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  14. The Therapeutic Function of the Instructor in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgin, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes three main types of therapeutic problems which college instructors of abnormal psychology courses may encounter with their students. Students may seek the instructor's assistance in helping a relative or acquaintance or for self-help. Often a student may not seek help but may display pathological behavior. (AM)

  15. AUTOSIM: An automated repetitive software testing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. R.; Mcbride, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    AUTOSIM is a software tool which automates the repetitive run testing of software. This tool executes programming tasks previously performed by a programmer with one year of programming experience. Use of the AUTOSIM tool requires a knowledge base containing information about known faults, code fixes, and the fault diagnosis-correction process. AUTOSIM can be considered as an expert system which replaces a low level of programming expertise. Reference information about the design and implementation of the AUTOSIM software test tool provides flowcharts to assist in maintaining the software code and a description of how to use the tool.

  16. Software reliability: Repetitive run experimentation and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, P. M.; Skrivan, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A software experiment conducted with repetitive run sampling is reported. Independently generated input data was used to verify that interfailure times are very nearly exponentially distributed and to obtain good estimates of the failure rates of individual errors and demonstrate how widely they vary. This fact invalidates many of the popular software reliability models now in use. The log failure rate of interfailure time was nearly linear as a function of the number of errors corrected. A new model of software reliability is proposed that incorporates these observations.

  17. Supplementation of Korean Red Ginseng improves behavior deviations in animal models of autism

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Jang, Jong-Hwa; Mabunga, Darine Froy N.; Kim, Ji-Woon; Ko, Mee Jung; Cho, Kyu Suk; Bahn, Geon Ho; Hong, Minha; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that primarily display social and communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence has increased in recent years, yet very limited therapeutic targets and treatments are available to counteract the incapacitating disorder. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a popular herbal plant in South Korea known for its wide range of therapeutic effects and nutritional benefits and has recently been gaining great scientific attention, particularly for its positive effects in the central nervous system. Objectives Thus, in this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of KRG in alleviating the neurobehavioral deficits found in the valproic acid (VPA)-exposed mice models of ASD. Design Starting at 21 days old (P21), VPA-exposed mice were given daily oral administrations of KRG solution (100 or 200 mg/kg) until the termination of all experiments. From P28, mice behaviors were assessed in terms of social interaction capacity (P28–29), locomotor activity (P30), repetitive behaviors (P32), short-term spatial working memory (P34), motor coordination (P36), and seizure susceptibility (P38). Results VPA-exposed mice showed sociability and social novelty preference deficits, hyperactivity, increased repetitive behavior, impaired spatial working memory, slightly affected motor coordination, and high seizure susceptibility. Remarkably, long-term KRG treatment in both dosages normalized all the ASD-related behaviors in VPA-exposed mice, except motor coordination ability. Conclusion As a food and herbal supplement with various known benefits, KRG demonstrated its therapeutic potential in rescuing abnormal behaviors related to autism caused by prenatal environmental exposure to VPA. PMID:26837496

  18. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH. PMID:26365482

  19. Postural Abnormalities: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children in grades 4 through 12 with postural abnormalities. An introductory chapter covers definitions and

  20. Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G; Friedman, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry. PMID:2185921

  1. High repetition rate nitrogen ion laser

    SciTech Connect

    Harshaw, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The average power of a pulsed discharge laser may be increased by increasing the single pulse energy or by pulsing the laser at a higher rate without a substantial loss of single pulse energy. Single pulse energy can be enhanced by increasing the energy deposition to the medium, and by scaling to larger discharge volumes. The realization of high repetition rates (HRR's) is often accomplished by the addition of specialized power supplies, pulse-forming-networks, and laser heads. In this work, a HRR N{sub 2}+ laser has been developed and its output characterized as a function of gas pressure, temperature, velocity, energy deposition, and repetition rate. It is shown that a self-excited superradiant device is more susceptible to HRR failure modes than a similar oscillator-amplifier arrangement, the difference arising from gain and saturation considerations. With this understanding, A HRR N{sub 2}+ oscillator-amplifier was constructed yielding pulse energies of 4.5 mJ and 0.25 W average power at 60 pps, while capable of several hour gas fill lifetimes.

