Sample records for abnormal repetitive behaviors

  1. A Survey of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in North American River Otters Housed in Zoos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paige Morabito; Meredith J. Bashaw

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author

  2. Abnormal repetitive behaviors in dogs and cats: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Valarie V; Sinn, Leslie

    2014-05-01

    Abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) represent a diverse group of behaviors whose underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Their neurobiology likely involves several different neurotransmitter systems. These behaviors have been referred to as compulsive disorders, obsessive compulsive disorders and stereotypies. Underlying medical conditions and pain can often cause changes in behavior that are mistaken for ARBs. A complete medical work-up is always indicated prior to reaching a presumptive diagnosis. The frequency of ARBs can be reduced but not always eliminated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in conjunction with behavior modification and environmental enrichment. PMID:24766699

  3. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated. PMID:22742198

  4. Repetitive behavior disorders in autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Lewis; James W. Bodfish

    1998-01-01

    Autism is associated with a wide range of repetitive behaviors. These behaviors, although diagnostic for the disorder, have been the subject of far less attention than social and communication deficits. An understanding of the phenomenology, including comorbidity, of various forms of abnormal repetition requires improved methodol- ogy, including use of item-independent instruments capable of discriminating categories of repetitive behaviors or

  5. Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Joseph P.; Thogerson, Collette M.; Dufour, Brett D.; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D.; Mench, Joy A.

    2011-01-01

    The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the “4P's” (Prediction, Preemption, Personalization, & Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely-related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly-specific model of a single disorder by matching this `fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies; and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders. PMID:21219937

  6. Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P; Thogerson, Collette M; Dufour, Brett D; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D; Mench, Joy A

    2011-06-01

    The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the "4P's" (Prediction, Pre-emption, Personalization, and Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly specific model of a single disorder by matching this 'fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders. PMID:21219937

  7. Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

  8. Oxytocin Infusion Reduces Repetitive Behaviors in Adults with Autistic and Asperger's Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Hollander; Sherie Novotny; Margaret Hanratty; Rona Yaffe; Concetta M DeCaria; Bonnie R Aronowitz; Serge Mosovich

    2003-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysfunction in three core behavioral domains: repetitive behaviors, social deficits, and language abnormalities. There is evidence that abnormalities exist in peptide systems, particularly the oxytocin system, in autism spectrum patients. Furthermore, oxytocin and the closely related peptide vasopressin are known to play a role in social and repetitive behaviors. This study examined the

  9. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  10. Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

    2008-01-01

    Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of…

  11. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  12. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F

    2014-10-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms. PMID:25281279

  13. Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel L. Loftin; Samuel L. Odom; Johanna F. Lantz

    2008-01-01

    Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body\\u000a rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior,\\u000a such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of skills. A multiple baseline\\u000a design was used to examine whether multi-component social skills intervention (including

  14. Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

  15. Neuroligin 1 deletion results in impaired spatial memory and increased repetitive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, Jacqueline; Blaiss, Cory A.; Etherton, Mark R.; Espinosa, Felipe; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Walz, Christopher; Bolliger, Marc F.; Südhof, Thomas C.; Powell, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroligins (NLs) are a family of neural cell-adhesion molecules that are involved in excitatory/inhibitory synapse specification. Multiple members of the NL family (including NL1) and their binding partners have been linked to cases of human autism and mental retardation. We have now characterized NL1 deficient mice in autism and mental retardation-relevant behavioral tasks. NL1 KO mice display deficits in spatial learning and memory that correlate with impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation. In addition, NL1 KO mice exhibit a dramatic increase in repetitive, stereotyped grooming behavior, a potential autism-relevant abnormality. This repetitive stereotyped grooming abnormality in NL1 KO mice is associated with a reduced NMDA/AMPA ratio at cortico-striatal synapses. Interestingly, we further demonstrate that the increased repetitive grooming phenotype can be rescued in adult mice by administration of the NMDA receptor partial co-agonist D-cycloserine. Broadly, these data are consistent with a role of synaptic cell-adhesion molecules in general, and neuroligin-1 in particular, in autism, and implicate reduced excitatory synaptic transmission as a potential mechanism and treatment target for repetitive behavioral abnormalities. PMID:20147539

  16. Repetitive Behavior Disorders in Persons with Developmental Disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel E. Ringdahl; David P. Wacker; Wendy K. Berg; Jay W. Harding

    Repetitive behavior disorders in persons with developmental disabilities are likely produced and maintained by a complex interaction of biologic and operant variables. We have described some of these variables and suggested that even if behavior is related to biologic variables, operant mechanisms may still be maintaining the behavior. Based on this supposition, we suggest that behavioral treatment be considered. A

  17. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. PMID:22114543

  18. Abnormal P600 word repetition effect in elderly persons with Preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Olichney, John M.; Pak, Jamie; Salmon, David P.; Yang, Jin-Chen; Gahagan, Tim; Nowacki, Ralph; Hansen, Lawrence; Galasko, Douglas; Kutas, Marta; Iragui-Madoz, Vicente J.

    2013-01-01

    We sought cognitive event-related potential (ERP) biomarkers of “Preclinical Alzheimer’s disease” (Pre-AD) using an incidental verbal learning paradigm with high sensitivity to prodromal AD. Seven elderly persons, with normal cognition at the time of ERP recordings, but who showed subsequent cognitive decline or AD pathology at autopsy (n=5, mean Braak stage=2.8), were compared to 12 “robust” normal elderly (RNE) who remained cognitively normal (Mfollow-up=9.0 years). EEG was recorded during a word repetition paradigm (semantically congruous (50%) and incongruous target words repeat ~10–140 seconds later). The RNE P600 congruous word repetition ERP effects (New minus Old congruous words) were significantly larger than in Pre-AD (mean amplitudes = 3.28 vs. 0.10 µV, p= 0.04). High group discrimination (84%) was achieved (by a P600 amplitude cutoff of ~1.5 µV). Abnormal P600 word repetition effects in cognitively normal elderly persons may be an important sign of synaptic dysfunction and Preclinical AD. PMID:24090465

  19. The Classification of Abnormal Behavior: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry E. Adams; Kristen A. Luscher; Jeffrey A. Bernat

    Tremendous progress in classifying abnormal behavior has been made in the past 25 years. With the advent of DSM-III and its\\u000a multiaxial system, along with the purging of psychodynamic theory from classification in favor of operational definitions,\\u000a we now have a much improved classification scheme. Nonetheless, there is still room for improvement within that system, including\\u000a a more open-minded evaluation

  20. Sexsomnia: abnormal sexual behavior during sleep.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Monica L; Poyares, Dalva; Alves, Rosana S C; Skomro, Robert; Tufik, Sergio

    2007-12-01

    This review attempts to assemble the characteristics of a distinct variant of sleepwalking called sexsomnia/sleepsex from the seemingly scarce literature into a coherent theoretical framework. Common features of sexsomnia include sexual arousal with autonomic activation (e.g. nocturnal erection, vaginal lubrication, nocturnal emission, dream orgasms). Somnambulistic sexual behavior and its clinical implications, the role of precipitating factors, diagnostic, treatment, and medico-legal issues are also reviewed. The characteristics of several individuals described in literature including their family/personal history of parasomnia as well as the abnormal behaviors occurring during sleep are reported. PMID:17706786

  1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  2. ERP abnormalities elicited by word repetition in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and amnestic MCI

    E-print Network

    Kutas, Marta

    ERP abnormalities elicited by word repetition in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS Dementia Memory Language EEG a b s t r a c t Background: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS. & 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome

  3. The interplay between sensory processing abnormalities, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways between sensory abnormalities and RRBs, and the role anxiety and IU may have. We gathered caregiver report data for 53 children with ASD aged 8-16 years. We found sensory under responsiveness and sensory over responsiveness were significantly associated with repetitive motor and insistence on sameness behaviours, and the relationships significantly mediated by IU and anxiety. Our findings indicate different mechanisms may underpin repetitive motor and insistence on sameness RRBs, which can inform treatment interventions. PMID:25261248

  4. Examining Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Two Observational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation…

  5. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Repetitive Behaviors in Monkeys Are Linked to Specific

    E-print Network

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    for analyzing the neurobiology underlying such drug-induced behavioral changes. We performed ethogram spontaneous behavioral activation during the drug-free period after the cocaine exposure. We suggest under- lying drug-induced repetitive behaviors and related syndromes in which stereotypies are manifest

  6. Decreased aggression and increased repetitive behavior in Pten haploinsufficient mice.

    PubMed

    Clipperton-Allen, A E; Page, D T

    2015-02-01

    Aggression is an aspect of social behavior that can be elevated in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a concern for peers and caregivers. Mutations in Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), one of several ASD risk factors encoding negative regulators of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, have been reported in individuals with ASD and comorbid macrocephaly. We previously showed that a mouse model of Pten germline haploinsufficiency (Pten(+/-) ) has selective deficits, primarily in social behavior, along with broad overgrowth of the brain. Here, we further examine the social behavior of Pten(+/-) male mice in the resident-intruder test of aggression, using a comprehensive behavioral analysis to obtain an overall picture of the agonistic, non-agonistic and non-social behavior patterns of Pten(+/-) mice during a free interaction with a novel conspecific. Pten(+/-) male mice were involved in less aggression than their wild-type littermates. Pten(+/-) mice also performed less social investigation, including anogenital investigation and approaching and/or attending to the intruder, which is consistent with our previous finding of decreased sociability in the social approach test. In contrast to these decreases in social behaviors, Pten(+/-) mice showed increased digging. In summary, we report decreased aggression and increased repetitive behavior in Pten(+/-) mice, thus extending our characterization of this model of an ASD risk factor that features brain overgrowth and social deficits. PMID:25561290

  7. Observational characterization of sensory interests, repetitions, and seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anne V; Little, Lauren M; Schultz, Beth; Baranek, Grace T

    2015-01-01

    Sensory interests, repetitions, and seeking behaviors (SIRS) are common among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD) and involve unusual actions that intensify or reinforce a sensory experience. Researchers and practitioners typically use parent-report measures or informal clinical observations to understand the presence and nature of SIRS. In this study, we used a scoring supplement to the Sensory Processing Assessment for Young Children, an observational measure, to characterize SIRS across three groups of children-those with ASD (n = 40), DD (n = 37), and typical development (n = 39). Group differences were identified in frequency and intensity of overall SIRS, complexity of SIRS, and incidence of particular types of SIRS (i.e., posturing, sighting, proprioceptive seeking, spinning). Facial affect was also explored and found to be primarily neutral during engagement in SIRS across groups. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:25871592

  8. A Comparison of Repetitive Behaviors in Aspergers Disorder and High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuccaro, Michael L.; Nations, Laura; Brinkley, Jason; Abramson, Ruth K.; Wright, Harry H.; Hall, Alicia; Gilbert, John; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we compared 33 IQ and age matched pairs of individuals with Aspergers Disorder (ASP) and high functioning autism (HFA) on measures of repetitive behavior. On the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), the ASP and HFA groups showed no differences in RBS-R Intensity score (severity) score or Frequency score (number of problems…

  9. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

  10. Measuring Repetitive Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Halladay, Alycia K.; Bishop, Somer L.; Bodfish, James W.; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Jones, Nancy; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; McCracken, James T.; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors vary widely in type, frequency, and intensity among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. They can be stigmatizing and interfere with more constructive activities. Accordingly, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may be a target of intervention. Several standardized…

  11. Subcategories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization…

  12. Repetitive Self-Grooming Behavior in the BTBR Mouse Model of Autism is Blocked by the mGluR5 Antagonist MPEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill L Silverman; Seda S Tolu; Charlotte L Barkan; Jacqueline N Crawley

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf\\/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high

  13. Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Riddick, Natallia V.; Nikolova, Viktoriya D.; Teng, Brian L.; Agster, Kara L.; Nonneman, Randal J.; Young, Nancy B.; Baker, Lorinda K.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles. PMID:24211371

  14. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

  15. Repetitive behavior in rubinstein-taybi syndrome: parallels with autism spectrum phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Waite, Jane; Moss, Joanna; Beck, Sarah R; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy; Oliver, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Syndrome specific repetitive behavior profiles have been described previously. A detailed profile is absent for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire and Social Communication Questionnaire were completed for children and adults with RTS (N = 87), Fragile-X (N = 196) and Down (N = 132) syndromes, and individuals reaching cut-off for autism spectrum disorder (N = 228). Total and matched group analyses were conducted. A phenotypic profile of repetitive behavior was found in RTS. The majority of behaviors in RTS were not associated with social-communication deficits or degree of disability. Repetitive behavior should be studied at a fine-grained level. A dissociation of the triad of impairments might be evident in RTS. PMID:25491025

  16. Subcategories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization of RRBs in ASD. Using data from the Simons Simplex Collection (n=1825), we examined the association between scores on the ADI-R and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Analyses supported the construct validity of RSM and IS subcategories. As in previous studies, IS behaviors showed no relationship with IQ. These findings support the continued use of RRB subcategories, particularly IS behaviors, as a means of creating more behaviorally homogeneous subgroups of children with ASD. PMID:23065116

  17. Low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves abnormal visual cortical circuit topography and upregulates BDNF in mice.

    PubMed

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Harvey, Alan R; Sherrard, Rachel M; Rodger, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the induced field is focused on a target region during rTMS, adjacent areas also receive stimulation at a lower intensity and the contribution of this perifocal stimulation to network-wide effects is poorly defined. Here, we examined low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS)-induced changes on a model neural network using the visual systems of normal (C57Bl/6J wild-type, n = 22) and ephrin-A2A5(-/-) (n = 22) mice, the latter possessing visuotopic anomalies. Mice were treated with LI-rTMS or sham (handling control) daily for 14 d, then fluorojade and fluororuby were injected into visual cortex. The distribution of dorsal LGN (dLGN) neurons and corticotectal terminal zones (TZs) was mapped and disorder defined by comparing their actual location with that predicted by injection sites. In the afferent geniculocortical projection, LI-rTMS decreased the abnormally high dispersion of retrogradely labeled neurons in the dLGN of ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice, indicating geniculocortical map refinement. In the corticotectal efferents, LI-rTMS improved topography of the most abnormal TZs in ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice without altering topographically normal TZs. To investigate a possible molecular mechanism for LI-rTMS-induced structural plasticity, we measured brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex and superior colliculus after single and multiple stimulations. BDNF was upregulated after a single stimulation for all groups, but only sustained in the superior colliculus of ephrin-A2A5(-/-) mice. Our results show that LI-rTMS upregulates BDNF, promoting a plastic environment conducive to beneficial reorganization of abnormal cortical circuits, information that has important implications for clinical rTMS. PMID:25100609

  18. Low-Intensity Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Abnormal Visual Cortical Circuit Topography and Upregulates BDNF in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Harvey, Alan R.; Sherrard, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the induced field is focused on a target region during rTMS, adjacent areas also receive stimulation at a lower intensity and the contribution of this perifocal stimulation to network-wide effects is poorly defined. Here, we examined low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS)-induced changes on a model neural network using the visual systems of normal (C57Bl/6J wild-type, n = 22) and ephrin-A2A5?/? (n = 22) mice, the latter possessing visuotopic anomalies. Mice were treated with LI-rTMS or sham (handling control) daily for 14 d, then fluorojade and fluororuby were injected into visual cortex. The distribution of dorsal LGN (dLGN) neurons and corticotectal terminal zones (TZs) was mapped and disorder defined by comparing their actual location with that predicted by injection sites. In the afferent geniculocortical projection, LI-rTMS decreased the abnormally high dispersion of retrogradely labeled neurons in the dLGN of ephrin-A2A5?/? mice, indicating geniculocortical map refinement. In the corticotectal efferents, LI-rTMS improved topography of the most abnormal TZs in ephrin-A2A5?/? mice without altering topographically normal TZs. To investigate a possible molecular mechanism for LI-rTMS-induced structural plasticity, we measured brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex and superior colliculus after single and multiple stimulations. BDNF was upregulated after a single stimulation for all groups, but only sustained in the superior colliculus of ephrin-A2A5?/? mice. Our results show that LI-rTMS upregulates BDNF, promoting a plastic environment conducive to beneficial reorganization of abnormal cortical circuits, information that has important implications for clinical rTMS. PMID:25100609

  19. Abnormal eating behaviors in female reserve officer training corps cadets.

    PubMed

    Lauder, T D; Campbell, C S

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of abnormal eating behaviors in Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) female cadets. A total of 310 female ROTC cadets participated in a prospective, cross-sectional study during summer training at Fort Lewis, Washington. All subjects completed the Eating Disorder Inventory and a supplemental questionnaire. Because of time constraints, clinical interviews were not administered. Of the 310 ROTC cadets, 20% met the screening criteria for being at risk for an eating disorder. The cadets at risk for eating disorders had significantly higher Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction subscale scores and were more dissatisfied with their weight than cadets not at risk. There was no significant difference in reported ideal body weight and exercise intensity between the two groups. In the female ROTC cadet population evaluated, 20% practiced abnormal eating behaviors and were at risk for developing an eating disorder. PMID:11263032

  20. Oxotremorine treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR T+ tf/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Dionisio A.; Yi, Julia; Sweeney, John A.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors with restricted interests is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current pharmacotherapies that target the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems have limited effectiveness in treating repetitive behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonists can exacerbate motor stereotypies while mAChR agonists reduce stereotypies. The present study determined whether the mAChR agonist, oxotremorine affected repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism. To test the effects of oxotremorine on repetitive behaviors, marble burying and grooming behavior were measured in BTBR mice and compared to that in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The effects of oxotremorine on locomotor activity was also measured. Thirty minutes before each test, mice received an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of saline, 0.001 mg or 0.01 mg of oxotremorine methiodide. Saline- treated BTBR mice exhibited increased marble burying and self-grooming behavior compared to that of saline-treated B6 mice. Oxotremorine significantly reduced marble burying and self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice, but had no significant effect in B6 mice. In addition, oxotremorine did not affect locomotor activity in BTBR mice, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in B6 mice at the 0.01 mg dose. These findings demonstrate that activation of mAChRs reduces repetitive behavior in the BTBR mouse and suggest that treatment with a mAChR agonist may be effective in reducing repetitive behaviors in ASD. PMID:25165445

  1. Development and Temporal Organization of Repetitive Behavior in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Tanimura, Yoko; Yang, Mark C.K.; Ottens, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repetitive behaviors being a common feature of a number of clinical disorders and ubiquitous in normative development, little attention has been given to their ontogeny or temporal dynamics. We characterized these features in a mouse model of repetitive behavior to identify discrete trajectories of development and developmental changes in temporal dynamics. Three qualitatively distinct trajectory groups were identified which allowed for an examination of the interaction between temporal organization and developmental trajectory. Significant differences in temporal dynamics were found across development and among trajectory groups. Significant interactions of trajectory group and developmental period on temporal organization were also found. The combination of group-based trajectory modeling and a novel method for analysis and graphic depiction of temporal organization allowed for the exploration of the interplay between these two fundamental behavioral processes. Such methods may be useful tools in the assessment and treatment of repetitive behavior in clinical populations. PMID:20607792

  2. Synaptic dysfunction and abnormal behaviors in mice lacking major isoforms of Shank3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; McCoy, Portia A; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Pan, Yanzhen; Je, H Shawn; Roberts, Adam C; Kim, Caroline J; Berrios, Janet; Colvin, Jennifer S; Bousquet-Moore, Danielle; Lorenzo, Isabel; Wu, Gangyi; Weinberg, Richard J; Ehlers, Michael D; Philpot, Benjamin D; Beaudet, Arthur L; Wetsel, William C; Jiang, Yong-Hui

    2011-08-01

    SHANK3 is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. Small microdeletions and point mutations in SHANK3 have been identified in a small subgroup of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. SHANK3 also plays a key role in the chromosome 22q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (Phelan-McDermid syndrome), which includes ASD and cognitive dysfunction as major clinical features. To evaluate the role of Shank3 in vivo, we disrupted major isoforms of the gene in mice by deleting exons 4-9. Isoform-specific Shank3(e4-9) homozygous mutant mice display abnormal social behaviors, communication patterns, repetitive behaviors and learning and memory. Shank3(e4-9) male mice display more severe impairments than females in motor coordination. Shank3(e4-9) mice have reduced levels of Homer1b/c, GKAP and GluA1 at the PSD, and show attenuated activity-dependent redistribution of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors. Subtle morphological alterations in dendritic spines are also observed. Although synaptic transmission is normal in CA1 hippocampus, long-term potentiation is deficient in Shank3(e4-9) mice. We conclude that loss of major Shank3 species produces biochemical, cellular and morphological changes, leading to behavioral abnormalities in mice that bear similarities to human ASD patients with SHANK3 mutations. PMID:21558424

  3. Synaptic dysfunction and abnormal behaviors in mice lacking major isoforms of Shank3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; McCoy, Portia A.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Pan, Yanzhen; Je, H. Shawn; Roberts, Adam C.; Kim, Caroline J.; Berrios, Janet; Colvin, Jennifer S.; Bousquet-Moore, Danielle; Lorenzo, Isabel; Wu, Gangyi; Weinberg, Richard J.; Ehlers, Michael D.; Philpot, Benjamin D.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Wetsel, William C.; Jiang, Yong-hui

    2011-01-01

    SHANK3 is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. Small microdeletions and point mutations in SHANK3 have been identified in a small subgroup of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. SHANK3 also plays a key role in the chromosome 22q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (Phelan–McDermid syndrome), which includes ASD and cognitive dysfunction as major clinical features. To evaluate the role of Shank3 in vivo, we disrupted major isoforms of the gene in mice by deleting exons 4–9. Isoform-specific Shank3e4–9 homozygous mutant mice display abnormal social behaviors, communication patterns, repetitive behaviors and learning and memory. Shank3e4–9 male mice display more severe impairments than females in motor coordination. Shank3e4–9 mice have reduced levels of Homer1b/c, GKAP and GluA1 at the PSD, and show attenuated activity-dependent redistribution of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors. Subtle morphological alterations in dendritic spines are also observed. Although synaptic transmission is normal in CA1 hippocampus, long-term potentiation is deficient in Shank3e4–9 mice. We conclude that loss of major Shank3 species produces biochemical, cellular and morphological changes, leading to behavioral abnormalities in mice that bear similarities to human ASD patients with SHANK3 mutations. PMID:21558424

  4. The Association Between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children With Severe Intellectual Disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Oliver; Jane Petty; Loraine Ruddick; Monique Bacarese-Hamilton

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors\\u000a and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data\\u000a were collected for 943 children (4–18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds ratio analyses revealed that these characteristics generated risk indices\\u000a ranging from 2 to 31 for the presence and

  5. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  6. Stop task after-effects in schizophrenia: Behavioral control adjustments and repetition priming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Enticott; Daniel J. Upton; John L. Bradshaw; Mark A. Bellgrove; James R. P. Ogloff

    2011-01-01

    Stop task after-effects are behavioral consequences of response inhibition (i.e., slowed response time), and may index both behavioral control adjustments and repetition priming. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls completed a stop task, and responses to the go signal were analyzed according to characteristics of the immediately preceding trial. Schizophrenia was associated with reduced slowing following unsuccessful response inhibition, however

  7. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  8. Medication-related impulse control and repetitive behaviors in Parkinson??s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Voon; Marc N Potenza; Teri Thomsen

    2007-01-01

    rangeofbehaviorspresumedtoberelatedtoaberrantorexcessivedopaminergicmedi- cations are being increasingly recognized in Parkinson disease. These behaviors are linked by their incentive- or reward-based and repetitive natures and include patho- logical gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping, compulsive eating, hobby- ism, and compulsive medication use. Such behaviors can have potentially devastating psychoso- cialconsequencesandareoftenhidden.Whetherthesebehaviorsaresimplyrelatedtodopaminergic medications interacting with an underlying individual vulnerability or whether the primary patho- logical features of

  9. Response repetition vs. response change modulates behavioral and electrophysiological effects of distraction.

    PubMed

    Roeber, Urte; Berti, Stefan; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich

    2005-03-01

    If stimulation occasionally contains distracting information, behavioral responses to task-relevant aspects of the stimulation are prolonged and more error prone. Additionally, event-related potentials (ERPs) acquired in an auditory distraction paradigm show that the distracting information elicits the components mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a and reorienting negativity (RON). Here, we assess to what extent sequential dependencies in the stimulation influence such indicators of distraction. Data of four experiments were reanalyzed for response repetition and response change trials separately. Behavioral performance on Deviants suggests markedly smaller distraction effects in change compared to repetition trials. However, the presence of MMN-P3a-RON in both response repetition and response change trials shows that sequential features in stimulation do not dissolve distraction, but might substantially contribute to the (behavioral) effects measured in distraction paradigms and should be controlled for. PMID:15722214

  10. Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters. PMID:22336640

  11. Habit Reversal Therapy for Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors in Williams Syndrome: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is genetic neurodevelopmental disorder with a well-characterized cognitive and behavioral phenotype. Research has consistently demonstrated high rates of psychopathology in this population; however, little research has examined the use of empirically-supported psychosocial interventions in those with WS. The current case study reports on the use of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT) to treat multiple body-focused repetitive behaviors in a child with WS. Although HRT is a well-established cognitive-behavioral intervention for body-focused repetitive behaviors, it has been infrequently used in populations with developmental disabilities. An etiologically-informed approach was used to adapt HRT to fit the known behavioral and cognitive phenotype of WS. Results suggest that HRT may be beneficial for this population. Modified treatment elements are described and future research areas highlighted. PMID:24357918

  12. A Placebo Controlled Crossover Trial of Liquid Fluoxetine on Repetitive Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescent Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Hollander; Ann Phillips; William Chaplin; Karen Zagursky; Sherie Novotny; Stacey Wasserman; Rupa Iyengar

    2005-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors are a core symptom domain in autism that has been linked to alterations in the serotonin system. While the selective serotonin-receptive inhibitor fluvoxamine has been shown to be effective in adults with autism, as yet no published placebo controlled trials with these agents document safety and efficacy in children with autism. This study examines the selective serotonin reuptake

  13. Generativity Abilities Predict Communication Deficits but Not Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate impaired generativity that is thought to mediate repetitive behaviors in autism (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(6):839-849, 1999a). The present study evaluated generativity in children with and without ASD via the use-of-objects task (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry,…

  14. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan R. Leekam; Margot R. Prior; Mirko Uljarevic

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the description of RRBs. Research has also identified distinctive subtypes

  15. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richler, Jennifer; Bishop, Somer L.; Kleinke, Jennifer R.; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised (ADI-R: Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur (1994) were examined in 165 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), 49 children with non-spectrum developmental disorders (DD), and 65 children with typical development (TD) at approximately 2 years of age. A factor…

  16. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  17. A healing herd: benefits of a psychodynamic group approach in treating body-focused repetitive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nakell, Stacy

    2015-04-01

    Body-focused repetitive behaviors, such as trichotillomania and skin-picking, are not well understood in clinical communities. Research and practice with a population exhibiting these behaviors have focused almost exclusively on the usefulness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in symptom reduction. The author specializes in treating patients with body-focused repetitive behaviors and suggests that a holistic, psychodynamic model of treatment for this population creates possibilities for deeper change. Group therapy can be an important component of this work, helping clients to overcome resistance to change, ameliorate shame, work through dissociation, and regulate emotions. This process is explored in an examination of a psychodynamic therapy group with pickers and pullers. PMID:25760789

  18. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and prolactin abnormalities in suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Palermo, Mario; Seretti, Maria Elena; Stefani, Henry; Angeletti, Gloria; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity measured with the dexamethasone suppression test and the dexamethesone/CRH test may have some predictive power for suicidal behavior in patients with mood disorders. Increased prolactin (PRL) levels may be related both to physiological and pathological conditions. HPA-axis abnormalities and increased levels of PRL may coexist, and common neuroendocrine changes may activate both HPA axis and PRL release. HPA-axis hyperactivity is presumably present in a large subpopulation of depressed subjects. Suicidal behavior is considered to be a form of inward-directed aggression, and aggressive behavior has been connected to high androgen levels. However, lower plasma total testosterone levels have also been reported in subjects with depression and higher suicidality. Lipid/immune dysregulations, the increased ratio of blood fatty acids, and increased PRL levels may each be associated with the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been reported in patients with major depression and patients engaging in suicidal behavior. Although no studies have been done to determine whether ante-mortem physical stress may be detected by raised post-mortem PRL, this would be of great interest for physicians. PMID:24040800

  19. Behavioral Abnormalities Observed in Zfhx2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Komine, Yuriko; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Zfhx2 (also known as zfh-5) encodes a transcription factor containing three homeobox domains and 18 Zn-finger motifs. We have reported that Zfhx2 mRNA is expressed mainly in differentiating neurons in the mouse brain and its expression level is negatively regulated by the antisense transcripts of Zfhx2. Although the expression profile of Zfhx2 suggests that ZFHX2 might have a role in a particular step of neuronal differentiation, the specific function of the gene has not been determined. We generated a Zfhx2-deficient mouse line and performed a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests to elucidate the function of ZFHX2. Homozygous Zfhx2-deficient mice showed several behavioral abnormalities, namely, hyperactivity, enhanced depression-like behaviors, and an aberrantly altered anxiety-like phenotype. These behavioral phenotypes suggest that ZFHX2 might play roles in controlling emotional aspects through the function of monoaminergic neurons where ZFHX2 is expressed. Moreover, considering their phenotypes, the Zfhx2-deficient mice may provide a novel model of human psychiatric disorders. PMID:23300874

  20. Behavioral and neuronal recording of the nucleus accumbens in adolescent rats following acute and repetitive exposure to methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Alexander; Reyes-Vasquez, Cruz; Dafny, Nachum

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been shown to play a key role in the brain's response to methylphenidate (MPD). The present study focuses on neuronal recording from this structure. The study postulates that repetitive exposure to the same dose of MPD will elicit in some rats behavioral sensitization and in others tolerance. Furthermore, the study postulates that NAc neuronal activity recorded from animals expressing behavioral tolerance after repetitive MPD exposure will be significantly different from NAc neuronal activity recorded from animals expressing behavioral sensitization after repetitive MPD exposure at doses of 0.6, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg. To test this, behavioral and neuronal activity was recorded concomitantly from the NAc of freely behaving adolescent rats (postnatal day 40) before and after acute and repetitive administration of four different MPD doses. Comparing the acute MPD effect to the repetitive MPD effect revealed that the acute response to MPD exhibited dose-response characteristics: an increase in behavioral activity correlated with increasing MPD doses. On the other hand, following repetitive MPD exposure, some animals exhibited attenuated behavior (tolerance), while others exhibited further increases in the recorded behavior (sensitization). Moreover, the neuronal activity following repetitive MPD exposure recorded in animals exhibiting behavioral sensitization was significantly different from neuronal activity recorded in animals exhibiting behavioral tolerance. This implies that when studying the effects of repetitive MPD administration on adolescent rats, it is advisable to simultaneously record both neuronal and behavioral activity and to evaluate all data based on the animals' behavioral response to the repetitive MPD exposure. PMID:25318764

  1. Marble burying and nestlet shredding as tests of repetitive, compulsive-like behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kane, Michael J; Briggs, Denise I; Francescutti, Dina M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious and debilitating psychiatric conditions and each constitutes a significant public health concern, particularly in children. Both of these conditions are highlighted by the repeated expression of meaningless behaviors. Individuals with OCD often show checking, frequent hand washing, and counting. Children with ASDs also engage in repetitive tapping, arm or hand flapping, and rocking. These behaviors can vary widely in intensity and frequency of expression. More intense forms of repetitive behaviors can even result in injury (e.g. excessive grooming, hand washing, and self-stimulation). These behaviors are therefore very disruptive and make normal social discourse difficult. Treatment options for repetitive behaviors in OCD and ASDs are somewhat limited and there is great interest in developing more effective therapies for each condition. Numerous animal models for evaluating compulsive-like behaviors have been developed over the past three decades. Perhaps the animal models with the greatest validity and ease of use are the marble burying test and the nestlet shredding test. Both tests take advantage of the fact that the target behaviors occur spontaneously in mice. In the marble burying test, 20 marbles are arrayed on the surface of clean bedding. The number of marbles buried in a 30 min session is scored by investigators blind to the treatment or status of the subjects. In the nestlet shredding test, a nestlet comprised of pulped cotton fiber is preweighed and placed on top of cage bedding and the amount of the nestlet remaining intact after a 30 min test session is determined. Presently, we describe protocols for and show movie documentation of marble burying and nestlet shredding. Both tests are easily and accurately scored and each is sensitive to small changes in the expression of compulsive-like behaviors that result from genetic manipulations, disease, or head injury. PMID:24429507

  2. Feasibility of Exposure Response Prevention to Treat Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism and an Intellectual Disability: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility…

  3. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20?GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5?GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8?GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8?GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  4. Abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H; Leu, Bogdan M; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe(2+)-Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  5. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-09-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature.

  6. Marble burying reflects a repetitive and perseverative behavior more than novelty-induced anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alexia; Burant, April; Bui, Nghiem; Graham, Deanna; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale An increasing number of investigators utilize the marble-burying assay despite the paucity of information available regarding what underlies the behavior. Objectives We tested the possibility that a genetic component underlies marble burying in mice and if there is a genetic correlation with other anxiety-like traits. Since findings reported in the literature indicate that marble-burying behavior reflects an anxiety-like response, we explored the assumption that the novel nature of a marble induces this anxiety. Finally, we investigated how the natural response of a mouse to dig relates to the marble-burying phenomenon. Methods We examined ten different inbred mouse strains to determine if marble-burying behavior is genetically regulated and correlated with anxiety-like traits in two other assays. We employed multiple variants of the “traditional” marble-burying assay to address how issues such as the novelty of marbles and digging behavior contribute to marble burying. Results Marble-burying behavior varied across strain and did not correlate with anxiety measures in other assays. Multiple tests conducted to reduce the novelty of marbles failed to alter burying behavior. Additionally, digging behavior correlated with marble burying, and the presence of marbles did not significantly impact the digging response. Conclusions Our results indicate that mouse marble burying is genetically regulated, not correlated with other anxiety-like traits, not stimulated by novelty, and is a repetitive behavior that persists/perseveres with little change across multiple exposures. Marble burying is related to digging behavior and may in fact be more appropriately considered as an indicative measure of repetitive digging. PMID:19189082

  7. BETA-ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN LONGTAILED AND PIGTAILED MACAQUES VARY BY ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR RATING AND SEX

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Carolyn M.; Sackett, Gene P.; Sandman, Curt A.; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Bentson, Kathleen L.

    2007-01-01

    Frequent or severe abnormal behavior may be associated with the release of endorphins that positively reinforce the behavior with an opiate euphoria or analgesia. One line of research exploring this association involves the superhormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The products of POMC appear to be dysregulated in some human subjects who exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB). Macaque monkeys have POMC very similar to humans, and some laboratory macaques display SIB or frequent stereotypies. We investigated associations between plasma levels of three immunoreactive POMC fragments with possible opioid action and abnormal behavior ratings in macaques. In 58 adult male and female macaques (24 Macaca fascicularis and 34 M. nemestrina), plasma levels of intact beta-endorphin (?E) and the N-terminal fragment (BEN) were significantly higher in animals with higher levels of abnormal behavior. The C-terminal fragment (BEC) was significantly higher in males but unrelated to ratings of abnormal behavior. Levels of ACTH, cortisol, and (?E-ACTH)/?E dysregulation index were unrelated to abnormal behavior. None of the POMC products differed significantly by subjects' species, age, or weight. The finding that intact beta-endorphin is positively related to abnormal behavior in two species of macaque is consistent with some previous research on human subjects and nonprimates. The positive relation of the N-terminal fragment of ?E to abnormal behavior is a new finding. PMID:17719139

  8. Feasibility of exposure response prevention to treat repetitive behaviors of children with autism and an intellectual disability: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; Woodard, Cooper R; Bodfish, James W

    2013-03-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility of modifying exposure response prevention, an evidence-based strategy for obsessive-compulsive disorder, to treat the repetitive behaviors found in autism. Five school-aged participants (ages 5-11) diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. Our preliminary findings suggest it is feasible, and potentially efficacious, to modify standard exposure response prevention to treat the specific forms of repetitive behaviors found in individuals with autism and comorbid intellectual disabilities. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these preliminary findings. PMID:21975037

  9. Modified exposure and response prevention to treat the repetitive behaviors of a child with autism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; Woodard, Cooper R; Bodfish, James W

    2011-01-01

    We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles) remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings. PMID:22937399

  10. Behavioral neurodevelopment abnormalities and schizophrenic disorder: a retrospective evaluation with the Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL).

