Sample records for abnormal repetitive behaviors

  1. A Survey of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in North American River Otters Housed in Zoos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paige Morabito; Meredith J. Bashaw

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author

  2. Abnormal repetitive behaviors in dogs and cats: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Valarie V; Sinn, Leslie

    2014-05-01

    Abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) represent a diverse group of behaviors whose underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Their neurobiology likely involves several different neurotransmitter systems. These behaviors have been referred to as compulsive disorders, obsessive compulsive disorders and stereotypies. Underlying medical conditions and pain can often cause changes in behavior that are mistaken for ARBs. A complete medical work-up is always indicated prior to reaching a presumptive diagnosis. The frequency of ARBs can be reduced but not always eliminated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in conjunction with behavior modification and environmental enrichment. PMID:24766699

  3. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated. PMID:22742198

  4. Repetitive behavior disorders in autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Lewis; James W. Bodfish

    1998-01-01

    Autism is associated with a wide range of repetitive behaviors. These behaviors, although diagnostic for the disorder, have been the subject of far less attention than social and communication deficits. An understanding of the phenomenology, including comorbidity, of various forms of abnormal repetition requires improved methodol- ogy, including use of item-independent instruments capable of discriminating categories of repetitive behaviors or

  5. Reverse-translational biomarker validation of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors in mice: an illustration of the 4P's modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Joseph P.; Thogerson, Collette M.; Dufour, Brett D.; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D.; Mench, Joy A.

    2011-01-01

    The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the “4P's” (Prediction, Preemption, Personalization, & Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely-related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly-specific model of a single disorder by matching this `fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies; and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders. PMID:21219937

  6. Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Bodfish, J W; Symons, F J; Parker, D E; Lewis, M H

    2000-06-01

    Systematic study of abnormal repetitive behaviors in autism has been lacking despite the diagnostic significance of such behavior. The occurrence of specific topographies of repetitive behaviors as well as their severity was assessed in individuals with mental retardation with and without autism. The occurrence of each behavior category, except dyskinesias, was higher in the autism group and autistic subjects exhibited a significantly greater number of topographies of stereotypy and compulsions. Both groups had significant patterns of repetitive behavior co-occurrence. Autistic subjects had significantly greater severity ratings for compulsions, stereotypy, and self-injury. Repetitive behavior severity also predicted severity of autism. Although abnormal repetition is not specific to autism, an elevated pattern of occurrence and severity appears to characterize the disorder. PMID:11055459

  7. Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mark H; Tanimura, Yoko; Lee, Linda W; Bodfish, James W

    2007-01-10

    Restricted, repetitive behavior, along with deficits in social reciprocity and communication, is diagnostic of autism. Animal models relevant to this domain generally fall into three classes: repetitive behavior associated with targeted insults to the CNS; repetitive behavior induced by pharmacological agents; and repetitive behavior associated with restricted environments and experience. The extant literature provides potential models of the repetitive behavioral phenotype in autism rather than attempts to model the etiology or pathophysiology of restricted, repetitive behavior, as these are poorly understood. This review focuses on our work with deer mice which exhibit repetitive behaviors associated with environmental restriction. Repetitive behaviors are the most common category of abnormal behavior observed in confined animals and larger, more complex environments substantially reduce the development and expression of such behavior. Studies with this model, including environmental enrichment effects, suggest alterations in cortical-basal ganglia circuitry in the development and expression of repetitive behavior. Considerably more work needs to be done in this area, particularly in modeling the development of aberrant repetitive behavior. As mutant mouse models continue to proliferate, there should be a number of promising genetic models to pursue. PMID:16997392

  8. Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark H. Lewis; Yoko Tanimura; Linda W. Lee; James W. Bodfish

    2007-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behavior, along with deficits in social reciprocity and communication, is diagnostic of autism. Animal models relevant to this domain generally fall into three classes: repetitive behavior associated with targeted insults to the CNS; repetitive behavior induced by pharmacological agents; and repetitive behavior associated with restricted environments and experience. The extant literature provides potential models of the repetitive behavioral

  9. Electrodermal and behavioral responses of children with autism spectrum disorders to sensory and repetitive stimuli.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hessl, David; Macari, Suzanne L; Ozonoff, Sally; Green, Cherie; Rogers, Sally J

    2014-08-01

    Parents frequently report that their children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) respond atypically to sensory stimuli. Repetitive behaviors are also part of the ASD behavioral profile. Abnormal physiological arousal may underlie both of these symptoms. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of sympathetic nervous system arousal. The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to pilot methods for collecting EDA data in young children and (2) to examine hypothesized relationships among EDA, and sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD as compared with children with typical development. EDA was recorded on 54 young children with ASD and on 33 children with typical development (TD) during a protocol that included baseline, exposure to sensory and repetitive stimuli, and play. Parents completed standardized questionnaires regarding their child's sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors. Frequency and type of repetitive behavior during play was coded offline. Comparisons between EDA data for ASD and TD groups indicated no significant between-group differences in any measures. Parents of children with ASD reported more abnormal responses to sensory stimuli and more repetitive behaviors, but scores on these measures were not significantly correlated with EDA or with frequency of observed repetitive behaviors. Parent report of frequency and severity of sensory symptoms was significantly correlated with reports of repetitive behaviors in both groups. Although parents of children with ASD report high levels of sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors, these differences are not related to measured EDA arousal or reactivity. PMID:24788961

  10. Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

    2008-01-01

    Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of…

  11. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  12. Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel L. Loftin; Samuel L. Odom; Johanna F. Lantz

    2008-01-01

    Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body\\u000a rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior,\\u000a such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of skills. A multiple baseline\\u000a design was used to examine whether multi-component social skills intervention (including

  13. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. BoydStephen; Stephen G. McDonough; James W. Bodfish

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased\\u000a research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus,\\u000a the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based\\u000a practices to treat “lower order” RRBs in

  14. fMRI tracks reductions in repetitive behaviors in autism: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Dichter, Gabriel S; Sikich, Linmarie; Mahorney, Steve; Felder, Jennifer N; Lam, Kristen S L; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James

    2010-08-01

    Autism is characterized by abnormal prefrontal brain activation during cognitive control, a potential biomarker of repetitive behaviors. In this proof-of-principle study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity during an oddball task in two high-functioning males with autism before and after 12 weeks of treatment with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. One participant showed marked reductions in repetitive behaviors whereas the other showed mild worsening. Brain activation in relevant prefrontal regions increased in only the participant whose repetitive behavior symptoms improved. These findings suggest that fMRI may elucidate potential mechanisms of action of targeted autism interventions. PMID:20178033

  15. Evidence-based behavioral interventions for repetitive behaviors in autism.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; McDonough, Stephen G; Bodfish, James W

    2012-06-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature suggests there are evidence-based practices to treat "lower order" RRBs in ASD (e.g., stereotypies); yet, there is a lack of a focused program of intervention research for "higher order" behaviors (e.g., insistence on sameness). This paper will (a) discuss barriers to intervention development for RRBs; (b) review evidence-based interventions to treat RRBs in ASD, with a focus on higher order behaviors; and (c) conclude with recommendations for practice and research. PMID:21584849

  16. Social Approach and Repetitive Behavior in Eleven Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Nonneman, Randal J.; Segall, Samantha K.; Andrade, Gabriela M.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Magnuson, Terry R.

    2008-01-01

    Core symptoms of autism include deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted, repetitive behaviors. The repetitive behavior domain encompasses abnormal motoric stereotypy, an inflexible insistence on sameness, and resistance to change. In recent years, many genetic mouse models of autism and related disorders have been developed, based on candidate genes for disease susceptibility. The present studies are part of an ongoing initiative to develop appropriate behavioral tasks for the evaluation of mouse models relevant to autism. We have previously reported profiles for sociability, preference for social novelty, and resistance to changes in a learned pattern of behavior, as well as other functional domains, for 10 inbred mouse strains of divergent genetic backgrounds. The present studies extend this multi-component behavioral characterization to several additional strains: C58/J, NOD/LtJ, NZB/B1NJ, PL/J, SJL/J, SWR/J, and the wild-derived PERA/EiJ. C58/J, NOD/LtJ, NZB/B1NJ, SJL/J, and PERA/EiJ demonstrated low sociability, measured by time spent in proximity to an unfamiliar conspecific, with 30% to 60% of mice from these strains showing social avoidance. In the Morris water maze, NZB/B1NJ had a persistent bias for the quadrant where the hidden platform was located during acquisition, even after nine days of reversal training. A particularly interesting profile was found for C58/J, which had low social preference, poor performance in the T-maze, and overt motoric stereotypy. Overall, this set of tasks and observational methods provides a strategy for evaluating novel mouse models in behavioral domains relevant to the autism phenotype. PMID:18440079

  17. Response monitoring, repetitive behaviour and anterior cingulate abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharine N. Thakkar; Frida E. Polli; Robert M. Joseph; David S. Tuch; Nouchine Hadjikhani; Jason J. S. Barton; Dara S. Manoach

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response moni- toring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing factors to autistic disorders. We investigated whether ACC structure and func- tion during

  18. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age. PMID:21289833

  19. fMRI tracks reductions in repetitive behaviors in autism: Two case studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel S. Dichter; Linmarie Sikich; Steve Mahorney; Jennifer N. Felder; Kristen S. L. Lam; Lauren Turner-Brown; James Bodfish

    2010-01-01

    Autism is characterized by abnormal prefrontal brain activation during cognitive control, a potential biomarker of repetitive behaviors. In this proof-of-principle study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity during an oddball task in two high-functioning males with autism before and after 12 weeks of treatment with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. One participant showed marked

  20. Repetitive elements and epigenetic marks in behavior and psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Darby, Miranda M; Sabunciyan, Sarven

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive elements, which are relics of previous transposition events, constitute a large proportion of the human genome. The ability of transposons to gives rise to new DNA combinations has clearly provided an evolutionary advantage to their hosts. Transposons have shaped our genomes by giving rise to novel coding sequences, alternative gene promoters, conserved noncoding elements, and gene networks. Despite its benefits, the process of transposition can also create deleterious DNA combinations, and a growing number of human diseases are being linked to abnormal repetitive element activity. To limit transposition, cells tightly regulate and immobilize repetitive elements using DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks. Recent findings in neuropsychiatric disorders implicate both repetitive elements and epigenetic marks as potential etiological factors. It is possible that these observations are linked and that the reported alterations in epigenetic marks may create a permissive state enabling transposons to mobilize. In this work, we provide a detailed description of repetitive element biology and epigenetics to familiarize the readers with the subject matter and to illustrate how their disruption can result in pathology. We also review the evidence for the involvement of these two factors in neuropsychiatric disorders and discuss the need for replication studies to confirm these initial findings. We are cautiously optimistic that further characterization of epigenetic mark and repetitive element activity in the brain will reveal the underlying causes of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. PMID:25172351

  1. Behavioral correlates of epileptiform abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Trauner, Doris A

    2014-11-01

    There is a high incidence of epileptiform abnormalities in children with autism even in the absence of clinical seizures. These findings are most prominent during sleep recordings. The significance of these abnormalities is unclear. Although studies do not all agree, there may be some association between cognitive function, behavior, and the presence or absence of epileptiform discharges. Small studies of anticonvulsant treatment mostly suggest an improvement in certain aspects of cognitive or behavioral functioning in these children, but larger and more comprehensive studies are needed to determine the potential relationship between epileptiform discharges on EEG, cognitive and behavioral functioning, and treatment effects in the population with autism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autism and Epilepsy". PMID:25453621

  2. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder) should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings. PMID:25388613

  3. ERP abnormalities elicited by word repetition in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and amnestic MCI

    E-print Network

    Kutas, Marta

    ERP abnormalities elicited by word repetition in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS Dementia Memory Language EEG a b s t r a c t Background: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS. & 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome

  4. Repetitive Behavior Profiles in Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikle South; Sally Ozonoff; William M. McMahon

    2005-01-01

    Although repetitive behaviors are a core diagnostic domain for autism spectrum disorders, research in this area has been neglected. This study had two major aims (1) to provide a detailed characterization of repetitive behaviors in individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and typically developing controls (TD); and (2) to examine whether differences in repetitive behavior profiles could provide

  5. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. F. Villagómez; A. Pinton

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known

  7. Relationships among Repetitive Behaviors, Sensory Features, and Executive Functions in High Functioning Autism.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; McBee, Matthew; Holtzclaw, Tia; Baranek, Grace T; Bodfish, James W

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory processing issues in school-aged children with high functioning autism (HFA). Children with HFA (N = 61) were compared to healthy, typical controls (N = 64) to determine the relationship between these behavioral classes and to examine whether executive dysfunction explained any relationship between the variables. Particular types of repetitive behavior (i.e., stereotypy and compulsions) were related to sensory features in autism; however, executive deficits were only correlated with repetitive behavior. This finding suggests that executive dysfunction is not the shared neurocognitive mechanism that accounts for the relationship between restricted, repetitive behaviors and aberrant sensory features in HFA. Group status, younger chronological age, presence of sensory processing issues, and difficulties with behavior regulation predicted the presence of repetitive behaviors in the HFA group. PMID:21475640

  8. Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Jamie A; Meagher, Rebecca K; Díez-León, María; Garner, Joseph P; Mason, Georgia J