  2. Pull-production in repetitive remanufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, D.W. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    In the past, production activity control practices in most repetitive remanufacturing facilities resembled those used in intermittent production operations. These operations were characterized by large amounts of work-in-process (WIP), frequent work stoppages due to part shortages, excessive overtime, low product velocity, informal scheduling between dependent operations, low employee and management moral, and a lot of wasted time, material, labor, and space. Improvement in production activity control (PAC) methods for repetitive remanufactures has been hampered by uncertainty in: supply of incoming assets, configuration of assets, process times to refurbish assets, and yields in reclamation processes. collectively these uncertainties make shop floor operations seem uncontrollable. However, one United States Army depot has taken on the challenge. Through management supported, cross-functional teams, the Tooele Army Depot has designed and implemented pull-production systems for two of its major products, with several others to follow. This article presents a generalized version of Tooele`s pull-production system and highlights design characteristics which are specific to remanufacturing applications.

  3. Pull-production in repetitive remanufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, D.W. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    In the past, production activity control practices in most repetitive remanufacturing facilities resembled those used in intermittent production operations. These operations were characterized by large amounts of work-in-process (WIP), frequent work stoppages due to part shortages, excessive overtime, low product velocity, informal scheduling between dependent operations, low employee and management moral, and a lot of wasted time, material, labor, and space. Improvement in production activity control (PAC) methods for repetitive remanufactures has been hampered by uncertainty in: supply of incoming assets, configuration of assets, process times to refurbish assets, and yields in reclamation processes. collectively these uncertainties make shop floor operations seem uncontrollable. However, one United States Army depot has taken on the challenge. Through management supported, cross-functional teams, the Tooele Army Depot has designed and implemented pull-production systems for two of its major products, with several others to follow. This article presents a generalized version of Tooele's pull-production system and highlights design characteristics which are specific to remanufacturing applications.

  4. Investigation of a repetitive pulsed electrothermal thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. L.; Fleischer, D.; Goldstein, S. A.; Tidman, D. A.; Winsor, N. K.

    1986-01-01

    A pulsed electrothermal (PET) thruster with 1000:1 ratio nozzle is tested in a repetitive mode on water propellant. The thruster is driven by a 60J pulse forming network at repetition rates up to 10 Hz (600W). The pulse forming network has a .31 ohm impedance, well matched to the capillary discharge resistance of .40 ohm, and is directly coupled to the thruster electrodes without a switch. The discharge is initiated by high voltage breakdown, typically at 2500V, through the water vapor in the interelectrode gap. Water is injected as a jet through a .37 mm orifice on the thruster axis. Thruster voltage, current and impulse bit are recorded for several seconds at various power supply currents. Thruster to power ratio is typically T/P = .07 N/kW. Tank background pressure precludes direct measurement of exhaust velocity which is inferred from calculated pressure and temperature in the discharge to be about 14 km/sec. Efficiency, based on this velocity and measured T/P is .54 + or - .07. Thruster ablation is zero at the throat and becomes measurable further upstream, indicating that radiative ablation is occurring late in the pulse.

  5. Repetition priming in selective attention: A TVA analysis.

    PubMed

    sgeirsson, rni Gunnar; Kristjnsson, rni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-09-01

    Current behavior is influenced by events in the recent past. In visual attention, this is expressed in many variations of priming effects. Here, we investigate color priming in a brief exposure digit-recognition task. Observers performed a masked odd-one-out singleton recognition task where the target-color either repeated or changed between subsequent trials. Performance was measured by recognition accuracy over exposure durations. The purpose of the study was to replicate earlier findings of perceptual priming in brief displays and to model those results based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). We tested 4 different definitions of a generic TVA-model and assessed their explanatory power. Our hypothesis was that priming effects could be explained by selective mechanisms, and that target-color repetitions would only affect the selectivity parameter (?) of our models. Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure that estimated 4-15 free parameters, depending on the particular model. We draw two main conclusions. Color priming can be modeled simply as a change in selectivity between conditions of repetition or swap of target color. Depending on the desired resolution of analysis; priming can accurately be modeled by a simple four parameter model, where VSTM capacity and spatial biases of attention are ignored, or more fine-grained by a 10 parameter model that takes these aspects into account. PMID:26163225

  6. Multiwavelength super-structured Bragg grating laser for tunable repetition rate mode-locked operation.

    PubMed

    Simard, Alexandre D; Strain, Michael J; Pusino, Vincenzo; Sorel, Marc; LaRochelle, Sophie