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Pollice, R; Daneluzzo, E; Marinangeli, M G; Stratta, P

    2000-08-01

    This study is a retrospective report of childhood and adolescence neurobehavioral assessment in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy siblings using the Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The CBCL ratings were obtained from retrospective maternal reports, for five age periods (birth to 3years, 4-7years, 8-11years, 12-15years and 16-18years) in a sample of 32 patients with schizophrenia. The patients showed a variety of childhood and adolescence behavioral problems when compared with their siblings, and the various types of problems differed in the developmental course of the disease. Cluster analysis was conducted on the childhood premorbid behavior ratings for the schizophrenic patients, and two subgroups emerged: a cluster with an initially low level of behavioral abnormalities (B.A. ) that increased over the years, and a cluster with a high level of B.A. that remain relatively stable until early adulthood. The latter group showed more severe current negative symptoms. PMID:10913743

  11. Influence of Lead on Repetitive Behavior and Dopamine Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Kueon, Chojin; Kim, Jonghan

    2014-01-01

    Exposures to lead (Pb) are associated with neurological problems including psychiatric disorders and impaired learning and memory. Pb can be absorbed by iron transporters, which are up-regulated in hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disorder in which increased iron deposition in various parenchymal organs promote metal-induced oxidative damage. While dysfunction in HFE (High Fe) gene is the major cause of hemochromatosis, the transport and toxicity of Pb in Hfe-related hemochromatosis are largely unknown. To elucidate the relationship between HFE gene dysfunction and Pb absorption, H67D knock-in Hfe-mutant and wild-type mice were given drinking water containing Pb 1.6 mg/ml ad libitum for 6 weeks and examined for behavioral phenotypes using the nestlet-shredding and marble-burying tests. Latency to nestlet-shredding in Pb-treated wild-type mice was prolonged compared with non-exposed wild-types (p < 0.001), whereas Pb exposure did not alter shredding latency in Hfe-mutant mice. In the marble-burying test, Hfe-mutant mice showed an increased number of marbles buried compared with wild-type mice (p = 0.002), indicating more repetitive behavior upon Hfe mutation. Importantly, Pb-exposed wild-type mice buried more marbles than non-exposed wild-types, whereas the number of marbles buried by Hfe-mutant mice did not change whether or not exposed to Pb. These results suggest that Hfe mutation could normalize Pb-induced behavioral alteration. To explore the mechanism of repetitive behavior caused by Pb, western blot analysis was conducted for proteins involved in brain dopamine metabolism. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter increased upon Pb exposure in both genotypes, whereas Hfe-mutant mice displayed down-regulation of the dopamine transporter and dopamine D1 receptor with D2 receptor elevated. Taken together, our data support the idea that both Pb exposure and Hfe mutation increase repetitive behavior in mice and further suggest that these behavioral changes could be associated with altered dopaminergic neurotransmission, providing a therapeutic basis for psychiatric disorders caused by Pb toxicity. PMID:25584146

  12. Influence of lead on repetitive behavior and dopamine metabolism in a mouse model of iron overload.

    PubMed

    Chang, JuOae; Kueon, Chojin; Kim, Jonghan

    2014-12-01

    Exposures to lead (Pb) are associated with neurological problems including psychiatric disorders and impaired learning and memory. Pb can be absorbed by iron transporters, which are up-regulated in hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disorder in which increased iron deposition in various parenchymal organs promote metal-induced oxidative damage. While dysfunction in HFE (High Fe) gene is the major cause of hemochromatosis, the transport and toxicity of Pb in Hfe-related hemochromatosis are largely unknown. To elucidate the relationship between HFE gene dysfunction and Pb absorption, H67D knock-in Hfe-mutant and wild-type mice were given drinking water containing Pb 1.6 mg/ml ad libitum for 6 weeks and examined for behavioral phenotypes using the nestlet-shredding and marble-burying tests. Latency to nestlet-shredding in Pb-treated wild-type mice was prolonged compared with non-exposed wild-types (p < 0.001), whereas Pb exposure did not alter shredding latency in Hfe-mutant mice. In the marble-burying test, Hfe-mutant mice showed an increased number of marbles buried compared with wild-type mice (p = 0.002), indicating more repetitive behavior upon Hfe mutation. Importantly, Pb-exposed wild-type mice buried more marbles than non-exposed wild-types, whereas the number of marbles buried by Hfe-mutant mice did not change whether or not exposed to Pb. These results suggest that Hfe mutation could normalize Pb-induced behavioral alteration. To explore the mechanism of repetitive behavior caused by Pb, western blot analysis was conducted for proteins involved in brain dopamine metabolism. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter increased upon Pb exposure in both genotypes, whereas Hfe-mutant mice displayed down-regulation of the dopamine transporter and dopamine D1 receptor with D2 receptor elevated. Taken together, our data support the idea that both Pb exposure and Hfe mutation increase repetitive behavior in mice and further suggest that these behavioral changes could be associated with altered dopaminergic neurotransmission, providing a therapeutic basis for psychiatric disorders caused by Pb toxicity. PMID:25584146

  13. Severe drug-induced repetitive behaviors and striatal overexpression of VAChT in ChAT-ChR2-EYFP BAC transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Carolyn J.; Lee, Tyrone; Bowden, Hilary A.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    In drug users, drug-related cues alone can induce dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Instructive cues activate inputs to the striatum from both dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, which are thought to work together to support motor learning and motivated behaviors. Imbalances in these neuromodulatory influences can impair normal action selection and might thus contribute to pathologically repetitive and compulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. Dopamine and acetylcholine can have either antagonistic or synergistic effects on behavior, depending on the state of the animal and the receptor signaling systems at play. Semi-synchronized activation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum drives dopamine release via presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on dopamine terminals. Nicotinic receptor blockade is known to diminish abnormal repetitive behaviors (stereotypies) induced by psychomotor stimulants. By contrast, blockade of postsynaptic acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum exacerbates drug-induced stereotypy, exemplifying how different acetylcholine receptors can also have opposing effects. Although acetylcholine release is known to be altered in animal models of drug addiction, predicting whether these changes will augment or diminish drug-induced behaviors thus remains a challenge. Here, we measured amphetamine-induced stereotypy in BAC transgenic mice that have been shown to overexpress the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) with consequent increased acetylcholine release. We found that drug-induced stereotypies, consisting of confined sniffing and licking behaviors, were greatly increased in the transgenic mice relative to sibling controls, as was striatal VAChT protein. These findings suggest that VAChT-mediated increases in acetylcholine could be critical in exacerbating drug-induced stereotypic behaviors and promoting exaggerated behavioral fixity. PMID:24904300

  14. Improvement of white matter and functional connectivity abnormalities by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in crossed aphasia in dextral

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haitao; Wu, Haiyan; Cheng, Hewei; Wei, Dongjie; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    As a special aphasia, the occurrence of crossed aphasia in dextral (CAD) is unusual. This study aims to improve the language ability by applying 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We studied multiple modality imaging of structural connectivity (diffusion tensor imaging), functional connectivity (resting fMRI), PET, and neurolinguistic analysis on a patient with CAD. Furthermore, we applied rTMS of 1 Hz for 40 times and observed the language function improvement. The results indicated that a significantly reduced structural and function connectivity was found in DTI and fMRI data compared with the control. The PET imaging showed hypo-metabolism in right hemisphere and left cerebellum. In conclusion, one of the mechanisms of CAD is that right hemisphere is the language dominance. Stimulating left Wernicke area could improve auditory comprehension, stimulating left Broca’s area could enhance expression, and the results outlasted 6 months by 1 Hz rTMS balancing the excitability inter-hemisphere in CAD. PMID:25419415

  15. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. PMID:25812825

  16. Cognitive set shifting deficits and their relationship to repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Haylie L; Ragozzino, Michael E; Cook, Edwin H; Sweeney, John A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2015-03-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new response set. We examined different error types on a test of set-shifting completed by 60 individuals with ASD and 55 age- and nonverbal IQ-matched controls. Individuals with ASD were able to initially shift sets, but they exhibited difficulty maintaining new response sets. Difficulty with set maintenance was related to increased severity of RRBs. General difficulty maintaining new response sets and a heightened tendency to revert to old preferences may contribute to RRBs. PMID:25234483

  17. Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Repetitive Pain in Neonatal Rat Pups

    PubMed Central

    ANAND, K. J. S.; COSKUN, V.; THRIVIKRAMAN, K. V.; NEMEROFF, C. B.; PLOTSKY, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Human preterm neonates are subjected to repetitive pain during neonatal intensive care. We hypothesized that exposure to repetitive neonatal pain may cause permanent or long-term changes because of the developmental plasticity of the immature brain. Neonatal rat pups were stimulated one, two, or four times each day from P0 to P7 with either needle prick (noxious groups N1, N2, N4) or cotton tip rub (tactile groups T1, T2, T4). In groups N2, N4, T2, T4 stimuli were applied to separate paws at hourly intervals; each paw was stimulated only once a day. Identical rearing occurred from P7 to P22 days. Pain thresholds were measured on P16, P22, and P65 (hot-plate test), and testing for defensive withdrawal, alcohol preference, air-puff startle, and social discrimination tests occurred during adulthood. Adult rats were exposed to a hot plate at 62°C for 20 s, then sacrificed and perfused at 0 and 30 min after exposure. Fos expression in the somatosensory cortex was measured by immunocytochemistry. Weight gain in the N2 group was greater than the T2 group on P16 (p < 0.05) and P22 (p < 0.005); no differences occurred in the other groups. Decreased pain latencies were noted in the N4 group [5.0 ± 1.0 s vs. 6.2 ± 1.4 s on P16 (p < 0.05); 3.9 ± 0.5 s vs. 5.5 ±1.6 s on P22 (p < 0.005)], indicating effects of repetitive neonatal pain on subsequent development of the pain system. As adults, N4 group rats showed an increased preference for alcohol (55 ± 18% vs. 32 ± 21%; p < 0.004); increased latency in exploratory and defensive withdrawal behavior (p < 0.05); and a prolonged chemosensory memory in the social discrimination test (p < 0.05). No significant differences occurred in corticosterone and ACTH levels following air-puff startle or in pain thresholds at P65 between N4 and T4 groups. Fos expression at 30 min after hot-plate exposure was significantly greater in all areas of the somatosensory cortex in the T4 group compared with the N4 group (p < 0.05), whereas no differences occurred just after exposure. These data suggest that repetitive pain in neonatal rat pups may lead to an altered development of the pain system associated with decreased pain thresholds during development. Increased plasticity of the neonatal brain may allow these and other changes in brain development to increase their vulnerability to stress disorders and anxiety-mediated adult behavior. Similar behavioral changes have been observed during the later childhood of expreterm neonates who were exposed to prolonged periods of neonatal intensive care. PMID:10386907

  18. Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

    1984-01-01

    Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

  19. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  20. Behavioral and Neuroanatomical Abnormalities in Pleiotrophin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krellman, Jason W.; Ruiz, Henry H.; Marciano, Veronica A.; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features. PMID:25000129

  1. Brief Report: The Dopamine-3-Receptor Gene ("DRD3") Is Associated with Specific Repetitive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staal, Wouter G.; de Krom, Mariken; de Jonge, Maretha V.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the "DRD3" gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. This risk allele was…

  2. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by repetitive combined treatments of ketamine and amphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chuan-Ching; Lee, Li-Jen; Yin, Hsiang-Shu

    2014-11-01

    The combined abuse of recreational drugs such as ketamine (Ket) and amphetamine (Amph) should be seriously considered important social and health issues. Numerous studies have documented the behavioral and neurochemical changes associated with polydrug administration; however, most studies have only examined the acute effects. The consequences following chronic repetitive polydrug use are less studied. In the present study, intraperitoneal injections of saline, Amph (5 mg/kg), low dose Ket (LK, 10 mg/kg), high dose Ket (HK, 50 mg/kg), or Amph plus LK or HK (ALK or AHK) were conducted twice a day for three consecutive days, and one final treatment was administered on day 4. After seven total treatments, animal behaviors, including locomotion, stereotypy and ataxia, were examined in a novel open field. The expression of GAD67 and dopamine (DA) levels were assessed in the striatum and motor-related cortices using immunohistochemistry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Drug-induced hyperactivities and Amph-mediated potentiation of Ket-triggered ataxia manifested after repeated drug treatments. A significant increase in the number of GAD67-positive puncta in the striatum and motor-related cortices was observed, suggesting a neural adaptive change in the GABAergic system. Four hours after the final treatment, while the behavioral hyperactivities had ceased, considerable changes were still evident in the motor-related cortices, suggesting modulation to the DAergic system. Together, our results show the interactive effects of these two drugs in behavioral and neurochemical aspects and neural adaptive changes in the GABAergic and DAergic systems. PMID:25135599

  3. Abnormal eating behaviors in adolescent and young adult women from southern Brazil: Reassessment after four years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Angélica Nunes; Maria Teresa A. Olinto; Suzi Camey; Christina Morgan; Jair de Jesus Mari

    2006-01-01

    Objective  To investigate whether abnormal eating behaviors in young women could predict eating disorders after 4 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  56 women were identified as presenting abnormal eating behaviors in a cross-sectional study (Eating Attitudes Test-26 and\\u000a Edinburgh Bulimic Investigation Test). They were matched for age and neighborhood to two controls (n = 112). Four years later, they were re-assessed with the two screening questionnaires plus the

  4. The Association between EEG Abnormality and Behavioral Disorder: Developmental Delay in Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Alaee, Mohammad Reza; Zarafshan, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Background. Brain defect leading to developmental delay is one of the clinical manifestations of phenylketonuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between EEG abnormality and developmental delay/behavioral disorders in phenylketonuria. Patients and Methods. 105 phenylketonuria patients, who were diagnosed through newborn screening tests or during follow-up evaluation, were enrolled. Patients who were seizure-free for at least six months before the study were included. The developmental score were evaluated by the ASQ questionnaire (age-stage questionnaire) and the test of child symptom inventory-4 (CSI-4), respectively. Results. 55 patients had a history of seizure more than 6 months before the study. Seventy had abnormal EEG (cases) and 35 had normal EEG (controls). There was no significant difference between mean phenylalanine levels in the abnormal and normal EEG groups at the time of diagnosis, after six months and at our evaluation. Distribution of DQ level in the abnormal and normal EEG groups revealed a significant difference. An abnormal EEG was associated with a higher percentage of low DQ levels. Conclusion. Paroxysmal epileptic discharges in PKU patients are important. Treatment of these EEG abnormalities may affect developmental scores or may lead to correction of some behavioral disorders in patients. PMID:22550595

  5. Autism gene variant causes hyperserotonemia, serotonin receptor hypersensitivity, social impairment and repetitive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Muller, Christopher L.; Iwamoto, Hideki; Sauer, Jennifer E.; Owens, W. Anthony; Shah, Charisma R.; Cohen, Jordan; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Jessen, Tammy; Thompson, Brent J.; Ye, Ran; Kerr, Travis M.; Carneiro, Ana M.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Sanders-Bush, Elaine; McMahon, Douglas G.; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Daws, Lynette C.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago, increased whole-blood serotonin levels, or hyperserotonemia, first linked disrupted 5-HT homeostasis to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The 5-HT transporter (SERT) gene (SLC6A4) has been associated with whole blood 5-HT levels and ASD susceptibility. Previously, we identified multiple gain-of-function SERT coding variants in children with ASD. Here we establish that transgenic mice expressing the most common of these variants, SERT Ala56, exhibit elevated, p38 MAPK-dependent transporter phosphorylation, enhanced 5-HT clearance rates and hyperserotonemia. These effects are accompanied by altered basal firing of raphe 5-HT neurons, as well as 5HT1A and 5HT2A receptor hypersensitivity. Strikingly, SERT Ala56 mice display alterations in social function, communication, and repetitive behavior. Our efforts provide strong support for the hypothesis that altered 5-HT homeostasis can impact risk for ASD traits and provide a model with construct and face validity that can support further analysis of ASD mechanisms and potentially novel treatments. PMID:22431635

  6. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  7. Repetitive behavior and restricted interests in young children with autism: comparisons with controls and stability over 2 years.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Lisa; Thurm, Audrey; Farmer, Cristan; Shumway, Stacy

    2013-12-01

    Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities [RRBs] are among the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have indicated that RRBs differentiate ASD from other developmental disorders and from typical development. This study examined the presentation of RRBs as reported on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, a caregiver report, in children with ASD [separated into autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified groups] compared with children with nonspectrum developmental delays or typical development. We examined the role of age, cognitive functioning, sex and social communication impairment as they relate to RRBs. The stability of RRBs in children with autism was also examined over the course of 2 years. Results of the study confirmed that the amount and type of RRBs differs by diagnosis. Age, cognitive functioning, sex and social-communication impairment were not significant correlates. Among children with autism, RRBs remained stable over time. PMID:23868881

  8. Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Repetitive Pain in Neonatal Rat Pups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. S Anand; V Coskun; K. V Thrivikraman; C. B Nemeroff; P. M Plotsky

    1999-01-01

    Human preterm neonates are subjected to repetitive pain during neonatal intensive care. We hypothesized that exposure to repetitive neonatal pain may cause permanent or long-term changes because of the developmental plasticity of the immature brain. Neonatal rat pups were stimulated one, two, or four times each day from P0 to P7 with either needle prick (noxious groups N1, N2, N4)

  9. Abnormal behavior of supercooled liquid region in bulk-forming metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, E. S.; Na, J. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2010-09-01

    A metallic glass is often viewed as an amorphous alloy exhibiting a single endothermic reaction in the supercooled liquid region (SCLR, ?Tx=Tx-Tg). Here we discuss the origin and consequences of abnormal behavior of SCLR in various bulk-forming metallic glasses (BMGs). The two-stage-like endothermic reaction in Ni-based, Cu-based, Zr-based, and Mg-based BMGs can originate from the local immiscibility of liquids, which is closely related to chemical heterogeneity in as-cast BMG. These inflections can be attributed to the overlap of the exothermic reaction for the formation and growth of clusters in SCLR. The abnormal behavior of SCLR can be modulated by controlling cooling rate as well as by tailoring alloy composition, with the consequence that the modulated local heterogeneity in these BMGs can lead to enhanced flexibility of the BMGs. This correlation assists in understanding toughening mechanism and in guiding alloy design to alleviate brittleness of BMGs.

  10. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of planning is presented and the results of applying the methodology within two experimental investigations of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations are discussed. Beyond showing that the methodology yields consistent results, these experiments also lead to concepts in terms of a dichotomy between event driven and time driven planning, subtle effects of automation on planning, and the relationship of planning to workload and flight performance.

  11. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization

    PubMed Central

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years) or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years). The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined. PMID:25379228

  12. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of human planning behavior in complex dynamic systems is presented and applied to the study of aircraft pilot behavior in normal, abnormal and emergency situations. The method measures the depth of planning, that is the level of detail employed with respect to a specific task, according to responses to a verbal questionnaire, and compares planning depth with variables relating to time, task criticality and the probability of increased task difficulty. In two series of experiments, depth of planning was measured on a five- or ten-point scale during various phases of flight in a HFB-320 simulator under normal flight conditions, abnormal scenarios involving temporary runway closure due to snow removal or temporary CAT-III conditions due to a dense fog, and emergency scenarios involving engine shut-down or hydraulic pressure loss. Results reveal a dichotomy between event-driven and time-driven planning, different effects of automation in abnormal and emergency scenarios and a low correlation between depth of planning and workload or flight performance.

  13. On possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behaviors before an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Masashi

    2013-04-01

    The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behaviors before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilzed to characterize the unusual animal behaviors; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15-20 years. As the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f < 1Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f < a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behaviors. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behaviors before an EQ.

  14. Abnormal animal behavior prior to the Vrancea (Romania) major subcrustal earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Angela; Pantea, Aurelian

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some observations about abnormal animal behavior prior and during of some Romanian subcrustal earthquakes. The major Vrancea earthquakes of 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.4, Imax = IX-X MSK), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.1, Io = VIII-IX MSK) and 30 May 1990 (Mw = 6.9, Io = VIII MSK), were preceded by extensive occurrences of anomalous animal behavior. These data were collected immediately after the earthquakes from the areas affected by these. Some species of animals became excited, nervous and panicked before and during the earthquakes, such as: dogs (barking and running in panic), cats, snakes, mice and rats (came into the houses and have lost their fear), birds (hens, geese, parrots), horses, fishes etc. These strange manifestations of the animals were observed on the entire territory of country, especially in the extra-Carpathian area. This unusual behavior was noticed within a few hours to days before the seismic events, but for the most of cases the time of occurrence was within two hours of the quakes. We can hope that maybe one day the abnormal animal behavior will be used as a reliable seismic precursor for the intermediate depth earthquakes.

  15. Executive Function Deficits and Social-Behavioral Abnormality in Mice Exposed to a Low Dose of Dioxin In Utero and via Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation. PMID:23251380

  16. Reduced Expression of the NMDA Receptor-Interacting Protein SynGAP Causes Behavioral Abnormalities that Model

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    . In mice, reduced NMDAR expression leads to behaviors analogous to symptoms of schizophrenia, but reports exposing neonatal mice or rats to an NMDAR antagonist causes certain schizophrenia-like behaviors in humansReduced Expression of the NMDA Receptor-Interacting Protein SynGAP Causes Behavioral Abnormalities

  17. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  18. Abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis in the allotetraploid of Carassius auratus red var. (?)?×?Megalobrama amblycephala (?)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allopolyploids generally undergo bivalent pairing at meiosis because only homologous chromosomes pair up. On the other hand, several studies have documented abnormal chromosome behavior during mitosis and meiosis in allopolyploids plants leading to the production of gametes with complete paternal or maternal chromosomes. Polyploidy is relatively rare in animals compared with plants; thus, chromosome behavior at meiosis in the allopolyploid animals is poorly understood. Results Tetraploid hybrids (abbreviated as 4nRB) (4n?=?148, RRBB) of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC) (2n?=?100, RR) (?)?×?Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB) (2n?=?48, BB) (?) generated gametes of different size. To test the genetic composition of these gametes, the gynogenetic offspring and backcross progenies of 4nRB were produced, and their genetic composition were examined by chromosome analysis and FISH. Our results suggest that 4nRB can produce several types of gametes with different genetic compositions, including allotetraploid (RRBB), autotriploid (RRR), autodiploid (RR), and haploid (R) gametes. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence of abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis in an allotetraploid fish. PMID:25178799

  19. Protective effect of Triphala on cold stress-induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats.

    PubMed

    Dhanalakshmi, Selvakumar; Devi, Rathinasamy Sheela; Srikumar, Ramasundaram; Manikandan, Sundaramahalingam; Thangaraj, Ramasundaram

    2007-11-01

    Stress is one of the basic factors in the etiology of number of diseases. Cold-stress occurs when the surrounding temperature drops below 18 degrees C, the body may not be able to warm itself, and hence serious cold-related illnesses, permanent tissue damage and death may results. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) against the cold stress-induced alterations in the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in four different groups (saline control, Triphala, cold-stress and Triphala with cold-stress) of Wistar strain albino rats. In this study cold-stress (8 degrees C for 16 h/d/15 days) was applied and the oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the changes in corticosterone levels. Upon exposure to the cold-stress, a significant (P<0.05) increase in immobilization with decrease in rearing, grooming, and ambulation behavior was seen in open field. Following cold-exposure, significant increase in the LPO and corticosterone levels was observed. Oral administration of Triphala (1 g/kg/animal body weight) for 48 days significantly prevented these cold stress-induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in albino rats. The results of this study suggest that Triphala supplementation can be regarded as a protective drug against stress. PMID:17978562

  20. Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Erbel-Sieler, Claudia; Dudley, Carol; Zhou, Yudong; Wu, Xinle; Estill, Sandi Jo; Han, Tina; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; McKnight, Steven L

    2004-09-14

    Laboratory mice bearing inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors have been shown to exhibit a spectrum of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities. Behavioral abnormalities included diminished startle response, as measured by prepulse inhibition, and impaired social recognition. NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice also exhibited stereotypic darting behavior at weaning and increased locomotor activity. Immunohistochemical staining assays showed that the NPAS1 and NPAS3 proteins are expressed in inhibitory interneurons and that the viability and anatomical distribution of these neurons are unaffected by the absence of either transcription factor. Adult brain tissues from NPAS3- and NPAS1/NPAS3-deficient mice exhibited a distinct reduction in reelin, a large, secreted protein whose expression has been reported to be attenuated in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia. These observations raise the possibility that a regulatory program controlled in inhibitory interneurons by the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors may be either substantively or tangentially relevant to psychosis. PMID:15347806

  1. Who Should Report Abnormal Behavior at Preschool Age? The Case of Behavioral Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballespi, Sergi; Jane, Ma Claustre; Riba, Ma Dolors

    2012-01-01

    Children who are behaviorally "inhibited"--a condition at the extreme of the behavioral inhibition dimension--experience distress in uncertain social situations. Although parents and teachers are in the best position to detect this condition, they rarely agree. This study aims to analyze the agreement between parents and teachers and to examine…

  2. Lymphocyte Subset Alterations Related to Executive Function Deficits and Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in children with ASD. Eighteen high-functioning (HFA) and 19 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17 years,…

  3. A new type of repetitive behavior in a high-energy transient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laros, J. G.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Atteia, J.-L.; Boer, M.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Kane, S. R.; Kouveliotou, C.

    1987-01-01

    The high-energy burster GB 790107 has been observed to repeat, on the order of 100 times, between August 13, 1978 and June 27, 1986, with most repetitions occurring in the latter part of 1983. Here, these activities are described, discussing intensity and time-of-occurrence information covering a seven-year span of International Cometary Explorer (ICE) data. Arguments for the reality of this activity and its association with the GB 790107 source are presented. A moderately precise location derived from ICE, SMM, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, and Venera 13 Signe data is given and related to the published GB 790107 location.

  4. New type of repetitive behavior in a high-energy transient

    SciTech Connect

    Laros, J.G.; Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Atteia, J.L.; Boer, M.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Kane, S.R.; Kouveliotou, C.

    1987-09-01

    The high-energy burster GB 790107 has been observed to repeat, on the order of 100 times, between August 13, 1978 and June 27, 1986, with most repetitions occurring in the latter part of 1983. Here, these activities are described, discussing intensity and time-of-occurrence information covering a seven-year span of International Cometary Explorer (ICE) data. Arguments for the reality of this activity and its association with the GB 790107 source are presented. A moderately precise location derived from ICE, SMM, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, and Venera 13 Signe data is given and related to the published GB 790107 location. 9 references.

  5. Altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors in rats exposed to early life seizures

    PubMed Central

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Cassane, Gustavo dos Santos Teada; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are the most common manifestation of neurological dysfunction in the neonate. The prognosis of neonatal seizures is highly variable, and the controversy remains whether the severity, duration, or frequency of seizures may contribute to brain damage independently of its etiology. Animal data indicates that seizures during development are associated with a high probability of long-term adverse effects such as learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes and even epilepsy, which is strongly age dependent, as well as the severity, duration, and frequency of seizures. In preliminary studies, we demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to one-single neonatal status epilepticus (SE) episode showed social behavior impairment, and we proposed the model as relevant for studies of developmental disorders. Based on these facts, the goal of this study was to verify the existence of a persistent deficit and if the anxiety-related behavior could be associated with that impairment. To do so, male Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were submitted to a single episode of SE by pilocarpine injection (380 mg/kg, i.p.) and control animals received saline (0.9%, 0.1 mL/10 g). It was possible to demonstrate that in adulthood, animals exposed to neonatal SE displayed low preference for social novelty, anxiety-related behavior, and increased stereotyped behavior in anxiogenic environment with no locomotor activity changes. On the balance, these data suggests that neonatal SE in rodents leads to altered anxiety-related and abnormal social behaviors. PMID:23675329

  6. Brief Report: Glutamate Transporter Gene ("SLC1A1") Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs301430) and Repetitive Behaviors and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Investigated association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs301430 in glutamate transporter gene ("SLC1A1") with severity of repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive behaviors, tics) and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers and/or teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 67 children…

  7. Clinical Correlates and Repetition of Self-Harming Behaviors among Female Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…

  8. Oxytocin, vasopressin, and Williams syndrome: epigenetic effects on abnormal social behavior.

    PubMed

    Haas, Brian W; Smith, Alicia K

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a condition caused by a deletion of ?26-28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23 often characterized by abnormal social behavior and disrupted oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) functioning. The observation that individuals with WS exhibit OT and AVP dysregulation is compelling. There is currently a lack of evidence that any of the genes typically deleted in WS have any direct effect on either OT or AVP. In this perspective article, we present a novel epigenetic model describing how DNA methylation may impact the expression of key genes within the OT and AVP systems, which may ultimately influence the social behavior observed in WS. We draw support from data pooled from a prior empirical research study (Henrichsen et al., 2011), demonstrating that OXTR is overexpressed in WS. These preliminary findings may create new opportunities to target the OT and AVP systems with the specific goal of improving outcomes in WS and other psychiatric conditions. PMID:25741359

  9. Oxytocin, vasopressin, and Williams syndrome: epigenetic effects on abnormal social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Brian W.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a condition caused by a deletion of ?26–28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23 often characterized by abnormal social behavior and disrupted oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) functioning. The observation that individuals with WS exhibit OT and AVP dysregulation is compelling. There is currently a lack of evidence that any of the genes typically deleted in WS have any direct effect on either OT or AVP. In this perspective article, we present a novel epigenetic model describing how DNA methylation may impact the expression of key genes within the OT and AVP systems, which may ultimately influence the social behavior observed in WS. We draw support from data pooled from a prior empirical research study (Henrichsen et al., 2011), demonstrating that OXTR is overexpressed in WS. These preliminary findings may create new opportunities to target the OT and AVP systems with the specific goal of improving outcomes in WS and other psychiatric conditions. PMID:25741359

  10. Rare E196K mutation in the PRNP gene of a patient exhibiting behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Béjot, Yannick; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Caillier, Marie; Moreau, Thibault; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Giroud, Maurice

    2010-04-01

    Genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) account for approximately 10-15% of overall human prion diseases worldwide, but genotype-phenotype correlations remain incomplete. Here we report the case of an 80-year-old man who developed rapidly progressive behavioral abnormalities and myoclonus following a stroke. Repeated electroencephalography (EEG) revealed a general slowing of the basic activity, as well as several episodes of triphasic waves, with neither periodic activity nor recorded seizure. 14.3.3 protein was detected in cerebral cerebrospinal fluid, and direct sequencing of the PRNP gene showed an E196K mutation associated with homozygosity for methionine at codon 129. The patient was diagnosed with probable genetic prion disease with a Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-like phenotype. The PRNP E196K mutation has only rarely been described in the literature, and generally patients exhibited an atypical initial phenotype, mainly involving abnormal behavioral features. Further observations are needed to confirm this particular clinical pattern associated with the mutation. PMID:20005032

  11. Evidence-based, parent-mediated interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder: The case of restricted and repetitive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Clare

    2014-09-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders. While there has been an increase in research into this domain in recent years, compared to social-communication impairments experienced by children with autism spectrum disorders, much less is known about their development, etiology, and management. Parent-mediated interventions have become increasingly popular in the field, with a surge of studies reporting significant findings in social communication and cognitive development in early childhood. Restricted and repetitive behaviors are often not specifically targeted or measured as an outcome within these interventions. This article reviews how 29 parent-mediated interventions approached the management, treatment, and measurement of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Recommendations for research and practice are presented. PMID:25186943

  12. The relationship between auditory processing and restricted, repetitive behaviors in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kargas, Niko; López, Beatriz; Reddy, Vasudevi; Morris, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Current views suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterised by enhanced low-level auditory discrimination abilities. Little is known, however, about whether enhanced abilities are universal in ASD and how they relate to symptomatology. We tested auditory discrimination for intensity, frequency and duration in 21 adults with ASD and 21 IQ and age-matched controls. Contrary to predictions, there were significant deficits in ASD on all acoustic parameters. The findings suggest that low-level auditory discrimination ability varies widely within ASD and this variability relates to IQ level, and influences the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs). We suggest that it is essential to further our understanding of the potential contributing role of sensory perception ability on the emergence of RRBs. PMID:25178987

  13. Point Mutation in Syntaxin-1A Causes Abnormal Vesicle Recycling, Behaviors, and Short Term Plasticity*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yumi; Katayama, Norikazu; Takeuchi, Kosei; Togano, Tetsuya; Itoh, Rieko; Sato, Michiko; Yamazaki, Maya; Abe, Manabu; Sato, Toshiya; Oda, Kanako; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Takao, Keizo; Fukaya, Masahiro; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakimura, Kenji; Manabe, Toshiya; Igarashi, Michihiro

    2013-01-01

    Syntaxin-1A is a t-SNARE that is involved in vesicle docking and vesicle fusion; it is important in presynaptic exocytosis in neurons because it interacts with many regulatory proteins. Previously, we found the following: 1) that autophosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an important modulator of neural plasticity, interacts with syntaxin-1A to regulate exocytosis, and 2) that a syntaxin missense mutation (R151G) attenuated this interaction. To determine more precisely the physiological importance of this interaction between CaMKII and syntaxin, we generated mice with a knock-in (KI) syntaxin-1A (R151G) mutation. Complexin is a molecular clamp involved in exocytosis, and in the KI mice, recruitment of complexin to the SNARE complex was reduced because of an abnormal CaMKII/syntaxin interaction. Nevertheless, SNARE complex formation was not inhibited, and consequently, basal neurotransmission was normal. However, the KI mice did exhibit more enhanced presynaptic plasticity than wild-type littermates; this enhanced plasticity could be associated with synaptic response than did wild-type littermates; this pronounced response included several behavioral abnormalities. Notably, the R151G phenotypes were generally similar to previously reported CaMKII mutant phenotypes. Additionally, synaptic recycling in these KI mice was delayed, and the density of synaptic vesicles was reduced. Taken together, our results indicated that this single point mutation in syntaxin-1A causes abnormal regulation of neuronal plasticity and vesicle recycling and that the affected syntaxin-1A/CaMKII interaction is essential for normal brain and synaptic functions in vivo. PMID:24136198

  14. Inactivation of Ceramide Synthase 6 in Mice Results in an Altered Sphingolipid Metabolism and Behavioral Abnormalities*

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Philipp; vom Dorp, Katharina; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Minich, David; Ginkel, Christina; Welcker, Jochen; Degen, Joachim; Eckhardt, Matthias; Dere, Ekrem; Dörmann, Peter; Willecke, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The N-acyl chain length of ceramides is determined by the specificity of different ceramide synthases (CerS). The CerS family in mammals consists of six members with different substrate specificities and expression patterns. We have generated and characterized a mouse line harboring an enzymatically inactive ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6KO) gene and lacz reporter cDNA coding for ?-galactosidase directed by the CerS6 promoter. These mice display a decrease in C16:0 containing sphingolipids. Relative to wild type tissues the amount of C16:0 containing sphingomyelin in kidney is ?35%, whereas we find a reduction of C16:0 ceramide content in the small intestine to about 25%. The CerS6KO mice show behavioral abnormalities including a clasping abnormality of their hind limbs and a habituation deficit. LacZ reporter expression in the brain reveals CerS6 expression in hippocampus, cortex, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. Using newly developed antibodies that specifically recognize the CerS6 protein we show that the endogenous CerS6 protein is N-glycosylated and expressed in several tissues of mice, mainly kidney, small and large intestine, and brain. PMID:23760501

  15. High dose CART peptide induces abnormal EEG activity and behavioral seizures.

    PubMed

    Keating, Glenda L; Kuhar, Michael J; Rye, David B

    2008-04-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters found throughout the nervous system and in the periphery. CART has an important role in the regulation of food intake, anxiety, endocrine function, and in mesolimbic-mediated reward and reinforcement. This short report casts light upon previous descriptions of presumed behavioral seizure and tremor activity following administration of CART into the central nervous system. By employing electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, we document the state of cerebrocortical activity. We find that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 5 microg of CART 55-102 readily produces an abnormal EEG characterized initially by high amplitude hypersynchronous alpha in the 8-10 Hz range during behavioral wakefulness as manifest in both cortical and hippocampal theta EEG channels. This reliably progressed in three of three animals tested to unequivocal epileptiform activity accompanied by tremors and assumption of a rigid, tonic body posture. The neural substrates underlying this finding are unclear. This novel description of the epileptogenic quality of CART should lend caution to interpretations of the behaviors attributed to CART in other experimental paradigms. PMID:18178249

  16. Decomposition of abnormal free locomotor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grieb, Benjamin; von Nicolai, Constantin; Engler, Gerhard; Sharott, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.; Moll, Christian K.