    2011-10-31

    We analysed the relationship between abnormal repetitive behaviour (ARB), the presence/absence of environmental enrichment, and two types of behavioural disinhibition in farmed American mink, Neovison vison. The first type, recurrent perseveration, the inappropriate repetition of already completed responses, was assessed using three indices of excessive response repetition and patterning in a bias-corrected serial two-choice guessing task. The second type, disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, a form of impulsivity, was tested in a locomotive detour task adapted from primate reaching tasks: subjects were required to walk around, rather than directly into, a transparent barrier behind which food was visible. In older adult females, recurrent perseveration positively predicted pre-feeding abnormal repetitive locomotion (ARL) in Non-enriched housing. High-ARL subjects also performed repeated (same-choice) responses more rapidly than low-ARL animals, even when statistically controlling for alternated (different-choice) response latency. Mink performed much less ARL following transfer to Enriched housing, but there was no corresponding change in recurrent perseveration. Thus, elevated recurrent perseveration is not sufficient for frequent ARL; and while captive environments do determine ARL frequency, in mink, they do not necessarily do so by modifying levels of perseveration. Disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, meanwhile, did not predict ARL. In a separate sample of differentially housed young adults, neither type of behavioural disinhibition predicted ARL, and again, whether or not housing was enriched did not affect behavioural disinhibition despite affecting ARL. Thus, the relationship between recurrent perseveration and ARB may only develop with age; longitudinal studies are now required for confirmation. PMID:21466825

  9. Subcategories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization…

  10. Repetitive Behavior Profiles in Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Mikle; Ozonoff, Sally; McMahon, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Although repetitive behaviors are a core diagnostic domain for autism spectrum disorders, research in this area has been neglected. This study had two major aims (1) to provide a detailed characterization of repetitive behaviors in individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and typically developing controls (TD); and…

  11. A Comparison of Repetitive Behaviors in Aspergers Disorder and High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuccaro, Michael L.; Nations, Laura; Brinkley, Jason; Abramson, Ruth K.; Wright, Harry H.; Hall, Alicia; Gilbert, John; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we compared 33 IQ and age matched pairs of individuals with Aspergers Disorder (ASP) and high functioning autism (HFA) on measures of repetitive behavior. On the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), the ASP and HFA groups showed no differences in RBS-R Intensity score (severity) score or Frequency score (number of problems…

  12. Effects of a Family-Implemented Treatment on the Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Rupp, Betty; Khan, Faraaz; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The restricted and repetitive behaviors of children with autism can interfere with family functioning as well as learning and socialization opportunities for the child. To date, neither pharmacological nor comprehensive behavioral treatments have been found to be consistently effective at significantly reducing children's engagement in repetitive

  13. Effects of a Family-Implemented Treatment on the Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. BoydStephen; Stephen G. McDonough; Betty Rupp; Faraaz Khan; James W. Bodfish

    The restricted and repetitive behaviors of children with autism can interfere with family functioning as well as learning\\u000a and socialization opportunities for the child. To date, neither pharmacological nor comprehensive behavioral treatments have\\u000a been found to be consistently effective at significantly reducing children’s engagement in repetitive behaviors. We developed\\u000a Family-Implemented Treatment for Behavioral Inflexibility (FITBI) to target the full variety

  14. Mixed pattern matching-based traffic abnormal behavior recognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Sheng, Victor S; Shi, Yujie; Zhao, Pengpeng

    2014-01-01

    A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity. PMID:24605045

  15. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Childhood Repetitive Behavior Disorders: Tic Disorders and Trichotillomania

    PubMed Central

    Flessner, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for repetitive behavior disorders. Tic disorders (i.e., Tourette's syndrome, chronic tic disorders) and trichotillomania (i.e., chronic hair pulling) are the most often studied and (arguably) most debilitating of these conditions. Therefore, this article will focus on the efficacy of CBT for tic disorders and trichotillomania. After a brief introduction to these disorders, the author will provide an overview of CBT for children presenting with these concerns. In particular, this review will focus on a therapeutic technique that is at the core of most all CBT-based interventions, habit reversal training. Discussion of two recent empirical studies pointing to the immense potential of CBT for the treatment of childhood repetitive behavior disorders will follow. Finally, future areas of research will be discussed. PMID:21440858

  16. Effects of a family-implemented treatment on the repetitive behaviors of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; McDonough, Stephen G; Rupp, Betty; Khan, Faraaz; Bodfish, James W

    2011-10-01

    The restricted and repetitive behaviors of children with autism can interfere with family functioning as well as learning and socialization opportunities for the child. To date, neither pharmacological nor comprehensive behavioral treatments have been found to be consistently effective at significantly reducing children's engagement in repetitive behaviors. We developed Family-Implemented Treatment for Behavioral Inflexibility (FITBI) to target the full variety of repetitive behaviors found in autism. For the current study, a therapist and parents of five children with autism (mean age = 48 months) co-implemented FITBI in a clinic setting over a 12-week treatment period. Using single case design methodology, significant reductions in repetitive behaviors were found for all participants and maintenance of treatment effects for 4 of 5 participants. PMID:21161576

  17. Social deficits, stereotypy and early emergence of repetitive behavior in the C58/J inbred mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Bryce C; Young, Nancy B; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Bodfish, James W; Moy, Sheryl S

    2010-03-17

    Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect aspects of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by emergence of symptoms early in life, higher prevalence in males, social deficits and abnormal repetitive behavior. Mice from the C57BL/6J inbred strain, which has a similar genetic lineage and physical appearance to C58/J, served as a comparison group. Our results revealed that C58/J mice display elevated activity levels by postnatal day 6, which persist into adulthood. Despite normal olfactory ability, young adult male C58/J mice showed deficits in social approach in the three-chambered choice assay and failed to demonstrate social transmission of food preference. In contrast, female C58/J mice performed similarly to female C57BL/6J mice in both social tests. C58/J mice of both sexes demonstrated abnormal repetitive behaviors, displaying excessive jumping and back flipping in both social and non-social situations. These stereotypies were clearly evident in C58/J pups by postnatal days 20-21, and were also observed in C58/J dams during a test for maternal behavior. Overall, the strain profile for C58/J, including spontaneously developing motor stereotypies emerging early in the developmental trajectory, and social deficits primarily in males, models multiple components of the autism phenotype. PMID:19941908

  18. Relationships among repetitive behaviors, sensory features, and executive functions in high functioning autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. Boyd; Matthew McBee; Tia Holtzclaw; Grace T. Baranek; James W. Bodfish

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory processing issues in school-aged children with high functioning autism (HFA). Children with HFA (N=61) were compared to healthy, typical controls (N=64) to determine the relationship between these behavioral classes and to examine whether executive dysfunction explained any relationship between the variables. Particular types of repetitive behavior (i.e., stereotypy and compulsions)

  19. Asymptotic behavior of intermediate points in the differential mean value theorem of divided differences with repetitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aimin Xu; Feng Cui; Zhicheng Hu

    2010-01-01

    By the explicit representation for the divided differences with repetitions involving cycle index of symmetric groups, this paper deals with the asymptotic behavior of the intermediate point of the mean value theorem of divided differences with repetitions. Our results generalize some recent interesting results such as the asymptotic expansions of the immediate points of the Taylor formula and the differential

  20. Repetitive Behavior in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: Parallels with Autism Spectrum Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Jane; Moss, Joanna; Beck, Sarah R.; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy; Oliver, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Syndrome specific repetitive behavior profiles have been described previously. A detailed profile is absent for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire and Social Communication Questionnaire were completed for children and adults with RTS (N = 87), Fragile-X (N = 196) and Down (N = 132) syndromes, and individuals…

  1. Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Riddick, Natallia V.; Nikolova, Viktoriya D.; Teng, Brian L.; Agster, Kara L.; Nonneman, Randal J.; Young, Nancy B.; Baker, Lorinda K.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles. PMID:24211371

  2. Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Moy, Sheryl S; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Teng, Brian L; Agster, Kara L; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Baker, Lorinda K; Nadler, Jessica J; Bodfish, James W

    2014-02-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles. PMID:24211371

  3. Repetitive behavior in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: parallels with autism spectrum phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Waite, Jane; Moss, Joanna; Beck, Sarah R; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy; Oliver, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Syndrome specific repetitive behavior profiles have been described previously. A detailed profile is absent for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire and Social Communication Questionnaire were completed for children and adults with RTS (N = 87), Fragile-X (N = 196) and Down (N = 132) syndromes, and individuals reaching cut-off for autism spectrum disorder (N = 228). Total and matched group analyses were conducted. A phenotypic profile of repetitive behavior was found in RTS. The majority of behaviors in RTS were not associated with social-communication deficits or degree of disability. Repetitive behavior should be studied at a fine-grained level. A dissociation of the triad of impairments might be evident in RTS. PMID:25491025

  4. A Comparison of Repetitive Behaviors in Aspergers Disorder and High Functioning Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Cuccaro; Laura Nations; Jason Brinkley; Ruth K. Abramson; Harry H. Wright; Alicia Hall; John Gilbert; Margaret A. Pericak-Vance

    2007-01-01

    In this study we compared 33 IQ and age matched pairs of individuals with Aspergers Disorder (ASP) and high functioning autism\\u000a (HFA) on measures of repetitive behavior. On the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), the ASP and HFA groups showed\\u000a no differences in RBS-R Intensity score (severity) score or Frequency score (number of problems present). This suggests that\\u000a the two groups

  5. Further characterization of repetitive behavior in C58 mice: Developmental trajectory and effects of environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Muehlmann, AM; Edington, G; Mihalik, AC; Buchwald, Z; Koppuzha, D; Korah, M; Lewis, MH

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant repetitive behaviors are commonly observed in a variety of neurodevelopmental, neurological, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the specific neurobiological mechanisms that underlie such behaviors, however, and effective treatments are lacking. Valid animal models can aid substantially in identifying pathophysiological factors mediating aberrant repetitive behavior and aid in treatment development. The C58 inbred mouse strain is a particularly promising model, and we have further characterized its repetitive behavior phenotype. Compared to C57BL/6 mice, C58 mice exhibit high rates of spontaneous hindlimb jumping and backward somersaulting reaching adult frequencies by 5 weeks post-weaning and adult temporal organization by 2 weeks post-weaning. The development of repetitive behavior in C58 mice was markedly attenuated by rearing these mice in larger, more complex environments. In addition to characterizing repetitive motor behavior, we also assessed related forms of inflexible behavior that reflect restricted and perseverative responding. Contrary to our hypothesis, C58 mice did not exhibit increased marble burying nor did they display reduced exploratory behavior in the holeboard task. The C58 strain appears to be a very useful model for the repetitive motor behavior characteristic of a number of clinical disorders. As an inbred mouse strain, studies using the C58 model can take full advantage of the tool kit of modern genetics and molecular neuroscience. This technical advantage makes the model a compelling choice for use in studies designed to elucidate the etiology and pathophysiology of aberrant repetitive behavior. Such findings should, in turn, translate into effective new treatments. PMID:22963990

  6. Low-Intensity Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Abnormal Visual Cortical Circuit Topography and Upregulates BDNF in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Harvey, Alan R.; Sherrard, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the induced field is focused on a target region during rTMS, adjacent areas also receive stimulation at a lower intensity and the contribution of this perifocal stimulation to network-wide effects is poorly defined. Here, we examined low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS)-induced changes on a model neural network using the visual systems of normal (C57Bl/6J wild-type, n = 22) and ephrin-A2A5?/? (n = 22) mice, the latter possessing visuotopic anomalies. Mice were treated with LI-rTMS or sham (handling control) daily for 14 d, then fluorojade and fluororuby were injected into visual cortex. The distribution of dorsal LGN (dLGN) neurons and corticotectal terminal zones (TZs) was mapped and disorder defined by comparing their actual location with that predicted by injection sites. In the afferent geniculocortical projection, LI-rTMS decreased the abnormally high dispersion of retrogradely labeled neurons in the dLGN of ephrin-A2A5?/? mice, indicating geniculocortical map refinement. In the corticotectal efferents, LI-rTMS improved topography of the most abnormal TZs in ephrin-A2A5?/? mice without altering topographically normal TZs. To investigate a possible molecular mechanism for LI-rTMS-induced structural plasticity, we measured brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the visual cortex and superior colliculus after single and multiple stimulations. BDNF was upregulated after a single stimulation for all groups, but only sustained in the superior colliculus of ephrin-A2A5?/? mice. Our results show that LI-rTMS upregulates BDNF, promoting a plastic environment conducive to beneficial reorganization of abnormal cortical circuits, information that has important implications for clinical rTMS. PMID:25100609

  7. The Relationship between Restrictive and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, R. K.; Ravan, S. A.; Wright, H. H.; Wieduwilt, K.; Wolpert, C. M.; Donnelly, S. A.; Pericak-Vance, M. A.; Cuccaro, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors in individuals with autism and obsessive-compulsive behaviors in parents. We hypothesized that repetitive behaviors in probands with autism would be associated with increased obsessive-compulsive behaviors in parents in sporadic families (1 known case of autism per family and no…

  8. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  9. Age-related differences in restricted repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Esbensen, Anna J; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Lam, Kristen S L; Bodfish, James W

    2009-01-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) were examined in a large group of children, adolescents and adults with ASD in order to describe age-related patterns of symptom change and association with specific contextual factors, and to examine if the patterns of change are different for the various types of RRBs. Over 700 individuals with ASD were rated on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised. RRBs were less frequent and less severe among older than younger individuals, corroborating that autism symptoms abate with age. Our findings further suggest that repetitive behaviors are a heterogeneous group of behaviors, with the subtypes of RRBs having their own individual patterns across the lifespan, and in some cases, a differential association with age depending on intellectual functioning. PMID:18566881