    2014-07-14

    A multiwavelength laser based on a super-structured Bragg grating is designed and fabricated on multiquantum well AlGaInAs-InP. This laser exhibits phase locking via mutual injection of the neighboring cavities assisted by four wave mixing. We present optical and electrical characterization of its emission regimes showing a complex dynamic behavior. More specifically, this paper focuses on a pulsed regime with a quasi-continuous tunable repetition rate from 32 GHz to 49 GHz. PMID:25090519

  7. A phonetic approach to consonant repetition in early words.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namhee; Davis, Barbara L

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate movement-based principles for understanding early speech output patterns. Consonant repetition patterns within children's actual productions of word forms were analyzed using spontaneous speech data from 10 typically developing American-English learning children between 12 and 36 months of age. Place of articulation, word level patterns, and developmental trends in CVC and CVCV repeated word forms were evaluated. Labial and coronal place repetitions dominated. Regressive repetition (e.g., [gag] for "dog") occurred frequently in CVC but not in CVCV word forms. Consonant repetition decreased over time. However, the children produced sound types available reported as being within young children's production system capabilities in consonant repetitions in all time periods. Findings suggest that a movement-based approach can provide a framework for comprehensively characterizing consonant place repetition patterns in early speech development. PMID:26176184

  8. Models of Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia asserts that the underlying pathology of schizophrenia has its roots in brain development and that these brain abnormalities do not manifest themselves until adolescence or early adulthood. Animal models based on developmental manipulations have provided insight into the vulnerability of the developing fetus and the importance of the early environment for normal maturation. These models have provided a wide range of validated approaches to answer questions regarding environmental influences on both neural and behavioral development. In an effort to better understand the developmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, animal models have been developed, which seek to model the etiology and/or the pathophysiology of schizophrenia or specific behaviors associated with the disease. Developmental models specific to schizophrenia have focused on epidemiological risk factors (e.g., prenatal viral insult, birth complications) or more heuristic models aimed at understanding the developmental neuropathology of the disease (e.g., ventral hippocampal lesions). The combined approach of behavioral and neuroanatomical evaluation of these models strengthens their utility in improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and developing new treatment strategies. PMID:21312409

  9. Exposure to Repetitive Tasks Induces Motor Changes Related to Skill Acquisition and Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kietrys, David M.; Barr, Ann E; Barbe, Mary F

    2013-01-01

    This study elucidates exposure-response relationships between repetitive tasks, inflammation and motor changes with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Using a rat model of reaching and handle-pulling, we examined effects of performing a high repetition low force (HRLF), low repetition high force (LRHF), or high repetition high force (HRHF) task (2 h/day, 3 days/wk, 12 wks) on reach rate and force, percent success, duration of participation and grip strength. Reach rate and reach force improved with HRLF, and percent success increased in all groups in week 9, and HRLF and HRHF in week 12, indicative of skill acquisition. Duration and grip strength showed force-dependent declines with task performance. A subset of HRHF rats received ibuprofen in weeks 512. Ibuprofen significantly improved reach rate, reach force and duration in treated rats, indicative of an inflammatory influence on reach performance. Ibuprofen improved percent successful reaches in week 9, although this increase was not sustained. However, declines in grip strength, a nocifensive behavior, were not prevented by ibuprofen. Examination of cervical spinal cords of untreated and ibuprofen treated HRHF rats showed increased IL-1beta, an inflammatory cytokine, in neurons. These findings suggest that only a preventive intervention could have addressed all motor declines. PMID:22087754

  10. The evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNA in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, B; Sniegowski, P; Stephan, W

    1994-09-15

    Repetitive DNA sequences form a large portion of the genomes of eukaryotes. The 'selfish DNA' hypothesis proposes that they are maintained by their ability to replicate within the genome. The behaviour of repetitive sequences can result in mutations that cause genetic diseases, and confer significant fitness losses on the organism. Features of the organization of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, and their distribution in natural populations, reflect the evolutionary forces acting on selfish DNA. PMID:8078581

  11. Abnormalities of the Optic Fundus

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, David W.; Mandelcorn, Mark S.