    2013-01-01

    Poverty of spontaneous movement, slowed execution and reduced amplitudes of movement (akinesia, brady- and hypokinesia) are cardinal motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease that can be modeled in experimental animals by brain lesions affecting midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most behavioral investigations in experimental parkinsonism have employed short-term observation windows to assess motor impairments. We postulated that an analysis of longer-term free exploratory behavior could provide further insights into the complex fine structure of altered locomotor activity in parkinsonian animals. To this end, we video-monitored 23 h of free locomotor behavior and extracted several behavioral measures before and after the expression of a severe parkinsonian phenotype following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the rat dopaminergic substantia nigra. Unbiased stereological cell counting verified the degree of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive cell loss in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In line with previous reports, overall covered distance and maximal motion speed of lesioned animals were found to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Before lesion surgery, exploratory rat behavior exhibited a bimodal distribution of maximal speed values obtained for single movement episodes, corresponding to a “first” and “second gear” of motion. 6-OHDA injections significantly reduced the incidence of second gear motion episodes and also resulted in an abnormal prolongation of these fast motion events. Likewise, the spatial spread of such episodes was increased in 6-OHDA rats. The increase in curvature of motion tracks was increased in both lesioned and control animals. We conclude that the discrimination of distinct modes of motion by statistical decomposition of longer-term spontaneous locomotion provides useful insights into the fine structure of fluctuating motor functions in a rat analog of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24348346

  17. Abnormal Pre-Attentive Arousal in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Contributes to Their Atypical Auditory Behavior: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Stroganova, Tatiana A.; Kozunov, Vladimir V.; Posikera, Irina N.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Gratchev, Vitaliy V.; Orekhova, Elena V.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory sensory modulation difficulties and problems with automatic re-orienting to sound are well documented in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal preattentive arousal processes may contribute to these deficits. In this study, we investigated components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) reflecting preattentive arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children aged 3-8 years. Pairs of clicks (‘S1’ and ‘S2’) separated by a 1 sec S1-S2 interstimulus interval (ISI) and much longer (8-10 sec) S1-S1 ISIs were presented monaurally to either the left or right ear. In TD children, the P50, P100 and N1c CAEP components were strongly influenced by temporal novelty of clicks and were much greater in response to the S1 than the S2 click. Irrespective of the stimulation side, the ‘tangential’ P100 component was rightward lateralized in TD children, whereas the ‘radial’ N1c component had higher amplitude contralaterally to the stimulated ear. Compared to the TD children, children with ASD demonstrated 1) reduced amplitude of the P100 component under the condition of temporal novelty (S1) and 2) an attenuated P100 repetition suppression effect. The abnormalities were lateralized and depended on the presentation side. They were evident in the case of the left but not the right ear stimulation. The P100 abnormalities in ASD correlated with the degree of developmental delay and with the severity of auditory sensory modulation difficulties observed in early life. The results suggest that some rightward-lateralized brain networks that are crucially important for arousal and attention re-orienting are compromised in children with ASD and that this deficit contributes to sensory modulation difficulties and possibly even other behavioral deficits in ASD. PMID:23935931

  18. The Effects of Gender and Age on Repetitive and/or Restricted Behaviors and Interests in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic Assessment…

  19. Lack of Efficacy of Citalopram in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and High Levels of Repetitive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    King, Bryan H.; Hollander, Eric; Sikich, Linmarie; McCracken, James T.; Scahill, Lawrence; Bregman, Joel D.; Donnelly, Craig L.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann; Ritz, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Context Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely prescribed for children with autism spectrum disorders. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of citalopram hydrobromide therapy for repetitive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Design National Institutes of Health–sponsored randomized controlled trial. Setting Six academic centers, including Mount Sinai School of Medicine, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of California at Los Angeles, Yale University, and Dartmouth Medical School. Participants One hundred forty-nine volunteers 5 to 17 years old (mean [SD] age, 9.4 [3.1] years) were randomized to receive citalopram (n = 73) or placebo (n = 76). Participants had autistic spectrum disorders, Asperger disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified; had illness severity ratings of at least moderate on the Clinical Global Impressions, Severity of Illness Scale; and scored at least moderate on compulsive behaviors measured with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Interventions Twelve weeks of citalopram hydrobromide (10 mg/5 mL) or placebo. The mean (SD) maximum dosage of citalopram hydrobromide was 16.5 (6.5) mg/d by mouth (maximum, 20 mg/d). Main Outcome Measures Positive response was defined by a score of much improved or very much improved on the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement subscale. An important secondary outcome was the score on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Adverse events were systematically elicited using the Safety Monitoring Uniform Report Form. Results There was no significant difference in the rate of positive response on the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement subscale between the citalopram-treated group (32.9%) and the placebo group (34.2%) (relative risk, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.51; P> .99). There was no difference in score reduction on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders from baseline (mean [SD], ?2.0 [3.4] points for the citalopram-treated group and ?1.9 [2.5] points for the placebo group; P=.81). Citalopram use was significantly more likely to be associated with adverse events, particularly increased energy level, impulsiveness, decreased concentration, hyperactivity, stereotypy, diarrhea, insomnia, and dry skin or pruritus. Conclusion Results of this trial do not support the use of citalopram for the treatment of repetitive behavior in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00086645 PMID:19487623

  20. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  1. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Facciolo, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rm.facciolo@unical.i [Comparative Neuroanatomy Laboratory, Ecology Department, University of Calabria, 87030 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello [Comparative Neuroanatomy Laboratory, Ecology Department, University of Calabria, 87030 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA{sub A}R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 mug/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 mug/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA{sub A}ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p < 0.05) and great (p < 0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatment sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p < 0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA{sub A}R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA{sub A}R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  2. Abnormal operando structural behavior of sodium battery material: influence of dynamic on phase diagram of NaxFePO4

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Abnormal operando structural behavior of sodium battery material: influence of dynamic on phase to SEI and adverse effect of cation size in comparison to Li batteries. Comparison of the lattice volume. Keywords: Na-ion battery, NaFePO4, operando XRD, olivine 1. Introduction Large-scale Na-ion batteries

  3. Abnormal operando structural behavior of sodium battery material: influence of dynamic on phase diagram of NaxFePO4

    E-print Network

    Recanati, Catherine

    1 Abnormal operando structural behavior of sodium battery material: influence of dynamic on phase in comparison to Li batteries. Comparison of the lattice volume mismatch on charge and discharge revealed an explanation for the asymmetry of the electrochemical curve. Keywords: Na-ion battery, NaFePO4, operando XRD

  4. 100 Repetitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    One hundred repetitions--100 "useful" repetitions. This notion has guided the author's work in alternative education programs for almost 20 years, dealing with the most challenging students, from addicts to conduct-disordered adolescents to traumatized 5th graders. There are no magic tricks. The role of educators is to align with the healthy…

  5. Cytogenetic abnormalities and fragile-x syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kavita S Reddy

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autism is a behavioral disorder with impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. About 5–10 % of individuals with autism have 'secondary' autism in which an environmental agent, chromosome abnormality, or single gene disorder can be identified. Ninety percent have idiopathic autism and a major gene has not yet been identified. We have assessed the incidence of

  6. RATS EXPOSED TO ISOFLURANE IN UTERO DURING EARLY GESTATION ARE BEHAVIORALLY ABNORMAL AS ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Arvind; Baxter, Mark G.; Keel, Pamela K.; Xie, Zhongcong; Crosby, Gregory; Culley, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Preclinical evidence suggests that commonly used anesthetic agents induce long-lasting neurobehavioral changes when administered early in life but there has been virtually no attention to the neurodevelopmental consequences for the fetus of maternal anesthesia. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal rats exposed to isoflurane during maternal anesthesia on gestational day 14, which corresponds to the second trimester in humans, would be behaviorally abnormal as adults. Methods Timed, pregnant rats were randomly assigned on gestational day 14 to receive 1.4% isoflurane in 100% oxygen (N = 3) or 100 % oxygen (N = 2) for 4 h. Beginning at 8 weeks of age, male offspring were evaluated for spontaneous locomotor activity, hippocampal dependent learning and memory (spontaneous alternations, novel object recognition, and radial arm maze), and anxiety (elevated plus maze). Results Isoflurane anesthesia was physiologically well tolerated by the dams. Adult rats exposed prenatally to isoflurane were not different than controls on spontaneous locomotor activity, spontaneous alternations, or object recognition memory but made more open arm entries on the elevated plus maze and took longer and made more errors of omission on the radial arm maze. Conclusions Rats exposed to isoflurane in utero at a time that corresponds to the second trimester in humans have impaired spatial memory acquisition and, reduced anxiety compared to controls. This suggests the fetal brain may be adversely affected by maternal anesthesia and raises the possibility that vulnerability to deleterious neurodevelopmental effects of isoflurane begins much earlier in life than previously recognized. PMID:21307768

  7. Behavioral and Neurotransmitter Abnormalities in Mice Deficient for Parkin, DJ-1 and Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Hennis, Meghan R.; Seamans, Katherine W.; Marvin, Marian A.; Casey, Bradford H.; Goldberg, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of neurons in the substantia nigra that project to the striatum and release dopamine. The cause of PD remains uncertain, however, evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Although most cases of PD are sporadic, 5-10% of cases are caused by inherited mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 were the first to be linked to recessively inherited Parkinsonism. Surprisingly, mice bearing similar loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 do not show age-dependent loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons or depletion of dopamine in the striatum. Although the normal cellular functions of Parkin and DJ-1 are not fully understood, we hypothesized that loss-of-function mutations in Parkin and DJ-1 render cells more sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we crossed mice deficient for Parkin and DJ-1 with mice deficient for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) or the cytosolic antioxidant protein Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Aged Parkin-/-DJ-1-/- and Mn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have enhanced performance on the rotorod behavior test. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase triple deficient mice have elevated levels of dopamine in the striatum in the absence of nigral cell loss. Our studies demonstrate that on a Parkin/DJ-1 null background, mice that are also deficient for major antioxidant proteins do not have progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons but have behavioral and striatal dopamine abnormalities. PMID:24386432

  8. Pyrene induces a reduction in midbrain size and abnormal swimming behavior in early-hatched pufferfish larvae.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Itoyama, Tatsuya; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Tosa, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2014-08-30

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) have an adverse effect on marine life. We have demonstrated previously that exposure to HO by fertilized eggs of the pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) induces neural disruption and behavioral abnormality in early-hatched larvae. Here, two kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrene and phenanthrene, were selected to examine their toxic effects on larval behavior of another pufferfish species (T. niphobles). Larvae exposed to pyrene or phenanthrene exhibited no abnormalities in morphology. However, those exposed to pyrene but not phenanthrene swam in an uncoordinated manner, although their swimming distance and speed were normal. The optic tectum, a part of the midbrain, of pyrene-exposed larvae did not grow to full size. Thus, these findings are indicated that pyrene might be a contributor to the behavioral and neuro-developmental toxicity, although there is no indication that it is the only compound participating in the toxicity of the heavy oil mixture. PMID:24793779

  9. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-01-01

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV?/?) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV+/?) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV?/? and PV+/? mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a common link between apparently unrelated ASD-associated synapse structure/function phenotypes. PMID:25756808

  10. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-01-01

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV(-/-)) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV(+/-)) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV(-/-) and PV(+/-) mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a common link between apparently unrelated ASD-associated synapse structure/function phenotypes. PMID:25756808

  11. GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide reverses long-term atypical antipsychotic treatment associated behavioral depression and metabolic abnormalities in rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Ligade, Sagar S; Sharma, Jay N; Shukla, Praveen; Elased, Khalid M; Lucot, James B

    2015-04-01

    Mood disorder patients that are on long-term atypical antipsychotics treatment frequently experience metabolic dysfunctions. In addition to this, accumulating evidences points to increased risk of structural abnormalities, brain volume changes, altered neuroplasticity and behavioral depression with long-term antipsychotics use. However, there is paucity of preclinical evidences for long-term antipsychotic associated depression-like behavior. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to evaluate influence of long-term antipsychotic (olanzapine) treatment on rat behavior in forced swim test (FST) as a model for depression and; (2) to examine impact of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide - an antidiabetic medication for type II diabetes, on long-term olanzapine associated metabolic and behavioral changes in rats. Daily olanzapine treatment (0.5 mg/kg; p.o.) for 8-9 weeks significantly increased body weights, food and water intake, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides and immobility time in FST with parallel reduction in plasma HDL cholesterol levels. These results points to development of metabolic abnormalities and depression-like behavior with long-term olanzapine treatment. Acute liraglutide (50 ?g/kg; i.p.) and imipramine (10 mg/kg, i. p.) treatment per se significantly decreased duration of immobility in FST compared to vehicle treated rats. Additionally, 3-week liraglutide treatment (50 ?g/kg; i.p., daily) partially reversed metabolic abnormalities and depression-like behavior with long-term olanzapine-treatment in rats. None of these treatment regimens affected locomotor behavior of rats. In summary, add-on GLP-1 receptor agonists promise novel alternatives to counteract long-term antipsychotics associated behavioral and metabolic complications. PMID:25023888

  12. Ts1Cje, a Partial Trisomy 16 Mouse Model for down Syndrome, Exhibits Learning and Behavioral Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruhiko Sago; Elaine J. Carlson; Desmond J. Smith; Joshua Kilbridge; Edward M. Rubin; William C. Mobley; Charles J. Epstein; Ting-Ting Huang

    1998-01-01

    A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called ``Down syndrome region'' of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of learning in the Morris water maze and

  13. Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test performance does not discriminate different patterns of premorbid behavioral abnormalities in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alessandro; Pollice, Rocco; Stratta, Paolo; Arduini, Luca; Marinangeli, Maria Grazia; Daneluzzo, Enrico

    2002-08-01

    It is well documented that premorbid behavior abnormalities precede the onset of schizophrenia in a large number of patients. The research findings suggest that there are differences in the type and severity of these premorbid dysfunctions. Another research field has shown impairment of preschizophrenic patients in several cognitive domains. The present study reports retrospective childhood and adolescence neurobehavioral assessment in 31 patients with schizophrenia by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and current Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) evaluation in order to investigate whether specific behavioral abnormality (BA) patterns are related to executive function as evaluated by the WCST. Cluster analysis was conducted on the childhood premorbid behavior ratings for the schizophrenic patients and two subgroups emerged: (i) Cluster I with an initial low level of BA that increased over the years; and (ii) Cluster II with a high level of BA that remained relatively stable until early adulthood. Furthermore, Cluster II showed more severe current negative and total symptoms, but the two groups did not differ in WCST performance. Our results show that the patterns and severity of CBCL upon retrospective evaluation are not related to WCST performance, which seems to be a feature inherent to the disease process. Different factors could be responsible for cognitive and behavioral disturbances in schizophrenia. PMID:12109958

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder as Early Neurodevelopmental Disorder: Evidence from the Brain Imaging Abnormalities in 2-3 Years Old Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships…

  15. Neural Basis of Repetition Priming during Mathematical Cognition: Repetition Suppression or Repetition Enhancement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Chang, Catie; Menon, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of repetition priming (RP) during mathematical cognition. Previous studies of RP have focused on repetition suppression as the basis of behavioral facilitation, primarily using word and object identification and classification tasks. More recently, researchers have suggested associative stimulus-response learning…

  16. The Formation of Abnormal Associations in Schizophrenia: Neural and Behavioral Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimmy Jensen; Matthäus Willeit; Robert B Zipursky; Ioulia Savina; Andrew J Smith; Mahesh Menon; Adrian P Crawley; Shitij Kapur

    2008-01-01

    It is hypothesized that due to an abnormal functioning of the reward system patients with schizophrenia form context-inappropriate associations. It has been shown that the dopamine target regions, especially the ventral striatum, are critical in the formation of reward associations. We wanted to examine how the ventral striatum responds as patients learn reward-related associations and how this neural response is

  17. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

  18. Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Abnormal Turning Behavior in Drosophila Larvae: Identification

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Accepted for publication March 20, 2000 ABSTRACT Our genetic dissection of behavior has isolated scribbler in the absence of food. sbb is a large gene spanning 50 kb of genomic DNA with four major developmentally-Shimomura et al. 1999), hungry insects Behavior-genetic analysis in Drosophila has focused increase

  19. Repetitive Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury Interacts with Post-Injury Foot Shock Stress to Worsen Social and Depression-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Klemenhagen, Kristen C.; O’Brien, Scott P.; Brody, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning) following brain injury (rcTBI). rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury. PMID:24058581

  20. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.A.; Joseph, J.A.; Rabin, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  1. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Ameliorates Anxiety-Like Behavior and Impaired Sensorimotor Gating in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-ning; Bai, Yuan-han; Chen, Yun-chun; Zhang, Rui-guo; Wang, Huai-hai; Zhang, Ya-hong; Gan, Jing-li; Peng, Zheng-wu; Tan, Qing-rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been employed for decades as a non-pharmacologic treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although a link has been suggested between PTSD and impaired sensorimotor gating (SG), studies assessing the effects of rTMS against PTSD or PTSD with impaired SG are scarce. Aim To assess the benefit of rTMS in a rat model of PTSD. Methods Using a modified single prolonged stress (SPS&S) rat model of PTSD, behavioral parameters were acquired using open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPMT), and prepulse inhibition trial (PPI), with or without 7 days of high frequency (10Hz) rTMS treatment of SPS&S rats. Results Anxiety-like behavior, impaired SG and increased plasma level of cortisol were observed in SPS&S animals after stress for a prolonged time. Interestingly, rTMS administered immediately after stress prevented those impairment. Conclusion Stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, increased plasma level of cortisol and impaired PPI occur after stress and high-frequency rTMS has the potential to ameliorate this behavior, suggesting that high frequency rTMS should be further evaluated for its use as a method for preventing PTSD. PMID:25659132

  2. Early life seizures in female rats lead to anxiety-related behavior and abnormal social behavior characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination.

    PubMed

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Ramos, Fabiane Ochai; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that male Wistar rats submitted to neonatal status epilepticus showed abnormal social behavior characterized by deficit in social discrimination and enhanced emotionality. Taking into account that early insult can produce different biological manifestations in a gender-dependent manner, we aimed to investigate the social behavior and anxiety-like behavior in female Wistar rats following early life seizures. Neonate female Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were subject to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and the control received saline. Behavioral tests started from 60 days postnatal and were carried out only during the diestrus phase of the reproductive cycle. In sociability test experimental animals exhibited reduced motivation for social encounter and deficit in social discrimination. In open field and the elevated plus maze, experimental animals showed enhanced emotionality with no changes in basal locomotor activity. The results showed that female rats submitted to neonatal status epipepticus showed impaired social behavior, characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination in addition to enhanced emotionality. PMID:25139483

  3. Ameliorating effect of piperine on behavioral abnormalities and oxidative markers in sodium valproate induced autism in BALB/C mice.

    PubMed

    Pragnya, B; Kameshwari, J S L; Veeresh, B

    2014-08-15

    Post natal exposure to VPA (valproic acid) in mice induces behavioral deficits, abnormal sensitivity to sensory stimuli and self-injurious behavior, observed in autism. Piperine has been reported to have protective effect on brain. The present study aimed at evaluating effect of piperine on VPA induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in BALB/c mice. Young BALB/c mice 13 days old were procured from five different litters and segregated into five groups (n=6; 3 male, 3 female) i.e., Group I served as control group, received physiological saline on PND (Post natal day) 14 & Tween 80 p.o. from PND13-40. Group II served as normal treated group and received piperine (20mg/kg p.o.) from PND 13-40 and saline s.c. on PND 14. Group III served as valproate treated group received VPA (400mg/kg s.c.) on PND 14 and Tween 80 p.o. from PND 13-40. Group IV & V served as disease treated group received VPA (400mg/kg s.c.) on PND 14 & piperine (5 & 20mg/kg p.o.) from PND 13-40 respectively. BALB/c mice pups were subjected to behavioral testing to assess motor skill development, nociceptive response, locomotion, anxiety, and cognition on various postnatal days up to PND 40. At the end of behavioral evaluation, mice were sacrificed; brain was isolated for biochemical estimations (serotonin, glutathione, MDA and nitric oxide) and histopathological examination. Our study revealed that treatment with piperine significantly improved behavioral alterations, lowered oxidative stress markers, and restored histoarchitecture of cerebellum. This ameliorating effect of piperine is attributed to its anti-oxidant activity, cognition enhancing and neuroprotective activity. PMID:24803211

  4. Neural Basis of Repetition Priming during Mathematical Cognition: Repetition Suppression or Repetition Enhancement?

    PubMed Central

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Chang, Catie; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of repetition priming (RP) during mathematical cognition. Previous studies of RP have focused on repetition suppression as the basis of behavioral facilitation, primarily using word and object identification and classification tasks. More recently, researchers have suggested associative stimulus-response learning as an alternate model for behavioral facilitation. We examined the neural basis of RP during mathematical problem solving in the context of these two models of learning. Brain imaging and behavioral data were acquired from 39 adults during novel and repeated presentation of three-operand mathematical equations. Despite widespread decreases in activation during repeat, compared with novel trials, there was no direct relation between behavioral facilitation and the degree of repetition suppression in any brain region. Rather, RT improvements were directly correlated with repetition enhancement in the hippocampus and the postero-medial cortex [posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and retro-splenial cortex; Brodmann’s areas (BAs) 23, 7, and 30, respectively], regions known to support memory formation and retrieval, and in the SMA (BA 6) and the dorsal midcingulate (“motor cingulate”) cortex (BA 24d), regions known to be important for motor learning. Furthermore, improvements in RT were also correlated with increased functional connectivity of the hippocampus with both the SMA and the dorsal midcingulate cortex. Our findings provide novel support for the hypothesis that repetition enhancement and associated stimulus-response learning may facilitate behavioral performance during problem solving. PMID:19366289

  5. Cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Haslinger Rogers; Rebekah Lwin; Lynette Fairbanks; Bert Gerritsen; Hubert B. Gaspar

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the cognitive, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental function in patients with adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID) and to compare the findings with those of a case control group of patients without ADA-SCID. Study design: Case-matched pairs of patients with ADA-SCID (n = 11) and patients without ADA-SCID who had undergone bone marrow transplantation were

  6. Effect of abnormal mineralization on the mechanical behavior of x-linked hypophosphatemic mice femora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Camacho; C. M. Rimnac; R. A. Meyer; S. Doty; A. L. Boskey

    1995-01-01

    The Hyp mouse is an established animal model of X-linked hypophosphatemia, one of the most common genetic forms of metabolic bone disease in humans. This study describes the first determination of whole bone mechanical behavior in the heterozygous male and female Hyp mouse. Femora from 12-week-old mice were tested in torsion. The contribution of structural and material properties to mechanical

  7. Repetitive Motion Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Repetitive Motion Disorders Information Page Synonym(s): Cumulative Trauma Disorders, Repetitive Stress Injuries, Overuse Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Repetitive Motion Disorders? Is there any ...

  8. An emerging phenotype of Xq22 microdeletions in females with severe intellectual disability, hypotonia and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Wilsdon, Anna; Joss, Shelagh; Isidor, Bertrand; Erlandsson, Anna; Suri, Mohnish; Sangu, Noriko; Shimada, Shino; Shimojima, Keiko; Le Caignec, Cédric; Samuelsson, Lena; Stefanova, Margarita

    2014-06-01

    The majority of Xq22 duplications seen in patients with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) include proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1), the gene responsible for PMD, and neighboring genes. Some cases result from larger duplications up to 7?Mb in size. In comparison, the deletions including PLP1 seen in PMD patients are small. In this study, we present the genetic and clinical information for five female patients with deletions involving the Xq22 region, and review the correlation between the genotype and phenotype. Three of the five patients show similar large deletions (>3?Mb) ranging from Xq22.1 to Xq22.3 and all manifest severe intellectual disability, hypotonia and behavioral abnormalities. The most striking similarity among them are the behavioral problems, including poor eye contact and sleep disturbance. We propose that this represents an emerging distinctive microdeletion syndrome encompassing PLP1 in female patients. The possible candidate region responsible for such distinctive features has been narrowed down to the neighboring region for PLP1, including the interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 2 (IL1RAPL2) gene and the clustered brain expressed X-linked (BEX) genes. The gene(s) responsible for severe neurological features in the patients in this study would be located in the regions proximate to PLP1; thus, males with the deletions involving the gene(s) would be lethal, and finally, the sizes of the deletions in PMD patients would be smaller than those of the duplications. PMID:24646727

  9. Evaluation of tributyltin toxicity in Chinese rare minnow larvae by abnormal behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic environment, but the detailed mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully understood. In this study, the effects of TBT on behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated by using Chinese rare minnow larvae. Fish larvae were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (100, 400 and 800 ng/L) for 7 days. Compared with the control, energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) were significantly inhibited in fish exposed at highest concentration (800 ng/L), as well as abnormal behaviors observed. Moreover, we found that the PERK (PKR-like ER kinase)-eIF2? (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2?) pathway, as the main branch was activated by TBT exposure in fish larvae. In short, TBT-induced physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in fish larvae were reflected in parameters measured in this study, which suggest that these biomarkers could be used as potential indicators for monitoring organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. PMID:25499138

  10. Altered synaptic plasticity and behavioral abnormalities in CNGA3-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, S; Kleppisch, T; Polta, S A; Wotjak, C T; Koch, S; Rammes, G; Matt, L; Becirovic, E; Biel, M

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel CNGA3 is well established in cone photoreceptors and guanylyl cyclase-D-expressing olfactory neurons. To assess a potential function of CNGA3 in the mouse amygdala and hippocampus, we examined synaptic plasticity and performed a comparative analysis of spatial learning, fear conditioning and step-down avoidance in wild-type mice and CNGA3 null mutants (CNGA3(-/-) ). CNGA3(-/-) mice showed normal basal synaptic transmission in the amygdala and the hippocampus. However, cornu Ammonis (CA1) hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by a strong tetanus was significantly enhanced in CNGA3(-/-) mice as compared with their wild-type littermates. Unlike in the hippocampus, LTP was not significantly altered in the amygdala of CNGA3(-/-) mice. Enhanced hippocampal LTP did not coincide with changes in hippocampus-dependent learning, as both wild-type and mutant mice showed a similar performance in water maze tasks and contextual fear conditioning, except for a trend toward higher step-down latencies in a passive avoidance task. In contrast, CNGA3(-/-) mice showed markedly reduced freezing to the conditioned tone in the amygdala-dependent cued fear conditioning task. In conclusion, our study adds a new entry on the list of physiological functions of the CNGA3 channel. Despite the dissociation between physiological and behavioral parameters, our data describe a so far unrecognized role of CNGA3 in modulation of hippocampal plasticity and amygdala-dependent fear memory. PMID:20846178

  11. Behavioral abnormalities of fetal growth retardation model rats with reduced amounts of brain proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akiko; Matsui, Fumiko; Hayashi, Kanako; Watanabe, Kimi; Ichinohashi, Yuko; Sato, Yoshiaki; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Oohira, Atsuhiko

    2009-09-01

    Fetal growth retardation (FGR) is a critical problem in the neonatal period, because a substantial population of infants born with FGR go on to develop various developmental disorders. In the present study, we produced FGR model rats by continuous administration of a synthetic thromboxane A2 analogue (STA2) to pregnant rats. The FGR pups exhibited a significant delay in postnatal neurological development. Moreover, behavioral analyses revealed the presence of a learning disability in juvenile FGR male rats. To investigate the mechanism underlying the neurological disorders, histological and biochemical analyses of the brain of FGR rats were performed. The density of neurons in the cortical plate of an FGR brain was low compared with the brains of a similarly aged, healthy rat. Consistent with this finding, the density of TUNEL-positive cells was higher in the cortical plate of FGR brains. Western blot analyses showed that the levels of three brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), neurocan, phosphacan, and neuroglycan C, were all significantly reduced in the brain of neonatal FGR rats compared with those of the control. The reduction of CSPG-levels and morphological changes in the brain may be relevant to neurological dysfunction in FGR. PMID:19393646

  12. Behavioral abnormalities and Parkinson’s-like histological changes resulting from Id2 inactivation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Havrda, Matthew C.; Paolella, Brenton R.; Ward, Nora M.; Holroyd, Kathryn B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Characterizing dopaminergic neuronal development and function in novel genetic animal models might uncover strategies for researchers to develop disease-modifying treatments for neurologic disorders. Id2 is a transcription factor expressed in the developing central nervous system. Id2?/? mice have fewer dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb and reduced olfactory discrimination, a pre-clinical marker of Parkinson’s disease. Here, we summarize behavioral, histological and in vitro molecular biological analyses to determine whether midbrain dopaminergic neurons are affected by Id2 loss. Id2?/? mice were hyperactive at 1 and 3 months of age, but by 6 months showed reduced activity. Id2?/? mice showed age-dependent histological alterations in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpC) associated with changes in locomotor activity. Reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) expression was observed at early ages in Id2?/? mice and DAT expression was dependent on Id2 expression in an in vitro dopaminergic differentiation model. Evidence of neurodegeneration, including activated caspase-3 and glial infiltration, were noted in the SNpC of older Id2?/? mice. These findings document a novel role for Id2 in the maintenance of midbrain dopamine neurons. The Id2?/? mouse should provide unique opportunities to study the progression of neurodegenerative disorders involving the dopamine system. PMID:23264561

  13. Gestational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Reciprocal Social, Repetitive, and Stereotypic Behaviors in 4- and 5-Year-Old Children: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Just, Allan C.; Yolton, Kimberly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Glenys M.; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, but identifying relevant chemicals within mixtures of EDCs is difficult. Objective: Our goal was to identify gestational EDC exposures associated with autistic behaviors. Methods: We measured the concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 organochlorine pesticides, 8 brominated flame retardants, and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances in blood or urine samples from 175 pregnant women in the HOME (Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment) Study (Cincinnati, OH). When children were 4 and 5 years old, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic behaviors. We examined confounder-adjusted associations between 52 EDCs and SRS scores using a two-stage hierarchical analysis to account for repeated measures and confounding by correlated EDCs. Results: Most of the EDCs were associated with negligible absolute differences in SRS scores (? 1.5). Each 2-SD increase in serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether-28 (PBDE-28) (? = 2.5; 95% CI: –0.6, 5.6) or trans-nonachlor (? = 4.1; 95% CI: 0.8–7.3) was associated with more autistic behaviors. In contrast, fewer autistic behaviors were observed among children born to women with detectable versus nondetectable concentrations of PCB-178 (? = –3.0; 95% CI: –6.3, 0.2), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (? = –3.3; 95% CI: –6.1, –0.5), or PBDE-85 (? = –3.2; 95% CI: –5.9, –0.5). Increasing perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations were also associated with fewer autistic behaviors (? = –2.0; 95% CI: –4.4, 0.4). Conclusions: Some EDCs were associated with autistic behaviors in this cohort, but our modest sample size precludes us from dismissing chemicals with null associations. PFOA, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB-178, PBDE-28, PBDE-85, and trans-nonachlor deserve additional scrutiny as factors that may be associated with childhood autistic behaviors. Citation: Braun JM, Kalkbrenner AE, Just AC, Yolton K, Calafat AM, Sjödin A, Hauser R, Webster GM, Chen A, Lanphear BP. 2014. Gestational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and reciprocal social, repetitive, and stereotypic behaviors in 4- and 5-year-old children: the HOME Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:513–520;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307261 PMID:24622245

  14. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  15. Behavior of the TTF2 RF Gun with long pulses and high repetition rates J. Baehr1, I. Bohnet1, J.-P. Carneiro2, K. Floettmann2, J. H. Han1, M. v. Hartrott3,

    E-print Network

    Behavior of the TTF2 RF Gun with long pulses and high repetition rates J. Baehr1, I. Bohnet1, J the behavior of the TTF2 RF gun with long RF pulses (up to 900 µs), high peak power (up to 3 MW) and high Zeuthen from January to March 2003, where the RF gun has been tested prior to its installation at DESY

  16. Fragile X-like behaviors and abnormal cortical dendritic spines in Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihoon; Chen, Hogmei; Gennarino, Vincenzo A; Richman, Ronald; Lu, Hui-Chen; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2015-04-01

    Silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene and loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) cause fragile X syndrome (FXS), a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability and autistic behaviors. FMRP is an mRNA-binding protein regulating neuronal translation of target mRNAs. Abnormalities in actin-rich dendritic spines are major neuronal features in FXS, but the molecular mechanism and identity of FMRP targets mediating this phenotype remain largely unknown. Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) was identified as an interactor of FMRP, and its mRNA is a highly ranked FMRP target in mouse brain. Importantly, Cyfip2 is a component of WAVE regulatory complex, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that Cyfip2 could be implicated in the dendritic spine phenotype of FXS. Here, we generated and characterized Cyfip2-mutant (Cyfip2(+/-)) mice. We found that Cyfip2(+/-) mice exhibited behavioral phenotypes similar to Fmr1-null (Fmr1(-/y)) mice, an animal model of FXS. Synaptic plasticity and dendritic spines were normal in Cyfip2(+/-) hippocampus. However, dendritic spines were altered in Cyfip2(+/-) cortex, and the dendritic spine phenotype of Fmr1(-/y) cortex was aggravated in Fmr1(-/y); Cyfip2(+/-) double-mutant mice. In addition to the spine changes at basal state, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced dendritic spine regulation was impaired in both Fmr1(-/y) and Cyfip2(+/-) cortical neurons. Mechanistically, mGluR activation induced mRNA translation-dependent increase of Cyfip2 in wild-type cortical neurons, but not in Fmr1(-/y) or Cyfip2(+/-) neurons. These results suggest that misregulation of Cyfip2 function and its mGluR-induced expression contribute to the neurobehavioral phenotypes of FXS. PMID:25432536

  17. Early social enrichment rescues adult behavioral and brain abnormalities in a mouse model of fragile x syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oddi, Diego; Subashi, Enejda; Middei, Silvia; Bellocchio, Luigi; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Guzmán, Manuel; Crusio, Wim E; D'Amato, Francesca R; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence support the use of environmental stimulation to ameliorate the symptoms of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Applying these interventions at very early ages is critical to achieve a marked reduction of the pathological phenotypes. Here we evaluated the impact of early social enrichment in Fmr1-KO mice, a genetic mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Enrichment was achieved by providing male KO pups and their WT littermates with enhanced social stimulation, housing them from birth until weaning with the mother and an additional nonlactating female. At adulthood they were tested for locomotor, social, and cognitive abilities; furthermore, dendritic alterations were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions known to be involved in the control of the examined behaviors and affected by spine pathology in Fmr1-KOs. Enrichment rescued the behavioral FXS-like deficits displayed in adulthood by Fmr1-KO mice, that is, hyperactivity, reduced social interactions, and cognitive deficits. Early social enrichment also eliminated the abnormalities shown by adult KO mice in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdala dendritic spines, namely an enhanced density of immature vs mature types. Importantly, enrichment did not induce neurobehavioral changes in WT mice, thus supporting specific effects on FXS-like pathology. These findings show that early environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects on the pathological FXS phenotype, thereby encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of this and perhaps other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:25348604