  10. Relationships among Repetitive Behaviors, Sensory Features, and Executive Functions in High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Holtzclaw, Tia; Baranek, Grace T.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory processing issues in school-aged children with high functioning autism (HFA). Children with HFA (N = 61) were compared to healthy, typical controls (N = 64) to determine the relationship between these behavioral classes and to examine whether executive dysfunction…

  11. Relationship between whole blood serotonin and repetitive behaviors in autism.

    PubMed

    Kolevzon, Alexander; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Kryzak, Lauren; Chaplin, William; Watner, Dryden; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J; Cook, Edwin H; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2010-02-28

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between whole blood serotonin level and behavioral symptoms in 78 subjects with autism. No significant associations were found between serotonin level and the primary behavioral outcome measures. However, a significant inverse relationship between serotonin level and self-injury was demonstrated. PMID:20044143

  12. Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Barbara; Managò, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII?/? mice. SynII?/? and SynIII?/? mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI?/?, SynII?/? and SynIII?/? mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI?/? and SynII?/? mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy. PMID:23280234

  13. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  14. Age-Related Differences in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) were examined in a large group of children, adolescents and adults with ASD in order to describe age-related patterns of symptom change and association with specific contextual factors, and to examine if the patterns of change are different for the various types of RRBs. Over 700 individuals with ASD were…

  15. Cognitive Set Shifting Deficits and Their Relationship to Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Haylie L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Cook, Edwin H.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new…

  16. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with a History of ASDs Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are particularly difficult to remediate. We examined present and past RRBs in 34 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes (OOs; lost their ASD diagnosis), 45 high-functioning individuals with ASD (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. The OO…

  17. Generativity Abilities Predict Communication Deficits but Not Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate impaired generativity that is thought to mediate repetitive behaviors in autism (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(6):839-849, 1999a). The present study evaluated generativity in children with and without ASD via the use-of-objects task (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry,…

  18. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long-term effect on behavior, as evidenced by behavioral changes that persisted despite re-enrichment. Ours is the first study evaluating the relationship between personality dimensions, environment, and abnormal behaviors in an avian species. PMID:26114423

  19. Astroglial glutamate transporter deficiency increases synaptic excitability and leads to pathological repetitive behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Aida, Tomomi; Yoshida, Junichi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Tanimura, Asami; Iino, Yusuke; Soma, Miho; Bai, Ning; Ito, Yukiko; Cui, Wanpeng; Aizawa, Hidenori; Yanagisawa, Michiko; Nagai, Terumi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kano, Masanobu; Götz, Magdalena; Hirase, Hajime; Tanaka, Kohichi

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the ratio of cellular excitation to inhibition (E/I ratio) has been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's syndrome (TS). A proper E/I ratio is achieved via factors expressed in neuron and glia. In astrocytes, the glutamate transporter GLT1 is critical for regulating an E/I ratio. However, the role of GLT1 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders remains unknown because mice with a complete deficiency of GLT1 exhibited seizures and premature death. Here, we show that astrocyte-specific GLT1 inducible knockout (GLAST(CreERT2/+)/GLT1(flox/flox), iKO) mice exhibit pathological repetitive behaviors including excessive and injurious levels of self-grooming and tic-like head shakes. Electrophysiological studies reveal that excitatory transmission at corticostriatal synapse is normal in a basal state but is increased after repetitive stimulation. Furthermore, treatment with an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine ameliorated the pathological repetitive behaviors in iKO mice. These results suggest that astroglial GLT1 has a critical role in controlling the synaptic efficacy at corticostriatal synapses and its dysfunction causes pathological repetitive behaviors. PMID:25662838

  20. Repetitive behaviors in Tourette's syndrome and OCD with and without tics: what are the differences?

    PubMed

    Cath, D C; Spinhoven, P; Hoogduin, C A; Landman, A D; van Woerkom, T C; van de Wetering, B J; Roos, R A; Rooijmans, H G

    2001-03-25

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share obsessive-compulsive phenomena. The aims of this study were to compare the OC symptom distribution between GTS and OCD and to investigate whether a subdivision of these phenomena into obsessions, compulsions and 'impulsions' is useful in distinguishing GTS and OCD patients. Thirty-two GTS, 31 OCD (10 with tics, 21 without tics) and 29 control subjects were studied using the Leiden repetitive behaviors semi-structured interview to assess GTS as well as OCD-related behaviors. Each reported repetitive thought or action was evaluated on the presence of anxiety and on goal-directedness. This information was used to define whether the behavior was an obsession, compulsion, or 'impulsion'. Both the GTS and OCD study groups showed higher scores than control subjects on rating scales measuring depression, OC behavior and anxiety. In GTS, Y-BOCS severity scores and trait anxiety were lower than in the OCD groups. Furthermore, GTS patients differed from OCD patients in the distribution of symptoms. Aggressive repetitive thoughts, contamination worries and washing behaviors were reported more frequently by tic-free OCD, while mental play, echophenomena, touching and (self)-injurious behaviors were reported more frequently by GTS. OCD individuals with tics were intermediate, but closer to tic-free OCD. GTS individuals reported significantly more 'impulsions' and fewer obsessions and compulsions than OCD individuals with and without tics. Factor analysis revealed three factors accounting for 44% of the variance, resulting in an 'impulsive' factor related to GTS, a 'compulsive' factor related to OCD and an 'obsessive' factor related to tic-free OCD. In conclusion, OCD individuals reported more anxiety and goal-directedness associated with their behaviors than did GTS subjects. The distinction between obsessions, compulsions and impulsions is of importance in identifying Tourette-related vs. non-Tourette-related repetitions. PMID:11286820

  1. Life-Threatening Abnormal Behavior Incidence in 10–19 Year Old Patients Administered Neuraminidase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Miyazaki, Chiaki; Momoi, Mariko; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Much discussion has surrounded the association between the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) and severe abnormal behaviors, including sudden running away and jumping from a high place, which can be life-threatening if no one intervenes. Using data on the number of abnormal behaviors and patients who had been prescribed NI in Japan, we calculated the incidence rate of severe abnormal behaviors among influenza patients who had been prescribed NI. Then, we evaluated the relative risk between the four types of NI on severe abnormal behavior. We found no significant difference in the incidence rates of abnormal behavior by the type of NI. Results implicate that the current policy of package inserts, which warn physicians that patients who were administered ANY type of NI might exhibit abnormal behavior, seems to be appropriate. PMID:26132729

  2. Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Abnormal Turning Behavior in Drosophila Larvae: Identification

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Copyright © 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Abnormal Turning Behavior in Drosophila Larvae and in the imaginal discs. Larvae with mutations in sbb exhibit abnormally high amounts of turning behavior organisms perform turning behaviors to fine- ple, the circadian rhythm genes period (per) and timeless tune

  3. Autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations commonly impair striatal circuits to boost repetitive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Patrick E; Fuccillo, Marc V; Maxeiner, Stephan; Hayton, Scott J; Gokce, Ozgun; Lim, Byung Kook; Fowler, Stephen C; Malenka, Robert C; Südhof, Thomas C

    2014-07-01

    In humans, neuroligin-3 mutations are associated with autism, whereas in mice, the corresponding mutations produce robust synaptic and behavioral changes. However, different neuroligin-3 mutations cause largely distinct phenotypes in mice, and no causal relationship links a specific synaptic dysfunction to a behavioral change. Using rotarod motor learning as a proxy for acquired repetitive behaviors in mice, we found that different neuroligin-3 mutations uniformly enhanced formation of repetitive motor routines. Surprisingly, neuroligin-3 mutations caused this phenotype not via changes in the cerebellum or dorsal striatum but via a selective synaptic impairment in the nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum. Here, neuroligin-3 mutations increased rotarod learning by specifically impeding synaptic inhibition onto D1-dopamine receptor-expressing but not D2-dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons. Our data thus suggest that different autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations cause a common increase in acquired repetitive behaviors by impairing a specific striatal synapse and thereby provide a plausible circuit substrate for autism pathophysiology. PMID:24995986

  4. Generativity abilities predict communication deficits but not repetitive behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Dichter, Gabriel S; Lam, Kristen S L; Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Holtzclaw, Tia N; Bodfish, James W

    2009-09-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate impaired generativity that is thought to mediate repetitive behaviors in autism (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(6):839-849, 1999a). The present study evaluated generativity in children with and without ASD via the use-of-objects task (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(2):189-201, 1999b) and an Animals Fluency Task (Lezak in Neuropsychological assessment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995). Groups differed significantly on two of four metrics from the Animals Fluency Task and two of seven metrics from the Use of Objects task. In the ASD sample, no significant relations were found between generativity and repetitive behaviors. Significant relations were found, however, between performance on the Animals Fluency Task and communication symptoms. Results replicate reports of generativity deficits in ASD and suggest that impaired generativity may reflect communication deficits that are characteristic of the disorder. PMID:19396536

  5. Feasibility of Exposure Response Prevention to Treat Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism and an Intellectual Disability: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility…

  6. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20?GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5?GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8?GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8?GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  7. Natural genetic variation underlying differences in Peromyscus repetitive and social/aggressive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Kimberly R; Owen, Amy; Anderson, Vanessa; Hall-South, April C; Hayford, Samantha; Cakora, Patricia; Crossland, Janet P; Georgi, Velina R M; Perkins, Amy; Kelly, Sandra J; Felder, Michael R; Vrana, Paul B

    2014-03-01

    Peromyscus maniculatus (BW) and P. polionotus (PO) are interfertile North American species that differ in many characteristics. For example, PO exhibit monogamy and BW animals are susceptible to repetitive behaviors and thus a model for neurobehavioral disorders such as Autism. We analyzed these two stocks as well as their hybrids, a BW Y(PO) consomic line (previously shown to alter glucose homeostasis) and a natural P. maniculatus agouti variant (A(Nb) = wide band agouti). We show that PO animals engage in far less repetitive behavior than BW animals, that this trait is dominant, and that trait distribution in both species is bi-modal. The A(Nb) allele also reduces such behaviors, particularly in females. PO, F1, and A(Nb) animals all dig significantly more than BW. Increased self-grooming is also a PO dominant trait, and there is a bimodal trait distribution in all groups except BW. The inter-stock differences in self-grooming are greater between males, and the consomic data suggest the Y chromosome plays a role. The monogamous PO animals engage in more social behavior than BW; hybrid animals exhibit intermediate levels. Surprisingly, A(Nb) animals are also more social than BW animals, although A(Nb) interactions led to aggressive interactions at higher levels than any other group. PO animals exhibited the lowest incidence of aggressive behaviors, while the hybrids exhibited BW levels. Thus this group exhibits natural, genetically tractable variation in several biomedically relevant traits. PMID:24407381

  8. Marble burying reflects a repetitive and perseverative behavior more than novelty-induced anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alexia; Burant, April; Bui, Nghiem; Graham, Deanna; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale An increasing number of investigators utilize the marble-burying assay despite the paucity of information available regarding what underlies the behavior. Objectives We tested the possibility that a genetic component underlies marble burying in mice and if there is a genetic correlation with other anxiety-like traits. Since findings reported in the literature indicate that marble-burying behavior reflects an anxiety-like response, we explored the assumption that the novel nature of a marble induces this anxiety. Finally, we investigated how the natural response of a mouse to dig relates to the marble-burying phenomenon. Methods We examined ten different inbred mouse strains to determine if marble-burying behavior is genetically regulated and correlated with anxiety-like traits in two other assays. We employed multiple variants of the “traditional” marble-burying assay to address how issues such as the novelty of marbles and digging behavior contribute to marble burying. Results Marble-burying behavior varied across strain and did not correlate with anxiety measures in other assays. Multiple tests conducted to reduce the novelty of marbles failed to alter burying behavior. Additionally, digging behavior correlated with marble burying, and the presence of marbles did not significantly impact the digging response. Conclusions Our results indicate that mouse marble burying is genetically regulated, not correlated with other anxiety-like traits, not stimulated by novelty, and is a repetitive behavior that persists/perseveres with little change across multiple exposures. Marble burying is related to digging behavior and may in fact be more appropriately considered as an indicative measure of repetitive digging. PMID:19189082

  9. BETA-ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN LONGTAILED AND PIGTAILED MACAQUES VARY BY ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR RATING AND SEX

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Carolyn M.; Sackett, Gene P.; Sandman, Curt A.; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Bentson, Kathleen L.