    1990-01-01

    Common abnormalities of the optic fundus are illustrated in this article. The authors provide brief clinical descriptions and discuss a test used to screen for a shallow anterior chamber of the eye before dilating the pupil. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17 PMID:21234023

  12. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE. PMID:25904047

  13. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Mina; Hayden, Nicholas; Garcia, Brandon; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases. PMID:26693360

  14. Functional synchronization in repetitive bimanual prehension movements.

    PubMed

    Christel, Marianne I; Jeannerod, Marc; Weiss, Peter H

    2012-03-01

    To examine the mechanisms of functional bimanual synchronization in goal-directed movements, we studied the movement kinematics of motorically unimpaired subjects while they performed repetitive prehension movements (either unimanually or bimanually) to small food items. Compared to unimanual conditions, bimanual movement execution yielded a significantly prolonged mouth contact phase. We hypothesized that this threefold prolongation led to a proper functional synchronization of the movement onsets of both hands at the beginning of each new movement cycle. That these temporal adjustments occurred in the movement phase with maximal haptic input points to the importance of sensory feedback for bimanual coordination. These results are discussed with respect to the important role of sensory feedback in the timing of coordinated bimanual movements. Furthermore, we propose that time-based coordinating schemas, which are implemented by the cerebellum and the posterior parietal cortex using sensory feedback, underlie functional inter-limb coordination. PMID:22227856

  15. Context and repetition in word learning

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    Young children learn words from a variety of situations, including shared storybook reading. A recent study by Horst et al. (2011a) demonstrates that children learned more new words during shared storybook reading if they were read the same stories repeatedly than if they were read different stories that had the same number of target words. The current paper reviews this study and further examines the effect of contextual repetition on children's word learning in both shared storybook reading and other situations, including fast mapping by mutual exclusivity. The studies reviewed here suggest that the same cognitive mechanisms support word learning in a variety of situations. Both practical considerations for experimental design and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23580347

  16. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate

  17. Mitochondrial abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hirai, K; Aliev, G; Nunomura, A; Fujioka, H; Russell, R L; Atwood, C S; Johnson, A B; Kress, Y; Vinters, H V; Tabaton, M; Shimohama, S; Cash, A D; Siedlak, S L; Harris, P L; Jones, P K; Petersen, R B; Perry, G; Smith, M A

    2001-05-01

    The finding that oxidative damage, including that to nucleic acids, in Alzheimer's disease is primarily limited to the cytoplasm of susceptible neuronal populations suggests that mitochondrial abnormalities might be part of the spectrum of chronic oxidative stress of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), immunocytochemistry of cytochrome oxidase, and morphometry of electron micrographs of biopsy specimens to determine whether there are mitochondrial abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease and their relationship to oxidative damage marked by 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine. We found that the same neurons showing increased oxidative damage in Alzheimer's disease have a striking and significant increase in mtDNA and cytochrome oxidase. Surprisingly, much of the mtDNA and cytochrome oxidase is found in the neuronal cytoplasm and in the case of mtDNA, the vacuoles associated with lipofuscin. Morphometric analysis showed that mitochondria are significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease. The relationship shown here between the site and extent of mitochondrial abnormalities and oxidative damage suggests an intimate and early association between these features in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:11312286

  18. Emergent structured transition from variation to repetition in a biologically-plausible model of learning in basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Often, when animals encounter an unexpected sensory event, they transition from executing a variety of movements to repeating the movement(s) that may have caused the event. According to a recent theory of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), repetition allows the animal to represent those movements, and the outcome, as an action for later recruitment. The transition from variation to repetition often follows a non-random, structured, pattern. While the structure of the pattern can be explained by sophisticated cognitive mechanisms, simpler mechanisms based on dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia (BG) activity are thought to underlie action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006). In this paper we ask the question: can simple BG-mediated mechanisms account for a structured transition from variation to repetition, or are more sophisticated cognitive mechanisms always necessary? To address this question, we present a computational model of BG-mediated biasing of behavior. In our model, unlike most other models of BG function, the BG biases behavior through modulation of cortical response to excitation; many possible movements are represented by the cortical area; and excitation to the cortical area is topographically-organized. We subject the model to simple reaching tasks, inspired by behavioral studies, in which a location to which to reach must be selected. Locations within a target area elicit a reinforcement signal. A structured transition from variation to repetition emerges from simple BG-mediated biasing of cortical response to excitation. We show how the structured pattern influences behavior in simple and complicated tasks. We also present analyses that describe the structured transition from variation to repetition due to BG-mediated biasing and from biasing that would be expected from a type of cognitive biasing, allowing us to compare behavior resulting from these types of biasing and make connections with future behavioral experiments. PMID:24575067