  18. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Parent-child DRD4 genotype as a potential biomarker for oppositional, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; DeVincent, Carla J; Pisarevskaya, Victoria; Olvet, Doreen M; Xu, Wenjie; Mendell, Nancy R; Finch, Stephen J; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-10-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to examine whether a combination of parent-child DRD4 genotypes results in more informative biomarkers of oppositional, separation anxiety, and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on prior research indicating the 7-repeat allele as a potential risk variant, participants were sorted into one of four combinations of parent-child genotypes. Owing to the possibility of parent-of-origin effects, analyses were conducted separately for mother-child (MC) and father-child (FC) dyads. Mothers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. Partial eta-squared (?p(2)) was used to determine the magnitude of group differences: 0.01-0.06=small, 0.06-0.14=moderate, and >0.14=large. Analyses indicated that children in MC dyads with matched genotypes had the least (7-/7-) and most (7+/7+) severe mother-rated oppositional-defiant (?p(2)=0.11) and separation anxiety (?p(2)=0.19) symptoms. Conversely, youths in FC dyads with matched genotypes had the least (7-/7-) and most (7+/7+) severe obsessive-compulsive behaviors (?p(2)=0.19) and tics (?p(2)=0.18). Youths whose parents were both noncarriers had less severe tics than peers with at least one parental carrier, and the effect size was large (?p(2)=0.16). There was little evidence that noncarrier children were rated more severely by mothers who were carriers versus noncarriers. Transmission Disequilibrium Test analyses provided preliminary evidence for undertransmission of the 2-repeat allele in youths with more severe tics (p=0.02). Parent genotype may be helpful in constructing prognostic biomarkers for behavioral disturbances in ASD; however, findings are tentative pending replication with larger, independent samples. PMID:20600463

  20. The interaction of force and repetition on musculoskeletal and neural tissue responses and sensorimotor behavior in a rat model of work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship of musculoskeletal risk factors underlying force and repetition on tissue responses in an operant rat model of repetitive reaching and pulling, and if force x repetition interactions were present, indicative of a fatigue failure process. We examined exposure-dependent changes in biochemical, morphological and sensorimotor responses occurring with repeated performance of a handle-pulling task for 12 weeks at one of four repetition and force levels: 1) low repetition with low force, 2) high repetition with low force, 3) low repetition with high force, and 4) high repetition with high force (HRHF). Methods Rats underwent initial training for 4–6 weeks, and then performed one of the tasks for 12 weeks, 2 hours/day, 3 days/week. Reflexive grip strength and sensitivity to touch were assayed as functional outcomes. Flexor digitorum muscles and tendons, forelimb bones, and serum were assayed using ELISA for indicators of inflammation, tissue stress and repair, and bone turnover. Histomorphometry was used to assay macrophage infiltration of tissues, spinal cord substance P changes, and tissue adaptative or degradative changes. MicroCT was used to assay bones for changes in bone quality. Results Several force x repetition interactions were observed for: muscle IL-1alpha and bone IL-1beta; serum TNFalpha, IL-1alpha, and IL-1beta; muscle HSP72, a tissue stress and repair protein; histomorphological evidence of tendon and cartilage degradation; serum biomarkers of bone degradation (CTXI) and bone formation (osteocalcin); and morphological evidence of bone adaptation versus resorption. In most cases, performance of the HRHF task induced the greatest tissue degenerative changes, while performance of moderate level tasks induced bone adaptation and a suggestion of muscle adaptation. Both high force tasks induced median nerve macrophage infiltration, spinal cord sensitization (increased substance P), grip strength declines and forepaw mechanical allodynia by task week 12. Conclusions Although not consistent in all tissues, we found several significant interactions between the critical musculoskeletal risk factors of force and repetition, consistent with a fatigue failure process in musculoskeletal tissues. Prolonged performance of HRHF tasks exhibited significantly increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders, while performance of moderate level tasks exhibited adaptation to task demands. PMID:24156755

  1. Abnormal Eu behavior at formation of H2O- and Cl-bearing fluids during degassing of granite magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukanin, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    One of the important features of REE behavior in the process of decompression degassing of granite melts is the presence of europium anomalies in REE spectrum of forming fluid phase. Negative Eu anomaly in REE spectrum of fluids enriched by chlorine that were formed under high pressures at early stages of degassing relative to REE spectrum of granite melts may take place. Negative Eu anomaly in fluid is replaced by positive one with pressure decrease and decline of Cl concentration in fluid [1, 2]. Observable unique features of europium redistribution between fluid and melt find an explanation in such a fact that Eu in contrast to the other REE under oxidation-reduction conditions, being typical for magmatic process, is present in acidic silica-alumina melts in two valency forms Eu3+ and Eu2+ whereas the dominant form for the other REE in such a melts is (REE)3+ [3, 4]. From the analysis of melt-fluid exchange reactions with participation of two valency forms of europium Eu3+ and Eu2+ follows that the total distribution coefficient of Eu between fluid and melt D(Eu)f-m is equal as a first approximation to [5, 6]: D(Eu)f-m = a1? [C(Cl)f]3 + a2 (1 - ?)[C(Cl)f]2, where C(Cl)f - the concentration of Cl in fluid, ? = Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+), i.e. fraction of Eu3+ from the general amount of europium in the melt, and, a1anda2- constants that can be approximately estimated from empirical data upon Eu fluid/melt distribution. The equation given allows to estimate the influence of oxidizing condition of europium on sign and size of Eu anomaly, which is expressed by Eu/Eu# ratio, where Eu is real concentration of europium in fluid being in equilibrium with melt with constant Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+) ratio, and Eu# is possible "virtual" concentration of europium that could be in the same fluid provided that all europium as other REE as well were exclusively present in trivalent form. The sign and size of Eu anomaly in fluid depends upon Cl concentration in fluid and Eu3+/Eu2+ ratio in melt. The abnormal behavior of Eu shows itself the stronger, the lower fO2and, accordingly, the more fraction of Eu2+is present in melt. The work is supported of the Geosciences Department of the Russian Academy of Science (the program 2- 2010) and RFBR (grant 08-05-00022). References [1] Reed M.J., Candela Ph.A., Piccoli Ph.M. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 2000. V. 140. P. 251-262. [2] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Vestnik Otd. Nauk Zemle RAN, No 1(25)'2007 URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2007/informbul-1_2007/term-30e.pdf [3] Drake M.J. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 1975. V. 39. P. 55-64. [4] Wilke M. Behrens H. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 1999. V. 137. P. 102-114. [5] Lukanin O.A. Vestnik Otd. Nauk o Zemle RAN, No 1(26)'2008. URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2008/informbul-1_2008/magm-20e.pdf [6] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Geochemistry International, 2010 (in press)

  2. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cause and Consequence: Mitochondrial Dysfunction Initiates and Propagates Neuronal Dysfunction, Neuronal Death and Behavioral Abnormalities in Age Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Starkov, Anatoly; Blass, John P.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Beal, M. Flint

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and accumulation of abnormal proteins. Within the cell, the mitochondria appears to be a dominant site for initiation and propagation of disease processes. Shifts in metabolism in response to mild metabolic perturbations may decrease the threshold for irreversible injury in response to ordinarily sub lethal metabolic insults. Mild impairment of metabolism accrue from and lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS change cell signaling via post transcriptional and transcriptional changes. The cause and consequences of mild impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is one focus of this review. Many experiments in tissues from humans support the notion that oxidative modification of the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) compromises neuronal energy metabolism and enhance ROS production in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). These data suggest that cognitive decline in AD derives from the selective tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle abnormalities. By contrast in Huntington’s Disease (HD), a movement disorder with cognitive features distinct form AD, complex II + III abnormalities may dominate. These distinct mitochondrial abnormalities culminate in oxidative stress, energy dysfunction, and aberrant homeostasis of cytosolic calcium. Cytosolic calcium, elevations even only transiently, leads to hyperactivity of a number of enzymes. One calcium activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological import in HD and AD is transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is a cross linking enzymes that can modulate transcrption, inactivate metabolic enzymes, and cause aggregation of critical proteins. Recent data indicate that TGase can silence expression of genes involved in compensating for metabolic stress. Altogether, our results suggest that increasing KGDHC via inhibition of TGase or via a host of other strategies to be described would be effective therapeutic approaches in age associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19715758

  4. Repetition in Schizophrenic Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manschreck, Theo C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the relationship of schizophrenic thought disorder to measures of repetition that include phrase units, proximity of repetitions, and word frequencies to determine whether such measures distinguish schizophrenics from non-schizophrenics and to what extent they are associated with certain attributes of schizophrenia,…

  5. Roles of repetitive sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  6. Roles of repetitive sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  7. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Infection: Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may cause a ...

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Goh; R. F. Jacox; F. W. Anderson

    1980-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome

  9. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kron, Miriam; Lang, Min; Adams, Ian T; Sceniak, Michael; Longo, Frank; Katz, David M

    2014-09-01

    Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to behavioral arousal in symptomatic RTT mice. PMID:25147297

  10. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kron, Miriam; Lang, Min; Adams, Ian T.; Sceniak, Michael; Longo, Frank; Katz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to behavioral arousal in symptomatic RTT mice. PMID:25147297

  11. Observation of abnormal magnetoelectric behavior in 0-3 type CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. P.; Yang, H.; Xian, T.; Yu, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report an example of xCoFe2O4/(1 - x)BaTiO3 composites formed in 0-3 type structure, which exhibit abnormal magnetic field-dependent magnetoelectric behaviors different from those reported previously. The magnetoelectric response of the composites with x ? 0.4 is found to undergo a minor change upon the dc bias magnetic field. However, when the BaTiO3 content is decreased to the extent x = 0.5, the magnetoelectric response exhibits a staircase-like dependence on the dc magnetic field with a sudden decrease at around 2.5 kOe. We propose another possible mechanism to explain the field-dependent magnetoelectric behaviors of our CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 composites.

  12. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  14. Abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Song, Ning-Ning; Mao, Rong-Rong; Li, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Han, Hui-Li; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT) system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR) mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25294992

  15. Characterizing temporal repetition

    SciTech Connect

    Cukierman, D.; Delgrande, J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    We are investigating the representation and reasoning about schedulable, repeated activities, specified using calendars. Examples of such activities include meeting every Tuesday and Thursday during a semester and attending a seminar every first day of a month. This research provides for a valuable framework for scheduling systems, financial systems and, in general, date-based systems. Very recently work has been done related to reasoning about repetition in the Artificial Intelligence community and others. A partial reference list is provided here. However, to our knowledge no extensive taxonomy of repetition has been proposed in the literature. We believe that reasoning about repeated activities calls for a study and precise definition of the topological characteristics in a repetitive series. In this abstract we summarize a proposal to classify types of repetition according to parameters. The combination of all possible values of these parameters provides a complete taxonomy of repetitive classes with respect to the proposed parameters. Several notions of repetition are considered, some are extremely general, some are very specific.

  16. Hierarchical representation and machine learning from faulty jet engine behavioral examples to detect real time abnormal conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. K. Gupta; Moonis Ali

    1988-01-01

    Jet engine behavior can be described by four major engine parameters and by their temporal and qualitative relationships. These parameters are rotational speeds of the low and high pressure turbine assemblies referred to as N1 and N2 respectively, exhaust gas temperature EGT, and combustion temperature COMBT. Normally, these parameters show stable readings. Faulty conditions like fuel interruption or bearing loss

  17. A pdf Neuropeptide Gene Mutation and Ablation of PDF Neurons Each Cause Severe Abnormalities of Behavioral Circadian Rhythms in Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan C. P. Renn; Jae H. Park; Michael Rosbash; Jeffrey C. Hall; Paul H. Taghert

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms by which circadian pacemaker systems transmit timing information to control behavior are largely unknown. Here, we define two critical features of that mechanism in Drosophila. We first describe animals mutant for the pdf neuropeptide gene, which is expressed by most of the candidate pacemakers (LNv neurons). Next, we describe animals in which pdf neurons were selectively ablated. Both

  18. Brain growth rate abnormalities visualized in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2013-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093

  19. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

  20. Hierarchical representation and machine learning from faulty jet engine behavioral examples to detect real time abnormal conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, U. K.; Ali, M.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical basis and operation of LEBEX, a machine-learning system for jet-engine performance monitoring, are described. The behavior of the engine is modeled in terms of four parameters (the rotational speeds of the high- and low-speed sections and the exhaust and combustion temperatures), and parameter variations indicating malfunction are transformed into structural representations involving instances and events. LEBEX extracts descriptors from a set of training data on normal and faulty engines, represents them hierarchically in a knowledge base, and uses them to diagnose and predict faults on a real-time basis. Diagrams of the system architecture and printouts of typical results are shown.

  1. Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2?/? mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2?/? mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

  2. Long-term running alleviates some behavioral and molecular abnormalities in Down syndrome mouse model Ts65Dn.

    PubMed

    Kida, Elizabeth; Rabe, Ausma; Walus, Marius; Albertini, Giorgio; Golabek, Adam A

    2013-02-01

    Running may affect the mood, behavior and neurochemistry of running animals. In the present study, we investigated whether voluntary daily running, sustained over several months, might improve cognition and motor function and modify the brain levels of selected proteins (SOD1, DYRK1A, MAP2, APP and synaptophysin) in Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). Ts65Dn and age-matched wild-type mice, all females, had free access to a running wheel either from the time of weaning (post-weaning cohort) or from around 7 months of age (adult cohort). Sedentary female mice were housed in similar cages, without running wheels. Behavioral testing and evaluation of motor performance showed that running improved cognitive function and motor skills in Ts65Dn mice. However, while a dramatic improvement in the locomotor functions and learning of motor skills was observed in Ts65Dn mice from both post-weaning and adult cohorts, improved object memory was seen only in Ts65Dn mice that had free access to the wheel from weaning. The total levels of APP and MAP2ab were reduced and the levels of SOD1 were increased in the runners from the post-weaning cohort, while only the levels of MAP2ab and ?-cleaved C-terminal fragments of APP were reduced in the adult group in comparison with sedentary trisomic mice. Hence, our study demonstrates that Ts65Dn females benefit from sustained voluntary physical exercise, more prominently if running starts early in life, providing further support to the idea that a properly designed physical exercise program could be a valuable adjuvant to future pharmacotherapy for DS. PMID:23201095

  3. Deletion of densin-180 results in abnormal behaviors associated with mental illness and reduces mGluR5 and DISC1 in the postsynaptic density fraction

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Holly J.; Luong, Tinh N.; Medina-Marino, Andrew; Schenker, Leslie; Khorosheva, Eugenia; Indersmitten, Tim; Gunapala, Keith M.; Steele, Andrew D.; O'Dell, Thomas J.; Patterson, Paul H.; Kennedy, Mary B.

    2011-01-01

    Densin is an abundant scaffold protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that forms a high affinity complex with ?CaMKII and ?-actinin. To assess the function of densin, we created a mouse line with a null mutation in the gene encoding it (LRRC7). Homozygous knockout mice display a wide variety of abnormal behaviors that are often considered endophenotypes of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. At the cellular level, loss of densin results in reduced levels of ?-actinin in the brain and selective reduction in the localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction; whereas, the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors and other prominent PSD proteins are unchanged. In addition, deletion of densin results in impairment of mGluR- and NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD), alters the early dynamics of regulation of CaMKII by NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), and produces a change in spine morphology. These results indicate that densin influences the function of mGluRs and CaMKII at synapses, and contributes to localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction. They are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations that disrupt the organization and/or dynamics of postsynaptic signaling complexes in excitatory synapses can cause behavioral endophenotypes of mental illness. PMID:22072671

  4. The duplication 17p13.3 phenotype: analysis of 21 families delineates developmental, behavioral and brain abnormalities, and rare variant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Curry, Cynthia J; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Grant, Erica; Gripp, Karen W; Anderson, Carol; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Saad, Taha Ben; Chizhikov, Victor V; Dybose, Giedre; Fagerberg, Christina; Falco, Michelle; Fels, Christina; Fichera, Marco; Graakjaer, Jesper; Greco, Donatella; Hair, Jennifer; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Huggins, Marlene; Ladda, Roger; Li, Chumei; Moeschler, John; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J M; Ozmore, Jillian R; Reitano, Santina; Romano, Corrado; Roos, Laura; Schnur, Rhonda E; Sell, Susan; Suwannarat, Pim; Svaneby, Dea; Szybowska, Marta; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Tervo, Raymond; Tsai, Anne Chun-Hui; Tucker, Megan; Vallee, Stephanie; Wheeler, Ferrin C; Zand, Dina J; Barkovich, A James; Aradhya, Swaroop; Shaffer, Lisa G; Dobyns, William B

    2013-08-01

    Chromosome 17p13.3 is a gene rich region that when deleted is associated with the well-known Miller-Dieker syndrome. A recently described duplication syndrome involving this region has been associated with intellectual impairment, autism and occasional brain MRI abnormalities. We report 34 additional patients from 21 families to further delineate the clinical, neurological, behavioral, and brain imaging findings. We found a highly diverse phenotype with inter- and intrafamilial variability, especially in cognitive development. The most specific phenotype occurred in individuals with large duplications that include both the YWHAE and LIS1 genes. These patients had a relatively distinct facial phenotype and frequent structural brain abnormalities involving the corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis, and cranial base. Autism spectrum disorders were seen in a third of duplication probands, most commonly in those with duplications of YWHAE and flanking genes such as CRK. The typical neurobehavioral phenotype was usually seen in those with the larger duplications. We did not confirm the association of early overgrowth with involvement of YWHAE and CRK, or growth failure with duplications of LIS1. Older patients were often overweight. Three variant phenotypes included cleft lip/palate (CLP), split hand/foot with long bone deficiency (SHFLD), and a connective tissue phenotype resembling Marfan syndrome. The duplications in patients with clefts appear to disrupt ABR, while the SHFLD phenotype was associated with duplication of BHLHA9 as noted in two recent reports. The connective tissue phenotype did not have a convincing critical region. Our experience with this large cohort expands knowledge of this diverse duplication syndrome. PMID:23813913

  5. Modeling human methamphetamine exposure in nonhuman primates: chronic dosing in the rhesus macaque leads to behavioral and physiological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Madden, Lisa J; Flynn, Claudia T; Zandonatti, Michelle A; May, Meredith; Parsons, Loren H; Katner, Simon N; Henriksen, Steven J; Fox, Howard S

    2005-02-01

    Acute high dose methamphetamine (METH) dosing regimens are frequently used in animal studies, however, these regimens can lead to considerable toxicity and even death in experimental animals. Acute high dosing regimens are quite distinct from the chronic usage patterns found in many human METH abusers. Furthermore, such doses, especially in nonhuman primates, can result in unexpected death, which is unacceptable, especially when such deaths fail to accurately model effects of human usage. As a model of chronic human METH abuse we have developed a nonlethal chronic METH administration procedure for the rhesus macaque that utilizes an escalating dose protocol. This protocol slowly increases the METH dosage from 0.1 to 0.7 mg/kg b.i.d. over a period of 4 weeks, followed by a period of chronic METH administration at 0.75 mg/kg b.i.d. (= total daily METH administration of 1.5 mg/kg). In parallel to human usage patterns, METH injections were given 20-23 times a month. This regimen produced a number of behavioral and physiological effects including decreased food intake and a significant increase in urinary cortisol excretion. PMID:15483561

  6. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analysis of 220 fully sequenced porcine BACs generated by the Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative (http://www.nisc.nih.gov/) revealed 27 distinct, novel porcine repetitive elements ranging in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. This set of fully sequenced BACs covers approximately 1% of...

  7. Repetition Priming in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance…

  8. Repetition through Successive Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littell, Katherine M.

    This study was conducted in an attempt to provide an alternative to the long-established method of tape listening and repetition drills, a method that has had disappointing results. It is suggested that the rate of speed of phonic presentation is not commensurate with the rate of comprehension. The proposed method seeks to prevent cognitive…

  9. A parallel repetition theorem for entangled projection games

    E-print Network

    Irit Dinur; David Steurer; Thomas Vidick

    2015-03-02

    We study the behavior of the entangled value of two-player one-round projection games under parallel repetition. We show that for any projection game $G$ of entangled value 1-eps Dam and Hayden on universal embezzlement.

  10. Neuroimaging, Behavioral, and Psychological Sequelae of Repetitive Combined Blast/Impact Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Donna J.; Yarnykh, Vasily L.; Richards, Todd; Martin, Nathalie M.; Pagulayan, Kathleen; Hoff, David; Hart, Kim; Mayer, Cynthia; Tarabochia, Matthew; Raskind, Murray A.; Minoshima, Satoshi; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Whether persisting cognitive complaints and postconcussive symptoms (PCS) reported by Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with blast- and/or combined blast/impact-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are associated with enduring structural and/or functional brain abnormalities versus comorbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. We sought to characterize relationships among these variables in a convenience sample of Iraq and Afghanistan-deployed veterans with (n=34) and without (n=18) a history of one or more combined blast/impact-related mTBIs. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of fractional anisotropy (FA) and macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) to assess brain white matter (WM) integrity; [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu); structured clinical assessments of blast exposure, psychiatric diagnoses, and PTSD symptoms; neurologic evaluations; and self-report scales of PCS, combat exposure, depression, sleep quality, and alcohol use. Veterans with versus without blast/impact-mTBIs exhibited reduced FA in the corpus callosum; reduced MPF values in subgyral, longitudinal, and cortical/subcortical WM tracts and gray matter (GM)/WM border regions (with a possible threshold effect beginning at 20 blast-mTBIs); reduced CMRglu in parietal, somatosensory, and visual cortices; and higher scores on measures of PCS, PTSD, combat exposure, depression, sleep disturbance, and alcohol use. Neuroimaging metrics did not differ between participants with versus without PTSD. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with one or more blast-related mTBIs exhibit abnormalities of brain WM structural integrity and macromolecular organization and CMRglu that are not related to comorbid PTSD. These findings are congruent with recent neuropathological evidence of chronic brain injury in this cohort of veterans. PMID:24102309

  11. Ionic Currents Underlying Developmental Regulation of Repetitive Firing in Aplysia Bag Cell Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa A. Nick; Leonard K. Kaczmarek; Thomas J. Carew

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the developmental regulation of the abil- ity to fire repetitively in the bag cell neurons of Aplysia califor- nica, a neuronal system in which the behavioral effects of repetitive firing are well characterized. Adult bag cell neurons exhibit an afterdischarge, consisting of prolonged depolariza- tion and repetitive firing, which causes the release of several peptides from these

  12. Alterations in local thyroid hormone signaling in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mouse at younger ages: Association with delayed myelination and behavioral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sawano, Erika; Negishi, Takayuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Masami; Tashiro, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains were established through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain based on phenotypic variations of aging and consist of senescence-prone (SAMP) and senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Among them, SAMP8 is considered as a model of neurodegeneration displaying age-associated learning and memory impairment and altered emotional status. Because adult hypothyroidism is one of the common causes of cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders, we examined the possible involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the pathological aging of SAMP8 using the senescence-resistant SAMR1 as control. Although plasma TH levels were similar in both strains, a significant decrease in type 2 deiodinase (D2) gene expression was observed in the SAMP8 hippocampus from 1 to 8 months of age, which led to a 35–50% reductions at the protein level and 20% reduction of its enzyme activity at 1, 3, and 5 months. D2 is responsible for local conversion of thyroxine into transcriptionally active 3,5,3?-triiodothyronine (T3), so the results suggest a reduction in T3 level in the SAMP8 hippocampus. Attenuation of local TH signaling was confirmed by downregulation of TH-dependent genes and by immunohistochemical demonstration of delayed and reduced accumulation of myelin basic protein, the expression of which is highly dependent on TH. Furthermore, we found that hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were not age-associated but were characteristic of young SAMP8 before they start showing impairments in learning and memory. Early alterations in local TH signaling may thus underlie behavioral abnormalities as well as the pathological aging of SAMP8. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23224839

  13. Repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    van Tulder, Maurits; Malmivaara, Antti; Koes, Bart

    2007-05-26

    Repetitive strain injury remains a controversial topic. The term repetitive strain injury includes specific disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, Guyon canal syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and tendonitis of the wrist or hand. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of history and clinical examination. Large high-quality studies using newer imaging techniques, such as MRI and ultrasonography are few. Consequently, the role of such imaging in diagnosis of upper limb disorders remains unclear. In many cases, no specific diagnosis can be established and complaints are labelled as non-specific. Little is known about the effectiveness of treatment options for upper limb disorders. Strong evidence for any intervention is scarce and the effect, if any, is mainly short-term pain relief. Exercise is beneficial for non-specific upper limb disorders. Immobilising hand braces and open carpal tunnel surgery release are beneficial for carpal tunnel syndrome, and topical and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections are helpful for lateral epicondylitis. Exercise is probably beneficial for neck pain, as are corticosteroid injections and exercise for shoulder pain. Although upper limb disorders occur frequently in the working population, most trials have not exclusively included a working population or assessed effects on work-related outcomes. Further high-quality trials should aim to include sufficient sample sizes, working populations, and work-related outcomes. PMID:17531890

  14. Cumulative effects of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Julian E; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Petraglia, Anthony L; Turner, Ryan C

    2014-01-01

    The majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the USA are mild in severity. Sports, particularly American football, and military experience are especially associated with repetitive, mild TBI (mTBI). The consequences of repetitive brain injury have garnered increasing scientific and public attention following reports of altered mood and behavior, as well as progressive neurological dysfunction many years after injury. This report provides an up-to-date review of the clinical, pathological, and pathophysiological changes associated with repetitive mTBI, and their potential for cumulative effects in certain individuals. PMID:24923392

  15. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position ...

  16. Modifying Repetitive Verbalizations of Community-Dwelling Patients with AD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Michelle S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports on behavior management training given to seven caregivers of a home-dwelling spouse with Alzheimer's disease. Results reveal that trained caregivers were successful at decreasing patient repetitions using written cues. Patients of control subjects showed no systematic changes in behavioral disturbances. Intervention effects lasted for 16…

  17. Clomipramine Treatment for Stereotypy and Related Repetitive Movement Disorders Associated with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of the serotonin uptake inhibitor clomipramine in treating stereotyped and related repetitive behavior disorders was tested in 10 adults (ages 18-42) with severe and profound mental retardation. Of the seven participants who tolerated the drug, six exhibited a clinically significant improvement in one or more repetitive behaviors.…

  18. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  19. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  20. Repetition Suppression and Multi-Voxel Pattern Similarity Differentially Track Implicit and Explicit Visual Memory

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Marvin M.; Kuhl, Brice A.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated exposure to a visual stimulus is associated with corresponding reductions in neural activity, particularly within visual cortical areas. It has been argued that this phenomenon of repetition suppression is related to increases in processing fluency or implicit memory. However, repetition of a visual stimulus can also be considered in terms of the similarity of the pattern of neural activity elicited at each exposure—a measure that has recently been linked to explicit memory. Despite the popularity of each of these measures, direct comparisons between the two have been limited, and the extent to which they differentially (or similarly) relate to behavioral measures of memory has not been clearly established. In the present study, we compared repetition suppression and pattern similarity as predictors of both implicit and explicit memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned 20 participants while they viewed and categorized repeated presentations of scenes. Repetition priming (facilitated categorization across repetitions) was used as a measure of implicit memory, and subsequent scene recognition was used as a measure of explicit memory. We found that repetition priming was predicted by repetition suppression in prefrontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal regions; however, repetition priming was not predicted by pattern similarity. In contrast, subsequent explicit memory was predicted by pattern similarity (across repetitions) in some of the same occipitotemporal regions that exhibited a relationship between priming and repetition suppression; however, explicit memory was not related to repetition suppression. This striking double dissociation indicates that repetition suppression and pattern similarity differentially track implicit and explicit learning. PMID:24027275

  1. COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    1&2 plus lecture notes Feb 2 Major Mental Disorders Ch 11 Feb 9 Anxiety Disorders Ch 7 Feb 16: Abnormal Psychology by Susan Holen-Hoeksema 4th edition This course covers the history, theories, assessment, and treatments of Abnormal Behavior Final grades are based exclusively on total points. All

  2. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy (XXXX). Results of five experiments show that perceptual sensitivity is strikingly and significantly reduced in the RB condition relative to both baseline control conditions. The data show RB can be obtained under conditions in which memory problems are minimal and where perceptual sensitivity is assessed independently of biases.

  3. Genes, Brain and Behavior (2012) 11: 6268 doi: 10.1111/j.1601-183X.2011.00733.x Preliminary evidence of abnormal white matter related

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    evidence of abnormal white matter related to the fusiform gyrus in Williams syndrome: a diffusion tensor-mail: areiss1@stanford.edu Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition caused by a hemizygous microdeletion: DTI, fusiform, genetics, tractography, Williams syndrome Received 17 June 2011, revised 19 August 2011

  4. Cytogenetic abnormalities and fragile-x syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Kavita S

    2005-01-01

    Background Autism is a behavioral disorder with impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. About 5–10 % of individuals with autism have 'secondary' autism in which an environmental agent, chromosome abnormality, or single gene disorder can be identified. Ninety percent have idiopathic autism and a major gene has not yet been identified. We have assessed the incidence of chromosome abnormalities and Fragile X syndrome in a population of autistic patients referred to our laboratory. Methods Data was analyzed from 433 patients with autistic traits tested using chromosome analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or molecular testing for fragile X syndrome by Southern and PCR methods. Results The median age was 4 years. Sex ratio was 4.5 males to 1 female [354:79]. A chromosome (cs) abnormality was found in 14/421 [3.33 %] cases. The aberrations were: 4/14 [28%] supernumerary markers; 4/14 [28%] deletions; 1/14 [7%] duplication; 3/14 [21%] inversions; 2/14 [14%] translocations. FISH was performed on 23 cases for reasons other than to characterize a previously identified cytogenetic abnormality. All 23 cases were negative. Fragile-X testing by Southern blots and PCR analysis found 7/316 [2.2 %] with an abnormal result. The mutations detected were: a full mutation (fM) and abnormal methylation in 3 [43 %], mosaic mutations with partial methylation of variable clinical significance in 3 [43%] and a permutation carrier [14%]. The frequency of chromosome and fragile-X abnormalities appears to be within the range in reported surveys (cs 4.8-1.7%, FRAX 2–4%). Limitations of our retrospective study include paucity of behavioral diagnostic information, and a specific clinical criterion for testing. Conclusions Twenty-eight percent of chromosome abnormalities detected in our study were subtle; therefore a high resolution cytogenetic study with a scrutiny of 15q11.2q13, 2q37 and Xp23.3 region should be standard practice when the indication is autism. The higher incidence of mosaic fragile-X mutations with partial methylation compared to FRAXA positive population [50% vs 15–40%] suggests that faint bands and variations in the Southern band pattern may occur in autistic patients. PMID:15655077

  5. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-print Network

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  6. A Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Before concluding Repetition Blindness is a perceptual phenomenon, alternative explanations based on memory retrieval problems and report bias must be rejected. Memory problems were minimized by requiring a judgment about only a single briefly displayed field. Bias and sensitivity effects were empirically measured with an ROC-curve analysis method based on confidence ratings. Results from five experiments support the hypothesis that Repetition Blindness can be a perceptual phenomenon.

  7. On the relationship between persistent delay activity, repetition enhancement and priming

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Elisa M.; Mongillo, Gianluigi; Brunel, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Human efficiency in processing incoming stimuli (in terms of speed and/or accuracy) is typically enhanced by previous exposure to the same, or closely related stimuli—a phenomenon referred to as priming. In spite of the large body of knowledge accumulated in behavioral studies about the conditions conducive to priming, and its relationship with other forms of memory, the underlying neuronal correlates of priming are still under debate. The idea has repeatedly been advanced that a major neuronal mechanism supporting behaviorally-expressed priming is repetition suppression, a widespread reduction of spiking activity upon stimulus repetition which has been routinely exposed by single-unit recordings in non-human primates performing delayed-response, as well as passive fixation tasks. This proposal is mainly motivated by the observation that, in human fMRI studies, priming is associated to a significant reduction of the BOLD signal (widely interpreted as a proxy of the level of spiking activity) upon stimulus repetition. Here, we critically re-examine a large part of the electrophysiological literature on repetition suppression in non-human primates and find that repetition suppression is systematically accompanied by stimulus-selective delay period activity, together with repetition enhancement, an increase of spiking activity upon stimulus repetition in small neuronal populations. We argue that repetition enhancement constitutes a more viable candidate for a putative neuronal substrate of priming, and propose a minimal framework that links together, mechanistically and functionally, repetition suppression, stimulus-selective delay activity and repetition enhancement. PMID:25657630

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. When hormones are the problem, doctors call the ... bleeding, or DUB. Abnormal bleeding caused by hormone imbalance is more common in teenagers or in women ...

  9. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  10. Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, B. A.; Forsythe, M. E.; Stanish, W. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. CONCLUSION: Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management. PMID:11228032

  11. PSY 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    disorders, dissociative and somatoform disorders, mood disorders, substance abuse and dependence, eating of major behavior disorders. A sampling of the specific topics will include: stress and health, #12;anxiety disorders, gender and sexuality, psychotic disorders, personality disorders, abnormal behavior in childhood

  12. Sensory representation abnormalities that parallel focal hand dystonia in a primate model.

    PubMed

    Blake, David T; Byl, Nancy N; Cheung, Steven; Bedenbaugh, Purvis; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Lamb, Michelle; Merzenich, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In our hypothesis of focal dystonia, attended repetitive behaviors generate aberrant sensory representations. Those aberrant representations interfere with motor control. Abnormal motor control strengthens sensory abnormalities. The positive feedback loop reinforces the dystonic condition. Previous studies of primates with focal hand dystonia have demonstrated multi-digit or hairy-glabrous responses at single sites in area 3b, receptive fields that average ten times larger than normal, and high receptive field overlap as a function of horizontal distance. In this study, we strengthen and elaborate these findings. One animal was implanted with an array of microelectrodes that spanned the border between the face and digits. After the animal developed hand dystonia, responses in the initial hand representation increasingly responded to low threshold stimulation of the face in a columnar substitution. The hand-face border that is normally sharp became patchy and smeared over 1 mm of cortex within 6 weeks. Two more trained animals developed a focal hand dystonia variable in severity across the hand. Receptive field size, presence of multi-digit or hairy-glabrous receptive fields, and columnar overlap covaried with the animal's ability to use specific digits. A fourth animal performed the same behaviors without developing dystonia. Many of its physiological measures were similar to the dystonic animals, but receptive field overlap functions were minimally abnormal, and no sites shared response properties that are normally segregated such as hairy-glabrous combined fields, or multi-digit fields. Thalamic mapping demonstrated proportionate levels of abnormality in thalamic representations as were found in cortical representations. PMID:12590836

  13. Unintended Imitation in Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappes, Juliane; Baumgaertner, Annette; Peschke, Claudia; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    Verbal repetition is conventionally considered to require motor-reproduction of only the phonologically relevant content of a perceived linguistic stimulus, while imitation of incidental acoustic properties of the stimulus is not an explicit part of this task. Exemplar-based theories of speech processing, however, would predict that imitation…

  14. Constructive and Unconstructive Repetitive Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive…

  15. Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In…

  16. Optogenetic Stimulation of Lateral Orbitofronto-Striatal Pathway Suppresses Compulsive Behaviors

    E-print Network

    Burguiere, Eric

    Dysfunctions in frontostriatal brain circuits have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, including those characterized by the presence of repetitive behaviors. We developed an optogenetic approach to block repetitive, ...