    2007-01-01

    Frequent or severe abnormal behavior may be associated with the release of endorphins that positively reinforce the behavior with an opiate euphoria or analgesia. One line of research exploring this association involves the superhormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The products of POMC appear to be dysregulated in some human subjects who exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB). Macaque monkeys have POMC very similar to humans, and some laboratory macaques display SIB or frequent stereotypies. We investigated associations between plasma levels of three immunoreactive POMC fragments with possible opioid action and abnormal behavior ratings in macaques. In 58 adult male and female macaques (24 Macaca fascicularis and 34 M. nemestrina), plasma levels of intact beta-endorphin (?E) and the N-terminal fragment (BEN) were significantly higher in animals with higher levels of abnormal behavior. The C-terminal fragment (BEC) was significantly higher in males but unrelated to ratings of abnormal behavior. Levels of ACTH, cortisol, and (?E-ACTH)/?E dysregulation index were unrelated to abnormal behavior. None of the POMC products differed significantly by subjects' species, age, or weight. The finding that intact beta-endorphin is positively related to abnormal behavior in two species of macaque is consistent with some previous research on human subjects and nonprimates. The positive relation of the N-terminal fragment of ?E to abnormal behavior is a new finding. PMID:17719139

  10. Indirect basal ganglia pathway mediation of repetitive behavior: attenuation by adenosine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Yoko; Vaziri, Sasha; Lewis, Mark H

    2010-06-26

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and common in related neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their clinical importance, underlying mechanisms associated with the expression of these behaviors remain poorly understood. Our lab has previously shown that the rates of spontaneous stereotypy in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were negatively correlated with enkephalin content, a marker of striatopallidal but not striatonigral neurons. To investigate further the role of the indirect basal ganglia pathway, we examined neuronal activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) using cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry in high- and low-stereotypy mice. CO activity in STN was significantly lower in high-stereotypy mice and negatively correlated with the frequency of stereotypy. In addition, exposure to environmental enrichment, which attenuated stereotypy, normalized the activity of STN. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS21680 and the A(1) receptor agonist CPA attenuated stereotypy dose-dependently. The significant reduction associated with the lowest dose of the drug combination tested was due to its effects on mice with lower baseline levels of stereotypy. Higher doses of the drug combination were required to show robust behavioral effects, and presumably requisite activation of the indirect pathway, in high-stereotypy mice. These findings support that decreased indirect pathway activity is linked to the expression of high levels of stereotypy in deer mice and that striatal A(1) and A(2A) receptors may provide promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20178817

  11. Modified Exposure and Response Prevention to Treat the Repetitive Behaviors of a Child with Autism: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles) remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings. PMID:22937399

  12. Feasibility of exposure response prevention to treat repetitive behaviors of children with autism and an intellectual disability: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; Woodard, Cooper R; Bodfish, James W

    2013-03-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility of modifying exposure response prevention, an evidence-based strategy for obsessive-compulsive disorder, to treat the repetitive behaviors found in autism. Five school-aged participants (ages 5-11) diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. Our preliminary findings suggest it is feasible, and potentially efficacious, to modify standard exposure response prevention to treat the specific forms of repetitive behaviors found in individuals with autism and comorbid intellectual disabilities. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these preliminary findings. PMID:21975037

  13. Modified exposure and response prevention to treat the repetitive behaviors of a child with autism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Brian A; Woodard, Cooper R; Bodfish, James W

    2011-01-01

    We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles) remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings. PMID:22937399

  14. Development of a mouse test for repetitive, restricted behaviors: relevance to autism.

    PubMed

    Moy, Sheryl S; Nadler, Jessica J; Poe, Michele D; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Koller, Beverly H; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Duncan, Gary E; Bodfish, James W

    2008-03-17

    Repetitive behavior, a core symptom of autism, encompasses stereotyped responses, restricted interests, and resistance to change. These studies investigated whether different components of the repetitive behavior domain could be modeled in the exploratory hole-board task in mice. Four inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and FVB/NJ, and mice with reduced expression of Grin1, leading to NMDA receptor hypofunction (NR1neo/neo mice), were tested for exploration and preference for olfactory stimuli in an activity chamber with a 16-hole floor-board. Reduced exploration and high preference for holes located in the corners of the chamber were observed in BALB/cByJ and BTBR T+tf/J mice. All inbred strains had initial high preference for a familiar olfactory stimulus (clean cage bedding). BTBR T+tf/J was the only strain that did not demonstrate a shift in hole preference towards an appetitive olfactory stimulus (cereal or a chocolate chip), following home cage exposure to the food. The NR1neo/neo mice showed lower hole selectivity and aberrant olfactory stimulus preference, in comparison to wildtype controls. The results indicate that NR1neo/neo mice have repetitive nose poke responses that are less modified by environmental contingencies than responses in wildtype mice. 25-30% of NMDA receptor hypomorphic mice also show self-injurious responses. Findings from the olfactory studies suggest that resistance to change and restricted interests might be modeled in mice by a failure to alter patterns of hole preference following familiarization with an appetitive stimulus, and by high preference persistently demonstrated for one particular olfactory stimulus. Further work is required to determine the characteristics of optimal mouse social stimuli in the olfactory hole-board test. PMID:18068825

  15. Severe drug-induced repetitive behaviors and striatal overexpression of VAChT in ChAT-ChR2-EYFP BAC transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Carolyn J.; Lee, Tyrone; Bowden, Hilary A.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    In drug users, drug-related cues alone can induce dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Instructive cues activate inputs to the striatum from both dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, which are thought to work together to support motor learning and motivated behaviors. Imbalances in these neuromodulatory influences can impair normal action selection and might thus contribute to pathologically repetitive and compulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. Dopamine and acetylcholine can have either antagonistic or synergistic effects on behavior, depending on the state of the animal and the receptor signaling systems at play. Semi-synchronized activation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum drives dopamine release via presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on dopamine terminals. Nicotinic receptor blockade is known to diminish abnormal repetitive behaviors (stereotypies) induced by psychomotor stimulants. By contrast, blockade of postsynaptic acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum exacerbates drug-induced stereotypy, exemplifying how different acetylcholine receptors can also have opposing effects. Although acetylcholine release is known to be altered in animal models of drug addiction, predicting whether these changes will augment or diminish drug-induced behaviors thus remains a challenge. Here, we measured amphetamine-induced stereotypy in BAC transgenic mice that have been shown to overexpress the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) with consequent increased acetylcholine release. We found that drug-induced stereotypies, consisting of confined sniffing and licking behaviors, were greatly increased in the transgenic mice relative to sibling controls, as was striatal VAChT protein. These findings suggest that VAChT-mediated increases in acetylcholine could be critical in exacerbating drug-induced stereotypic behaviors and promoting exaggerated behavioral fixity. PMID:24904300

  16. Evidence for Three Subtypes of Repetitive Behavior in Autism that Differ in Familiality and Association with Other Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Bodfish, James W.; Piven, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Background: Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism and consist of a variety of behaviors, ranging from motor stereotypies to complex circumscribed interests. The objective of the current study was to examine the structure of RRBs in autism using relevant items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in a sample of…

  17. Social deficits, stereotypy and early emergence of repetitive behavior in the C58\\/J inbred mouse strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryce C. Ryan; Nancy B. Young; Jacqueline N. Crawley; James W. Bodfish; Sheryl S. Moy

    2010-01-01

    Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58\\/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect

  18. Suppression of NMDA receptor function in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid improves social deficits and repetitive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jaeseung; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, administered to VPA mice rescues both social deficits and repetitive behaviors such as self-grooming and jumping. These results suggest that suppression of elevated NMDAR function in VPA animals normalizes repetitive behaviors in addition to social deficits. PMID:26074764

  19. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. PMID:25812825

  20. The significance of repetitive hair-pulling behaviors in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Nancy; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M; Strober, Michael; Plotnicov, Kathy; Klump, Kelly L; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-04-01

    We studied the relation between intrusive and repetitive hair pulling, the defining feature of trichotillomania, and compulsive and impulsive features in 1,453 individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. We conducted a series of regression models examining the relative influence of compulsive features associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, compulsive features associated with eating disorders, trait features related to harm avoidance, perfectionism, and novelty seeking, and self harm. A final model with a reduced sample (n = 928) examined the additional contribution of impulsive attributes. One of 20 individuals endorsed hair pulling. Evidence of a positive association with endorsement of compulsive behavior of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum emerged. Hair pulling may be more consonant with ritualistic compulsions than impulsive urges in those with eating disorders. PMID:21365638

  1. The Significance of Repetitive Hair-Pulling Behaviors in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M.; Strober, Michael; Plotnicov, Kathy; Klump, Kelly L.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the relation between intrusive and repetitive hair-pulling, the defining feature of trichotillomania, and compulsive and impulsive features in 1453 individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. We conducted a series of regression models examining the relative influence of compulsive features associated with obsessive compulsive disorder; compulsive features associated with eating disorders; trait features related to harm avoidance, perfectionism and novelty seeking; and self harm. A final model with a reduced sample (n=928) examined the additional contribution of impulsive attributes. One out of 20 individuals endorsed hair-pulling. Evidence of a positive association with endorsement of compulsive behavior of the obsessive compulsive spectrum emerged. Hair-pulling may be more consonant with ritualistic compulsions than impulsive urges in those with eating disorders. PMID:21365638

  2. Regional gray matter volumetric changes in autism associated with social and repetitive behavior symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Donald C; Peterson, Eric; Winterrowd, Erin; Reite, Martin L; Rogers, Sally J; Tregellas, Jason R

    2006-01-01

    Background Although differences in brain anatomy in autism have been difficult to replicate using manual tracing methods, automated whole brain analyses have begun to find consistent differences in regions of the brain associated with the social cognitive processes that are often impaired in autism. We attempted to replicate these whole brain studies and to correlate regional volume changes with several autism symptom measures. Methods We performed MRI scans on 24 individuals diagnosed with DSM-IV autistic disorder and compared those to scans from 23 healthy comparison subjects matched on age. All participants were male. Whole brain, voxel-wise analyses of regional gray matter volume were conducted using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results Controlling for age and total gray matter volume, the volumes of the medial frontal gyri, left pre-central gyrus, right post-central gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, caudate nuclei and the left hippocampus were larger in the autism group relative to controls. Regions exhibiting smaller volumes in the autism group were observed exclusively in the cerebellum. Significant partial correlations were found between the volumes of the caudate nuclei, multiple frontal and temporal regions, the cerebellum and a measure of repetitive behaviors, controlling for total gray matter volume. Social and communication deficits in autism were also associated with caudate, cerebellar, and precuneus volumes, as well as with frontal and temporal lobe regional volumes. Conclusion Gray matter enlargement was observed in areas that have been functionally identified as important in social-cognitive processes, such as the medial frontal gyri, sensorimotor cortex and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, we have shown that VBM is sensitive to associations between social and repetitive behaviors and regional brain volumes in autism. PMID:17166273

  3. Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

    1984-01-01

    Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

  4. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  5. Brief Report: The Dopamine-3-Receptor Gene ("DRD3") Is Associated with Specific Repetitive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staal, Wouter G.; de Krom, Mariken; de Jonge, Maretha V.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the "DRD3" gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. This risk allele was…

  6. Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as…

  7. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…

  8. Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorna Wing; Judith Gould

    1979-01-01

    The prevalence, in children aged under 15, of severe impairments of social interaction, language abnormalities, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors was investigated in an area of London. A “socially impaired” group (more than half of whom were severely retarded) and a comparison group of “sociable severely mentally retarded” children were identified. Mutism or echolalia, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors were found in

  9. Blink rate as an index of dopamine function in adults with mental retardation and repetitive behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    Bodfish, J W; Powell, S B; Golden, R N; Lewis, M H

    1995-01-01

    Direct observation of blink rate was used as a noninvasive, in vivo estimate of dopamine function in adults with mental retardation and repetitive behavior disorders. Blink rate as measured in groups of stereotypy, compulsion, and control subjects was highly stable. Subjects with stereotypies had significantly lower blink rates than did control subjects. Although blink rates for compulsive subjects were not significantly different from those of control subjects, a subgroup of compulsive subjects with comorbid stereotypic behaviors displayed significantly lower blink rates. Significant inverse correlations were found for blink rate and severity of repetitive behavior disorder and for blink rate and ratings of motor slowness. These findings support the hypothesis that stereotyped behavior among adults with mental retardation is mediated by hypodopaminergic function. PMID:7695876

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha plays a crucial role in behavioral repetition and cognitive flexibility in mice

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Cristiano, Claudia; Lyons, David J.; Citraro, Rita; Russo, Emilio; Avagliano, Carmen; Russo, Roberto; Raso, Giuseppina Mattace; Meli, Rosaria; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Heisler, Lora K.; Calignano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis and is the target of medications used to treat dyslipidemia. However, little is known about the role of PPAR-? in mouse behavior. Methods To investigate the function of Ppar-? in cognitive functions, a behavioral phenotype analysis of mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Ppar-? was performed in combination with neuroanatomical, biochemical and pharmacological manipulations. The therapeutic exploitability of PPAR-? was probed in mice using a pharmacological model of psychosis and a genetic model (BTBR T + tf/J) exhibiting a high rate of repetitive behavior. Results An unexpected role for brain Ppar-? in the regulation of cognitive behavior in mice was revealed. Specifically, we observed that Ppar-? genetic perturbation promotes rewiring of cortical and hippocampal regions and a behavioral phenotype of cognitive inflexibility, perseveration and blunted responses to psychomimetic drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the antipsychotic and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) medication risperidone ameliorates the behavioral profile of Ppar-? deficient mice. Importantly, we reveal that pharmacological PPAR-? agonist treatment in mice improves behavior in a pharmacological model of ketamine-induced behavioral dysinhibition and repetitive behavior in BTBR T + tf/J mice. Conclusion Our data indicate that Ppar-? is required for normal cognitive function and that pharmacological stimulation of PPAR-? improves cognitive function in pharmacological and genetic models of impaired cognitive function in mice. These results thereby reveal an unforeseen therapeutic application for a class of drugs currently in human use.

  11. Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Kuperberg, Gina

    plan behavior. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 medicated schizophrenia patients with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced

  12. Abnormal turning behavior in Drosophila larvae. Identification and molecular analysis of scribbler (sbb).

    PubMed Central

    Yang, P; Shaver, S A; Hilliker, A J; Sokolowski, M B

    2000-01-01

    Our genetic dissection of behavior has isolated scribbler (sbb), a vital gene that encodes a novel protein expressed in the embryonic and larval nervous systems and in the imaginal discs. Larvae with mutations in sbb exhibit abnormally high amounts of turning behavior in the absence of food. sbb is a large gene spanning >50 kb of genomic DNA with four major developmentally regulated transcripts. Transgenic rescue of scribbler behavior was demonstrated by targeting expression of a normal sbb transgene (sbb(+)) expressing one of the major transcripts to the nervous system. The vital function of sbb was restored by ubiquitous expression of this transgene throughout development. PMID:10880478

  13. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Farnia, Vahid; Abdoli, Nasrin; Akrami, Mohammad R.; Arman, Farid; Shakeri, Hania

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. ?Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). ?Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%). However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320). Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively). Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001). Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004). ?Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.