  19. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Cervical Dystonia: Effect of Site and Repetition in a Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pirio Richardson, Sarah; Tinaz, Sule; Chen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is characterized by abnormal posturing due to sustained muscle contraction, which leads to pain and significant disability. New therapeutic targets are needed in this disorder. The objective of this randomized, sham-controlled, blinded exploratory study is to identify a specific motor system target for non-invasive neuromodulation and to evaluate this target in terms of safety and tolerability in the cervical dystonia (CD) population. Eight CD subjects were given 15-minute sessions of low-frequency (0.2 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex (MC), dorsal premotor cortex (dPM), supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and a sham condition with each session separated by at least two days. The Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) score was rated in a blinded fashion immediately pre- and post-intervention. Secondary outcomes included physiology and tolerability ratings. The mean change in TWSTRS severity score by site was 0.25 1.7 (ACC), -2.9 3.4 (dPM), -3.0 4.8 (MC), -0.5 1.1 (SHAM), and -1.5 3.2 (SMA) with negative numbers indicating improvement in symptom control. TWSTRS scores decreased from Session 1 (15.1 5.1) to Session 5 (11.0 7.6). The treatment was tolerable and safe. Physiology data were acquired on 6 of 8 subjects and showed no change over time. These results suggest rTMS can modulate CD symptoms. Both dPM and MC are areas to be targeted in further rTMS studies. The improvement in TWSTRS scores over time with multiple rTMS sessions deserves further evaluation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01859247 PMID:25923718

  20. Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates

  1. The Effects of Fluorescent and Incandescent Lighting on the Repetitive Behaviours of Autistic and Intellectually Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, D. M.; Penney, R.

    1985-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors of five autistic and five intellectually disabled children were observed under both fluorescent and incandescent lighting conditions. Findings supported the hypothesis that autistic children engage in a significantly greater frequency of stereotypes under fluorescent lighting, while there is no significant difference among

  2. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:25811227

  3. Behavioral changes following a single episode of early life seizures support the latent development of an autistic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Paul B.; Castano, Anna M.; Beitzel, Christy S.; Carlson, Vivian B.; Benke, Tim. A.

    2015-01-01

    We probed the developmental and behavioral consequences of a single early life seizure induced by kainic acid (KA-ELS) in the rat on post natal day 7. Correlates of developmental trajectory were not altered, demonstrating that long term consequences following KA-ELS are not initiated by secondary causes, such as malnourishment or alterations in maternal care. We report reduced marble burying in adult rats, suggestive of restricted interests, a trait common to experimental and clinical autism. We did not detect increased repetitive grooming during habituated cage behavior. However, we did detect reduced grooming in adult KA-ELS rats in the presence of an unfamiliar rat, supporting altered social anxiety following KA-ELS. Reanalysis of a social approach task further indicated abnormal social interactions. Taken together with previous physiological and behavioral data, these data support the hypothesis that KA-ELS lead to a latent autistic phenotype in adult rats not attributable to other early alterations in development. PMID:25659043

  4. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    PubMed Central

    Iosa, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number ? known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with ?, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620??0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629??0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684??0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from ? (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait. PMID:23862161

  5. GRAPE - GIS Repetition Using Audio-Visual Repetition Units and its Leanring Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederhuber, M.; Brugger, S.

    2011-09-01

    A new audio-visual learning medium has been developed at the Department of Environmental Sciences at ETH Zurich (Switzerland), for use in geographical information sciences (GIS) courses. This new medium, presented in the form of Repetition Units, allows students to review and consolidate the most important learning concepts on an individual basis. The new material consists of: a) a short enhanced podcast (recorded and spoken slide show) with a maximum duration of 5 minutes, which focuses on only one important aspect of a lecture's theme; b) one or two relevant exercises, covering different cognitive levels of learning, with a maximum duration of 10 minutes; and c), solutions for the exercises. During a pilot phase in 2010, six Repetition Units were produced by the lecturers. Twenty more Repetition Units will be produced by our students during the fall semester of 2011 and 2012. The project is accompanied by a 5-year study (2009 - 2013) that investigates learning success using the new material, focussing on the question, whether or not the new material help to consolidate and refresh basic GIS knowledge. It will be analysed based on longitudinal studies. Initial results indicate that the new medium helps to refresh knowledge as the test groups scored higher than the control group. These results are encouraging and suggest that the new material with its combination of short audio-visual podcasts and relevant exercises help to consolidate students' knowledge.