  17. Brief Report: Exploring the Relationship between Sensory Processing and Repetitive Behaviours in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours in children with Williams Syndrome (WS; n = 21). This is a novel investigation bringing together two clinical phenomena for the first time in this neuro-developmental disorder. Parents completed the Sensory Profile (Short Form; Dunn in The…

  18. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours, Sensory Processing and Cognitive Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the…

  19. From anxiety to autism: spectrum of abnormal social behaviors modeled by progressive disruption of inhibitory neuronal function in the basolateral amygdala in Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Truitt; Tammy J. Sajdyk; Amy D. Dietrich; Brandon Oberlin; Christopher J. McDougle; Anantha Shekhar

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  Social behaviors are disrupted in several psychiatric disorders. The amygdala is a key brain region involved in social behaviors,\\u000a and amygdala pathology has been implicated in disease states ranging from social anxiety disorder to autism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To test the effects of progressive disruption of the inhibitory function within the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA)\\u000a on conspecific social interaction in rats

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficient Male Rats Exhibit Abnormal Behavioral Activation in the Forced Swim Test Following Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment: Association with Altered 5-HT1A and Alpha2A Adrenergic Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Able, Jessica A.; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n=34) or without (DEF, n=30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n=14) and DEF (n=12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (?26%, p=0.0001) and DEF+FLX (?32%, p=0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF+FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON+FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF+FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF+FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON+FLX rats. DEF+FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats. PMID:24360505

  1. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  2. Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

  3. Using Gaussian copula to simulate repetitive projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    An important requirement for simulating repetitive projects is to treat correlations inherent in the repetition of same crews working at various locations. To attain the requirement, this study develops a new Monte Carlo simulation model implementing a Gaussian copula in conjunction with the inverse?transform method to generate correlated duration samples in repetitive projects that have pre?specified marginal distributions and pairwise

  4. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  5. The repetitive DNA content of eukaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    López-Flores, I; Garrido-Ramos, M A

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are composed of both unique and repetitive DNA sequences. These latter form families of different classes that may be organized in tandem or may be dispersed within genomes with a moderate to high degree of repetitiveness. The repetitive DNA fraction may represent a high proportion of a particular genome due to correlation between genome size and abundance of repetitive sequences, which would explain the differences in genomic DNA contents of different species. In this review, we analyze repetitive DNA diversity and abundance as well as its impact on genome structure, function, and evolution. PMID:22759811

  6. Repetition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of layered terrain in the south polar region of Mars. The general hypothesis that has been around since the Mariner missions to Mars in the late 1960s and early 1970s is that the layered material in the polar regions is composed of some combination of dust and ice in unknown proportions. Alternatively, the layers might be ancient sedimentary rock, perhaps protected from erosion by millennia of seasonal ice caps covering the region for, roughly, half a Mars year.

    Location near: 80.1oS, 259.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  7. Communication Impairments in Mice Lacking Shank1: Reduced Levels of Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Scent Marking Behavior

    E-print Network

    Wohr, Markus

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of ...

  8. The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form. PMID:22364354

  9. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence of teeth. ... any medical conditions that may cause abnormal tooth shape? At what age ... spacing)? What other symptoms are also present? Fillings, ...

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  11. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza; Strandgren, Charlotte; Pernold, Karin; Richard, Thibaud J C; Van Leeuwen, Fred W; Dantuma, Nico P; Damberg, Peter; Hultenby, Kjell; Ulfhake, Brun; Mugnaini, Enrico; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824C>T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin. PMID:25343989

  12. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza; Strandgren, Charlotte; Pernold, Karin; Richard, Thibaud J. C.; Van Leeuwen, Fred W.; Dantuma, Nico P.; Damberg, Peter; Hultenby, Kjell; Ulfhake, Brun; Mugnaini, Enrico; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824C>T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin. PMID:25343989

  13. Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2014-01-01

    In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 s, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1) a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2) a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The “paradoxically” high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception. PMID:25018691

  14. Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2014-01-01

    In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 s, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1) a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2) a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The "paradoxically" high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception. PMID:25018691

  15. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  16. The role of cognitive and affective processing in a transgenic mouse model of cortical-limbic neuropotentiated compulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    McGrath, M J; Campbell, K M; Burton, F H

    1999-12-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may involve abnormal cortical-limbic processing or responsiveness. Mice with behaviors resembling the symptoms of OCD and related disorders were made by expression of a neuropotentiating cholera toxin (CT) transgene in cortical-limbic D1 receptor-expressing neurons. Because these D1CT mice express CT in the piriform cortex and amygdala (major cognitive and affective olfactory processing areas) it was tested whether abnormal odor perception, discrimination, or responsiveness facilitates their compulsion-like behavior. The mice exhibited normal olfactory discriminative capability. An anxiogenic odor potentiated their abnormal repetitive leaping, but novel or familiar nonthreatening odors did not. These data suggest that compulsions can be triggered not by impaired cortical-limbic processing but by increased cortical-limbic responsiveness, particularly to sensory or cognitive stimuli with affective properties. PMID:10636303

  17. Repetitive sequences in plant nuclear DNA: types, distribution, evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shweta; Goyal, Vinod

    2014-08-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences are a major component of eukaryotic genomes and may account for up to 90% of the genome size. They can be divided into minisatellite, microsatellite and satellite sequences. Satellite DNA sequences are considered to be a fast-evolving component of eukaryotic genomes, comprising tandemly-arrayed, highly-repetitive and highly-conserved monomer sequences. The monomer unit of satellite DNA is 150-400 base pairs (bp) in length. Repetitive sequences may be species- or genus-specific, and may be centromeric or subtelomeric in nature. They exhibit cohesive and concerted evolution caused by molecular drive, leading to high sequence homogeneity. Repetitive sequences accumulate variations in sequence and copy number during evolution, hence they are important tools for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, and are known as "tuning knobs" in the evolution. Therefore, knowledge of repetitive sequences assists our understanding of the organization, evolution and behavior of eukaryotic genomes. Repetitive sequences have cytoplasmic, cellular and developmental effects and play a role in chromosomal recombination. In the post-genomics era, with the introduction of next-generation sequencing technology, it is possible to evaluate complex genomes for analyzing repetitive sequences and deciphering the yet unknown functional potential of repetitive sequences. PMID:25132181

  18. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  19. Neuro-Immune Abnormalities in Autism and Their Relationship with the Environment: A Variable Insult Model for Autism

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Daniel K.; Miyan, Jaleel A.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous condition affecting an individual’s ability to communicate and socialize and often presents with repetitive movements or behaviors. It tends to be severe with less than 10% achieving independent living with a marked variation in the progression of the condition. To date, the literature supports a multifactorial model with the largest, most detailed twin study demonstrating strong environmental contribution to the development of the condition. Here, we present a brief review of the neurological, immunological, and autonomic abnormalities in ASD focusing on the causative roles of environmental agents and abnormal gut microbiota. We present a working hypothesis attempting to bring together the influence of environment on the abnormal neurological, immunological, and neuroimmunological functions and we explain in brief how such pathophysiology can lead to, and/or exacerbate ASD symptomatology. At present, there is a lack of consistent findings relating to the neurobiology of autism. Whilst we postulate such variable findings may reflect the marked heterogeneity in clinical presentation and as such the variable findings may be of pathophysiological relevance, more research into the neurobiology of autism is necessary before establishing a working hypothesis. Both the literature review and hypothesis presented here explore possible neurobiological explanations with an emphasis of environmental etiologies and are presented with this bias. PMID:24639668

  20. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter (inventor); Hutto, William R. (inventor); Philips, Albert R. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  1. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  2. The Spectrum of Neurobehavioral Sequelae after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Mouse Model of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L.; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T.; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury. PMID:24766454

  3. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) word repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. In this article, the authors (a) describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetition Task…

  4. Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

  5. Abnormal Cats' Paws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Hagen

    1887-01-01

    ABNORMITIES in cats' paws occur rather frequently in Massachusetts. They are called mitten cats, and are much in demand because they are considered to be good mousers. The first I ever saw was a male yellow tiger, whose four paws had two extra toes strongly developed. A little stray female kitten which was brought up at my house had two

  6. Abnormal Morphology Within Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARILYN L. POLAND; KAMRAN S. MOGHISSI; PAUL T. GIBLIN; JOEL W. AGER; JANE M. OLSON

    Semen from 15 healthy volunteers was assessed for basic semen measures every 2 weeks over a 6-month period to determine the relative stability of these factors. The parameters were: sperm count, semen volume, sperm motility, and normal morphology, along with the type of abnormal morphologic forms. Basic semen measures were generally more stable than the morphologic forms. Using three samples,

  7. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a spectrum of neuropathological changes following repetitive brain trauma in athletes and military personnel.

    PubMed

    Stein, Thor D; Alvarez, Victor E; McKee, Ann C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive traumatic brain injury experienced in sport and military service. In most instances, the clinical symptoms of the disease begin after a long period of latency ranging from several years to several decades. The initial symptoms are typically insidious, consisting of irritability, impulsivity, aggression, depression, short-term memory loss and heightened suicidality. The symptoms progress slowly over decades to include cognitive deficits and dementia. The pathology of CTE is characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and astrocytes in a pattern that is unique from other tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. The hyperphosphorylated tau abnormalities begin focally, as perivascular neurofibrillary tangles and neurites at the depths of the cerebral sulci, and then spread to involve superficial layers of adjacent cortex before becoming a widespread degeneration affecting medial temporal lobe structures, diencephalon and brainstem. Most instances of CTE (>85% of cases) show abnormal accumulations of phosphorylated 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein that are partially colocalized with phosphorylated tau protein. As CTE is characterized pathologically by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, by abnormal deposits of phosphorylated tau and by 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein and is associated clinically with behavioral and personality changes, as well as cognitive impairments, CTE is increasingly categorized as an acquired frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Currently, some of the greatest challenges are that CTE cannot be diagnosed during life and the incidence and prevalence of the disorder remain uncertain. Furthermore, the contribution of age, gender, genetics, stress, alcohol and substance abuse to the development of CTE remains to be determined. PMID:24423082

  8. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a spectrum of neuropathological changes following repetitive brain trauma in athletes and military personnel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive traumatic brain injury experienced in sport and military service. In most instances, the clinical symptoms of the disease begin after a long period of latency ranging from several years to several decades. The initial symptoms are typically insidious, consisting of irritability, impulsivity, aggression, depression, short-term memory loss and heightened suicidality. The symptoms progress slowly over decades to include cognitive deficits and dementia. The pathology of CTE is characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and astrocytes in a pattern that is unique from other tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease. The hyperphosphorylated tau abnormalities begin focally, as perivascular neurofibrillary tangles and neurites at the depths of the cerebral sulci, and then spread to involve superficial layers of adjacent cortex before becoming a widespread degeneration affecting medial temporal lobe structures, diencephalon and brainstem. Most instances of CTE (>85% of cases) show abnormal accumulations of phosphorylated 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein that are partially colocalized with phosphorylated tau protein. As CTE is characterized pathologically by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, by abnormal deposits of phosphorylated tau and by 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein and is associated clinically with behavioral and personality changes, as well as cognitive impairments, CTE is increasingly categorized as an acquired frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Currently, some of the greatest challenges are that CTE cannot be diagnosed during life and the incidence and prevalence of the disorder remain uncertain. Furthermore, the contribution of age, gender, genetics, stress, alcohol and substance abuse to the development of CTE remains to be determined. PMID:24423082

  9. On the Parallel Repetition of Multi-Player Games: The No-Signaling Case

    E-print Network

    Harry Buhrman; Serge Fehr; Christian Schaffner

    2014-06-18

    We consider the natural extension of two-player nonlocal games to an arbitrary number of players. An important question for such nonlocal games is their behavior under parallel repetition. For two-player nonlocal games, it is known that both the classical and the non-signaling value of any game converges to zero exponentially fast under parallel repetition, given that the game is non-trivial to start with (i.e., has classical/non-signaling value game under parallel repetition. For nonlocal games with three or more players, very little is known up to present on their behavior under parallel repetition; this is true for the classical, the quantum and the non-signaling value. In this work, we show a parallel repetition theorem for the non-signaling value of a large class of multi-player games, for an arbitrary number of players. Our result applies to all multi-player games for which all possible combinations of questions have positive probability; this class in particular includes all free games, in which the questions to the players are chosen independently. Specifically, we prove that if the original game has a non-signaling value smaller than 1, then the non-signaling value of the $n$-fold parallel repetition is exponentially small in $n$. Our parallel repetition theorem for multi-player games is weaker than the known parallel repetition results for two-player games in that the rate at which the non-signaling value of the game decreases not only depends on the non-signaling value of the original game (and the number of possible responses), but on the complete description of the game. Nevertheless, we feel that our result is a first step towards a better understanding of the parallel repetition of nonlocal games with more than two players.

  10. Repetition suppression of face-selective evoked and induced EEG recorded from human cortex.

    PubMed

    Engell, Andrew D; McCarthy, Gregory

    2014-08-01

    In functional MRI studies, repetition suppression refers to the reduction of hemodynamic activation to repeated stimulus presentation. For example, the repeated presentation of a face reduces the hemodynamic response evoked by faces in the fusiform gyrus. The neural events that underlie repetition suppression are not well understood. Indeed, in contrast to the hemodynamic response, the face-specific N200 recorded from subdural electrodes on the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, primarily along the fusiform gyrus, has been reported to be insensitive to face-identity repetition. We have previously described a face-specific broadband gamma (30-100 Hz) response at ventral face-specific N200 sites that is functionally dissociable from the N200. In this study, we investigate whether gamma and other components of the electroencephalogram spectrum are affected by face-identity repetition independently of the N200. Participants viewed sequentially presented identical faces. At sites on and around the fusiform gyrus, we found that face repetition modulated alpha (8-12 Hz), low-gamma (30-60 Hz), and high-gamma (60-100 Hz) synchrony, but not the N200. These findings provide evidence of a spatially co-localized progression of face processing. Whereas the N200 reflects an initial obligatory response that is less sensitive to face-identity repetition, the subsequent spectral fluctuations reflect more elaborative face processing and are thus sensitive to face novelty. It is notable that the observed modulations were different for different frequency bands. We observed repetition suppression of broadband gamma, but repetition enhancement of alpha synchrony. This difference is discussed with regard to an existing model of repetition suppression and behavioral repetition priming. PMID:24677530

  11. Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2003-01-01

    Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

  12. Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2003-02-28

    Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

  13. An Introduction to Ethological Approaches With Abnormal Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Robert H.; Zabel, Mary Kay

    The paper presents an overview of an ethological approach to the study of abnormal human behavior and a review of research using ethological approaches (with an emphasis on autism research). Ethology is defined as the study of behavior as it occurs in its natural habitat. The four types of questions ethologists ask about behavior, such as what is…

  14. DETECTING ABNORMAL FISH TRAJECTORIES USING CLUSTERED AND LABELED DATA

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Bob

    on the behavior of fish. On the other hand, in recent years unconstrained underwater studies have become popular. Trajectories are classified into two classes: normal trajectories which contain the usual behavior of fish and abnormal trajectories which indicate the behaviors that are not as common as the normal class. The paper

  15. Detecting Large Repetitive Structures with Salient Boundaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changchang Wu; Jan-Michael Frahm; Marc Pollefeys

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel robust and efficient framework to analyze large repetitive structures in urban scenes. A particular contribution of the proposed approach is that it finds the salient boundaries of the repeating elements even when the repetition exists along only one direction. A perspective image is rectified based on vanishing points computed jointly from edges and repeated features

  16. Brand Familiarity and Advertising Repetition Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    A crucial communication task for unknown brands is to build the knowledge in consumers' minds necessary to become established. However, communication effectiveness may depend on prior familiarity of the advertised brand. The findings of two experiments using television ads and computer Internet ads revealed that brand familiarity influenced repetition effectiveness. In particular, repetition of advertising attributed to an unfamiliar brand

  17. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  18. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  19. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  20. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  1. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  2. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul (Stony Brook, NY)

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  3. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  4. Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  5. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  6. Pathophysiological Tissue Changes Associated With Repetitive Movement: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ann E; Barbe, Mary F

    2006-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) represent approximately one third of workers’ compensation costs in US private industry, yet estimates of acceptable exposure levels for forceful and repetitive tasks are imprecise, in part, due to lack of measures of tissue injury in humans. In this review, the authors discuss the scope of upper-extremity WMSDs, the relationship between repetition rate and forcefulness of reaching tasks and WMSDs, cellular responses to injury in vivo and in vitro, and animal injury models of repetitive, forceful tasks. The authors describe a model using albino rats and present evidence related to tissue injury and inflammation due to a highly repetitive reaching task. A conceptual schematic for WMSD development and suggestions for further research are presented. Animal models can enhance our ability to predict risk and to manage WMSDs in humans because such models permit the direct observation of exposed tissues as well as motor behavior. PMID:11856068

  7. A systematic approach to repetitive failures

    SciTech Connect

    Odland, D.J. (Sonalysts, Inc., Waterford, CT (USA))

    1991-02-01

    This report presents a model of a systematic approach to address and correct repetitive failures. In this context, repetitive failures are the recurring inability of a system, subsystem, structure, or component to perform its intended function. The report presents a systematic method for identifying repetitive failures, selecting the failures to be investigated, determining root cause, selecting corrective actions for implementation, and monitoring of subsequent system/component performance. Appendix A provides an example of the use of this methodology at an operating nuclear generating station. 4 figs.

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Prevalence and Psychological Correlates of Occasional and Repetitive Deliberate Self-harm in Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romuald Brunner; Peter Parzer; Johann Haffner; Rainer Steen; Jeanette Roos; Martin Klett; Franz Resch

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and the asso- ciated psychological and social factors of occasional and repetitive deliberate self-harming behavior in adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional self-report survey. Setting: One hundred twenty-one schools in Germany. Participants: A representative sample of 5759 ninth- grade students was studied between 2004 and 2005. Outcome Measures: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behaviors, emotional and behavioral problems

  10. Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2012-01-01

    Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD. PMID:21541845

  11. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Internet , kids often spend hours at the computer. So it's important for parents to know about ... to the stress of repetitive motions at the computer or overuse injuries in sports. RSI in kids ...

  12. Developmental Norms for the Sentence Repetition Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, John A.; MacDonald, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Obtained developmental norms for the Sentence Repetition Test from children (N=1,081) ranging in age from three to 13 years. Utilized a substanially larger number of children in each age group than previous reports. (Author/LLL)

  13. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  14. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  15. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  16. Minor and repetitive head injury.

    PubMed

    Buki, Andras; Kovacs, Noemi; Czeiter, Endre; Schmid, Kara; Berger, Rachel P; Kobeissy, Firas; Italiano, Domenico; Hayes, Ronald L; Tortella, Frank C; Mezosi, Emese; Schwarcz, Attila; Toth, Arnold; Nemes, Orsolya; Mondello, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in the young, active population and expected to be the third leading cause of death in the whole world until 2020. The disease is frequently referred to as the silent epidemic, and many authors highlight the "unmet medical need" associated with TBI.The term traumatically evoked brain injury covers a heterogeneous group ranging from mild/minor/minimal to severe/non-salvageable damages. Severe TBI has long been recognized to be a major socioeconomical health-care issue as saving young lives and sometimes entirely restituting health with a timely intervention can indeed be extremely cost efficient.Recently it has been recognized that mild or minor TBI should be considered similarly important because of the magnitude of the patient population affected. Other reasons behind this recognition are the association of mild head injury with transient cognitive disturbances as well as long-term sequelae primarily linked to repeat (sport-related) injuries.The incidence of TBI in developed countries can be as high as 2-300/100,000 inhabitants; however, if we consider the injury pyramid, it turns out that severe and moderate TBI represents only 25-30 % of all cases, while the overwhelming majority of TBI cases consists of mild head injury. On top of that, or at the base of the pyramid, are the cases that never show up at the ER - the unreported injuries.Special attention is turned to mild TBI as in recent military conflicts it is recognized as "signature injury."This chapter aims to summarize the most important features of mild and repetitive traumatic brain injury providing definitions, stratifications, and triage options while also focusing on contemporary knowledge gathered by imaging and biomarker research.Mild traumatic brain injury is an enigmatic lesion; the classification, significance, and its consequences are all far less defined and explored than in more severe forms of brain injury.Understanding the pathobiology and pathomechanisms may aid a more targeted approach in triage as well as selection of cases with possible late complications while also identifying the target patient population where preventive measures and therapeutic tools should be applied in an attempt to avoid secondary brain injury and late complications. PMID:25411149

  17. Effects of task repetition on event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigm.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of task repetition on the N140 and P300 components of event-related potentials (ERPs) in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. A Go or No-go stimulus was presented to the second or fifth digit of the left hand, respectively, at the same probability, and subjects had to respond by pushing a button with their right thumb as quickly as possible only after the presentation of a Go stimulus. The condition comprised seven sessions of recordings, and subjects were allowed to relax for five minutes after one session. The behavioral data for the reaction time (RT), standard deviation of RT, and error rates showed the absence of an effect by task repetition. In ERP waveforms, the amplitudes of N140 and P300 decreased with task repetition, and the latency of P300 was delayed by task repetition. There was no significant effect of task repetition on the peak latency of N140. Changes in amplitude and latency values in N140 and P300 during Go/No-go paradigms reflected changes in the neural activation of response execution and inhibition processing with task repetition. PMID:25817359

  18. A rare stapes abnormality.

    PubMed

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  19. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  20. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  1. Manipulating Articulatory Demands in Non-Word Repetition: A "Late-8" Non-Word Repetition Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michelle W.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Dollaghan, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the psychometric properties of a non-word repetition task (NRT), the Late-8 Non-word Repetition Task (L8NRT). This task was designed similarly to the NRT, but contains only Late-8 consonants to increase articulatory demands and avoid ceiling effects in studies with adolescents and adults. Thirty college…

  2. The Effects of Delayed Reinforcement on Variability and Repetition of Response Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Amy L.; Ward, Ryan D.; Burke, K. Anne; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of delays to reinforcement on key peck sequences of pigeons maintained under multiple schedules of contingencies that produced variable or repetitive behavior. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4, in the repeat component only the sequence right-right-left-left earned food, and in the vary component four-response…

  3. Operational Semantics of the Marte Repetitive Structure Modeling Concepts for Data-Parallel Applications Design

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Operational Semantics of the Marte Repetitive Structure Modeling Concepts for Data modeling (RSM) package defined in the standard UML Marte profile. It also deals with the semantics for i) reasoning about the behavioral properties of models specified in Marte with RSM, and ii) defining

  4. Knockdown of sodium channel NaV1.6 blocks mechanical pain and abnormal bursting activity of afferent neurons in inflamed sensory ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A.; Ye, Ling; Mao, Ju-Xian; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many preclinical pain models, and initiates many other pathological changes, but its molecular basis is not well understood. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 can underlie repetitive firing and excitatory persistent and resurgent currents. We used in vivo knockdown of this channel via local injection of siRNA to examine its role in chronic pain following local inflammation of the rat lumbar sensory ganglia. In normal DRG, quantitative PCR showed that cells capable of firing repetitively had significantly higher relative expression of NaV1.6. In inflamed DRG, spontaneously active bursting cells expressed high levels of NaV1.6? immunoreactivity. In vivo knockdown of NaV1.6 locally in the lumbar DRG at the time of DRG inflammation completely blocked development of pain behaviors and abnormal spontaneous activity, while having only minor effects on unmyelinated C-cells. Current research on isoform-specific sodium channel blockers for chronic pain is largely focused on NaV1.8, because it is present primarily in unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors, or on NaV1.7, because lack of this channel causes congenital indifference to pain. However, the results suggest that NaV1.6 may be a useful therapeutic target for chronic pain, and that some pain conditions may be primarily mediated by myelinated A-fiber sensory neurons. PMID:23622763

  5. Workshop on Repetitive Spark Gap Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagler, M. O.; Kristiansen, M.

    1983-05-01

    A workshop on Repetitive Spark Gap Operation was conducted by Texas Tech University for the Department of Defense. The workshop objectives were to summarize the present state-of-the-art and knowledge about repetitive spark gap operation and to make recommendations about needed research in this important pulsed power area. A group of invited papers provided background information for the participants who were experts in various important working groups which provided summary reports about their deliberations and recommendations. These papers and group reports are included in this report together with a summary of the workshop recommendations.

  6. abnormalities in infants and toddlers

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    Cerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome children with Williams syndrome. Clinical brain MRI was examined in nine young children with Williams

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

    2003-01-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

  8. Students' reactions to abnormal psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Taylor

    1932-01-01

    As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

  9. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  10. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  11. Control of the repetitive firing in the squid giant axon using electrical fields

    E-print Network

    Doruk, Resat Ozgur

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the aim is to develop a repetitive firing stopper mechanism using electrical fields exerted on the fiber. The Hodgkin - Huxley nerve fiber model is used for modeling the membrane potential behavior. The repetitive firing of the nerve fiber can be stopped using approaches based on the control theory where the nonlinear Hodgkin - Huxley model is used to achieve this goal. The effects of the electrical field are considered as an additive quantity over the equilibrium potentials of the cell membrane channels. The study is a representative of an experimental application.

  12. Repetitive and Stereotyped Movements in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Late in the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Lindee; Wetherby, Amy M.; Barber, Angie

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine group differences and relationships with later developmental level and autism symptoms using a new clinical tool developed to measure repetitive and stereotyped movements (RSM) in young children. Method: Videotaped behavior samples using the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales…

  13. Large-scale detection of repetitions.

    PubMed

    Smyth, W F

    2014-05-28

    Combinatorics on words began more than a century ago with a demonstration that an infinitely long string with no repetitions could be constructed on an alphabet of only three letters. Computing all the repetitions (such as ???TTT???? or ??? CGACGA ????) in a given string x of length n is one of the oldest and most important problems of computational stringology, requiring time in the worst case. About a dozen years ago, it was discovered that repetitions can be computed as a by-product of the ?(n)-time computation of all the maximal periodicities or runs in x. However, even though the computation is linear, it is also brute force: global data structures, such as the suffix array, the longest common prefix array and the Lempel-Ziv factorization, need to be computed in a preprocessing phase. Furthermore, all of this effort is required despite the fact that the expected number of runs in a string is generally a small fraction of the string length. In this paper, I explore the possibility that repetitions (perhaps also other regularities in strings) can be computed in a manner commensurate with the size of the output. PMID:24751872

  14. Sentence Repetition: What Does the Task Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polišenská, Kamila; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition is gaining increasing attention as a source of information about children's sentence-level abilities in clinical assessment, and as a clinical marker of specific language impairment. However, it is widely debated what the task is testing and therefore how informative it is. Aims: (1) To evaluate the effects of…

  15. Enhancing Speech Discrimination through Stimulus Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Rachael Frush

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of sequential and alternating repetition on speech-sound discrimination. Method: Typically hearing adults' discrimination of 3 pairs of speech-sound contrasts was assessed at 3 signal-to-noise ratios using the change/no-change procedure. On change trials, the standard and comparison stimuli differ; on no-change…

  16. Compact High Repetition Rate Pseudospark Pulse Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Wang; András Kuthi; Martin A. Gundersen

    2005-01-01

    A pseudospark-based high repetition rate pulse generator, together with a resonant charging power supply is presented. The pulse generator was developed for research applications that include transient plasma ignition. The design incorporates a lumped element Blumlein pulse-forming network that is switched by a commercial pseudospark into an output pulse transformer with a METGLAS core. The Blumlein is charged up to

  17. Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

    2009-01-01

    The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment at…

  18. Repetitive strain disorder: towards diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, H A; Hill, J

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen women (mean age 48.2 years; range 25-60 years) all of whom had developed musculoskeletal symptoms during employment in an industrial job with repetitive tasks were referred by their trade unions for adjudication on the cause of symptoms. One had rheumatoid arthritis. A study of the other 12 women provided an opportunity to document the natural history of repetitive strain disorder. Early symptoms of weakness were diffuse but were always relieved by rest. Several months later localisation of symptoms at a tendon, nerve, or enthesis could be predicted from the analysis of the action required in the particular repetitive task. Six of the 12 women required an operation several years later, thus providing histological confirmation of the presence of a lesion. Early loss of grip strength measured by a sphygmomanometer cuff compared with an unaffected control subject and improved by rest may be the most valuable sign in excluding compensation neurosis. The estimated prevalence of repetitive strain disorder defined by these strict criteria was at least 2% in conveyor belt workers. PMID:1417124

  19. Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

  20. Repetitive speech phenomena in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th Benke; C Hohenstein; W Poewe; B Butterworth

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESRepetitive speech phenomena are morphologically heterogeneous iterations of speech which have been described in several neurological disorders such as vascular dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, Wilson's disease, and Parkinson's disease, and which are presently only poorly understood. The present, prospective study investigated repetitive speech phenomena in Parkinson's disease to describe their morphology, assess their prevalence, and to establish their relation with

  1. OCD: Obsessive Consensus Disorder (or Repetitive Consensus)

    E-print Network

    Dolev, Danny

    OCD: Obsessive Consensus Disorder (or Repetitive Consensus) Danny Dolev Hebrew University dolev personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version is to be published in the Twenty a sequence of multiple consensuses takes place. Executing multiple consensus comes in different flavors

  2. Grade repetition in Honduran primary schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery H. Marshall

    2003-01-01

    This paper looks at several dimensions of the grade failure issue in Honduras using a unique data set compiled by the UMCE evaluation project in 1998 and 1999. The analytical framework incorporates econometric analysis of standardized tests and teacher pass\\/fail decisions for roughly 13,000 second and fourth grade students. The results show that first time grade repetition, as well as

  3. Experimental models of repetitive brain injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Weber

    2007-01-01

    Repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs in a significant portion of trauma patients, especially in specific populations, such as child abuse victims or athletes involved in contact sports (e.g. boxing, football, hockey, and soccer). A continually emerging hypothesis is that repeated mild injuries may cause cumulative damage to the brain, resulting in long-term cognitive dysfunction. The growing attention to this

  4. Integrated High Repetition Rate Pulse Compressor Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Greenwood; J. Gowar; D. A. Grant

    1991-01-01

    An integrated approach to the design of high repetition rate, solid state pulse power generators is described. The effects of the various design parameters are discussed, and the order in which these should be approached is also described. Of particular interest are several compressor core constructional parameters which are important in the final performance of the compressor.

  5. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic

    DOEpatents

    Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

    2011-03-22

    Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

  6. The hot-hand fallacy in cognitive control: repetition expectancy modulates the congruency sequence effect.

    PubMed

    Duthoo, Wout; Wühr, Peter; Notebaert, Wim

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the role of expectancies in cognitive control was tested. On the basis of the original interpretation of the congruency sequence effect (Gratton, Coles, & Donchin, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121:480-506, 1992), we sought evidence for a repetition bias steering attentional control. In a series of four Stroop experiments, we investigated how participants' explicit predictions about the upcoming (in)congruency proactively influenced subsequent Stroop performance. Similar to the fallacious "hot-hand" belief in gambling, repeating stimulus events were overpredicted, as participants consistently expected more repetitions of the congruency level than the actual presented number of congruency-level repetitions (50 %). Moreover, behavioral adjustments (i.e., a congruency sequence effect) were only found when participants anticipated a congruency-level repetition, whereas no modulation of the Stroop effect was found following alternation predictions. We propose that proactive control processes in general, and repetition expectancy in particular, should be given more attention in current theorizing and modeling of cognitive control, which is characterized by an emphasis on reactive, conflict-induced control adjustments. PMID:23371807

  7. Echocardiographic abnormalities following cardiac radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrault, D.J.; Levy, M.; Herman, J.D.; Burns, R.J.; Bar Shlomo, B.Z.; Druck, M.N.; Wu, W.Q.; McLaughlin, P.R.; Gilbert, B.W.

    1985-04-01

    Five years or more after receiving cardiac radiation, 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease and seminoma in remission were subjected to echocardiography. The abnormalities detected included pericardial thickening in 70%, thickening of the aortic and/or mitral valves in 28%, right ventricular dilatation or hypokinesis in 39%, and left ventricular dysfunction in 39%. In the 23 patients treated by an upper mantle technique with shielding, the incidence of right ventricular abnormalities and valvular thickening was significantly lower than in patients treated with modified techniques. Although no symptoms were attributable to the observed abnormalities, longer follow-up time may reveal important functional implications.

  8. Armor materials’ behavior under repetitive dense plasma shots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokova, V.; Laas, T.; Ainsaar, A.; Priimets, J.; Ugaste, Ü.; Väli, B.; Gribkov, V. A.; Maslyaev, S. A.; Demina, E. V.; Dubrovsky, A. V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Prusakova, M. D.; Mikli, V.

    2014-05-01

    Experiments on the plasma focus device PF-12 have been carried out to investigate changes in the structure of the surface and bulk of tungsten and tungsten doped with 1% lanthanum oxide after repeated powerful deuterium plasma shots (8, 25 and 100). The surface morphology of the targets exposed to plasma streams is analyzed by electron and optical microscopy. Due to the plasma effect, different surface structures, such as wave-like structures, a melted layer, a mesh of microcracks, droplets, craters, crevices and holes, appear. The change of cross-section hardness after a number of shots in different materials is investigated.

  9. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    PubMed Central

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. We describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetiton Task (SRT) that eliminates this confound and report findings from three validity studies. Method Ninety-five preschool children with Speech Delay and 63 with Typical Speech, completed an assessment battery that included the Nonword Repetition Task (NRT: Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) and the SRT. SRT stimuli include only four of the earliest occurring consonants and one early occurring vowel. Results Study 1 findings indicated that the SRT eliminated the speech confound in nonword testing with speakers who misarticulate. Study 2 findings indicated that the accuracy of the SRT to identify expressive language impairment was comparable to findings for the NRT. Study 3 findings illustrated the SRT’s potential to interrogate speech processing constraints underlying poor nonword repetition accuracy. Results supported both memorial and auditory-perceptual encoding constraints underlying nonword repetition errors in children with speech-language impairment. Conclusion The SRT appears to be a psychometrically stable and substantively informative nonword repetition task for emerging genetic and other research with speakers who misarticulate. PMID:19635944

  10. 10 CFR 60.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 60.23 Section 60.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...Licenses License Applications § 60.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application, environmental report, or...

  11. 10 CFR 52.8 - Combining licenses; elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. 52.8 Section 52.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...Provisions § 52.8 Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. (a) An applicant for a license under this part...

  12. 10 CFR 61.21 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 61.21 Section 61.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.21 Elimination of repetition. In its application, the applicant may...

  13. 10 CFR 50.32 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 50.32 Section 50.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...Ineligibility of Certain Applicants § 50.32 Elimination of repetition. In his application, the applicant may...

  14. Effect of bisphenol A on Drosophila melanogaster behavior - A new model for the studies on neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kulbir; Simon, Anne F; Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha

    2015-05-01

    Developmental disorders such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appear to have a complex etiology implicating both genetic and environmental factors. Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used chemical in the plastic containers and in the linings of food and beverage cans, has been suggested to play a possible causative role in some developmental disorders. Here, we report behavioral modifications in Drosophila melanogaster following early exposure to BPA, which may suggest BPA as an environmental risk factor for the behavioral impairments that are the basis of diagnosis of autism and ADHD. In an open field assay with perinatally BPA-exposed and vehicle-treated control Drosophila, different parameters of locomotion (distance traveled, walking speed, spatial movement, mobility, turn angle, angular velocity and meander) were analyzed using the ethovision software. We also examined the repetitive and social interaction behaviors in these flies. In an open field assay, we identified disturbances in the locomotion patterns of BPA-exposed Drosophila that may relate to the decision-making and the motivational state of the animal. An increase in repetitive behavior was observed as an increase in the grooming behavior of Drosophila following BPA exposure. Furthermore, we also observed abnormal social interaction by the BPA-exposed flies in a social setting. These results demonstrate the effect of the environmentally prevalent risk agent BPA on the behavior of Drosophila, and suggest the practicability and the ease of using Drosophila as a model in the studies of neurobehavioral developmental disorders. PMID:25660202

  15. Plug in repetitive control for industrial robotic manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cosner; G. Anwar; M. Tomizuka

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of plug-in repetitive control on the direct drive axis of a prototype GMF A500 robot is considered. Plug-in repetitive control was developed and implemented using an IBM AT. A multirate sampling algorithm was designed to reduce the memory requirements of repetitive control. A microcontroller board based on the Intel 8096 was designed so that plug-in repetitive control could

  16. Repetition Blindness: An Emergent Property of Inter-Item Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Alison L.; Still, Mary L.; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Repeating an item in a brief or rapid display usually produces faster or more accurate identification of the item (repetition priming), but sometimes produces the opposite effect (repetition blindness). We present a theory of short-term repetition effects, the "competition hypothesis," which explains these paradoxical outcomes. The central tenet…

  17. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  18. Naming and Repetition in Aphasia: Steps, Routes, and Frequency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Kittredge, Audrey K.; Dell, Gary S.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the cognitive processes underlying picture naming and auditory word repetition. In the two-step model of lexical access, both the semantic and phonological steps are involved in naming, but the former has no role in repetition. Assuming recognition of the to-be-repeated word, repetition could consist of retrieving the…

  19. 38 CFR 21.132 - Repetition of the course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repetition of the course. 21.132 Section...Vocational Training Services § 21.132 Repetition of the course. (a) Repeating all...expense of VA. However, VA may approve repetition of all, or any part of the course...