  14. The microbiota modulates gut physiology and behavioral abnormalities associated with autism

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Elaine Y.; McBride, Sara W.; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R.; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A.; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Patterson, Paul H.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by core behavioral impairments, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly reported. Subsets of ASD individuals display dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, and some exhibit increased intestinal permeability. Here we demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in a mouse model displaying features of ASD, maternal immune activation (MIA). Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition and ameliorates ASD-related defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naïve mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:24315484

  15. Abnormal Rheological Behavior of Linear Low Density Polyethylene Melts at High Shear Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaewhan Kim; Dong Hak Kim; Younggon Son

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal rheological behavior is observed during capillary extrusion with a linear low density polyethylene\\u000a (LLDPE). The nominal viscosity in the stick-slip flow regime and the gross melt fracture regime increase\\u000a with a rise in temperature. This is attributed to slippage of the polymer melts. It is generally accepted\\u000a that the occurrence of slippage can be detected by a Mooney analysis.

  16. Anxiety and abnormal eating behaviors associated with cyclical readiness testing in a naval hospital active duty population.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Janis R; Manos, Gail H; Van Slyke, John A

    2005-08-01

    Studies of abnormal eating behaviors in active duty military personal have found rates similar to or higher than the general population. We have reviewed these studies and extended the research to examine abnormal eating behaviors in a heterogeneous population at a major military medical center. We found high rates of body dissatisfaction, abnormal eating behaviors, and worry about passing the semiannual personal fitness assessment in both men and women. Abnormal eating behaviors were associated with worrying about the personal fitness assessment, and these measures were associated with body mass index and gender. Our data extend previous research indicating that cyclic or external pressure to maintain body weight within specified standards can produce unsafe eating and dieting behaviors. We recommend changes to the current system to incorporate treatment programs aimed at recognizing and treating eating disorders with a goal of producing more fit and healthy service members. PMID:16173205

  17. Repetitive Thoughts and Behavior in Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Treatment with Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougle, Christopher J.; Kresch, Laura E.; Posey, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Results from two studies indicate the nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) clomipramine is more efficacious than the relatively selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine and placebo in children with autism. A study of the selective SRI fluvoxamine found it to be significantly better than placebo for reducing repetitive

  18. Executive function deficits and social-behavioral abnormality in mice exposed to a low dose of dioxin in utero and via lactation.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation. PMID:23251380

  19. Plant Biomechanics Conference Cayenne, November 16 21, 2009 Origins of abnormal behaviors of gelatinous layer in tension wood

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    6th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Cayenne, November 16 ­ 21, 2009 Origins of abnormal behaviors, published in "6th Plant Biomechanics Conference, French Guiana (2009)" #12;6th Plant Biomechanics Conference

  20. Convergent Behavioral and Neuropsychological Evidence for a Distinction Between Identification and Production Forms of Repetition Priming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. E. Gabrieli; Chandan J. Vaidya; Maria Stone; Wendy S. Francis; Sharon L. Thompson-Schill; Debra A. Fleischman; Jared R. Tinklenberg; Jerome A. Yesavage; Robert S. Wilson

    1999-01-01

    Four experiments examined a distinction between kinds of repetition priming which involve either the identification of the form or meaning of a stimulus or the production of a response on the basis of a cue. Patients with Alzheimer's disease had intact priming on picture-naming and category-exemplar identification tasks and impaired priming on word-stem completion and category-exemplar production tasks. Division of

  1. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  2. Lymphocyte Subset Alterations Related to Executive Function Deficits and Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in children with ASD. Eighteen high-functioning (HFA) and 19 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17 years,…

  3. Oxytocin, vasopressin, and Williams syndrome: epigenetic effects on abnormal social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Brian W.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a condition caused by a deletion of ?26–28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23 often characterized by abnormal social behavior and disrupted oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) functioning. The observation that individuals with WS exhibit OT and AVP dysregulation is compelling. There is currently a lack of evidence that any of the genes typically deleted in WS have any direct effect on either OT or AVP. In this perspective article, we present a novel epigenetic model describing how DNA methylation may impact the expression of key genes within the OT and AVP systems, which may ultimately influence the social behavior observed in WS. We draw support from data pooled from a prior empirical research study (Henrichsen et al., 2011), demonstrating that OXTR is overexpressed in WS. These preliminary findings may create new opportunities to target the OT and AVP systems with the specific goal of improving outcomes in WS and other psychiatric conditions. PMID:25741359

  4. Some normal and abnormal behavioral syndromes due to transmitter gating of opponent processes.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, S

    1984-07-01

    Opponent processes have long been known to be a basic building block of neural circuits. This article describes properties of opponent processes in which phasic cues and tonic arousal are gated by slowly accumulating chemical transmitters. These opponent processes are called gated dipoles. Gated dipole circuits exhibit syndromes of formal properties that can be used to support or dis-confirm their generative role in a complex body of behavioral data. A wide variety of normal and abnormal behavioral and physiological data exhibit properties analogous to those of gated dipole circuits. These include data about intracellular adaptation, habituation, and rebound; dishabituation and attentional reset by an unexpected event; inverted U properties due to underarousal or overarousal; juvenile hyperactivity; parkinsonism; hyperphagic eating; simple schizophrenia; actions of analgesic agents such as endorphins, electrical brain stimulation, and loud noise; tolerance-withdrawal symptoms, and a new approach to their prevention; normal and abnormal circadian rhythms, as in narcolepsy and manic-depressive psychosis; processing of reinforcing, drive, and motivating signals. Some data predictions derived from gated dipole circuits are also summarized. PMID:6148110

  5. Slitrk1-deficient mice display elevated anxiety-like behavior and noradrenergic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Katayama, K; Yamada, K; Ornthanalai, V G; Inoue, T; Ota, M; Murphy, N P; Aruga, J

    2010-02-01

    Mutations in SLITRK1 are found in patients with Tourette's syndrome and trichotillomania. SLITRK1 encodes a transmembrane protein containing leucine-rich repeats that is produced predominantly in the nervous system. However, the role of this protein is largely unknown, except that it can modulate neurite outgrowth in vitro. To clarify the role of Slitrk1 in vivo, we developed Slitrk1-knockout mice and analyzed their behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes. Slitrk1-deficient mice exhibited elevated anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze test as well as increased immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Neurochemical analysis revealed that Slitrk1-knockout mice had increased levels of norepinephrine and its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. Administration of clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist that is frequently used to treat patients with Tourette's syndrome, attenuated the anxiety-like behavior of Slitrk1-deficient mice in the elevated plus-maze test. These results lead us to conclude that noradrenergic mechanisms are involved in the behavioral abnormalities of Slitrk1-deficient mice. Elevated anxiety due to Slitrk1 dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Tourette's syndrome and trichotillomania. PMID:18794888

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WHOLE BLOOD SEROTONIN AND REPETITIVE BEHAVIORS IN AUTISM

    PubMed Central

    Kolevzon, Alexander; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Kryzak, Lauren; Chaplin, William; Watner, Dryden; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J.; Cook, Edwin H.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between whole blood serotonin level and behavioral symptoms in 78 subjects with autism. No significant associations were found between serotonin level and the primary behavioral outcome measures. However, a significant inverse relationship between serotonin level and self-injury was demonstrated. PMID:20044143

  7. Maladaptive and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Susan L.; MacLean, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians are recognizing that a subgroup of children with Down syndrome (DS) also present with clinically significant impairments in social-communication and restricted patterns of behavior, such as those that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Efforts to better describe the behavioral presentation of children with…

  8. Behavioral responses to a repetitive visual threat stimulus express a persistent state of defensive arousal in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gibson, William T; Gonzalez, Carlos R; Fernandez, Conchi; Ramasamy, Lakshminarayanan; Tabachnik, Tanya; Du, Rebecca R; Felsen, Panna D; Maire, Michael R; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J

    2015-06-01

    The neural circuit mechanisms underlying emotion states remain poorly understood. Drosophila offers powerful genetic approaches for dissecting neural circuit function, but whether flies exhibit emotion-like behaviors has not been clear. We recently proposed that model organisms may express internal states displaying "emotion primitives," which are general characteristics common to different emotions, rather than specific anthropomorphic emotions such as "fear" or "anxiety." These emotion primitives include scalability, persistence, valence, and generalization to multiple contexts. Here, we have applied this approach to determine whether flies' defensive responses to moving overhead translational stimuli ("shadows") are purely reflexive or may express underlying emotion states. We describe a new behavioral assay in which flies confined in an enclosed arena are repeatedly exposed to an overhead translational stimulus. Repetitive stimuli promoted graded (scalable) and persistent increases in locomotor velocity and hopping, and occasional freezing. The stimulus also dispersed feeding flies from a food resource, suggesting both negative valence and context generalization. Strikingly, there was a significant delay before the flies returned to the food following stimulus-induced dispersal, suggestive of a slowly decaying internal defensive state. The length of this delay was increased when more stimuli were delivered for initial dispersal. These responses can be mathematically modeled by assuming an internal state that behaves as a leaky integrator of stimulus exposure. Our results suggest that flies' responses to repetitive visual threat stimuli express an internal state exhibiting canonical emotion primitives, possibly analogous to fear in mammals. The mechanistic basis of this state can now be investigated in a genetically tractable insect species. PMID:25981791

  9. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Section of Ecology and Systematics; [Fish and Wildlife Service, Cortland, NY (United States); Secord, A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Cortland, NY (United States); Tillitt, D. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  10. Decomposition of abnormal free locomotor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grieb, Benjamin; von Nicolai, Constantin; Engler, Gerhard; Sharott, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K.; Moll, Christian K.

    2013-01-01

    Poverty of spontaneous movement, slowed execution and reduced amplitudes of movement (akinesia, brady- and hypokinesia) are cardinal motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease that can be modeled in experimental animals by brain lesions affecting midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most behavioral investigations in experimental parkinsonism have employed short-term observation windows to assess motor impairments. We postulated that an analysis of longer-term free exploratory behavior could provide further insights into the complex fine structure of altered locomotor activity in parkinsonian animals. To this end, we video-monitored 23 h of free locomotor behavior and extracted several behavioral measures before and after the expression of a severe parkinsonian phenotype following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the rat dopaminergic substantia nigra. Unbiased stereological cell counting verified the degree of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive cell loss in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In line with previous reports, overall covered distance and maximal motion speed of lesioned animals were found to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Before lesion surgery, exploratory rat behavior exhibited a bimodal distribution of maximal speed values obtained for single movement episodes, corresponding to a “first” and “second gear” of motion. 6-OHDA injections significantly reduced the incidence of second gear motion episodes and also resulted in an abnormal prolongation of these fast motion events. Likewise, the spatial spread of such episodes was increased in 6-OHDA rats. The increase in curvature of motion tracks was increased in both lesioned and control animals. We conclude that the discrimination of distinct modes of motion by statistical decomposition of longer-term spontaneous locomotion provides useful insights into the fine structure of fluctuating motor functions in a rat analog of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24348346

  11. Decomposition of abnormal free locomotor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Grieb, Benjamin; von Nicolai, Constantin; Engler, Gerhard; Sharott, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Hamel, Wolfgang; Engel, Andreas K; Moll, Christian K

    2013-01-01

    Poverty of spontaneous movement, slowed execution and reduced amplitudes of movement (akinesia, brady- and hypokinesia) are cardinal motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease that can be modeled in experimental animals by brain lesions affecting midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most behavioral investigations in experimental parkinsonism have employed short-term observation windows to assess motor impairments. We postulated that an analysis of longer-term free exploratory behavior could provide further insights into the complex fine structure of altered locomotor activity in parkinsonian animals. To this end, we video-monitored 23 h of free locomotor behavior and extracted several behavioral measures before and after the expression of a severe parkinsonian phenotype following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the rat dopaminergic substantia nigra. Unbiased stereological cell counting verified the degree of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase positive cell loss in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In line with previous reports, overall covered distance and maximal motion speed of lesioned animals were found to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Before lesion surgery, exploratory rat behavior exhibited a bimodal distribution of maximal speed values obtained for single movement episodes, corresponding to a "first" and "second gear" of motion. 6-OHDA injections significantly reduced the incidence of second gear motion episodes and also resulted in an abnormal prolongation of these fast motion events. Likewise, the spatial spread of such episodes was increased in 6-OHDA rats. The increase in curvature of motion tracks was increased in both lesioned and control animals. We conclude that the discrimination of distinct modes of motion by statistical decomposition of longer-term spontaneous locomotion provides useful insights into the fine structure of fluctuating motor functions in a rat analog of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24348346

  12. The Effects of Gender and Age on Repetitive and/or Restricted Behaviors and Interests in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic Assessment…