  6. Neuronal migration abnormalities and its possible implications for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, Kazue; Tanigaki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that displays behavioral deficits such as decreased sensory gating, reduced social interaction and working memory deficits. The neurodevelopmental model is one of the widely accepted hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Subtle developmental abnormalities of the brain which stated long before the onset of clinical symptoms are thought to lead to the emergence of illness. Schizophrenia has strong genetic components but its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Genetic linkage and association studies have identified several genes involved in neuronal migrations as candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, although their effect size is small. Recent progress in copy number variation studies also has identified much higher risk loci such as 22q11. Based on these genetic findings, we are now able to utilize genetically-defined animal models. Here we summarize the results of neurodevelopmental and behavioral analysis of genetically-defined animal models. Furthermore, animal model experiments have demonstrated that embryonic and perinatal neurodevelopmental insults in neurogenesis and neuronal migrations cause neuronal functional and behavioral deficits in affected adult animals, which are similar to those of schizophrenic patients. However, these findings do not establish causative relationship. Genetically-defined animal models are a critical approach to explore the relationship between neuronal migration abnormalities and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:25805966

  7. Comprehension priming as rational expectation for repetition: Evidence from syntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Myslín, Mark; Levy, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Why do comprehenders process repeated stimuli more rapidly than novel stimuli? We consider an adaptive explanation for why such facilitation may be beneficial: priming is a consequence of expectation for repetition due to rational adaptation to the environment. If occurrences of a stimulus cluster in time, given one occurrence it is rational to expect a second occurrence closely following. Leveraging such knowledge may be particularly useful in online processing of language, where pervasive clustering may help comprehenders negotiate the considerable challenge of continual expectation update at multiple levels of linguistic structure and environmental variability. We test this account in the domain of structural priming in syntax, making use of the sentential complement-direct object (SC-DO) ambiguity. We first show that sentences containing SC continuations cluster in natural language, motivating an expectation for repetition of this structure. Second, we show that comprehenders are indeed sensitive to the syntactic clustering properties of their current environment. In a series of between-groups self-paced reading studies, we find that participants who are exposed to clusters of SC sentences subsequently process repetitions of SC structure more rapidly than participants who are exposed to the same number of SCs spaced in time, and attribute the difference to the learned degree of expectation for repetition. We model this behavior through Bayesian belief update, showing that (the optimal degree of) sensitivity to clustering properties of syntactic structures is indeed learnable through experience. Comprehension priming effects are thus consistent with rational expectation for repetition based on adaptation to the linguistic environment. PMID:26605963

  8. How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cervical Cancer | How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results What does an abnormal Pap smear mean? A ... are located in your cervix or uterus. These results mean that some of your glandular cells are ...

  9. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In...

  10. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In...

  11. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In...

  12. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application or environmental impact...

  13. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In...

  14. 10 CFR 61.21 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 61.21 Section 61.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses 61.21 Elimination of repetition. In its application, the applicant may incorporate by...

  15. Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the

  16. 38 CFR 21.132 - Repetition of the course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Educational and Vocational Training Services 21.132 Repetition of the course. (a) Repeating... repetition is necessary to accomplish the veteran's vocational rehabilitation. A veteran repeating a...

  17. Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the…

  18. Increase in laser repetition rate by spectral selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizer, Theodore, II

    1989-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study into the use of Fabry-Perot etalons as static repetition rate upconverters outside the laser cavity is discussed. It is shown that the output repetition rate can be increased up to 12 times while maintaining high average power.

  19. Repetition Blindness: Out of Sight or Out of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Alison L.; Harris, Catherine L.

    2004-01-01

    Does repetition blindness represent a failure of perception or of memory? In Experiment 1, participants viewed rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sentences. When critical words (C1 and C2) were orthographically similar, C2 was frequently omitted from serial report; however, repetition priming for C2 on a postsentence lexical decision task was

  20. 10 CFR 60.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 60.23 Section 60.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Applications 60.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application,...