  20. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Michael J.; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an impact to the cranium of an unrestrained subject allowing rapid acceleration of the free-moving head and torso, an essential characteristic known to be important for concussive injury in humans, and a factor that is missing from existing animal models of TBI. Our method does not require scalp incision, emplacement of protective skull helmets or surgery and the procedure can be completed in 1-2 minutes. Mice spontaneously recover the righting reflex and show no evidence of seizures, paralysis or impaired behavior. Skull fractures and intracranial bleeding are very rare. Minor deficits in motor coordination and locomotor hyperactivity recover over time. Histological analyses reveal mild astrocytic reactivity (increased expression of GFAP) and increased phospho-tau but a lack of blood-brain-barrier disruption, edema and microglial activation. This new animal model is simple and cost-effective and will facilitate characterization of the neurobiological and behavioral consequences of rmTBI. It is also ideal for high throughput screening of potential new therapies for mild concussive injuries as experienced by athletes and military personnel. PMID:21930157

  1. Hijacking Cortical Motor Output with Repetitive Microstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, D.M.; Hudson, H.M.; Belhaj-Sa?f, A.; Cheney, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    High frequency repetitive microstimulation has been widely used as a method of investigating the properties of cortical motor output. Despite its widespread use, few studies have investigated how activity evoked by high frequency stimulation may interact with the existing activity of cortical cells resulting from natural synaptic inputs. A reasonable assumption might be that the stimulus-evoked activity sums with the existing natural activity. However, another possibility is that the stimulus-evoked firing of cortical neurons might block and replace the natural activity. We refer to this latter possibility as “neural hijacking.” Evidence from analysis of EMG activity evoked by repetitive microstimulation (200 Hz, 500 ms) of primary motor cortex in two rhesus monkeys during performance of a reach-to-grasp task strongly supports the neural hijacking hypothesis. PMID:21917792

  2. Changes in vergence dynamics due to repetition.

    PubMed

    Jainta, Stephanie; Bucci, Maria Pia; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Kapoula, Zoï

    2011-08-15

    Vergence insufficiency is frequent in many populations including children with vertigo in the absence of measurable vestibular dysfunction. Orthoptic exercises are typically used to improve vergence and the clinical practice suggests that simple repetition of vergence movements improves it. Objective eye movement recordings were used to asses the dynamics and spatial-temporal properties of convergence (8.7°) and divergence (2.7°) along the midline while these movements were repeated 80 times. Eight children, aged on average 13years and showing vertigo symptoms accompanied with vergence insufficiency, participated. For both, convergence and divergence the velocity increased and the overall duration decreased; the amplitude of the mean transient component of the response changed significantly. These findings are compatible with models of double mode control of vergence eye movements (transient - open-loop vs. sustained - closed loop). Due to simple repetitions a real improvement in the dynamics of vergence along the midline occurred. PMID:21745493

  3. Plasma-opening-switch-based repetitive generator

    SciTech Connect

    Barinov, N.U.; Belenki, G.S.; Dolgachev, G.I.; Kovalev, Y.I.; Zakatov, L.P.; Ushakov, A.G. [Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Operation peculiarities of the RS-20 generator based on the plasma opening switch (POS) including its repetitive operation capabilities are reviewed. They are: limited current value, gas emission, pulsed heat loads, etc. The feasibility of a POS with maximum impedance and relatively low (100 kA and lower) drive current is being investigated. The evolution of the POS design used in the repetitive X-ray generator RS-20 is presented in various schemes. The ``reflecting`` scheme has a variable anode transparency in the direction of the load and another scheme uses an external pulsed magnetic field. The paper describes a combined X-ray converter having a multilayer structure: a thin layer of fine-grained tungsten is placed between two layers of carbon film. The progress achieved in improvement of the RS-20 main units (Marx Generator, Plasma Opening Switch, X-ray Converter) made it possible to increase their lifetime to more than 10{sup 7} pulses without replacement.

  4. Repetition probability effects depend on prior experiences.

    PubMed

    Grotheer, Mareike; Kovács, Gyula

    2014-05-01

    The magnitude of repetition suppression (RS) in the Fusiform Face Area is influenced by the probability of repetitions of faces (Summerfield et al., 2008), implying that perceptual expectations affect repetition-related processes. Surprisingly, however, macaque single-cell (Kaliukhovich and Vogels, 2011) and human fMRI (Kovács et al., 2013) studies have failed to find repetition probability [P(rep)] modulations of RS with nonface stimuli in the occipitotemporal cortex, suggesting that the effect is face specific. One possible explanation of this category selectivity is that the extensive experience humans have with faces affects the neural mechanisms of RS specifically, creating P(rep) modulatory effects. To address this question, we used fMRI to test the P(rep) effects for another well trained stimulus category, upright letters of the roman alphabet as well as for unfamiliar false fonts. We observed significant RS for both stimulus sets in the Letter Form Area as well as in the caudodorsal part of the lateral occipital complex. Interestingly, the influence of P(rep) on RS was dependent on the stimulus: while we observed P(rep) modulations for the roman letters, no such effects were found for the unfamiliar false fonts in either area. Our findings suggest that P(rep) effects on RS are manifest for nonface stimuli as well, but that they depend on the experience of the subjects with the stimulus category. This shows, for the first time, that prior experience affects the influence of contextual predictive information on RS in the human occipitotemporal cortex. PMID:24806689

  5. A repetitively-pulsed, mobile, HPM system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Spang; D. E. Anderson; K. D. Claborne; R. A. Hill; S. P. Manning; J. A. Pasour; D. M. Rexroad; E. P. Scannell; R. J. Williams; D. A. Woodyard

    1989-01-01

    The AAI High Power Microwave Source Development Program (HPM) has been actively investigating the design of HPM test systems using relativistic magnetrons with a repetition rate capability. The design and test of a gigawatt-level, S- to C-band, 10-Hz, mobile relativistic magnetron HPM system have been carried out. Mode competition, output-coupling-frequency scaling and injection phase locking in relativistic magnetrons have been

  6. Phosphor thermometry at high repetition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, N.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

    2013-09-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilizing the luminescence properties of thermographic phosphors. Typically these ceramic materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Photomultipliers and high-speed camera systems are used to transiently detect the subsequently emitted luminescence decay point wise or two-dimensionally resolved. Based on appropriate calibration measurements, the luminescence lifetime is converted to temperature. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. For the first time, the authors realized a high-speed phosphor thermometry system combining a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterized regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating in terms of heating effects has been investigated. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of one sample per crank angle degree at an engine speed of 1000 rpm. This experiment has proven that high-speed phosphor thermometry is a promising diagnostic tool for the resolution of surface temperature transients.

  7. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  8. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  9. Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Emergency and Abnormal Situations

    E-print Network

    the landing gear came down... #12;10 Emergency and Abnormal Situations Issues · Checklist and Procedure-board fire and when the aircraft ditches, conducts a forced landing, or crashes is 17 minutes. The Swissair 426768 During approach...the gear failed to come down...after notifying the tower we had a `Gear

  10. Dynamics of Tandem Repetitive Afa-Family Sequences in Triticeae, Wheat-Related Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyotaka Nagaki; Hisashi Tsujimoto; Tetsuo Sasakuma

    1998-01-01

    .   The Afa-family sequences in wheat-related species, Triticeae, are tandem repetitive sequences of 340 bp. All the analyzed\\u000a Triticeae species carried the sequences in their genomes, though the copy numbers varied about 100-fold among the species.\\u000a The nucleotide fragments amplified by PCR were cloned and sequenced, and their behavior in the evolution of Triticeae was\\u000a analyzed by the neighbor-joining (NJ)

  11. Multiwavelength super-structured Bragg grating laser for tunable repetition rate mode-locked operation.

    PubMed

    Simard, Alexandre D; Strain, Michael J; Pusino, Vincenzo; Sorel, Marc; LaRochelle, Sophie

    2014-07-14

    A multiwavelength laser based on a super-structured Bragg grating is designed and fabricated on multiquantum well AlGaInAs-InP. This laser exhibits phase locking via mutual injection of the neighboring cavities assisted by four wave mixing. We present optical and electrical characterization of its emission regimes showing a complex dynamic behavior. More specifically, this paper focuses on a pulsed regime with a quasi-continuous tunable repetition rate from 32 GHz to 49 GHz. PMID:25090519

  12. AUTOSIM: An automated repetitive software testing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. R.; Mcbride, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    AUTOSIM is a software tool which automates the repetitive run testing of software. This tool executes programming tasks previously performed by a programmer with one year of programming experience. Use of the AUTOSIM tool requires a knowledge base containing information about known faults, code fixes, and the fault diagnosis-correction process. AUTOSIM can be considered as an expert system which replaces a low level of programming expertise. Reference information about the design and implementation of the AUTOSIM software test tool provides flowcharts to assist in maintaining the software code and a description of how to use the tool.

  13. Software reliability: Repetitive run experimentation and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, P. M.; Skrivan, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A software experiment conducted with repetitive run sampling is reported. Independently generated input data was used to verify that interfailure times are very nearly exponentially distributed and to obtain good estimates of the failure rates of individual errors and demonstrate how widely they vary. This fact invalidates many of the popular software reliability models now in use. The log failure rate of interfailure time was nearly linear as a function of the number of errors corrected. A new model of software reliability is proposed that incorporates these observations.

  14. Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder investigated with MRI and voxel-based morphometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison C. Nugent; Michael P. Milham; Earle E. Bain; Linda Mah; Dara M. Cannon; Sean Marrett; Carlos A. Zarate; Daniel S. Pine; Joseph L. Price; Wayne C. Drevets

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with abnormalities of brain structure. Specifically, in vivo volumetric MRI and\\/or post mortem studies of BD have reported abnormalities of gray matter (GM) volume in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampal subiculum and ventral striatum. These structures share anatomical connections with each other and form part of a “visceromotor” network modulating emotional behavior.

  15. Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling. PMID:17389182

  17. [A boy with nail abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

  18. Transcriptional abnormalities in Huntington disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharine L. Sugars; David C. Rubinsztein

    2003-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG repeat expansion that is translated into an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein. The precise mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in HD have not been fully elucidated, but alterations in gene transcription could well be involved because the activities of several nuclear proteins are compromised by the polyQ mutation. Recent

  19. Abnormalities of the optic disc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo A. Sadun; Michelle Y. Wang

    2011-01-01

    The optic disc represents the anterior end of the optic nerve, the most forward extension of the central nervous system (CNS). The optic disc gives a rare glimpse into the CNS. Hence, diseases of the CNS are often manifested on fundus examination. Abnormalities of the optic disc may reflect eye disease (such as glaucoma), problems in development (as in various

  20. Exposure to Repetitive Tasks Induces Motor Changes Related to Skill Acquisition and Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kietrys, David M.; Barr, Ann E; Barbe, Mary F

    2013-01-01

    This study elucidates exposure-response relationships between repetitive tasks, inflammation and motor changes with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Using a rat model of reaching and handle-pulling, we examined effects of performing a high repetition low force (HRLF), low repetition high force (LRHF), or high repetition high force (HRHF) task (2 h/day, 3 days/wk, 12 wks) on reach rate and force, percent success, duration of participation and grip strength. Reach rate and reach force improved with HRLF, and percent success increased in all groups in week 9, and HRLF and HRHF in week 12, indicative of skill acquisition. Duration and grip strength showed force-dependent declines with task performance. A subset of HRHF rats received ibuprofen in weeks 5–12. Ibuprofen significantly improved reach rate, reach force and duration in treated rats, indicative of an inflammatory influence on reach performance. Ibuprofen improved percent successful reaches in week 9, although this increase was not sustained. However, declines in grip strength, a nocifensive behavior, were not prevented by ibuprofen. Examination of cervical spinal cords of untreated and ibuprofen treated HRHF rats showed increased IL-1beta, an inflammatory cytokine, in neurons. These findings suggest that only a preventive intervention could have addressed all motor declines. PMID:22087754

  1. Emergent structured transition from variation to repetition in a biologically-plausible model of learning in basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Often, when animals encounter an unexpected sensory event, they transition from executing a variety of movements to repeating the movement(s) that may have caused the event. According to a recent theory of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), repetition allows the animal to represent those movements, and the outcome, as an action for later recruitment. The transition from variation to repetition often follows a non-random, structured, pattern. While the structure of the pattern can be explained by sophisticated cognitive mechanisms, simpler mechanisms based on dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia (BG) activity are thought to underlie action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006). In this paper we ask the question: can simple BG-mediated mechanisms account for a structured transition from variation to repetition, or are more sophisticated cognitive mechanisms always necessary? To address this question, we present a computational model of BG-mediated biasing of behavior. In our model, unlike most other models of BG function, the BG biases behavior through modulation of cortical response to excitation; many possible movements are represented by the cortical area; and excitation to the cortical area is topographically-organized. We subject the model to simple reaching tasks, inspired by behavioral studies, in which a location to which to reach must be selected. Locations within a target area elicit a reinforcement signal. A structured transition from variation to repetition emerges from simple BG-mediated biasing of cortical response to excitation. We show how the structured pattern influences behavior in simple and complicated tasks. We also present analyses that describe the structured transition from variation to repetition due to BG-mediated biasing and from biasing that would be expected from a type of cognitive biasing, allowing us to compare behavior resulting from these types of biasing and make connections with future behavioral experiments. PMID:24575067

  2. Incidence of shoulder pain in repetitive work

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, A; Chastang, J; Niedhammer, I; Landre, M; Roquelaure, Y

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine the predictiveness of personal and occupational factors for the onset of shoulder pain in occupations requiring repetitive work. Methods: A sample of 598 workers in five activity sectors completed a self administered questionnaire in 1993–94 and again three years later. Both questionnaires included questions about shoulder pain. The associations between various factors at baseline and subsequent shoulder pain were studied among subjects free from shoulder pain at baseline. Results: The incidence of shoulder pain was associated with several independent risk factors: depressive symptoms, low level of job control, and biomechanical constraints. After adjustment for other risk factors, the presence of depressive symptoms predicted occurrence of shoulder pain. A low level of job control was also associated with the onset of shoulder pain in both sexes. For men, repetitive use of a tool was a strong predictor, while the two most important biomechanical risk factors for women were use of vibrating tools and working with arms above shoulder level. Conclusion: This study used a longitudinal approach to examine different sets of risk factors for shoulder pain simultaneously. The results confirm the role of several biomechanical constraints. Psychological symptoms and a low level of job control also play a role. PMID:14691271

  3. Improved limits on gamma ray burst repetition

    E-print Network

    Max Tegmark; Dieter Hartmann; Michael Briggs; Jon Hakkila; Charles Meegan

    1995-11-17

    We tighten previous upper limits on gamma ray burst repetition by analyzing the angular power spectrum of the BATSE 3B catalog of 1122 bursts. At 95% confidence, we find that no more than 2% of all observed bursts can be labeled as repeaters, even if no sources are observed to repeat more than once. If a fraction f of all observed bursts can be labeled as repeaters that are observed to burst v times each, then all models with (v-1)f>0.05 are ruled out at 99% confidence, as compared to the best previous 99% limit (v-1)f>0.27. At 95% confidence, our new limit is (v-1)f>0.02. Thus even a cluster of 6 events from a single source would have caused excess power above that present in the 3B catalog. We conclude that the current BATSE data are consistent with no repetition of classical gamma ray bursts, and that any repeater model is severely constrained by the near perfect isotropy of their angular distribution.

  4. Episodic Repetitive Thought: Dimensions, Correlates, and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Stanton, Annette L.; Flynn, Sarah McQueary; Roach, Abbey R.; Testa, Jamie J.; Hardy, Jaime K.

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive thought (RT) – attentive, prolonged, or frequent thought about oneself and one’s world – plays an important role in many models of psychological and physical ill health (e.g., rumination and worry), as well as models of recovery and well-being (e.g., processing and reminiscing). In these models, repetitive thought is typically treated as stable or trait-like. In contrast, episodic RT reflects what people have “on their minds” at a particular point in time. In four studies, young women (N = 94), college students (N = 166), first-year law students (N = 73), and older adults (N = 174) described their episodic RT, which was then rated for qualities including valence, purpose, and theme. Episodic RT valence was associated with mood and depressive symptoms both between (Studies 1–4) and within people (Studies 3–4), and it mediated the effects of dispositional coping through emotional approach (Study 1). The effect of episodic RT valence in turn was moderated by other properties of episodic RT, including purpose, “trait” valence, and theme (Studies 1–4). The study of episodic RT complements that of trait RT and allows for observations of how RT and psychological adjustment change in concert and in context, as well as examining the RT qualities that are not reflected in trait measures affecting adjustment. PMID:21861772

  5. Episodic repetitive thought: dimensions, correlates, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Stanton, Annette L; Flynn, Sarah McQueary; Roach, Abbey R; Testa, Jamie J; Hardy, Jaime K

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive thought (RT) - attentive, prolonged, or frequent thought about oneself and one's world - plays an important role in many models of psychological and physical ill health (e.g., rumination and worry), as well as models of recovery and well-being (e.g., processing and reminiscing). In these models, repetitive thought is typically treated as stable or trait-like. In contrast, episodic RT reflects what people have "on their minds" at a particular point in time. In four studies, young women (N=94), college students (N=166), first-year law students (N=73), and older adults (N=174) described their episodic RT, which was then rated for qualities including valence, purpose, and theme. Episodic RT valence was associated with mood and depressive symptoms both between (Studies 1-4) and within people (Studies 3-4), and it mediated the effects of dispositional coping through emotional approach (Study 1). The effect of episodic RT valence in turn was moderated by other properties of episodic RT, including purpose, "trait" valence, and theme (Studies 1-4). The study of episodic RT complements that of trait RT and allows for observations of how RT and psychological adjustment change in concert and in context, as well as examining how the RT qualities that are not reflected in trait measures affect adjustment. PMID:21861772

  6. Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

  7. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE. PMID:25904047

  8. OCD-Like behaviors caused by a neuropotentiating transgene targeted to cortical and limbic D1+ neurons.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K M; de Lecea, L; Severynse, D M; Caron, M G; McGrath, M J; Sparber, S B; Sun, L Y; Burton, F H

    1999-06-15

    To study the behavioral role of neurons containing the D1 dopamine receptor (D1+), we have used a genetic neurostimulatory approach. We generated transgenic mice that express an intracellular form of cholera toxin (CT), a neuropotentiating enzyme that chronically activates stimulatory G-protein (Gs) signal transduction and cAMP synthesis, under the control of the D1 promoter. Because the D1 promoter, like other CNS-expressed promoters, confers transgene expression that is regionally restricted to different D1+ CNS subsets in different transgenic lines, we observed distinct but related psychomotor disorders in different D1CT-expressing founders. In a D1CT line in which transgene expression was restricted to the following D1+ CNS regions-the piriform cortex layer II, layers II-III of somatosensory cortical areas, and the intercalated nucleus of the amygdala-D1CT mice showed normal CNS and D1+ neural architecture but increased cAMP content in whole extracts of the piriform and somatosensory cortex. These mice also exhibited a constellation of compulsive behavioral abnormalities that strongly resembled human cortical-limbic-induced compulsive disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These compulsive behaviors included episodes of perseverance or repetition of any and all normal behaviors, repetitive nonaggressive biting of siblings during grooming, and repetitive leaping. These results suggest that chronic potentiation of cortical and limbic D1+ neurons thought to induce glutamatergic output to the striatum causes behaviors reminiscent of those in human cortical-limbic-induced compulsive disorders. PMID:10366637

  9. Neuronal migration abnormalities and its possible implications for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, Kazue; Tanigaki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that displays behavioral deficits such as decreased sensory gating, reduced social interaction and working memory deficits. The neurodevelopmental model is one of the widely accepted hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Subtle developmental abnormalities of the brain which stated long before the onset of clinical symptoms are thought to lead to the emergence of illness. Schizophrenia has strong genetic components but its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Genetic linkage and association studies have identified several genes involved in neuronal migrations as candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, although their effect size is small. Recent progress in copy number variation studies also has identified much higher risk loci such as 22q11. Based on these genetic findings, we are now able to utilize genetically-defined animal models. Here we summarize the results of neurodevelopmental and behavioral analysis of genetically-defined animal models. Furthermore, animal model experiments have demonstrated that embryonic and perinatal neurodevelopmental insults in neurogenesis and neuronal migrations cause neuronal functional and behavioral deficits in affected adult animals, which are similar to those of schizophrenic patients. However, these findings do not establish causative relationship. Genetically-defined animal models are a critical approach to explore the relationship between neuronal migration abnormalities and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia.

  10. Neuronal migration abnormalities and its possible implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Kazue; Tanigaki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that displays behavioral deficits such as decreased sensory gating, reduced social interaction and working memory deficits. The neurodevelopmental model is one of the widely accepted hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Subtle developmental abnormalities of the brain which stated long before the onset of clinical symptoms are thought to lead to the emergence of illness. Schizophrenia has strong genetic components but its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Genetic linkage and association studies have identified several genes involved in neuronal migrations as candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, although their effect size is small. Recent progress in copy number variation studies also has identified much higher risk loci such as 22q11. Based on these genetic findings, we are now able to utilize genetically-defined animal models. Here we summarize the results of neurodevelopmental and behavioral analysis of genetically-defined animal models. Furthermore, animal model experiments have demonstrated that embryonic and perinatal neurodevelopmental insults in neurogenesis and neuronal migrations cause neuronal functional and behavioral deficits in affected adult animals, which are similar to those of schizophrenic patients. However, these findings do not establish causative relationship. Genetically-defined animal models are a critical approach to explore the relationship between neuronal migration abnormalities and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:25805966

  11. Atlas: Cartilage Abnormalities and Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Liebl; Thomas M. Link

    \\u000a The following chapter illustrates cartilage abnormalities and provides semiquantitative scores for these lesions. The focus\\u000a of this chapter is on the most frequently used Recht (modified Noyes and Stabler) score [1, 2] and Whole-Organ-MRI-Score (WORMS)\\u000a [3]. These scores have been used in a number of previous studies and have been found helpful in assessing the grade of cartilage\\u000a lesions, in

  12. Sensory Abnormalities in Focal Hand Dystonia and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Quartarone, Angelo; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Terranova, Carmen; Milardi, Demetrio; Bruschetta, Daniele; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Girlanda, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that synchronous and convergent afferent input arising from repetitive motor tasks may play an important role in driving the maladaptive cortical plasticity seen in focal hand dystonia (FHD). This hypothesis receives support from several sources. First, it has been reported that in subjects with FHD, paired associative stimulation produces an abnormal increase in corticospinal excitability, which was not confined to stimulated muscles. These findings provide support for the role of excessive plasticity in FHD. Second, the genetic contribution to the dystonias is increasingly recognized indicating that repetitive, stereotyped afferent inputs may lead to late-onset dystonia, such as FHD, more rapidly in genetically susceptible individuals. It can be postulated, according to the two factor hypothesis that dystonia is triggered and maintained by the concurrence of environmental factors such as repetitive training and subtle abnormal mechanisms of plasticity within somatosensory loop. In the present review, we examine the contribution of sensory-motor integration in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. In addition, we will discuss the role of non-invasive brain stimulation as therapeutic approach in FHD. PMID:25538594

  13. Repetition blindness: the survival of the grouped.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Liat; Treisman, Anne

    2011-12-01

    The repetition blindness (RB) effect demonstrates that people often fail to detect the second presentation of an identical object (e.g., Kanwisher, 1987). Grouping of identical items is a well-documented perceptual phenomenon, and this grouping generally facilitates perception. These two effects pose a puzzle: RB impairs perception, while perceptual grouping improves it. Here, we combined these two effects and studied how they interact. In a series of three experiments, we presented repeated items in a simultaneous string, while manipulating the organization of the repeated items in groups within a string. We observed an interaction between RB and grouping that we summarize with a rule that we call "the survival of the grouped": In essence, the ability to group repeated elements protects them from RB. These findings are discussed within the framework of the object file theory. PMID:21811897

  14. Context and repetition in word learning

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    Young children learn words from a variety of situations, including shared storybook reading. A recent study by Horst et al. (2011a) demonstrates that children learned more new words during shared storybook reading if they were read the same stories repeatedly than if they were read different stories that had the same number of target words. The current paper reviews this study and further examines the effect of contextual repetition on children's word learning in both shared storybook reading and other situations, including fast mapping by mutual exclusivity. The studies reviewed here suggest that the same cognitive mechanisms support word learning in a variety of situations. Both practical considerations for experimental design and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23580347

  15. Repetitive Concussions in Adolescent Athletes – Translating Clinical and Experimental Research into Perspectives on Rehabilitation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Prins, Mayumi L.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management.

  16. Successful Management of Repetitive Urinary Obstruction and Anuria Caused by Double J Stent Calculi Formation after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xiansheng; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Yifei; Wei, Pengfei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2014-01-01

    This report firstly describes an extremely rare case of repetitive double J stent calculi formation after renal transplantation caused by the antihyperparathyroidism (HPT) drug calcitriol. In 2012, a woman initially presented to our hospital for anuria with lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with allograft hydronephrosis and double J stents obstruction by calculi formation after transplantation and treated with triplicate stents replacements in another hospital without clinical manifestations improvements. Through detailed exploration of medical history, we conclude that the abnormal calculi formation is due to the calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) administration, a drug which can increase renal tubular reabsorption of calcium for treating posttransplant HPT bone disease. After discontinuing calcitriol, the patient was stone-free and had a good recovery without severe complications during the 9-month follow-up. Our novel findings may provide an important clue and approach to managing formidable repetitive double J stent calculi formation in the clinical trial. PMID:25110605

  17. Laser transmission measurements towards the detection of abnormal muscle denervation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambouli, Despoina; Filippidis, George; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Stamboulis, Eleftherios; Siafakas, Alexandros; Fotakis, Constantinos

    2003-10-01

    Dynamic scattering of coherent light by moving particles causes a Doppler shift of the original frequency, depending on the velocity and the scattering angles. This phenomenon was used for the detection of abnormal spontaneous muscle activity caused by the denervation of muscles. Transmission measurements of low frequency modulated laser irradiation have been made in 110 denervated first dorsal interosseous who had previously been imposed to electromyography which detected abnormal activity. Measurements have also been made in 173 normal muscles. The laser used was a diode laser emitting at 830nm and a pulse generator modulated the laser radiation to a low repetition frequency of 84Hz. While passing through the denervated muscles, the incoming laser beam gets a frequency shift due to the contraction of the denervated muscle fibers and mixes with the ballistic part of the beam. To analyze the inherent information the outcoming laser light was transformed into electric current by a photodiode and the signal after being selected by an A/D card was submitted to the Fast Fourrier transformation. The findings of our suggested method have been compared to those of the normal muscles as well as to the electromyographic findings of each denervated muscle.

  18. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    PubMed Central

    Iosa, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number ? known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with ?, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620?±?0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629?±?0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684?±?0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from ? (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait. PMID:23862161

  19. Distinguishing Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior From Stereotypy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Chok, James T; Koesler, Bryan

    2013-10-31

    The current project was an initial attempt to develop assessment procedures for distinguishing between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and stereotypic behavior and evaluate the impact of different treatments for these behaviors. Two individuals with autism, one with repetitive behavior characteristic of OC behavior and one with repetitive behavior not characteristic of OC behavior, participated in the study. In Experiment 1, given that individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) report experiencing unpleasant urges that are relieved when they perform compulsive actions, an attempt was made to identify these experiences by measuring heart rate and affect when access to repetitive behavior was restricted and allowed. In Experiment 2, a multiple schedules treatment was conducted with each participant, and in Experiment 3, the participant with autism and OC behavior completed exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment. The overall results across studies suggest that one potential way to discriminate between OC behavior and stereotypy in nonvocal children with autism is to consider the topography of repetitive behavior along with changes in physiology and affect. In addition, it may be worth considering the use of ERP, a traditional treatment for OCD, to treat repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement if treatments that provide access to repetitive behavior are not effective. PMID:24177034

  20. Repetition-based Dense Single-View Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changchang Wu; Jan-Michael Frahm; Marc Pollefeys

    This paper presents a novel approach for dense recon- struction from a single-view of a repetitive scene struc- ture. Given an image and its detected repetition regions, we model the shape recovery as the dense pixel correspon- dences within a single image. The correspondences are rep- resented by an interval map that tells the distance of each pixel to its

  1. Repetition-based Dense Single-View Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changchang Wu; Jan-Michael Frahm; Marc Pollefeys

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for dense recon- struction from a single-view of a repetitive scene struc- ture. Given an image and its detected repetition regions, we model the shape recovery as the dense pixel correspon- dences within a single image. The correspondences are rep- resented by an interval map that tells the distance of each pixel to its

  2. Repetitive and Stereotyped Behaviours in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcani-Rathwell, Iris; Rabe-Hasketh, Sophia; Santosh, Paramala J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours are a heterogeneous group of behaviours present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite their core significance in PDD, it is not clear whether there are distinct groups of these behaviours with different specificity to autism. Methods: A two-factor model of the repetitive behaviours, namely…

  3. Use of repetition to facilitate spontaneous language acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Corrigan

    1980-01-01

    The role of repetition as a facilitator of spontaneous language acquisition was examined in a 12-month longitudinal study of three children: John, Mindy, and Ashley. Imitation was first defined in a traditional fashion as the exact repetition of a model utterance, within five utterances, without changing the model except to reduce it. During the single-word utterance period, John entered words

  4. 10 CFR 72.18 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 72.18 Section 72.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...Application, Form, and Contents § 72.18 Elimination of repetition. In any application under this part, the applicant...

  5. Spanish Nonword Repetition: Stimuli Development and Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kalanek, Jocelyne; Cordero, Kelly Nett; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The current study presents preliminary nonword repetition data from Spanish-speaking preschool children using a new set of stimuli. Method: Twenty nonwords were constructed to be phonotactically possible in Spanish and to conform to published guidelines for nonword repetition stimuli. Fourteen Spanish-speaking typically developing…

  6. A Negative Effect of Repetition in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2012-01-01

    One of the foundational principles of human memory is that repetition (i.e., being presented with a stimulus multiple times) improves recall. In the current study a group of participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once, a negative repetition effect. Such a…

  7. 10 CFR 62.17 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 62.17 Section 62.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...for a Commission Determination § 62.17 Elimination of repetition. In any request under this part, the person making...

  8. Two Forms of Spoken Repetition in a Girl with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stribling, Penny; Rae, John; Dickerson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background: The talk of persons with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) often features distinctive forms of repetition (echophenomena). Although often characterized as meaningless or inappropriate, there is evidence that such practices can sometimes have communicative functions. Aims: To investigate the interactional organization of repetition

  9. Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the…

  10. Nonword Repetition and Levels of Abstraction in Phonological Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Susan Gathercole's Keynote Article (2006) is an impressive summary of the literature on nonword repetition and its relationship to word learning and vocabulary size. When considering research by Mary Beckman, Jan Edwards, and myself, Gathercole speculates that our finding of a stronger relationship between vocabulary measures and repetition

  11. Repetitive calls of juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels ( Spermophilus richardsonii ) communicate response urgency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurtis J. Warkentin; Annika T. H. Keeley; James F. Hare

    2001-01-01

    Richardson's ground squirrels, Spermophilus richardsonii, produce both repetitive and non-repetitive antipredator calls. While many hypotheses have been advanced to explain non-repetitive calls, the function of repetitive calling has received relatively little attention. We presented juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels with a predator model at distances ranging from 1 to 8 m and recorded the subsequent repetitive calls on digital audiotape. The

  12. Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech

    PubMed Central

    Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2013-01-01

    Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g., Patel, 2008). But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011). If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech. PMID:23576998

  13. Variation and repetition in the spelling of young children.

    PubMed

    Treiman, Rebecca; Decker, Kristina; Kessler, Brett; Pollo, Tatiana Cury

    2015-04-01

    A number of investigators have suggested that young children, even those who do not yet represent the phonological forms of words in their spellings, tend to use different strings of letters for different words. However, empirical evidence that children possess a concept of between-word variation has been weak. In a study by Pollo, Kessler, and Treiman (2009), in fact, prephonological spellers were more likely to write different words in the same way than would be expected on the basis of chance, not less likely. In the current study, preschool-age prephonological and phonological spellers showed a tendency to repeat spellings and parts of spellings that they had recently used. However, even prephonological spellers (mean age?4years 8months) showed more repetition when spelling the same word twice in succession than when spelling different words. The results suggest that children who have not yet learned to use writing to represent the sounds of speech show some knowledge that writing represents words and, thus, should vary to show differences between them. The results further suggest that in spelling, as in other domains, children have a tendency to repeat recent behaviors. PMID:25637713

  14. Epileptiform abnormalities in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence P Richer; Michael I Shevell; Bernard R Rosenblatt

    2002-01-01

    The proportion of children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and epileptiform abnormalities is compared with an historic control group of normal school-aged children. The medical records of 655 children 5-16 years of age referred to a single pediatric neurologist (M.S.) from January 1991 to December 1999 with school problems, behavior problems, or hyperactivity were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical criteria for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder were

  15. Multi-Input Multi-Output Repetitive Control Theory And Taylor Series Based Repetitive Control Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kevin

    Repetitive control (RC) systems aim to achieve zero tracking error when tracking a periodic command, or when tracking a constant command in the presence of a periodic disturbance, or both a periodic command and periodic disturbance. This dissertation presents a new approach using Taylor Series Expansion of the inverse system z-transfer function model to design Finite Impulse Response (FIR) repetitive controllers for single-input single-output (SISO) systems, and compares the designs obtained to those generated by optimization in the frequency domain. This approach is very simple, straightforward, and easy to use. It also supplies considerable insight, and gives understanding of the cause of the patterns for zero locations in the optimization based design. The approach forms a different and effective time domain design method, and it can also be used to guide the choice of parameters in performing in the frequency domain optimization design. Next, this dissertation presents the theoretical foundation for frequency based optimization design of repetitive control design for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. A comprehensive stability theory for MIMO repetitive control is developed. A necessary and sufficient condition for asymptotic stability in MIMO RC is derived, and four sufficient conditions are created. One of these is the MIMO version of the approximate monotonic decay condition in SISO RC, and one is a necessary and sufficient condition for stability for all possible disturbance periods. An appropriate optimization criterion for direct MIMO is presented based on minimizing a Frobenius norm summed over frequencies from zero to Nyquist. This design process is very tractable, requiring only solution of a linear algebraic equation. An alternative approach reduces the problem to a set of SISO design problems, one for each input-output pair. The performances of the resulting designs are studied by extensive examples. Both approaches are seen to be able to create RC designs with fast monotonic decay of the tracking error. Finally, this dissertation presents an analysis of using an experiment design sequence for parameter identification based on the theory of iterative learning control (ILC), a sister field to repetitive control. This is suggested as an alternative to the results in optimal experiment design. Modified ILC laws that are intentionally non-robust to model errors are developed, as a way to fine tune the use of ILC for identification purposes. The non-robustness with respect to its ability to improve identification of system parameters when the model error is correct is studied. It is demonstrated that in many cases the approach makes the learning particularly sensitive to relatively small parameter errors in the model, but sensitivity is sometimes limited to parameter errors of a specific sign.