  13. Lack of Efficacy of Citalopram in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and High Levels of Repetitive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    King, Bryan H.; Hollander, Eric; Sikich, Linmarie; McCracken, James T.; Scahill, Lawrence; Bregman, Joel D.; Donnelly, Craig L.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann; Ritz, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Context Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely prescribed for children with autism spectrum disorders. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of citalopram hydrobromide therapy for repetitive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Design National Institutes of Health–sponsored randomized controlled trial. Setting Six academic centers, including Mount Sinai School of Medicine, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of California at Los Angeles, Yale University, and Dartmouth Medical School. Participants One hundred forty-nine volunteers 5 to 17 years old (mean [SD] age, 9.4 [3.1] years) were randomized to receive citalopram (n = 73) or placebo (n = 76). Participants had autistic spectrum disorders, Asperger disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified; had illness severity ratings of at least moderate on the Clinical Global Impressions, Severity of Illness Scale; and scored at least moderate on compulsive behaviors measured with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Interventions Twelve weeks of citalopram hydrobromide (10 mg/5 mL) or placebo. The mean (SD) maximum dosage of citalopram hydrobromide was 16.5 (6.5) mg/d by mouth (maximum, 20 mg/d). Main Outcome Measures Positive response was defined by a score of much improved or very much improved on the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement subscale. An important secondary outcome was the score on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders. Adverse events were systematically elicited using the Safety Monitoring Uniform Report Form. Results There was no significant difference in the rate of positive response on the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement subscale between the citalopram-treated group (32.9%) and the placebo group (34.2%) (relative risk, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.51; P> .99). There was no difference in score reduction on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales modified for pervasive developmental disorders from baseline (mean [SD], ?2.0 [3.4] points for the citalopram-treated group and ?1.9 [2.5] points for the placebo group; P=.81). Citalopram use was significantly more likely to be associated with adverse events, particularly increased energy level, impulsiveness, decreased concentration, hyperactivity, stereotypy, diarrhea, insomnia, and dry skin or pruritus. Conclusion Results of this trial do not support the use of citalopram for the treatment of repetitive behavior in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00086645 PMID:19487623

  14. Normal and Abnormal Development of Motor Behavior: Lessons From Experiments in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2001-01-01

    In this essay a few relevant aspects of the neural and behavioral development of the brain in the human and in the rat are reviewed and related to the consequences of lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system at early and later age. Movements initially are generated by local circuits in the spinal cord and without the involvement of descending projections. After birth, both in humans and in rats it seems that the devlopment of postural control is the limiting factor for several motor behaviors to mature. Strong indications exist that the cerebellum is significantly involved in this control. Lesions in the CNS at early stages interfere with fundamental processes of neural development, such as the establishment of fiber connections and cell death patterns. Consequently, the functional effects are strongly dependent on the stage of development. The young and undisturbed CNS, on the other hand, has a much greater capacity than the adult nervous system for compensating abnormal reinnervation in the peripheral nervous system. Animal experiments indicated that the cerebellar cortex might play an important part in this compensation. This possibility should be investigated further as it might offer important perspectives for treatment in the human. PMID:11530886

  15. Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Psychopathological Animal Model Are Suggestive of Antidepressant-like Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin E. Keck; Tobias Welt; Anke Post; Marianne B. Müller; Nicola Toschi; Alexandra Wigger; Rainer Landgraf; Florian Holsboer; Mario Engelmann

    2001-01-01

    The neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were investigated in two rat lines selectively bred for high and low anxiety-related behavior. The stimulation parameters were adjusted according to the results of accurate computer-assisted and magnetic resonance imaging-based reconstructions of the current density distributions induced by rTMS in the rat and human brain, ensuring comparable stimulation patterns

  16. Loss of prion protein leads to age-dependent behavioral abnormalities and changes in cytoskeletal protein expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a multifunctional protein, whose exact physiological role remains elusive. Since previous studies indicated a neuroprotective function of PrPC, we investigated whether Prnp knockout mice(Prnp0/0)display age-dependent behavioral abnormalities. Matched sets of Prnp0/0 ...

  17. A quantitative association study of SLC25A12 and restricted repetitive behavior traits in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background SLC25A12 was previously identified by a linkage-directed association analysis in autism. In this study, we investigated the relationship between three SLC25A12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2056202, rs908670 and rs2292813) and restricted repetitive behavior (RRB) traits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), based on a positive correlation between the G allele of rs2056202 and an RRB subdomain score on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Methods We used the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) as a quantitative RRB measure, and conducted linear regression analyses for individual SNPs and a previously identified haplotype (rs2056202-rs2292813). We examined associations in our University of Illinois at Chicago-University of Florida (UIC-UF) sample (179 unrelated individuals with an ASD), and then attempted to replicate our findings in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) sample (720 ASD families). Results In the UIC-UF sample, three RBS-R scores (ritualistic, sameness, sum) had positive associations with the A allele of rs2292813 (p = 0.006-0.012) and with the rs2056202-rs2292813 haplotype (omnibus test, p = 0.025-0.040). The SSC sample had positive associations between the A allele of rs2056202 and four RBS-R scores (stereotyped, sameness, restricted, sum) (p = 0.006-0.010), between the A allele of rs908670 and three RBS-R scores (stereotyped, self-injurious, sum) (p = 0.003-0.015), and between the rs2056202-rs2292813 haplotype and six RBS-R scores (stereotyped, self-injurious, compulsive, sameness, restricted, sum)(omnibus test, p = 0.002-0.028). Taken together, the A alleles of rs2056202 and rs2292813 were consistently and positively associated with RRB traits in both the UIC-UF and SSC samples, but the most significant SNP with phenotype association varied in each dataset. Conclusions This study confirmed an association between SLC25A12 and RRB traits in ASDs, but the direction of the association was different from that in the initial study. This could be due to the examined SLC25A12 SNPs being in linkage disequilibrium with another risk allele, and/or genetic/phenotypic heterogeneity of the ASD samples across studies. PMID:21609426

  18. Are Structural Brain Abnormalities Associated With Suicidal Behavior In Patients With Psychotic Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2014-01-01

    Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception. PMID:23866739

  19. Pyrene induces a reduction in midbrain size and abnormal swimming behavior in early-hatched pufferfish larvae.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Yuki; Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Itoyama, Tatsuya; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Tosa, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2014-08-30

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) have an adverse effect on marine life. We have demonstrated previously that exposure to HO by fertilized eggs of the pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) induces neural disruption and behavioral abnormality in early-hatched larvae. Here, two kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrene and phenanthrene, were selected to examine their toxic effects on larval behavior of another pufferfish species (T. niphobles). Larvae exposed to pyrene or phenanthrene exhibited no abnormalities in morphology. However, those exposed to pyrene but not phenanthrene swam in an uncoordinated manner, although their swimming distance and speed were normal. The optic tectum, a part of the midbrain, of pyrene-exposed larvae did not grow to full size. Thus, these findings are indicated that pyrene might be a contributor to the behavioral and neuro-developmental toxicity, although there is no indication that it is the only compound participating in the toxicity of the heavy oil mixture. PMID:24793779

  20. Potential role of serotonin1A receptors in post-weaning social isolation-induced abnormal behaviors in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ago, Yukio; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Post-weaning social isolation in mice induces behavioral abnormalities such as hyperactivity, aggression, depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, deficits of prepulse inhibition, and reduced pain sensitivity to the noxious stimuli. Then, this mouse is considered to be a model of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. We have found that serotonin (5-HT)(1A)-receptor ligands attenuate these abnormalities, suggesting the pharmacological role of the receptor in treatment of psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, we have recently found that isolation-reared mice show social encounter-induced hyperactivity, a novel phenotype of the abnormal behaviors, and the hyperactivity is triggered by activation of the serotonergic system from the dorsal raphe to the frontal cortex. This review summarizes the effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor ligands on aggressive behavior, deficits of prepulse inhibition, reduced pain sensitivity to the noxious stimuli, and encounter-induced hyperactivity in social isolation-reared mice. These findings suggest that the 5-HT(1A) receptor is a potential target molecule for treatment of psychiatric disorders and pain. PMID:24942324

  1. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Katharine; Woodside, Blake; Lam, Eileen; Olmsted, Marion; Colton, Patricia; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional treatments for eating disorders are associated with poor response rates and frequent relapse. Novel treatments are needed, in combination with markers to characterize and predict treatment response. Here, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to identify predictors and correlates of response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) at 10 Hz for eating disorders with refractory binge/purge symptomatology. Methods 28 subjects with anorexia nervosa, binge?purge subtype or bulimia nervosa underwent 20–30 sessions of 10 Hz dmPFC rTMS. rs-fMRI data were collected before and after rTMS. Subjects were stratified into responder and nonresponder groups using a criterion of ?50% reduction in weekly binge/purge frequency. Neural predictors and correlates of response were identified using seed-based functional connectivity (FC), using the dmPFC and adjacent dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as regions of interest. Results 16 of 28 subjects met response criteria. Treatment responders had lower baseline FC from dmPFC to lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right posterior insula, and from dACC to right posterior insula and hippocampus. Responders had low baseline FC from the dACC to the ventral striatum and anterior insula; this connectivity increased over treatment. However, in nonresponders, frontostriatal FC was high at baseline, and dmPFC-rTMS suppressed FC in association with symptomatic worsening. Conclusions Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating. PMID:26199873

  2. Ts1Cje, a Partial Trisomy 16 Mouse Model for down Syndrome, Exhibits Learning and Behavioral Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruhiko Sago; Elaine J. Carlson; Desmond J. Smith; Joshua Kilbridge; Edward M. Rubin; William C. Mobley; Charles J. Epstein; Ting-Ting Huang

    1998-01-01

    A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called ``Down syndrome region'' of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of learning in the Morris water maze and

  3. Motor behavior abnormalities in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Victor; Campos, Maria S; De Jalón, Elena García; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2010-06-15

    Prevalence and correlates of primary motor abnormalities in schizophrenia are presently ill defined. This study was aimed at examining the prevalence, syndromic structure, external correlates, and response to antipsychotic medication of a broad array of primary motor abnormalities. Two-hundred antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were examined for motor abnormalities using the Modified Rogers Scale. Thirty-one motor signs were subjected to factor analysis, and the resulting factors examined for association with a number of risk factors, clinical and psychopathological variables. One-hundred and eighty-nine patients were reassessed for motor abnormalities after completing a 4-week trial with antipsychotic medication. Prevalence rates for at least one motor sign and syndrome at baseline were 66% and 40%, respectively. Motor signs clustered together into seven clinically interpretable factors: abnormal involuntary movements, hypokinesia, retarded catatonia, echo-phenomena, excited catatonia, catalepsy, and parkinsonism. All motor domains but parkinsonism were inter-related. Abnormal involuntary movements were associated with variables indicating both neurodevelopmental dysfunction and illness severity, and most motor domains were closely related to negative or disorganization symptoms. Change scores in motor domains after treatment with antipsychotic medication indicated improvement for abnormal involuntary movements, hypokinesia, retarded catatonia, excited catatonia and echophenomena, and worsening for parkinsonism. It is concluded that primary motor dysfunction is a prevalent and heterogeneous condition of schizophrenia. Motor abnormalities segregate into various syndromes, which have different clinical correlates and a differential response pattern to antipsychotic medication. It is hypothesized that the existence of a differential dopaminergic dysfunction in the nigroestriatal circuitry is responsible for the generation of those motor domains that improve and worsen with antipsychotic drugs. PMID:20222137

  4. Familial Associations of Intense Preoccupations, an Empirical Factor of the Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors and Interests Domain of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Lang, Colleen M.; Kryzak, Lauren; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hollander, Eric; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinical heterogeneity of autism likely hinders efforts to find genes associated with this complex psychiatric disorder. Some studies have produced promising results by restricting the sample according to the expression of specific familial factors or components of autism. Previous factor analyses of the restricted, repetitive

  5. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

  6. The effects of gender and age on repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests in adults with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Hattier, Megan A; Matson, Johnny L; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II). A significant main effect of gender was found. Male participants had higher frequency of RRBIs than females regardless of age range. There was not a significant main effect of age range or a significant interaction between gender and age range. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:21824745

  7. ?1,6-Fucosyltransferase-deficient Mice Exhibit Multiple Behavioral Abnormalities Associated with a Schizophrenia-like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Tomohiko; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Okayasu, Natsumi; Kameyama, Akihiko; Onogi, Hiroshi; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Kurosawa, Tomoyo; Hao, Yan; Isaji, Tomoya; Tadano, Takeshi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Gu, Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported that ?1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8)-deficient (Fut8?/?) mice exhibit emphysema-like changes in the lung and severe growth retardation due to dysregulation of TGF-?1 and EGF receptors and to abnormal integrin activation, respectively. To study the role of ?1,6-fucosylation in brain tissue where Fut8 is highly expressed, we examined Fut8?/? mice using a combination of neurological and behavioral tests. Fut8?/? mice exhibited multiple behavioral abnormalities consistent with a schizophrenia-like phenotype. Fut8?/? mice displayed increased locomotion compared with wild-type (Fut8+/+) and heterozygous (Fut8+/?) mice. In particular, Fut8?/? mice showed strenuous hopping behavior in a novel environment. Working memory performance was impaired in Fut8?/? mice as evidenced by the Y-maze tests. Furthermore, Fut8?/? mice showed prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficiency. Intriguingly, although there was no significant difference between Fut8+/+ and Fut8+/? mice in the PPI test under normal conditions, Fut8+/? mice showed impaired PPI after exposure to a restraint stress. This result suggests that reduced expression of Fut8 is a plausible cause of schizophrenia and related disorders. The levels of serotonin metabolites were significantly decreased in both the striatum and nucleus accumbens of the Fut8?/? mice. Likewise, treatment with haloperidol, which is an antipsychotic drug that antagonizes dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors, significantly reduced hopping behaviors. The present study is the first to clearly demonstrate that ?1,6-fucosylation plays an important role in the brain, and that it might be related to schizophrenia-like behaviors. Thus, the results of the present study provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:21471224