  16. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  17. Can the Edinburgh Risk of Repetition Scale Predict Repetition of Deliberate Self-Poisoning in an Australian Clinical Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory Leigh; Clover, Kerrie Ann; Bryant, Jennifer Lynn; Whyte, Ian MacGregor

    2002-01-01

    Tests the ability of the Edinburgh Risk of Repetition Scale (ERRS) to identify patients at high risk for repeat deliberate self-poisoning (DSP). A statistically significant relationship between ERRS scores and repetition was observed; however, sensitivity and specificity were low. The ERRS had limited value in identifying patients at high risk of…

  18. Is Overt Repetition Critical to Expressive Word Learning? The Role of Overt Repetition in Word Learning with and without Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbs, Brandon; Gupta, Prahlad; Khetarpal, Naveen

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments examined whether overt repetition (i.e., saying a word aloud) during exposure is critical to the expressive learning of new words. When participants did not engage in overt repetition during exposure, they nevertheless exhibited clear expressive learning, both with and without an accompanying semantics, indicating that overt…

  19. Repetitive sequence families in Alces alces americana.

    PubMed

    Blake, R D; Wang, J Z; Beauregard, L

    1997-05-01

    High-resolution derivative melting was used to obtain detailed distributions of local (G + C) contents in a number of ruminant DNAs. Profiles over low (G + C) regions [20-36% (G + C)] are congruent for all ruminants. This region represents 45-50% of the nuclear DNA content and primarily contains intergenic and intron sequences. The high (G + C) region, where most coding sequences are found [38-68% (G + C)], is marked by satellite bands denoting the presence of transcriptionally inert, tandemly repetitive sequence families. These bands can be analyzed for the abundance, base composition, and sequence divergence of satellite families with relatively high precision. Band patterns are unique to each species; even closely related species can be readily distinguished by their base distribution profiles. Variations in nuclear DNA contents in ruminants, determined by flow cytometry, are primarily due to variations in abundances of these repetitive sequence families. Thus, A. alces (moose) is found to have 8.85 +/- 0.2 pg DNA/cell, 25% more than the average in ruminants, while the base distribution curve indicates the presence of an unusually abundant satellite of 52.6% (G + C). The size (1 kb) and sequence of this satellite corresponds to satellite-I of other cervids, and in consequence it is designated Alces-I. The sequence of a cloned repeat of Alces-I has a length of 968 bp, a (G + C) content of 52.6%, and contributes 35%, or almost 3 million copies to the nuclear DNA, exceeding by approximately 300% the average array size of this repeat family in related cervids. In situ hybridization indicates the repeat is distributed throughout centromeric regions of all 62 acrocentric autosomes. Alces-I has much greater-than-expected numbers of GG, GA, and AG and far fewer numbers of TA and CG duplets, characteristics of all tandem repeats. The sequence is judged to be orthologous with satellite-I sequences from Rangifer tarandus (caribou), Capreolus capreolus (roe deer), Muntiacus muntjac (Chinese muntjac) and Muntiacus reevesi (Indian muntjac), as well as Antilocapra americana (pronghorn), and the bovids Bos taurus and Ovis aries. A tentative tree for the five cervids is in excellent agreement with one proposed on the basis of morphological characteristics. Differences from a consensus sequence indicate transversions exceed transitions by almost twofold, suggesting that substitutions occur randomly, or nearly so. PMID:9115175

  20. Stereotypical Behaviors in Chimpanzees Rescued from the African Bushmeat and Pet Trade

    PubMed Central

    Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M.; Kameka, Marjanne; Dube, Ashlynn

    2012-01-01

    Many orphaned chimpanzees whose mothers are illegally killed for their meat (bushmeat) in Africa are sold as pets or kept caged at hotels and businesses to attract tourists. As a result of being separated from their mothers and other chimpanzees at an early age, and spending years in impoverished captive conditions, some of these individuals engage in abnormal behaviors, including stereotypically scratching at their flesh and repetitively rocking back and forth. This paper presents case studies of Poco and Safari, two chimpanzees who were rescued by sanctuaries after living alone on display for humans at businesses for the first 7 to 8 years of their lives. Decades after their rescue, they still engage in stereotypical behaviors as a result of the psychological and physical trauma they endured early on. This paper combines data from in depth interviews with caregivers and direct observations of abnormal behaviors to assess psychological distress in captive-living chimpanzees. Our results highlight some lesser known harms of the bushmeat trade and the detrimental life-long consequences that keeping chimpanzees as “pets” can have on their mental health. PMID:25379223

  1. Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Christopher S.; Peltier, Scott J.; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Weng, Shih-Jen; Carrasco, Melisa; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) impact social functioning and communication, and individuals with these disorders often have restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Accumulating data indicate that ASD is associated with alterations of neural circuitry. Functional MRI (FMRI) studies have focused on connectivity in the context of psychological tasks. However, even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic or resting connectivity. Notably, the default network, which includes the posterior cingulate cortex, retro-splenial, lateral parietal cortex/angular gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, temporal lobe, and parahippocampal gyrus, is strongly active when there is no task. Altered intrinsic connectivity within the default network may underlie offline processing that may actuate ASD impairments. Using FMRI, we sought to evaluate intrinsic connectivity within the default network in ASD. Relative to controls, the ASD group showed weaker connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and superior frontal gyrus and stronger connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and both the right temporal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Moreover, poorer social functioning in the ASD group was correlated with weaker connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, more severe restricted and repetitive behaviors in ASD were correlated with stronger connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and right parahippocampal gyrus. These findings indicate that ASD subjects show altered intrinsic connectivity within the default network, and connectivity between these structures is associated with specific ASD symptoms. PMID:19409498

  2. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, J

    1996-01-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  3. [Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motoaki

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that approximately one third of patients with major depression are medication-resistant. In spite of partial responsiveness to antidepressants, most of the medication-resistant patients remain incompletely remitted without successful social reintegration. Symptom severity could be mild to moderate for many of them due to the incomplete remission, and, thus, electroconvulsive therapy is not applicable for them. However, they usually feel some difficulty performing cognitive behavioral therapy or social rehabilitation training due to residual symptoms such as thought inhibition and hypobulia. Under such conditions, those patients are longing for treatment options complementary to antidepressants, for less painful social reintegration. In October 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States finally approved repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for medication-resistant patients with major depression. The main reason for the FDA approval was that rTMS had shown similar effectiveness (effect size around 0.39 in a recent meta-analysis) to antidepressants for medication-resistant patients without serious adverse effects. TMS is a brain stimulation methodology employing magnetic energy which can penetrate the skull bone without energy decay, and, thus, eddy currents induced by TMS can stimulate cerebral cortices effectively and locally. When TMS is repetitively delivered over several hundreds of pulses within a session, stimulation effects can be observed beyond the stimulation period as aftereffects. Moreover, when a daily rTMS session is repeated over several weeks, rTMS could have antidepressant effects. Clinical trials of rTMS for depression have employed two kinds of rTMS protocol of high-frequency (facilitatory) rTMS over the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) and low-frequency (inhibitory) rTMS over the right DLPFC. Although the antidepressant action of rTMS over DLPFC has not been fully elucidated, the neuronal level hypothesis includes the induction of neuroplasticity and activation of the dopamine system, and the neuronal circuitry level hypothesis includes the activation of the left DLPFC and inhibition of the right DLPFC and (para) limbic system such as the subgenual cingulate cortex and amygdala. On the therapeutic application of rTMS in clinical psychiatry, neuroethics and low invasiveness should be fully considered along with a negative history of punitive electroconvulsive therapy and prefrontal lobotomy. It is important to investigate the neurobiological mechanism of rTMS treatment and to place rTMS in a suitable position within comprehensive treatment algorithms of major depression. PMID:23367835

  4. Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2010-01-01

    Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

  5. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. PMID:24268321

  6. [Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Abo, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    NEURO (NovEl intervention Using Repetitive TMS and intensive Occupational therapy) have been recently reported to be clinically beneficial for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. We confirmed the safety and feasibility of the protocol in 1,008 post-stroke patients from different institutions, and identify predictors of the clinical response to the treatment. And in our randomized controlled study of NEURO and constraint-induced movement therapy, NEURO showed the superiority of NEURO relative to constraint-induced movement therapy; NEURO improved the motion of the whole upper limb and resulted. We have investigated the recovery mechanism using electrophysiological examination and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Low-frequency rTMS applied to the non-lesional hemisphere in post-stroke patients significantly decreased the F-wave frequency and amplitude in the affected upper limb, suggesting that this modality has an anti-spastic effect in post-stroke patients. Serial functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that our proposed treatment can induce functional cortical reorganization, leading to motor functional recovery of the affected upper limb. Especially, it seems that neural activation in the lesional hemisphere plays an important role in such recovery in poststroke hemiparetic patients. PMID:24291951

  7. Repetitive, electron-beam diode development

    SciTech Connect

    McClenahan, C.R.; Martinez, L.E.; Pena, G.E.; Weber, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    We constructed a stacked-Blumlein pulse generator that can deliver pulses of nearly 200 kV to an electron beam diode load. This pulse generator has an output impedance of 100 {Omega} and a pulse width of 80 ns. It can operate continuously at pulse repetition rates as high as 500 Hz. We discharged the pulse generator into two diodes. One had a 2.9 cm diameter sintered bronze cathode, and the other had a 4.0 cm diameter graphite cathode with points machined into it. The sintered bronze cathode turned on completely with a peak, macroscopic field of 100 kV/cm. The graphite cathode required a peak, macroscopic field of 150 kV/cm in order to operate reproducibly. Nevertheless, only about 10% of the area of the graphite cathode emitted. The bronze cathode operated at 30 Hz, and it exhibited heat damage. Specifically, it melted in places. Conversely, the graphite cathode, operated at 50 Hz, exhibited little damage: principally, minor erosion around the perimeter.

  8. BOUNDED DERIVED CATEGORIES AND REPETITIVE ALGEBRAS

    E-print Network

    Keller, Bernhard - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

    the behavior of almost split triangles and irreducible ma* *ps under the embedding functor, and show-quiver of the category Kb(P) of bounded complexes of projective modules are of the form ZA1 . The paper is organised

  9. Is conflict adaptation triggered by feature repetitions? An unexpected finding

    PubMed Central

    Lierde, Elke Van; Desender, Kobe; den Bussche, Eva Van

    2015-01-01

    For decades, cognitive adaptation to response conflict has been considered to be the hallmark of cognitive control. Notwithstanding a vast amount of evidence ruling out low-level interpretations of these findings, disbelief still exists with regard to the underlying cause of the observed effects. Especially when considering cognitive adaptation to unconscious conflict, it is still a matter of debate whether repetitions of features between trials might explain this intriguing finding rather than the involvement of unconscious control. To this purpose, we conducted two masked priming experiments in which four different responses to four different stimuli were required. This allowed us to completely eliminate repetitions of prime and target over consecutive trials. Independent of whether conflicting information was presented clearly visible or almost imperceptible, the results showed an unexpected pattern. Contrary to the regular congruency sequence effect (CSE; i.e., classic Gratton effect), in both experiments the congruency effect increased following incongruent trials. Interestingly, this reversed effect completely disappeared when we eliminated all trials with feature repetitions from the analysis. A third experiment, in which feature repetitions were excluded a priori, showed a small but regular CSE in the error rates only. Given that feature repetitions are theoretically thought to create a regular CSE, our results are not in line with an interpretation in terms of feature repetitions nor with an interpretation in terms of cognitive control. We conclude that examining cognitive adaptation with or without feature repetitions might be more difficult to conceive than is often suggested in the literature. PMID:25698982

  10. Extreme developmental temperatures result in morphological abnormalities in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta): a climate change perspective.

    PubMed

    Telemeco, Rory S; Warner, Daniel A; Reida, Molly K; Janzen, Fredric J

    2013-06-01

    Increases in extreme environmental events are predicted to be major results of ongoing global climate change and may impact the persistence of species. We examined the effects of heat and cold waves during embryonic development of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in natural nests on the occurrence of abnormal shell morphologies in hatchlings. We found that nests exposed to extreme hot temperatures for >60 h produced more hatchlings with abnormalities than nests exposed to extreme hot temperatures for shorter periods, regardless of whether or not nesting females displayed abnormal morphologies. We observed no effect of extreme cold nest temperatures on the occurrence of hatchlings with abnormalities. Moreover, the frequency of nesting females with abnormal shell morphologies was approximately 2-fold lower than that of their offspring, suggesting that such abnormalities are negatively correlated with survival and fitness. Female turtles could potentially buffer their offspring from extreme heat by altering aspects of nesting behavior, such as choosing shadier nesting sites. We addressed this hypothesis by examining the effects of shade cover on extreme nest temperatures and the occurrence of hatchling abnormalities. While shade cover was negatively correlated with the occurrence of extreme hot nest temperatures, it was not significantly correlated with abnormalities. Therefore, female choice of shade cover does not appear to be a viable target for selection to reduce hatchling abnormalities. Our results suggest that increases in the frequency and intensity of heat waves associated with climate change might perturb developmental programs and thereby reduce the fitness of entire cohorts of turtles. PMID:23731815

  11. Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, I A; Morel, Y; McElreavey, K; Rogol, A

    2012-12-01

    Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia is based on an ordered sequence of endocrine and genetic investigations that are predicated on knowledge obtained from a suitable history and detailed examination of the external genital anatomy. Investigations are particularly relevant in 46,XY DSD where the diagnostic yield is less successful than in the 46,XX counterpart. Advantage should be taken of spontaneous activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy rendering measurements of gonadotrophins and sex steroids by sensitive, validated assays key to assessing testicular function. Allied measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone completes a comprehensive testis profile of Leydig and Sertoli cell function. Genetic assessment is dominated by analysis of a plethora of genes that attempts to delineate a cause for gonadal dysgenesis. In essence, this is successful in up to 20% of cases from analysis of SRY and SF1 (NR5A1) genes. In contrast, gene mutation analysis is highly successful in 46,XY DSD due to defects in androgen synthesis or action. The era of next generation sequencing is increasingly being applied to investigate complex medical conditions of unknown cause, including DSD. The challenge for health professionals will lie in integrating vast amounts of genetic information with phenotypes and counselling families appropriately. How tissues respond to hormones is apposite to assessing the range of genital phenotypes that characterise DSD, particularly for syndromes associated with androgen resistance. In vitro methods are available to undertake quantitative and qualitative analysis of hormone action. The in vivo equivalent is some assessment of the degree of under-masculinisation in the male, such as an external masculinisation score, and measurement of the ano-genital distance. This anthropometric marker is effectively a postnatal readout of the effects of prenatal androgens acting during the masculinisation programming window. For investigation of the newborn with abnormal genitalia, a pragmatic approach can be taken to guide the clinician using appropriate algorithms. PMID:23168057

  12. Stimulus repetition modulates gamma-band synchronization in primate visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Nicolas M.; Bosman, Conrado A.; Vinck, Martin; Roberts, Mark; Oostenveld, Robert; Desimone, Robert; De Weerd, Peter; Fries, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    When a sensory stimulus repeats, neuronal firing rate and functional MRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses typically decline, yet perception and behavioral performance either stay constant or improve. An additional aspect of neuronal activity is neuronal synchronization, which can enhance the impact of neurons onto their postsynaptic targets independent of neuronal firing rates. We show that stimulus repetition leads to profound changes of neuronal gamma-band (?40–90 Hz) synchronization. Electrocorticographic recordings in two awake macaque monkeys demonstrated that repeated presentations of a visual grating stimulus resulted in a steady increase of visually induced gamma-band activity in area V1, gamma-band synchronization between areas V1 and V4, and gamma-band activity in area V4. Microelectrode recordings in area V4 of two additional monkeys under the same stimulation conditions allowed a direct comparison of firing rates and gamma-band synchronization strengths for multiunit activity (MUA), as well as for isolated single units, sorted into putative pyramidal cells and putative interneurons. MUA and putative interneurons showed repetition-related decreases in firing rate, yet increases in gamma-band synchronization. Putative pyramidal cells showed no repetition-related firing rate change, but a decrease in gamma-band synchronization for weakly stimulus-driven units and constant gamma-band synchronization for strongly driven units. We propose that the repetition-related changes in gamma-band synchronization maintain the interareal stimulus signaling and sharpen the stimulus representation by gamma-synchronized pyramidal cell spikes. PMID:24554080

  13. Glutamatergic drugs exacerbate symptomatic behavior in a transgenic model of comorbid Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    McGrath, M J; Campbell, K M; Parks, C R; Burton, F H

    2000-09-15

    We previously created a transgenic mouse model of comorbid Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (TS+OCD), by expressing a neuropotentiating cholera toxin (CT) transgene in a subset of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing (D1+) neurons thought to induce cortical and amygdalar glutamate output. To test glutamate's role in the TS+OCD-like disorder of these transgenic mice (D1CT-7 line), the effects of glutamate receptor-binding drugs on their behavior were examined. MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist that indirectly stimulates cortical-limbic glutamate output, aggravated a transgene-dependent abnormal behavior (repetitive climbing and leaping) in the D1CT-7 mice at doses insufficient to induce stereotypies, and more readily induced stereotypies and limbic seizure behaviors at high doses. NBQX, a seizure-inhibiting AMPA receptor antagonist, reduced only the MK-801-dependent stereotypic and limbic seizure behavior of D1CT-7 mice, but not their transgene-dependent behaviors. These data imply that TS+OCD-like behavior is mediated by cortical-limbic glutamate, but that AMPA glutamate receptors are not an essential part of this behavioral circuit. Our findings lead to the prediction that the symptoms of human Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder are elicited by excessive forebrain glutamate output. PMID:10980239

  14. Shortening of subjective tone intervals followed by repetitive tone stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ono, Fuminori; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2010-02-01

    Accumulated evidence shows that a subjective time interval is lengthened by preceding or concurrent presentation of flickers or repetitive tone stimuli that have been hypothesized to increase the frequency of pulse generation by a brain pacemaker. In the present study, we presented a series of repetitive tone stimuli after an interval that started and ended with tone markers. We found that subjective perception of the preceding interval was not lengthened but shortened by the tone stimuli that followed the interval. The perceived duration decreased as the frequency of the repetitive tone stimuli increased. The effect disappeared when the repetitive tone stimuli were delivered with a delay of 500 msec after the test interval or when continuous sound was delivered instead of delivering a rapid series of tones. On the basis of the results, we propose that the pulse count accumulated during a test interval was normalized by the clock frequency just after the test interval in a postdictive manner. PMID:20139462

  15. Threshold detector produces narrow pulses at high repetition rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrahan, N. M.

    1965-01-01

    Solid state device generates fixed width output pulses from variable width input pulses in the nanosecond range. The circuit produces pulse repetition rates in the megacycle range and exhibits low power drain.

  16. Pulse height analyzer operates at high repetition rates, low power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Simple multistage transistor gating circuit provides a pulse height analyzer that operates at high repetition rates and low power. The circuit compares the input pulse heights to discrete reference voltages.

  17. Fixture tests bellows reliability through repetitive pressure/temperature cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, C.

    1967-01-01

    Fixture explores the reliability of bellows used in precision in inertial systems. The fixture establishes the ability of the bellows to withstand repetitive over-stress pressure cycling at elevated temperatures. It is applicable in quality control and reliability programs.

  18. Long term repetition effects during massed, serial, and random practice

    E-print Network

    Goen, Marianne Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    (using practice schedules manipulated at the list level), both offered some support for the repetition effect. In particular, data from Experiment 2, in which the experimental protocol of Fendrich et al. was used, revealed significant improvements...

  19. TRAININGANATOMY RECOGNITION THROUGH REPETITIVE VIEWING OF LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERYVIDEO CLIPS

    E-print Network

    Virginia, University of

    TRAININGANATOMY RECOGNITION THROUGH REPETITIVE VIEWING OF LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERYVIDEO CLIPS Stephanie of procedural steps using edited laparoscopic surgeryvideos to enforce absorption,expose the learnerto varied recognitionduring minimallyinvasive (laparoscopic)surgery. Currently,novice surgeonslearn these skills primarily

  20. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application or...

  1. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application or...

  2. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application or...

  3. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application or...

  4. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application or...

  5. Bizarre repetitive discharges recorded with single fibre EMG.

    PubMed Central

    Trontelj, J; Stålberg, E

    1983-01-01

    Single fibre EMG was used to record bizarre repetitive discharges in patients with chronic denervation or muscle disorders. The low variability of intervals between individual spike components on successive discharges suggests that the bizarre repetitive discharges are based on ephaptic impulse transmission from the muscle fibre starting the discharge (principal pacemaker) to the adjacent muscle fibres. The low variability of the interdischarge intervals is explained by ephaptic reactivation of the principal pacemaker by one of the fibres participating in the previous discharge (a co-pacemaker). Secondary activator fibres may spread activity to more fibres. The bizarre repetitive discharge stops when either the principal pacemaker or the co-pacemaker become sufficiently subnormal to block. The co-pacemaker may be missing in cases of low frequency bizarre repetitive discharges, particularly in those with irregular interdischarge intervals. PMID:6842243

  6. Repetition rate multiplication of a femtosecond frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lešundák, Adam; Šmíd, Radek; Voigt, Dirk; ?ížek, Martin; van den Berg, Steven; ?íp, Ond?ej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in the development of two Fabry-Pérot filter cavities for repetition rate multiplication of two femtosecond frequency combs. The optical design of both setups consists of mode matching optics and a resonant cavity for the repetition rate multiplication. In one case, the cavity consists of two dielectric mirrors with near-zero group velocity dispersion and in the other of two silver coated mirrors. We demonstrate multiplication of a 1 GHz repetition rate to 10 GHz for a Ti:Sa femtosecond frequency comb with central wavelength around 820 nm and of 250 MHz repetition rate to 1 GHz for a Er-doped fiber femtosecond frequency comb with central wavelength around 1560 nm.

  7. Unsupervised abnormal crowd activity detection using interaction power model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shengnan; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Sun, Mingui; Yuan, Ding

    2014-11-01

    Abnormal event detection in crowded scenes is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Different from previous work based on learning. We proposed an unsupervised Interaction Power model with an adaptive threshold strategy to detect abnormal group activity by analyzing the steady state of individuals' behaviors in the crowed scene. Firstly, the optical flow field of the potential pedestrians is only calculated within the extracted foreground to reduce the computational cost. Secondly, each pedestrian can be divided into patches of the same size, and the interaction power of the pedestrians will be represented by the motion particles which describe the motion status at the center pixels of the patches. The motion status of each patch is computed by using the optical flows of the pixels within the patch. For each motion particle, its interaction power, defined as its steady state of the current behavior, is computed among all its neighboring motion particles. Finally, the dense crowds' steady state can be represented as a collection of motion particles' interaction power. Here, an adaptive threshold strategy is proposed to detect abnormal events by examining the frame power field which is a fixed-size random sampling of the interaction power of motion particles. Experimental results on the standard UMN dataset and online videos show that our method could detect the crowd anomalies and achieve a higher accuracy compared to the other competitive methods published recently.

  8. Effect of repetitive physical exertion on pursuit tracking

    E-print Network

    Finberg, Paul Irving

    1977-01-01

    LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Efficiency as a Function of Number of Repetitions. . . . . . . 27 2 Efficiency as a Function of Exertion Level. . 28' 3 Newman-Keuls Range Test ? Treatment Conditions. . . 32 Newman-Keuls Range Test ? Subjects. 35... Effect of Number of Repetitions on Percent Efficiency During the Tracking Trials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Newman-Keuls Range Test ? Time Intervals. . 43 INTRODUCTION Objec ti ves This study had two objectives...

  9. Exploring the characteristics of the visuospatial hebb repetition effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Couture; Sébastien Tremblay

    2006-01-01

    Using the dot task (see Jones, Farrand, Stuart, & Morris, 1995)—regarded as a good visuospatial analogue of the verbal serial\\u000a recall task—we examined whether the Hebb repetition effect and its characteristics can be extended to visuospatial material.\\u000a Classically, the Hebb effect has been associated with serial verbal memory: Repetition of a to-be-remembered sequence of verbal\\u000a items every third trial markedly

  10. Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P < 0.001) and non-European immigrants (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90, P < 0.05), compared with the locals. Similar patterns were identified in the sex-specific analysis. Eastern European immigrants tended to repeat their attempt much later than locals (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.93, P < 0.05). In general, 32% of all repetition occurred within 30 days. Repetition tended to decrease with age and was more likely in females using harder methods in their index attempt (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.54, P < 0.01). Large variations in the general repetition frequency were identified between the collecting centres, thus influencing the results. Conclusions: The lower repetition frequencies in non-Western immigrants, compared with locals, in Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations. PMID:25565687

  11. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruma, Hosseini, S. H. R.; Yoshihara, K.; Akiyama, M.; Sakugawa, T.; Lukeš, P.; Akiyama, H.

    2014-09-01

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H2O2 and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  12. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000?Hz, with 0.5?J per pulse energy output at 25?kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  13. Testicular toxicity of gallium arsenide, indium arsenide, and arsenic oxide in rats by repetitive intratracheal instillation.

    PubMed

    Omura, M; Tanaka, A; Hirata, M; Zhao, M; Makita, Y; Inoue, N; Gotoh, K; Ishinishi, N

    1996-07-01

    The testicular toxicities of two compound semiconductor materials, gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium arsenide (InAs), and arsenic oxide (As2O3) were examined in rats by repetitive intratracheal instillation of these substances in suspension twice a week, a total of 16 times. A single instillation dose was 7.7 mg/kg in the GaAs and the InAs groups and 1.3 mg/kg in the As2O3 group. A significant decrease in sperm count and significant increase in the proportion of morphologically abnormal sperm were found in the epididymis in the GaAs group. Especially, abnormal sperm with a straight head increased markedly in this group. In the GaAs-treated rats, there was 40-fold increase in the degenerating late elongated spermatids at the postspermiation stages, stages IX, XI, and XI. From these results, it is indicated that GaAs disturbed the spermatid head transformation at the late spermiogenic phases and caused spermiation failure. InAs caused a sperm count decrease in the epididymis, though its testicular toxicity was relatively weak compared with that of GaAs. As2O3, a probable dissolution arsenic product of GaAs and InAs in vivo, did not show any testicular toxicities in this study. It seems likely that, along with arsenics, gallium and indium play a role in the testicular toxicities of GaAs and InAs. PMID:8812231

  14. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a neurodegenerative consequence of repetitive traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Patrick T; Montenigro, Philip H; Solomon, Todd M; McKee, Ann C

    2015-02-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that develops as a result of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is characterized by a unique pattern of accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurons and astrocytes. The tau abnormalities begin focally and perivascularly at the depths of the cerebral sulci, spread to the superficial layers of the adjacent cortex, and eventually become widespread throughout the medial temporal lobes, diencephalon, and brainstem. Abnormalities in 43 kDa TAR DNA-binding protein are also found in most cases of CTE. To date, CTE can only be diagnosed by postmortem neuropathological examination, although there are many ongoing research studies examining imaging techniques and biomarkers that might prove to have diagnostic utility. Currently, the incidence and prevalence of CTE are unknown, although great strides are being made to better understand the clinical symptoms and signs of CTE. Further research is critically needed to better identify the genetic and environmental risk factors for CTE as well as potential rehabilitation and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25714864

  15. Gamma-band abnormalities as markers of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Donald C.; Wilson, Lisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Autism is a behaviorally diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder with no current biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. Gamma-band abnormalities have been reported in many studies of autism spectrum disorders. Gamma-band activity is associated with perceptual and cognitive functions that are compromised in autism. Some gamma-band deficits have also been seen in unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting heritability of these findings. This review covers the published literature on gamma abnormalities in autism, the proposed mechanisms underlying the deficits, and the potential for translation into new treatments. Although the utility of gamma-band metrics as diagnostic biomarkers is currently limited, such changes in autism are also useful as endophenotypes, for evaluating potential neural mechanisms, and for use as surrogate markers of treatment response to interventions. PMID:24712425

  16. Making behavioral technology transferable.

    PubMed

    Pennypacker, H S; Hench, L L

    1997-01-01

    The paucity of transferred behavioral technologies is traced to the absence of strategies for developing technology that is transferable, as distinct from strategies for conducting research, whether basic or applied. In the field of engineering, the results of basic research are transformed to candidate technologies that meet standardized criteria with respect to three properties: quantification, repetition, and verification. The technology of vitrification and storage of nuclear waste is used to illustrate the application of these criteria. Examples from behavior analysis are provided, together with suggestions regarding changes in practice that will accelerate the development and application of behavioral technologies. PMID:22478284

  17. Making behavioral technology transferable

    PubMed Central

    Pennypacker, H. S.; Hench, Larry L.

    1997-01-01

    The paucity of transferred behavioral technologies is traced to the absence of strategies for developing technology that is transferable, as distinct from strategies for conducting research, whether basic or applied. In the field of engineering, the results of basic research are transformed to candidate technologies that meet standardized criteria with respect to three properties: quantification, repetition, and verification. The technology of vitrification and storage of nuclear waste is used to illustrate the application of these criteria. Examples from behavior analysis are provided, together with suggestions regarding changes in practice that will accelerate the development and application of behavioral technologies. PMID:22478284

  18. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  19. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25691415

  20. Brief Report: Avoidance Extinction as Treatment for Compulsive and Ritual Behavior in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Jason J.; Hupp, Susan C.; Symons, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for maladaptive repetitive behaviors associated with autism are limited. This is particularly so for ritual and compulsive forms of repetitive behavior, which commonly interfere with adaptive activities and may cause distress to individuals with autism and their families. The present study assessed an avoidance extinction…

  1. Abnormal electromyographic activity of the urethral sphincter, voiding dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries: a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, C. J.; Christmas, T. J.; Chapple, C. R.; Parkhouse, H. F.; Kirby, R. S.; Jacobs, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    A potential association between abnormal electromyographic activity--that is, decelerating bursts and complex repetitive discharges--of the urethral sphincter and difficulty in voiding was examined in 57 women with urinary retention. Abnormal electromyographic activity was found in 33. Ultrasonography of the ovaries in 22 of the 33 women showed that 14 had polycystic ovaries. Of the other eight women, two had had oophorectomies, one had shrunken ovaries and ovarian failure, and one had previously undergone oophorectomy and the other ovary could not be seen; in one neither ovary could be seen, and three had ovaries of normal appearance, although two of these women were taking the contraceptive pill. Thirteen of the group had endocrine symptoms and signs characteristic of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Videocystometrography in 17 of the women who were examined by ultrasonography showed low flow rates and high residual volumes of urine after micturition in 12 women who could void, the other five having chronic urinary retention. A speculative hypothesis for the observed association of impaired voiding, abnormal electromyographic activity of the urinary sphincter, and polycystic ovaries is advanced, based on the relative progesterone deficiency that characterises the polycystic ovary syndrome. Progesterone stabilises membranes, and its depletion might permit ephaptic transmission of impulses between muscle fibres in the muscle of the urethral sphincter, giving rise to the abnormal electromyographic activity. This may impair relaxation of the sphincter, resulting in low flow rates of urine, incomplete emptying of the bladder, and, finally, urinary retention. PMID:3147005

  2. Ultrastructurally abnormal mitochondria in the pituitary oncocytoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Goebel; F. Schulz; B. Rama

    1980-01-01

    Summary A pituitary adenoma in a 67-year-old man was characterized by abundant mitochondria and identified as an oncocytoma, which clinically and histologically appeared as a chromophobe adenoma. In addition to the numerous mitochondria within the neoplastic cells, structurally abnormal mitochondria were also present. Compared with other pituitary oncocytomas reported in the literature, abnormally structured mitochondria appear rare among the mitochondrial

  3. Lipid abnormalities in uremia, dialysis, and transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man Kam Chan; Zachariah Varghese; John F Moorhead

    1981-01-01

    The institution of renal replacement therapy has sustained the lives of many patients with end-stage renal failure and has made it possible to study in depth the metabolic abnormalities associated with the uremic state. An important consequence of chronic uremia is the development of lipid abnormalities [1, 2], which continue to affect many patients on dialysis [1, 3, 4] and

  4. Retinal Circulatory Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert T. Feke; Sheldon M. Buzney; Hironobu Ogasawara; Naoki Fujio; Douglas G. Goger; Norman P. Spack; Kenneth H. GabbayX

    Purpose. To quantify retinal circulatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes; to compare blood speed and blood flow in major temporal retinal arteries as well as total retinal arterial cross-section measured in patients to that measured in controls without diabetes; to determine which factors are related to the measured abnormalities within the patient group. Methods. The laser Doppler technique

  5. Challenges in Emergency and Abnormal Checklist Design

    E-print Network

    Challenges in Emergency and Abnormal Checklist Design Barbara Burian, Ph.D. San Jose State is funded through the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program. #12;Emergency and Abnormal Situations Systems Training Human Performance under Stress Checklists and Procedures #12;Challenges in Emergency

  6. Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

    2008-03-01

    Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

  7. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  8. Is gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Holt; Robert C. Heading; Thomas V. Taylor; John A. Forrest; Peter Tothill

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the

  9. Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Schedl

    2007-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

  10. Abnormal Electrical Brain Responses to Pitch in

    E-print Network

    Abnormal Electrical Brain Responses to Pitch in Congenital Amusia Isabelle Peretz, PhD,1 Elvira- sults suggest that this disorder is critically dependent on fine-grained pitch discrimination. Here, we2-P3 response elicited by pitch changes. This abnormal brain response begins as early as 200

  11. Severely Symptomatic Craniovertebral Junction Abnormalities in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Giussani; Franck-Emmanuel Roux; Paolo Guerra; David Pirillo; Marco Grimaldi; Giuseppe Citerio; Erik P. Sganzerla

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The treatment of symptomatic cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) instability in children affected by CVJ abnormalities is a challenge. A series of severely symptomatic children has been reviewed to understand the controversial long-term effectiveness of the aggressive management of CVJ abnormalities, in terms of clinical improvement, spinal stability and growth. Methods: Three Down syndrome patients, 1 with mucopolysaccharidosis and 1 with

  12. The Operative and Redemptive Mechanisms of the Repetitive Cycles of Marital Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Gostecnik

    1999-01-01

    This article defines Projective and Introjective Identification as the basic, operative and redemptive mechanism that initiates, maintains and underlies the dynamic of Repetition Compulsion in the repetitive cycles in Marital Interaction. It explains how repetitive patterns (Repetition Compulsion) occur and function in a martial setting and how Projective and Introjective Identification primes and triggers responses, thereby setting in motion a

  13. Repetitive control and its application to linear servo unit for CNC machining of elliptical pistons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huixing Zhoul; Linna Zhang; Xiankui Wangl; Jinling Liu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the basic theory of repetitive control are summarized and modified repetitive controllers are introduced. The steady-state error and asymptotic stability condition are presented. A CNC precision lathe implemented with the repetitive control system for machining elliptical pistons is constructed, which consists of a precision linear servomechanism, computer controlled repetitive controller and machine-tool. The cutting tool driven directly

  14. Time-frequency analysis of movement-related spectral power in EEG during repetitive movements: a comparison of methods

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, Colum D.

    2009-01-01

    During dynamic voluntary movements, power in the ?-and ?-bands resulting from synchronized neuronal activity is modulated in a manner that is time-locked to movement onset. These signals can be readily recorded from the scalp surface using electroencephalography. Abnormalities in the magnitude and timing of these oscillations are present in a wide variety of movement disorders including Parkinson’s disease and dystonia. Most studies have examined movement-related oscillations in the context of single discrete movements, yet marked impairments are often seen during the performance of repetitive movements. For this reason, there is considerable need for analysis methods that can resolve the modulation of these oscillations in both the frequency and time domains. Presently, there is little consensus on which is the most appropriate method for this purpose. In this paper, a comparison of commonly used time-frequency methods is presented for the analysis of movement-related power in the ?-and ?-bands during repetitive movements. The same principles hold, however, for any form of repetitive or rhythmic input-output processes in the brain. In particular, methods based on band-pass filtering, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), continuous wavelet transform and reduced interference distributions are discussed. The relative merits and limitations in terms of spectral or temporal resolution of each method are shown with the use of simulated and experimental data. It is shown that the STFT provides the best compromise between spectral and temporal resolution and thus is the most appropriate approach for the analysis and interpretation of repetitive movement-related oscillations in health and disease. (250 words) PMID:19909774

  15. Abnormal Semantic Processing in Females with Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Chen; Simon, Christa; Schneider, Andrea; Seritan, Andreea L.; Hamilton, Laura; Hagerman, Paul J.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Olichney, John M.

    2014-01-01

    FXTAS, a neurodegenerative disorder, affects Fragile X (FMR1) gene premutation carriers in late-life. Studies have shown cognitive impairments in FXTAS including executive dysfunction, working memory, and visuospatial deficits. However, less is known about cognition in females with FXTAS. Thus, we examined semantic processing and verbal memory in female FXTAS patients with event-related potentials (ERPs) and neuropsychological testing. 61 females (34 FXTAS Mage = 62.7, 27 controls Mage = 60.4) were studied with 32-channel ERPs during a category judgment task in which semantically congruous (50%) and incongruous items were repeated ~10–140s later. N400 and P600 amplitude data were submitted to ANCOVA. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated lower performance in verbal learning and executive function in females with FXTAS. ERP analyses revealed a significant reduction of the N400 congruity effect (incongruous–congruous) in the FXTAS group. The N400 congruity effect reduction in females with FXTAS was mainly due to increased N400 amplitude to congruous new words. No significant abnormalities of the N400 repetition effect or the P600 repetition effect were found, indicating preserved implicit memory and verbal memory, respectively, in females with FXTAS. The decreased N400 congruity effect suggests abnormal semantic expectancy and/or semantic network disorganization in female FXTAS patients. The enhanced N400 amplitude to congruous new words may reflect decreased cognitive flexibility among FXTAS women, making access to less typical category exemplar words more difficult. PMID:24299169

  16. Clinical specificity of acute versus chronic self-injury: measurement and evaluation of repetitive non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Manca, Maura; Presaghi, Fabio; Cerutti, Rita

    2014-01-30

    Overall, previous studies on the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors in the general population have stressed the importance of differentiating between occasional and repetitive NSSI, examining different severity levels (e.g., frequency and variety of methods), as well as investigating the diverse psychopathological correlates of NSSI. However, existing NSSI measures have not been explicitly developed by to comply with the NSSI diagnostic criteria proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The purpose of this study is to develop a measure of repetitive NSSI by considering its essential features, as described in the proposed DSM-5 as well as in other clinically relevant aspects emerging from case reports. Two independent samples of participants (N1=383 young adults and 251 adolescents; N2=953 adolescents) belonging to the general population were involved in the present study. The questionnaire showed satisfactory fit statistics and reliably discriminated between occasional and repetitive self-injurers (Area Under Curve, AUC=0.755). The pattern of correlations with psychopathological measures confirmed a more clinically-compromised profile for repetitive rather than occasional self-injurers. PMID:24210667

  17. Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu

    2013-01-01

    High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100?GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55?ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7?nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary. PMID:24226153

  18. Quantifying Repetitive Speech in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    van Santen, Jan P. H.; Sproat, Richard W.; Hill, Alison Presmanes

    2013-01-01

    We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child’s echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult’s original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child’s utterances. PMID:23661504

  19. Repetitively Q-switched Nd:BeL lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J.; Birnbaum, M.; Deshazer, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical characteristics which will ultimately limit the performance of Nd:BeL at high average power levels were investigated. The output beam characteristics (pulse width, peak power, beam dimensions and collimation) were determined at high repetition rates for both Nd:BeL and Nd:YAG. The output of Nd:BeL was shown to exceed that of Nd:YAG by a factor of 2.7 at low Q-switched repetition rates (1 Hz). This result follows from the smaller stimulated emission cross section of x-axis Nb:BeL compared to that of NdYAG by the same factor. At high repetition rates (10 Hz) the output of Nd:Bel falls to a level of three-fifths of its low repetition rate value while under similar tests the output of Nd:YAG remains essentially constant. A comparison of the measured values of the elasto-optic coefficients, the dn/dT values and the linear expansion coefficients for BeL and YAG failed to provide an explanation for the performance of BeL; however, thermal lensing was observed in Nd:BeL. Results imply that the output of a high repetition rate Q-switched Nd:BeL laser (high thermal loading) could be dramatically increased by utilization of a resonator design to compensate for the thermal lensing effects.

  20. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine G Akers; Steven A Kushner; Ana T Leslie; Laura Clarke; Derek van der Kooy; Jason P Lerch; Paul W Frankland

    2011-01-01

    Background  Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral\\u000a disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities\\u000a and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high\\u000a resolution MRI to

  1. Repetition of Deliberate Self-Harm: A Study of the Characteristics and Subsequent Deaths in Patients Presenting to a General Hospital According to Extent of Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Camilla; Bergen, Helen; Casey, Deborah; Hawton, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Repetition of deliberate self-harm (DSH) is common. Some patients repeat multiple times. We have investigated the characteristics of repeaters, and mortality in three groups of DSH patients by repetition status. Data collected by the Oxford Monitoring System for Attempted Suicide were used to examine the pattern of repetition of DSH patients…

  2. Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

    2012-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

  3. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN HPV POSITIVITY AND ABNORMAL CERVICAL CYTOLOGY DIFFERS BY AGE AMONG PERIMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Silver, Michelle I.; Burke, Anne; Viscidi, Raphael; Chang, Kathryn; Duke, Cindy M. P.; Shen, Wen; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We explored the age-stratified correlates and correlations between HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities in perimenopausal women. Materials and methods HPV testing and Pap smear screening were performed at baseline on 841 routinely screened women age 35–60 years in the HPV in Perimenopause (HIP) cohort. Demographic, behavioral and medical information was collected through telephone administered questionnaires. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the correlation between HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities by age. Logistic regression was used to determine correlates of HPV and abnormalities in women under and over 45 years of age. Results The prevalence of HPV, HR-HPV and cervical abnormalities decreased significantly with increasing age, as did the correlation between HR-HPV and cervical abnormalities. The prevalence of HR-HPV was 50% among younger women with abnormalities but this decreased steadily to 20% HR-HPV detection among 50–54 year old, and no abnormalities were detected in 55–60 year old women. Different correlates of HR-HPV infection and abnormalities were observed in women ?45 years, a pattern not seen in the younger women. Conclusions Although the relative proportion of low and high-grade abnormalities did not change with age, we saw a loss of concordance between HR-HPV detection and cytological abnormalities with increasing age. Current guidelines for cervical cancer screening group together all women age 30 and above. Our data raise important questions about the interpretation of HPV and Pap test results in this age group and suggest that ongoing surveillance of HPV and cytology in cervical cancer screening programs consider a third age stratification among older women. PMID:22885643

  4. Harmonic Current Suppression for PMSM by Repetitive Perfect Tracking Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    PM motor drives are widely used for high performance servo applications. However, PM motor has imperfect sinusoidal flux distribution which causes harmonic current. Dead time of inverter and current measurement error leads to harmonic current, too. The repetitive control method was applied to the harmonic current suppression. For the repetitive control which is based on the internal model principle, the characteristic of the harmonic suppression is excellent. However, it amplifies inter-harmonic components. The inter-harmonic components have frequencies with non-integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. Therefore, the feedforward compensation is applied for the harmonic current to improve a suppression characteristic. Authors proposed harmonic current suppression control of PM motor in ?? coordinate by using repetitive perfect tracking control with PWM-hold model. Finally, we show the advantages of proposed method by simulations and experiments.

  5. [Repetitive facilitative exercise: recent evidence and development for combination therapy].

    PubMed

    Shimodozono, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive facilitative exercise (RFE), a combination of high-dose (high frequency) of repetitions and neurofacilitation, is a recently developed approach to the rehabilitation of stroke-related limb impairment. We conducted a randomized controlled evaluation of RFE compared with a duration-matched conventional rehabilitation program in the treatment of subacute stroke-related upper extremity impairment (Shimodozono et al. 2013). RFE demonstrated both statistically and clinically significant benefits over conventional rehabilitation both on the Action Research Arm Test, which is designed to measure dexterity and function, and on the Fugl-Meyer Arm scores, which was chosen as measure of motor control. In the case-series study, the beneficial effect of RFE is also reported in the treatment of chronic phase of stroke. More research is needed, but RFE could conceivably be integrated with other approaches such as vibration, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, botulinum toxin, and robotics to achieve further improvement in its capabilities. PMID:24291952

  6. Multiple cellular mechanisms prevent chromosomal rearrangements involving repetitive DNA

    PubMed Central

    George, Carolyn M.; Alani, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive DNA is present in the eukaryotic genome in the form of segmental duplications, tandem and interspersed repeats, and satellites. Repetitive sequences can be beneficial by serving specific cellular functions (e.g. centromeric and telomeric DNA) and by providing a rapid means for adaptive evolution. However, such elements are also substrates for deleterious chromosomal rearrangements that affect fitness and promote human disease. Recent studies analyzing the role of nuclear organization in DNA repair and factors that suppress non-allelic homologous recombination have provided insights into how genome stability is maintained in eukaryotes. In this review we outline the types of repetitive sequences seen in eukaryotic genomes and how recombination mechanisms are regulated at the DNA sequence, cell organization, chromatin structure, and cell cycle control levels to prevent chromosomal rearrangements involving these sequences. PMID:22494239

  7. Trauma reactions of bystanders and victims to repetitive abuse experiences.

    PubMed

    Janson, Gregory R; Hazler, Richard J

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated psychological distress as measured by the Impact of Events Scale-Revised and physiological reactivity as measured by skin conductance and heart rate in bystanders as compared to direct victims of prevalent forms of repetitive abuse (e.g., bullying). Participants (N = 77) were interviewed twice: once to recall witnessing another person be abused repeatedly over time, and again to recall similar experiences as a victim. Present levels for bystander and victim distress were not significantly different, but distress levels were significantly greater for victim experiences at the time the repetitive abuse occurred. Scores for both groups were comparable to or exceeded scores associated with natural disasters and other life threatening experiences reported in the literature. Findings suggest repetitive abuse may affect bystanders and victims in similarly serious ways at the time the events occur and later in life. PMID:15384457

  8. Repetitive DNA of Candida albicans: nuclear and mitochondrial components.

    PubMed Central

    Wills, J W; Lasker, B A; Sirotkin, K; Riggsby, W S

    1984-01-01

    We report the isolation and analysis of the rapidly reassociating DNA of the pathogenic, dimorphic fungus Candida albicans. Minicot analysis of whole-cell repetitive DNA suggested that a significant portion of this component was mitochondrial DNA. Genomic blot hybridizations in which radioactive whole-cell repetitive DNA was used as a probe revealed eight major EcoRI bands in the molecular weight range resolved by the gel system used. Isolation and analysis of high-purity mitochondrial DNA have shown that five of these bands are of mitochondrial origin. The remaining three bands are of nuclear origin and represent repetitive sequences that are found in the nuclear genome. Attempts to isolate nuclear DNA that was completely free of mitochondrial DNA contamination were unsuccessful. Images PMID:6321443

  9. Behavioral training reverses global cortical network dysfunction induced by perinatal antidepressant exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Lu, Jordan Y-F; Darling, Ryan D; Simpson, Kimberly L; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Fang; Yu, Liping; Sun, Xinde; Merzenich, Michael M; Lin, Rick C S

    2015-02-17

    Abnormal cortical circuitry and function as well as distortions in the modulatory neurological processes controlling cortical plasticity have been argued to underlie the origin of autism. Here, we chemically distorted those processes using an antidepressant drug-exposure model to generate developmental neurological distortions like those characteristics expressed in autism, and then intensively trained altered young rodents to evaluate the potential for neuroplasticity-driven renormalization. We found that young rats that were injected s.c. with the antidepressant citalopram from postnatal d 1-10 displayed impaired neuronal repetition-rate following capacity in the primary auditory cortex (A1). With a focus on recovering grossly degraded auditory system processing in this model, we showed that targeted temporal processing deficits induced by early-life antidepressant exposure within the A1 were almost completely reversed through implementation of a simple behavioral training strategy (i.e., a modified go/no-go repetition-rate discrimination task). Degraded parvalbumin inhibitory GABAergic neurons and the fast inhibitory actions that they control were also renormalized by training. Importantly, antidepressant-induced degradation of serotonergic and dopaminergic neuromodulatory systems regulating cortical neuroplasticity was sharply reversed. These findings bear important implications for neuroplasticity-based therapeutics in autistic patients. PMID:25646455

  10. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Behavior of freely diving animals.

    PubMed

    Castellini, M A; Kooyman, G L

    1989-09-01

    While diving animals are capable of both long-duration and deep dives, their normal behavior does not routinely approach these limits of time and depth. Studies of the physiologic and biochemical capabilities of diving species have defined the maximum limits of their underwater periods. However, by also studying their diving behavior, we can examine how diving animals most efficiently work within those limits. If we assume for example that the behavioral goal of a foraging seal is to spend as much time underwater as possible, then it must also minimize time at the surface and make many repetitive dives instead of single, longer dives that require long surface recovery periods. To understand the efficiency of bout diving, we must study the physiologic impact of many repetitive dives and how the seal manipulates its behavior to both stay within its physiologic limits and to maximize time underwater. PMID:2678666

  12. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Rudolf Hoeksma; Chantal Kemner; J. Leon Kenemans; Herman van Engeland

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in selective attention. Adolescents with PDD showed abnormal selective attention,

  13. Local knockdown of the NaV1.6 sodium channel reduces pain behaviors, sensory neuron excitability, and sympathetic sprouting in rat models of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Xie, W; Strong, J A; Zhang, J-M

    2015-04-16

    In the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain, as in other pain models, abnormal spontaneous activity of myelinated sensory neurons occurs early and is essential for establishing pain behaviors and other pathologies. Sympathetic sprouting into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is observed after SNL, and sympathectomy reduces pain behavior. Sprouting and spontaneous activity may be mutually reinforcing: blocking neuronal activity reduces sympathetic sprouting, and sympathetic spouts functionally increase spontaneous activity in vitro. However, most studies in this field have used nonspecific methods to block spontaneous activity, methods that also block evoked and normal activity. In this study, we injected small inhibitory (si) RNA directed against the NaV1.6 sodium channel isoform into the DRG before SNL. This isoform can mediate high-frequency repetitive firing, like that seen in spontaneously active neurons. Local knockdown of NaV1.6 markedly reduced mechanical pain behaviors induced by SNL, reduced sympathetic sprouting into the ligated sensory ganglion, and blocked abnormal spontaneous activity and other measures of hyperexcitability in myelinated neurons in the ligated sensory ganglion. Immunohistochemical experiments showed that sympathetic sprouting preferentially targeted NaV1.6-positive neurons. Under these experimental conditions, NaV1.6 knockdown did not prevent or strongly alter single evoked action potentials, unlike previous less specific methods used to block spontaneous activity. NaV1.6 knockdown also reduced pain behaviors in another pain model, chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve, provided the model was modified so that the lesion site was relatively close to the siRNA-injected lumbar DRGs. The results highlight the relative importance of abnormal spontaneous activity in establishing both pain behaviors and sympathetic sprouting, and suggest that the NaV1.6 isoform may have value as a therapeutic target. PMID:25686526

  14. Prediction of Muscle Performance During Dynamic Repetitive Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byerly, D. L.; Byerly, K. A.; Sognier, M. A.; Squires, W. G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for predicting human muscle performance was developed. Eight test subjects performed a repetitive dynamic exercise to failure using a Lordex spinal machine. Electromyography (EMG) data was collected from the erector spinae. Evaluation of the EMG data using a 5th order Autoregressive (AR) model and statistical regression analysis revealed that an AR parameter, the mean average magnitude of AR poles, can predict performance to failure as early as the second repetition of the exercise. Potential applications to the space program include evaluating on-orbit countermeasure effectiveness, maximizing post-flight recovery, and future real-time monitoring capability during Extravehicular Activity.

  15. TECHWR-L: Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you work in front of a computer a lot, you are probably a candidate for Repetitive-Stress Injuries (RSI). This article from TECHWR-L entitled, Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries: A Guide for the Technical Communicator gives some helpful tips for preventing the aches, pains, hand problems and eye strain associated with repeated computer usage. The article discusses different mouse options, keyboard options, and other adjustments you can make to lessen your risk of RSI and make typing at the computer a little more pleasant. Additional links at the bottom provide further information on healthy computing.

  16. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  17. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Women's Health Issues Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position ... Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Women's Health Issues Biology of ...

  18. ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

  19. Limiting Abnormal Mold Growth in Buildings

    E-print Network

    Graham, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    . Unfortunately, we are learning from studies of contemporary buildings that abnormal amounts of certain molds inside our buildings can adversely affect the health of humans and animals. The same conditions that support mold growth also support fungal decay...

  20. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  1. Some stereotypic behaviors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are correlated with both perseveration and the ability to cope with acute stressors

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Ori; Paukner, Annika; Terkel, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent sub-group of abnormal repetitive behaviors among captive animals is that of stereotypies. Previous studies have demonstrated some resemblance between stereotypy in captive animals and in humans, including the involvement of neurological malfunctions that lead to the expression of stereotypies. This malfunction can be evaluated through the use of neuropsychological tasks that assess perseveration as implying a failure of the basal ganglia (BG) to operate properly. Other studies, in contrast, have suggested that stereotypies are the product of neurologically intact individuals reacting to the abnormal nature of their surroundings, and are possibly characterized by an adaptive feature that enables the subject to cope with such adversity. Employing neuropsychological tests and also measuring the levels of fecal corticoids in captive rhesus macaques, we tested the hypothesis that stereotypies are related both to brain pathology and to a coping mechanism with stress, resembling accounts by autistic individuals exhibiting basal ganglia malfunction, and who report a sense of relief when performing stereotypies. Self-directed and fine-motor stereotypies exhibited by the monkeys were positively correlated with perseveration, suggesting BG malfunction; while self-directed stereotypies were also negatively correlated with an increase in fecal corticoids following a stress challenge, suggesting a related coping mechanism. We therefore suggest that not all repetitive, unvarying, and apparently functionless behaviors should be regarded as one homogeneous group of stereotypic behaviors; and that, reflecting reports from autistic individuals, self-directed stereotypies in captive rhesus monkeys are related both to brain pathology, and to an adaptive mechanism that allows those that express them to better cope with acute stressors. PMID:22366267

  2. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  3. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  4. Desk-top size high repetition rate 46.9 nm capillary discharge laser as photoionization source for photochemistry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinbuch, S.; Grisham, M.; Martz, D.; Dong, F.; Bernstein, E. R.; Rocca, J. J.

    2005-09-01

    We report the demonstration of a high repetition rate desktop-size capillary discharge laser emitting at (= 46.9 nm (26.5 eV) used for experiments in photochemistry. Laser pulses with energy ~ 13 uJ were generated at 12 Hz repetition rate by single pass amplification in a 21 cm long Ne-like Ar capillary discharge plasma column. The capillary lifetime is 2-3 104 shots. This new type of portable laser is of interest for numerous applications requiring a compact intense source of short wavelength laser light. One such application that we are currently pursuing is the study of small molecules using time of flight mass spectroscopy. Molecules include ammonia, NO, oxygen, hydrogen bonded nanoclusters, and metal oxide nanoclusters. Through single photon ionization the reactivity and catalytic behavior of these molecules is studied.

  5. Pten haploinsufficient mice show broad brain overgrowth but selective impairments in autism-relevant behavioral tests.

    PubMed

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Page, Damon T

    2014-07-01

    Accelerated head and brain growth (macrocephaly) during development is a replicated biological finding in a subset of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the relationship between brain overgrowth and the behavioral and cognitive symptoms of ASD is poorly understood. The PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway regulates cellular growth; several genes encoding negative regulators of this pathway are ASD risk factors, including PTEN. Mutations in PTEN have been reported in individuals with ASD and macrocephaly. We report that brain overgrowth is widespread in Pten germline haploinsufficient (Pten(+/-)) mice, reflecting Pten mRNA expression in the developing brain. We then ask if broad brain overgrowth translates into general or specific effects on the development of behavior and cognition by testing Pten(+/-) mice using assays relevant to ASD and comorbidities. Deficits in social behavior were observed in both sexes. Males also showed abnormalities related to repetitive behavior and mood/anxiety. Females exhibited circadian activity and emotional learning phenotypes. Widespread brain overgrowth together with selective behavioral impairments in Pten(+/-) mice raises the possibility that most brain areas and constituent cell types adapt to an altered trajectory of growth with minimal impact on the behaviors tested in our battery; however, select areas/cell types relevant to social behavior are more vulnerable or less adaptable, thus resulting in social deficits. Probing dopaminergic neurons as a candidate vulnerable cell type, we found social behavioral impairments in mice with Pten conditionally inactivated in dopaminergic neurons that are consistent with the possibility that desynchronized growth in key cell types may contribute to ASD endophenotypes. PMID:24497577

  6. Forward and Backward Repetition Blindness in Speed and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2009-01-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) was investigated in a new paradigm in which effects could stem from items preceding or following a target. Speeded-response tasks in which 3 critical items (C1, C2, and C3) were sequentially presented on each trial. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to judge whether C2 (the target) was present on each trial.…

  7. Float analysis of non?serial repetitive activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad A. Ammar

    2003-01-01

    Floats and critical path(s) are important issues in construction management practice. In critical path method, activities not on the critical path(s) must have float. Float measures the amount of time an activity can be delayed before it becomes critical. Consecutive repetitive activities have production rates, which may vary considerably from one activity to another. This creates a different situation (from

  8. Repetitive pulsed power to serve nanotechnology, sustainability and hydrogen production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. M. van Heesch; K. Yan; A. J. M. Pemen; S. A. Nair; G. J. J. Winands; W. J. Kolkert; A. A. Barba

    2003-01-01

    Repetitive pulsed-power has enormous enabling potential for a wide range of unconventional processes, such as nanotechnology, hydrogen production, gas and water processing and direct pulse interactions. The technology focuses on multiple switch concepts, a multiple pulsed plasma torch for thermal and nonthermal plasma and the combination of a near zero-erosion spark gap or an opening switch with a transmission line

  9. The Influence of Level of Processing on Advertising Repetition Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    This research examines whether or not repetition of features of a stimulus are subject to wear-out effects that have until now only been tested for the stimulus as a whole. When consumers process features in either a shallower or deeper manner, the level of processing performed dictates the effect of repeated feature exposure on their judgments. When repeated exposures to

  10. Repetitive peptide boosting progressively enhances functional memory CTLs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of functional memory CTLs holds promise for fighting critical infectious diseases through vaccination, but so far, no effective regime has been identified. We show here that memory CTLs can be enhanced progressively to high levels by repetitive intravenous boosting with peptide and adjuvan...

  11. Gender Differences in Repetitive Language in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M. M.; Abbeduto, L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Verbal perseveration (i.e. excessive self-repetition) is a characteristic of male individuals with fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about its occurrence among females or its underlying causes. This project examined the relationship between perseveration and (1) gender, (2) cognitive and linguistic ability, and (3) language…

  12. Computational Modeling of Brain Dynamics during Repetitive Head Motions

    E-print Network

    Burtscher, Martin

    Computational Modeling of Brain Dynamics during Repetitive Head Motions Igor Szczyrba School motions in traumatic scenarios that are as- sociated with severe brain injuries. Our results are based on the linear Kelvin-Voigt brain injury model, which treats the brain matter as a viscoelastic solid, and on our

  13. Process of labeling specific chromosomes using recombinant repetitive DNA

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, R.K.; Meyne, J.

    1988-02-12

    Chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family members and consensus sequences of the repetitive DNA families for the chromosome preferential sequences. The selected low homology regions are then hybridized with chromosomes to determine those low homology regions hybridized with a specific chromosome under normal stringency conditions.

  14. The Perceptual Determinants of Repetition Learning in Auditory Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Maybery, Murray T.; Huitson, Matthew; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study includes seven experiments examining the effect of repetition learning (Hebb effect) on auditory spatial serial recall. Participants were asked to remember sequences of spatial locations marked by auditory stimuli, where one sequence was repeated across trials. Consistent with the proposition that the spatial scattering of…

  15. Context-Dependent Repetition Effects on Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opitz, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    One widely acknowledged way to improve our memory performance is to repeatedly study the to be learned material. One aspect that has received little attention in past research regards the context sensitivity of this repetition effect, that is whether the item is repeated within the same or within different contexts. The predictions of a…

  16. Predicting Salmonella enterica serotypes by repetitive sequence-based PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) utilizing a semi-automated system, was evaluated as a method to determine Salmonella serotypes. A group of 216 Salmonella isolates belonging to 13 frequently isolated serotypes and one rarer serotype from poultry were used to create a D...

  17. Compact solid state high repetition rate variable amplitude pulse generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott J. Pendleton; Daniel Singleton; Andras Kuthi; Martin A. Gundersen

    2009-01-01

    Presented is a solid state high repetition-rate pulse generator with adjustable output amplitude, together with a resonant LC charger. This pulse generator was designed for transient plasma production for ignition and other aerospace plasma applications. The design of the pulse-forming network makes use of commercially available insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) switching a capacitor bank into a METGLAS transformer together

  18. Nonword Repetition and Language Learning Disorders: A Developmental Contingency Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowling, Margaret J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1990 Gathercole and Baddeley proposed a strong hypothesis that has generated a wealth of research in the field of language development and disorder. The hypothesis was that phonological memory, as indexed by nonword repetition, is causally related to vocabulary development. Support for the hypothesis came from an impressive range of…

  19. Orientation-Invariant Object Recognition: Evidence from Repetition Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Irina M.; Dux, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation.…

  20. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Processes in Word Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Wendy S.; Duran, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K.; Luevano, Genoveva; Arzate, Jose C.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial…

  1. Repetitive thought impairs sleep quality: an experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested that presleep negative cognitive activities are associated with poor sleep quality, there is little evidence regarding the association between negative thoughts and sleep in real-life settings. The present study used experience sampling and long-term sleep monitoring with actigraphy to investigate the relationships among negative repetitive thought, mood, and sleep problems. During a 1-week sampling period, 43 undergraduate students recorded their thought content and mood eight times a day at semirandom intervals. In addition to these subjective reports, participants wore actigraphs on their wrists in order to measure sleep parameters. Analyses using multilevel modeling showed that repetitive thought in the evening was significantly associated with longer sleep-onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency, and reduced total sleep time. Furthermore, impaired sleep quality was significantly associated with reduced positive affect the next morning, and decreased positive affect was indirectly associated with increased repetitive thought in the evening. These findings suggest the existence of a self-reinforcing cycle involving repetitive thought, mood, and impaired sleep quality, highlighting the importance of cognitive and emotional factors in enhancement and maintenance of good-quality sleep. PMID:24411116

  2. A spectral retouching tool for removing repetitive image noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannes Jung; Wilhelm Burger

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method and implementation for removing global, repetitive 2D artifacts in images by interactively editing their Fourier spectra. Based on this concept, ldquoInSpectralrdquo is an interactive software application that provides intuitive and easy-to-use image editing functionality in the spectral domain with immediate visual feedback in the spatial domain.

  3. Handedness, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and bulimic disorders.

    PubMed

    Van den Eynde, F; Broadbent, H; Guillaume, S; Claudino, A; Campbell, I C; Schmidt, U

    2012-05-01

    Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) research in psychiatry mostly excludes left-handed participants. We recruited left-handed people with a bulimic disorder and found that stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex may result in different effects in left- and right-handed people. This highlights the importance of handedness and cortex lateralisation for rTMS. PMID:21067901

  4. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  5. Exact Repetition as Input Enhancement in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eva Dam; Vinther, Thora

    2003-01-01

    Reports on two studies on input enhancement used to support learners' selection of focus of attention in Spanish second language listening material. Input consisted of video recordings of dialogues between native speakers. Exact repetition and speech rate reduction were examined for effect on comprehension, acquisition of decoding strategies, and…

  6. Using Markov Models and Hidden Markov Models to Find Repetitive

    E-print Network

    Karplus, Kevin

    Using Markov Models and Hidden Markov Models to Find Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic Sequences for using simple Markov models and hidden Markov models hmms to search for interesting sequences for automatically constructing simple Markov models and hidden Markov models from small training sets

  7. Advertisement Detection and Replacement using Acoustic and Visual Repetition

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Advertisement Detection and Replacement using Acoustic and Visual Repetition Michele Covell advertisements to be removed and replaced with new ads in redistributed television material. The detection stage advertisements. I. INTRODUCTION When television material is redistributed by individual re- quest, the original

  8. Pinniped Phylogeny Enlightened by Molecular Hybridizations Using Highly Repetitive DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bengt Widegren

    Four non-cross-hybridizing, highly repetitive DNA components of the Weddell seal were cloned and used for Southern blot hybridizations in order to clarify pinniped phylogeny. Each of the components was present and possessed the identical fragment length in all pinnipeds, representing true seals, walrus, and sea lions. Three of the four components also hybridized to fragments of the same length in

  9. The cancellation of repetitive noise and vibration by active nethods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghtesadi, Kh.; Chaplin, G. B. B.

    The active attenuation of diesel engine noise is discussed as well as the active control of vibration. The system used is found to work best with repetitive sources of noise. Applications of active noise attentuation include noise inside helicopters and propellor aircraft, auxilliary generators and large compressors, and noise on emergency vehicles such as fire engines and snow cats.

  10. A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

  11. A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangqiang; Wang, Jianguo; Tong, Changjiang; Li, Xiaoze; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Shuang; Lu, Xicheng

    2013-04-01

    Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM02.

  12. Comparison of concentric and eccentric bench press repetitions to failure.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Stephen B; Brown, Lee E; Hooker, Steven P; Swan, Pamela D; Buman, Matthew P; Alvar, Brent A; Black, Laurie E

    2015-04-01

    Kelly, SB, Brown, LE, Hooker, SP, Swan, PD, Buman, MP, Alvar, BA, and Black, LE. Comparison of concentric and eccentric bench press repetitions to failure. J Strength Cond Res 29(4): 1027-1032, 2015-Eccentric muscle actions (ECC) are characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Muscles acting eccentrically are capable of producing higher levels of force compared with muscles acting concentrically. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ECC bench press yields greater strength than concentric (CON) as determined by 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Additionally, a comparison was made examining differences in the number of repetitions to failure at different relative intensities of 1RM. Thirty healthy men (age = 24.63 ± 5.6 years) were tested for 1RM in CON and ECC bench press and the number of repetitions completed at 60, 70, 80, and 90% 1RM. For CON repetitions, the weight was mechanically lowered to the chest, and the participant pressed it up until the elbows were fully extended. The ECC bench press consisted of lowering a barbell from a fully extended elbow position to the chest in a continuous controlled manner for 3 seconds as determined by electronic metronome. Paired t-tests showed that ECC 1RM (115.99 ± 31.08 kg) was significantly (p ? 0.05) greater than CON 1RM (93.56 ± 26.56 kg), and the number of repetitions completed at 90% 1RM was significantly (p ? 0.05) greater in ECC (7.67 ± 3.24) as compared with CON (4.57 ± 2.21). There were no significant differences in number of completed repetitions during CON and ECC bench press at 60, 70, and 80% 1RM. These data indicate that ECC actions yield increased force capabilities (?120%) as compared with CON in the bench press and may be less prone to fatigue, especially at higher intensities. These differences suggest a need to develop unique strategies for training eccentrically. PMID:25268291

  13. Comparing one repetition maximum and three repetition maximum between conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlifts.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Alan; DeBeliso, Mark; Sevene, Trish G; Adams, Kent J

    2014-07-01

    This study determined if an eccentrically loaded deadlift yields a higher 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 3RM than a conventional deadlift and if the 1RM conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlift can be accurately estimated from the 3RM (3RM = 93% of 1RM). Division 1 football players (n = 15; 20.3 ± 1.9 years; 95.8 ± 18.2 kg; 184.4 ± 6.6 cm) participated. Deadlift 1RM and 3RM were measured in the conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlift. Dependent t-tests showed no significant difference between the 3RM and 1RM conventional deadlift and the 3RM and 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift (p = 0.30 and p = 0.20, respectively). Pearson correlation between the 1RM conventional deadlift estimate and 1RM conventional deadlift actual was r = 0.91 (p ? 0.01); a dependent t-test indicated the 1RM conventional deadlift estimate was significantly less than the 1RM conventional deadlift actual (p = 0.007). Pearson correlation between the 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift estimate and 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift actual was r = 0.84 (p ? 0.01); a dependent t-test indicated the 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift estimate was nearly significantly less than the 1RM eccentrically loaded deadlift actual (p = 0.061). Results suggest that conventional and eccentrically loaded deadlifts may be interchangeable within a training program; this may elicit the benefits of using a broader variety of ground-based multijoint compound movements in an athlete's strength and power training. Additionally, because of differences between predicted and actual 1RM scores in the deadlift, strength coaches should prioritize actual 1RM testing of their athletes to optimize deadlift training loads across the RM continuum. PMID:24276311

  14. Investigating repetition and change in musical rhythm by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, A; Otnæss, M K; Jensen, J; Williams, S C R; Ostberg, B C

    2014-09-01

    Groove-based rhythm is a basic and much appreciated feature of Western popular music. It is commonly associated with dance, movement and pleasure and is characterized by the repetition of a basic rhythmic pattern. At various points in the musical course, drum breaks occur, representing a change compared to the repeated pattern of the groove. In the present experiment, we investigated the brain response to such drum breaks in a repetitive groove. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to a previously unheard naturalistic groove with drum breaks at uneven intervals. The rhythmic pattern and the timing of its different parts as performed were the only aspects that changed from the repetitive sections to the breaks. Differences in blood oxygen level-dependent activation were analyzed. In contrast to the repetitive parts, the drum breaks activated the left cerebellum, the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and the superior temporal gyri (STG) bilaterally. A tapping test using the same stimulus showed an increase in the standard deviation of inter-tap-intervals in the breaks versus the repetitive parts, indicating extra challenges for auditory-motor integration in the drum breaks. Both the RIFG and STG have been associated with structural irregularity and increase in musical-syntactical complexity in several earlier studies, whereas the left cerebellum is known to play a part in timing. Together these areas may be recruited in the breaks due to a prediction error process whereby the internal model is being updated. This concurs with previous research suggesting a network for predictive feed-forward control that comprises the cerebellum and the cortical areas that were activated in the breaks. PMID:24972303

  15. Object Repetition Leads to Local Increases in the Temporal Coordination of Neural Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jessica R.; Gotts, Stephen J.; Carver, Frederick W.; Martin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Experience with visual objects leads to later improvements in identification speed and accuracy (“repetition priming”), but generally leads to reductions in neural activity in single-cell recording studies in animals and fMRI studies in humans. Here we use event-related, source-localized MEG (ER-SAM) to evaluate the possibility that neural activity changes related to priming in occipital, temporal, and prefrontal cortex correspond to more temporally coordinated and synchronized activity, reflected in local increases in the amplitude of low-frequency activity fluctuations (i.e. evoked power) that are time-locked to stimulus onset. Subjects (N = 17) identified pictures of objects that were either novel or repeated during the session. Tests in two separate low-frequency bands (theta/alpha: 5–15 Hz; beta: 15–35 Hz) revealed increases in evoked power (5–15 Hz) for repeated stimuli in the right fusiform gyrus, with the earliest significant increases observed 100–200?ms after stimulus onset. Increases with stimulus repetition were also observed in striate/extrastriate cortex (15–35 Hz) by 200–300?ms post-stimulus, along with a trend for a similar pattern in right lateral prefrontal cortex (5–15 Hz). Our results suggest that experience-dependent reductions in neural activity may affect improved behavioral identification through more coordinated, synchronized activity at low frequencies, constituting a mechanism for more efficient neural processing with experience. PMID:20463867

  16. White Matter Abnormalities in Major Depression: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and Rumination Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nianming Zuo; Jiliang Fang; Xueyu Lv; Yuan Zhou; Yang Hong; Tao Li; Haibing Tong; Xiaoling Wang; Weidong Wang; Tianzi Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is usually accompanied by altered white matter in the prefrontal cortex, the parietal lobe and the limbic system. As a behavioral abnormity of MDD, rumination has been believed to be a substantial indicator of the mental state of the depressive state. So far, however, no report that we are aware of has

  17. r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2011) r Brain Growth Rate Abnormalities Visualized in

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation- try, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scansr Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2011) r Brain Growth Rate Abnormalities Visualized in Adolescents

  18. Functional Brain Network Abnormalities during Verbal Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Robert Christian; Sambataro, Fabio; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Vasic, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional…

  19. An internet routing forensics framework for discovering rules of abnormal BGP events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Li; Dejing Dou; Zhen Wu; Shiwoong Kim; Vikash Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Abnormal BGP events such as attacks, misconfigurations, electricity failures, can cause anomalous or pathological routing behavior at either global level or prefix level, and thus must be detected in their early stages. Instead of using ad hoc methods to analyze BGP data, in this paper we introduce an Internet Routing Forensics framework to systematically process BGP routing data, discover rules

  20. Dual Routes for Verbal Repetition: Articulation-Based and Acoustic-Phonetic Codes for Pseudoword and Word Repetition, Respectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sejin; Chung, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hyeon-Ae; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Speech production is inextricably linked to speech perception, yet they are usually investigated in isolation. In this study, we employed a verbal-repetition task to identify the neural substrates of speech processing with two ends active simultaneously using functional MRI. Subjects verbally repeated auditory stimuli containing an ambiguous vowel…