  8. Negative allosteric modulation of the mGluR5 receptor reduces repetitive behaviors and rescues social deficits in mouse models of autism.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jill L; Smith, Daniel G; Rizzo, Stacey J Sukoff; Karras, Michael N; Turner, Sarah M; Tolu, Seda S; Bryce, Dianne K; Smith, Deborah L; Fonseca, Kari; Ring, Robert H; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2012-04-25

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and fragile X syndrome were long thought to be medically untreatable, on the assumption that brain dysfunctions were immutably hardwired before diagnosis. Recent revelations that many cases of autism are caused by mutations in genes that control the ongoing formation and maturation of synapses have challenged this dogma. Antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5), which modulate excitatory neurotransmission, are in clinical trials for fragile X syndrome, a major genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. About 30% of patients with fragile X syndrome meet the diagnostic criteria for autism. Reasoning by analogy, we considered the mGluR5 receptor as a potential target for intervention in autism. We used BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice, an established model with robust behavioral phenotypes relevant to the three diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism--unusual social interactions, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors--to probe the efficacy of a selective negative allosteric modulator of the mGluR5 receptor, GRN-529. GRN-529 reduced repetitive behaviors in three cohorts of BTBR mice at doses that did not induce sedation in control assays of open field locomotion. In addition, the same nonsedating doses reduced the spontaneous stereotyped jumping that characterizes a second inbred strain of mice, C58/J. Further, GRN-529 partially reversed the striking lack of sociability in BTBR mice on some parameters of social approach and reciprocal social interactions. These findings raise the possibility that a single targeted pharmacological intervention may alleviate multiple diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism. PMID:22539775

  9. MEG premotor abnormalities in children with Asperger's syndrome: determinants of social behavior?

    PubMed

    Hauswald, Anne; Weisz, Nathan; Bentin, Shlomo; Kissler, Johanna

    2013-07-01

    Children with Asperger's syndrome show deficits in social functioning while their intellectual and language development is intact suggesting a specific dysfunction in mechanisms mediating social cognition. An action observation/execution matching system might be one such mechanism. Recent studies indeed showed that electrophysiological modulation of the "Mu-rhythm" in the 10-12Hz range is weaker when individuals with Asperger's syndrome observe actions performed by others compared to controls. However, electrophysiological studies typically fall short in revealing the neural generators of this activity. To fill this gap we assessed magnetoencephalographic Mu-modulations in Asperger's and typically developed children, while observing grasping movements. Mu-power increased at frontal and central sensors during movement observation. This modulation was stronger in typical than in Asperger children. Source localization revealed stronger sources in premotor cortex, the intraparietal lobule (IPL) and the mid-occipito-temporal gyrus (MOTG) and weaker sources in prefrontal cortex in typical participants compared to Asperger. Activity in premotor regions, IPL and MOTG correlated positively with social competence, whereas prefrontal Mu-sources correlated negatively with social competence. No correlation with intellectual ability was found at any of these sites. These findings localize abnormal Mu-activity in the brain of Asperger children providing evidence which associates motor-system abnormalities with social-function deficits. PMID:23500669

  10. The aggression and behavioral abnormalities associated with monoamine oxidase A deficiency are rescued by acute inhibition of serotonin reuptake.

    PubMed

    Godar, Sean C; Bortolato, Marco; Castelli, M Paola; Casti, Alberto; Casu, Angelo; Chen, Kevin; Ennas, M Grazia; Tambaro, Simone; Shih, Jean C

    2014-09-01

    The termination of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurotransmission is regulated by its uptake by the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), as well as its degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A. MAO-A deficiency results in a wide set of behavioral alterations, including perseverative behaviors and social deficits. These anomalies are likely related to 5-HTergic homeostatic imbalances; however, the role of 5-HTT in these abnormalities remains unclear. To ascertain the role of 5-HTT in the behavioral anomalies associated to MAO-A deficiency, we tested the behavioral effects of its blocker fluoxetine on perseverative, social and aggressive behaviors in transgenic animals with hypomorphic or null-allele MAO-A mutations. Acute treatment with the 5-HTT blocker fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced aggressive behavior in MAO-A knockout (KO) mice and social deficits in hypomorphic MAO-A(Neo) mice. Furthermore, this treatment also reduced perseverative responses (including marble burying and water mist-induced grooming) in both MAO-A mutant genotypes. Both MAO-A mutant lines displayed significant reductions in 5-HTT expression across the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and striatum, as quantified by immunohistochemical detection; however, the down-regulation of 5-HTT in MAO-A(Neo) mice was more pervasive and widespread than in their KO counterparts, possibly indicating a greater ability of the hypomorphic line to enact compensatory mechanisms with respect to 5-HT homeostasis. Collectively, these findings suggest that the behavioral deficits associated with low MAO-A activity may reflect developmental alterations of 5-HTT within 5-HTergic neurons. Furthermore, the translational implications of our results highlight 5-HT reuptake inhibition as an interesting approach for the control of aggressive outbursts in MAO-A deficient individuals. PMID:24882701

  11. Knockdown of zebrafish Lgi1a results in abnormal development, brain defects and a seizure-like behavioral phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; Rempala, Grzegorz; Kozlowski, David J.; Mumm, Jeff S.; Cowell, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common disorder, typified by recurrent seizures with underlying neurological disorders or disease. Approximately one-third of patients are unresponsive to currently available therapies. Thus, a deeper understanding of the genetics and etiology of epilepsy is needed to advance the development of new therapies. Previously, treatment of zebrafish with epilepsy-inducing pharmacological agents was shown to result in a seizure-like phenotype, suggesting that fish provide a tractable model to understand the function of epilepsy-predisposing genes. Here, we report the first model of genetically linked epilepsy in zebrafish and provide an initial characterization of the behavioral and neurological phenotypes associated with morpholino (MO) knockdown of leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1a (lgi1a) expression. Mutations in the LGI1 gene in humans have been shown to predispose to a subtype of autosomal dominant epilepsy. Low-dose Lgi1a MO knockdown fish (morphants) appear morphologically normal but are sensitized to epilepsy-inducing drugs. High-dose Lgi1a morphants have morphological defects which persist into adult stages that are typified by smaller brains and eyes and abnormalities in tail shape, and display hyperactive swimming behaviors. Increased apoptosis was observed throughout the central nervous system of high-dose morphant fish, accounting for the size reduction of neural tissues. These observations demonstrate that zebrafish can be exploited to dissect the embryonic function(s) of genes known to predispose to seizure-like behavior in humans, and offer potential insight into the relationship between developmental neurobiological abnormalities and seizure. PMID:20819949

  12. Abnormal relationship between GABA, neurophysiology and impulsive behavior in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria J; Violante, Inês R; Bernardino, Inês; Edden, Richard A E; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and region dependent manner. PMID:25437375

  13. Repetitive Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury Interacts with Post-Injury Foot Shock Stress to Worsen Social and Depression-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Klemenhagen, Kristen C.; O’Brien, Scott P.; Brody, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning) following brain injury (rcTBI). rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury. PMID:24058581

  14. Age-related sperm DNA methylation changes are transmitted to offspring and associated with abnormal behavior and dysregulated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Milekic, M H; Xin, Y; O'Donnell, A; Kumar, K K; Bradley-Moore, M; Malaspina, D; Moore, H; Brunner, D; Ge, Y; Edwards, J; Paul, S; Haghighi, F G; Gingrich, J A

    2014-08-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) has been shown to be a significant risk factor in the offspring for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. During aging, de novo mutations accumulate in the male germline and are frequently transmitted to the offspring with deleterious effects. In addition, DNA methylation during spermatogenesis is an active process, which is susceptible to errors that can be propagated to subsequent generations. Here we test the hypothesis that the integrity of germline DNA methylation is compromised during the aging process. A genome-wide DNA methylation screen comparing sperm from young and old mice revealed a significant loss of methylation in the older mice in regions associated with transcriptional regulation. The offspring of older fathers had reduced exploratory and startle behaviors and exhibited similar brain DNA methylation abnormalities as observed in the paternal sperm. Offspring from old fathers also had transcriptional dysregulation of developmental genes implicated in autism and schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrate that DNA methylation abnormalities arising in the sperm of old fathers are a plausible mechanism to explain some of the risks that APA poses to resulting offspring.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 5 August 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.84. PMID:25092244

  15. Prenatal and early-life exposure to high-level diesel exhaust particles leads to increased locomotor activity and repetitive behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Thirtamara Rajamani, Keerthi; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Bolden, Crystal; Willis, Daniel; Hoffman, Carol; Zelikoff, Judith; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gu, Howard

    2013-08-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, limited knowledge is available concerning these contributing factors. An epidemiology study reported a link between increased incidence of autism and living closely to major highways, suggesting a possible role for pollutants from highway traffic. We investigated whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) negatively affects fetal development leading to autism-like phenotype in mice. Female mice and their offspring were exposed to DEP during pregnancy and nursing. Adult male offspring were then tested for behaviors reflecting the typical symptoms of ASD patients. Compared to control mice, DEP-exposed offspring exhibited higher locomotor activity, elevated levels of self-grooming in the presence of an unfamiliar mouse, and increased rearing behaviors, which may be relevant to the restricted and repetitive behaviors seen in ASD patients. However, the DEP-exposed mice did not exhibit deficits in social interactions or social communication which are the key features of ASD. These results suggest that early life exposure to DEP could have an impact on mouse development leading to observable changes in animal behaviors. Further studies are needed to reveal other environmental insults and genetic factors that would lead to animal models expressing key phenotypes of the autism spectrum disorders. PMID:23495194

  16. Delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure abnormalities in youth with a family history of alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Megan M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high-risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH?). Methods Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH? = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH? youth. Results FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH? youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower reaction times on the delay discounting task. Conclusion Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing, and may act as an intrinsic risk-factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-risk youth. PMID:20586754

  17. Recurrent 10q22-q23 Deletions: A Genomic Disorder on 10q Associated with Cognitive and Behavioral Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Balciuniene, Jorune; Feng, Ningping; Iyadurai, Kelly; Hirsch, Betsy; Charnas, Lawrence; Bill, Brent R.; Easterday, Mathew C.; Staaf, Johan; Oseth, LeAnn; Czapansky-Beilman, Desiree; Avramopoulos, Dimitri; Thomas, George H.; Borg, Åke; Valle, David; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Selleck, Scott B.

    2007-01-01

    Low-copy repeats (LCRs) are genomic features that affect chromosome stability and can produce disease-associated rearrangements. We describe members of three families with deletions in 10q22.3-q23.31, a region harboring a complex set of LCRs, and demonstrate that rearrangements in this region are associated with behavioral and neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including cognitive impairment, autism, hyperactivity, and possibly psychiatric disease. Fine mapping of the deletions in members of all three families by use of a custom 10q oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (NimbleGen) and polymerase chain reaction–based methods demonstrated a different deletion in each family. In one proband, the deletion breakpoints are associated with DNA fragments containing noncontiguous sequences of chromosome 10, whereas, in the other two families, the breakpoints are within paralogous LCRs, removing ?7.2 Mb and 32 genes. Our data provide evidence that the 10q22-q23 genomic region harbors one or more genes important for cognitive and behavioral development and that recurrent deletions affecting this interval define a novel genomic disorder. PMID:17436248

  18. Strain background influences neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities in mice expressing the tetracycline transactivator

    PubMed Central

    Han, Harry J.; Allen, Carolyn C.; Buchovecky, Christie M.; Yetman, Michael J.; Born, Heather A.; Marin, Miguel A.; Rodgers, Shaefali P.; Song, Bryan J.; Lu, Hui-Chen; Justice, Monica J.; Probst, Frank J.; Jankowsky, Joanna L.

    2012-01-01

    The tet-off system has been widely used to create transgenic models of neurological disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and prion disease. The utility of this system lies in the assumption that the tetracycline transactivator (TTA) acts as an inert control element and does not contribute to phenotypes under study. Here we report that neuronal expression of TTA can affect hippocampal cytoarchitecture and behavior in a strain-dependent manner. While studying neurodegeneration in two tet-off Alzheimer’s disease models, we unexpectedly discovered neuronal loss within the dentate gyrus of single transgenic TTA controls. Granule neurons appeared most sensitive to TTA exposure during postnatal development, and doxycycline treatment during this period was neuroprotective. TTA-induced degeneration could be rescued by moving the transgene onto a congenic C57BL/6J background, and recurred on re-introduction of either CBA or C3H/He backgrounds. Quantitative trait analysis of B6C3 F2 TTA mice identified a region on Chromosome 14 that contains a major modifier of the neurodegenerative phenotype. Although B6 mice were resistant to degeneration, they were not ideal for cognitive testing. F1 offspring of TTA C57BL/6J and 129X1/SvJ, FVB/NJ, or DBA/1J showed improved spatial learning, but TTA expression caused subtle differences in contextual fear conditioning on two of these backgrounds indicating that strain and genotype can interact independently under different behavioral settings. All model systems have limitations that should be recognized and mitigated where possible; our findings stress the importance of mapping the effects caused by TTA alone when working with tet-off models. PMID:22855807

  19. How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in Feet: Normal or Abnormal How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal Page Content The ... this extensive repetitive use leads to several normal changes associated with aging: The foot becomes wider and ...

  20. Altered synaptic plasticity and behavioral abnormalities in CNGA3-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, S; Kleppisch, T; Polta, S A; Wotjak, C T; Koch, S; Rammes, G; Matt, L; Becirovic, E; Biel, M

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel CNGA3 is well established in cone photoreceptors and guanylyl cyclase-D-expressing olfactory neurons. To assess a potential function of CNGA3 in the mouse amygdala and hippocampus, we examined synaptic plasticity and performed a comparative analysis of spatial learning, fear conditioning and step-down avoidance in wild-type mice and CNGA3 null mutants (CNGA3(-/-) ). CNGA3(-/-) mice showed normal basal synaptic transmission in the amygdala and the hippocampus. However, cornu Ammonis (CA1) hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by a strong tetanus was significantly enhanced in CNGA3(-/-) mice as compared with their wild-type littermates. Unlike in the hippocampus, LTP was not significantly altered in the amygdala of CNGA3(-/-) mice. Enhanced hippocampal LTP did not coincide with changes in hippocampus-dependent learning, as both wild-type and mutant mice showed a similar performance in water maze tasks and contextual fear conditioning, except for a trend toward higher step-down latencies in a passive avoidance task. In contrast, CNGA3(-/-) mice showed markedly reduced freezing to the conditioned tone in the amygdala-dependent cued fear conditioning task. In conclusion, our study adds a new entry on the list of physiological functions of the CNGA3 channel. Despite the dissociation between physiological and behavioral parameters, our data describe a so far unrecognized role of CNGA3 in modulation of hippocampal plasticity and amygdala-dependent fear memory. PMID:20846178

  1. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  2. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Behavior of the TTF2 RF Gun with long pulses and high repetition rates J. Baehr1, I. Bohnet1, J.-P. Carneiro2, K. Floettmann2, J. H. Han1, M. v. Hartrott3,

    E-print Network

    Behavior of the TTF2 RF Gun with long pulses and high repetition rates J. Baehr1, I. Bohnet1, J the behavior of the TTF2 RF gun with long RF pulses (up to 900 µs), high peak power (up to 3 MW) and high Zeuthen from January to March 2003, where the RF gun has been tested prior to its installation at DESY

  4. Beneficial effects of sodium butyrate in 6-OHDA induced neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities: Modulation of histone deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev; Singh, Sumel

    2015-09-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have investigated the involvement of epigenetic modifications in PD. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to be beneficial in cognitive and motor deficit states. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - induced experimental PD like symptoms in rats. To produce motor deficit, 6-OHDA was administered unilaterally in the right medial forebrain bundle. Three weeks after 6-OHDA administration, the rats were challenged with apomorphine. Following this, the animals were treated with sodium butyrate (150 and 300mg/kg i.p.) once daily for 14 days. Movement abnormalities were assessed by battery of behavioral tests. Biochemically, oxidative stress markers, neuroinflammation and dopamine were measured in striatal brain homogenate. Further, to explore the molecular mechanism(s), we measured the level of global H3 histone acetylation and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). 6-OHDA administration results in significant motor deficit along with reduction in striatal dopamine level. 6-OHDA treated rats showed elevated oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory markers. Treatment with sodium butyrate results in significant attenuation of motor deficits and increased striatal dopamine level. Moreover, sodium butyrate treatment attenuated the oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory markers. These effects occur concurrently with increased global H3 histone acetylation and BDNF levels. Thus, the observed results of the present study are indicative for the therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors in PD. PMID:26048426

  5. Early social enrichment rescues adult behavioral and brain abnormalities in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oddi, Diego; Subashi, Enejda; Middei, Silvia; Bellocchio, Luigi; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Guzmán, Manuel; Crusio, Wim E; D'Amato, Francesca R; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2015-04-01

    Converging lines of evidence support the use of environmental stimulation to ameliorate the symptoms of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Applying these interventions at very early ages is critical to achieve a marked reduction of the pathological phenotypes. Here we evaluated the impact of early social enrichment in Fmr1-KO mice, a genetic mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Enrichment was achieved by providing male KO pups and their WT littermates with enhanced social stimulation, housing them from birth until weaning with the mother and an additional nonlactating female. At adulthood they were tested for locomotor, social, and cognitive abilities; furthermore, dendritic alterations were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions known to be involved in the control of the examined behaviors and affected by spine pathology in Fmr1-KOs. Enrichment rescued the behavioral FXS-like deficits displayed in adulthood by Fmr1-KO mice, that is, hyperactivity, reduced social interactions, and cognitive deficits. Early social enrichment also eliminated the abnormalities shown by adult KO mice in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdala dendritic spines, namely an enhanced density of immature vs mature types. Importantly, enrichment did not induce neurobehavioral changes in WT mice, thus supporting specific effects on FXS-like pathology. These findings show that early environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects on the pathological FXS phenotype, thereby encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of this and perhaps other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:25348604

  6. Fragile X-like behaviors and abnormal cortical dendritic spines in cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihoon; Chen, Hogmei; Gennarino, Vincenzo A; Richman, Ronald; Lu, Hui-Chen; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2015-04-01

    Silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene and loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) cause fragile X syndrome (FXS), a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability and autistic behaviors. FMRP is an mRNA-binding protein regulating neuronal translation of target mRNAs. Abnormalities in actin-rich dendritic spines are major neuronal features in FXS, but the molecular mechanism and identity of FMRP targets mediating this phenotype remain largely unknown. Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) was identified as an interactor of FMRP, and its mRNA is a highly ranked FMRP target in mouse brain. Importantly, Cyfip2 is a component of WAVE regulatory complex, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that Cyfip2 could be implicated in the dendritic spine phenotype of FXS. Here, we generated and characterized Cyfip2-mutant (Cyfip2(+/-)) mice. We found that Cyfip2(+/-) mice exhibited behavioral phenotypes similar to Fmr1-null (Fmr1(-/y)) mice, an animal model of FXS. Synaptic plasticity and dendritic spines were normal in Cyfip2(+/-) hippocampus. However, dendritic spines were altered in Cyfip2(+/-) cortex, and the dendritic spine phenotype of Fmr1(-/y) cortex was aggravated in Fmr1(-/y); Cyfip2(+/-) double-mutant mice. In addition to the spine changes at basal state, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced dendritic spine regulation was impaired in both Fmr1(-/y) and Cyfip2(+/-) cortical neurons. Mechanistically, mGluR activation induced mRNA translation-dependent increase of Cyfip2 in wild-type cortical neurons, but not in Fmr1(-/y) or Cyfip2(+/-) neurons. These results suggest that misregulation of Cyfip2 function and its mGluR-induced expression contribute to the neurobehavioral phenotypes of FXS. PMID:25432536

  7. Set-shifting in children with autism spectrum disorders: reversal shifting deficits on the Intradimensional/Extradimensional Shift Test correlate with repetitive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yerys, Benjamin E; Wallace, Gregory L; Harrison, Bryan; Celano, Mark J; Giedd, Jay N; Kenworthy, Lauren E

    2009-09-01

    Research examining set-shifting has revealed significant difficulties for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, research with high-functioning children with ASDs has yielded mixed results. The current study tested 6- to 13-year-old high-functioning children with ASD and typically developing controls matched on age, gender, and IQ using the Intradimensional/Extradimensional (ID/ED) Shift Test from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Children with ASDs completed as many ED shifts and reversal ED shifts as controls; however, they made significantly more errors than controls while completing the ED reversal shifts. Analyses on a subset of cases revealed a significant positive correlation between ED reversal errors and the number of repetitive behavior symptoms in the ASD group. These findings suggest that high-functioning children with ASDs require additional feedback to shift successfully. In addition, the relationship between set-shifting and non-social symptoms suggests its utility as a potentially informative intermediate phenotype in ASDs. PMID:19759065

  8. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may develop serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal ... Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for Families Last Updated 5/ ...

  9. The interaction of force and repetition on musculoskeletal and neural tissue responses and sensorimotor behavior in a rat model of work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship of musculoskeletal risk factors underlying force and repetition on tissue responses in an operant rat model of repetitive reaching and pulling, and if force x repetition interactions were present, indicative of a fatigue failure process. We examined exposure-dependent changes in biochemical, morphological and sensorimotor responses occurring with repeated performance of a handle-pulling task for 12 weeks at one of four repetition and force levels: 1) low repetition with low force, 2) high repetition with low force, 3) low repetition with high force, and 4) high repetition with high force (HRHF). Methods Rats underwent initial training for 4–6 weeks, and then performed one of the tasks for 12 weeks, 2 hours/day, 3 days/week. Reflexive grip strength and sensitivity to touch were assayed as functional outcomes. Flexor digitorum muscles and tendons, forelimb bones, and serum were assayed using ELISA for indicators of inflammation, tissue stress and repair, and bone turnover. Histomorphometry was used to assay macrophage infiltration of tissues, spinal cord substance P changes, and tissue adaptative or degradative changes. MicroCT was used to assay bones for changes in bone quality. Results Several force x repetition interactions were observed for: muscle IL-1alpha and bone IL-1beta; serum TNFalpha, IL-1alpha, and IL-1beta; muscle HSP72, a tissue stress and repair protein; histomorphological evidence of tendon and cartilage degradation; serum biomarkers of bone degradation (CTXI) and bone formation (osteocalcin); and morphological evidence of bone adaptation versus resorption. In most cases, performance of the HRHF task induced the greatest tissue degenerative changes, while performance of moderate level tasks induced bone adaptation and a suggestion of muscle adaptation. Both high force tasks induced median nerve macrophage infiltration, spinal cord sensitization (increased substance P), grip strength declines and forepaw mechanical allodynia by task week 12. Conclusions Although not consistent in all tissues, we found several significant interactions between the critical musculoskeletal risk factors of force and repetition, consistent with a fatigue failure process in musculoskeletal tissues. Prolonged performance of HRHF tasks exhibited significantly increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders, while performance of moderate level tasks exhibited adaptation to task demands. PMID:24156755

  10. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). Severe illness or surgery may cause horizontal depressions ...

  11. Abnormal Eu behavior at formation of H2O- and Cl-bearing fluids during degassing of granite magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukanin, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    One of the important features of REE behavior in the process of decompression degassing of granite melts is the presence of europium anomalies in REE spectrum of forming fluid phase. Negative Eu anomaly in REE spectrum of fluids enriched by chlorine that were formed under high pressures at early stages of degassing relative to REE spectrum of granite melts may take place. Negative Eu anomaly in fluid is replaced by positive one with pressure decrease and decline of Cl concentration in fluid [1, 2]. Observable unique features of europium redistribution between fluid and melt find an explanation in such a fact that Eu in contrast to the other REE under oxidation-reduction conditions, being typical for magmatic process, is present in acidic silica-alumina melts in two valency forms Eu3+ and Eu2+ whereas the dominant form for the other REE in such a melts is (REE)3+ [3, 4]. From the analysis of melt-fluid exchange reactions with participation of two valency forms of europium Eu3+ and Eu2+ follows that the total distribution coefficient of Eu between fluid and melt D(Eu)f-m is equal as a first approximation to [5, 6]: D(Eu)f-m = a1? [C(Cl)f]3 + a2 (1 - ?)[C(Cl)f]2, where C(Cl)f - the concentration of Cl in fluid, ? = Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+), i.e. fraction of Eu3+ from the general amount of europium in the melt, and, a1anda2- constants that can be approximately estimated from empirical data upon Eu fluid/melt distribution. The equation given allows to estimate the influence of oxidizing condition of europium on sign and size of Eu anomaly, which is expressed by Eu/Eu# ratio, where Eu is real concentration of europium in fluid being in equilibrium with melt with constant Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+) ratio, and Eu# is possible "virtual" concentration of europium that could be in the same fluid provided that all europium as other REE as well were exclusively present in trivalent form. The sign and size of Eu anomaly in fluid depends upon Cl concentration in fluid and Eu3+/Eu2+ ratio in melt. The abnormal behavior of Eu shows itself the stronger, the lower fO2and, accordingly, the more fraction of Eu2+is present in melt. The work is supported of the Geosciences Department of the Russian Academy of Science (the program 2- 2010) and RFBR (grant 08-05-00022). References [1] Reed M.J., Candela Ph.A., Piccoli Ph.M. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 2000. V. 140. P. 251-262. [2] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Vestnik Otd. Nauk Zemle RAN, No 1(25)'2007 URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2007/informbul-1_2007/term-30e.pdf [3] Drake M.J. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 1975. V. 39. P. 55-64. [4] Wilke M. Behrens H. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 1999. V. 137. P. 102-114. [5] Lukanin O.A. Vestnik Otd. Nauk o Zemle RAN, No 1(26)'2008. URL: http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/1-2008/informbul-1_2008/magm-20e.pdf [6] Lukanin O.A., Dernov-Pegarev V.F. Geochemistry International, 2010 (in press)

  12. Characterization of an abnormal photoluminescence behavior upon crystal-phase transition of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weiguang; Ye, Zhenyu; Qi, Zhen; Zhang, Bingpo; Wang, Miao; Rahimi-Iman, Arash; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-07-01

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) exhibits an abnormal luminescence behavior at around the tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature. The combination of time resolved photoluminescence (PL), variable excitation power PL, and variable-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) allows us to clearly interpret the abnormal luminescence features in the phase transition region of MAPbI3. Both PL and XRD results unambiguously prove the coexistence of the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases of MAPbI3 in the temperature range of 150 to 130 K. The two luminescence features observed in the orthorhombic phase at T < 130 K originate from free excitons and donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) transitions, respectively. The comprehensive understanding of optical properties upon phase transition in MAPbI3 will benefit the development of new optoelectronic devices. PMID:26051631

  13. Microduplications of 3p26.3p26.2 containing CRBN gene in patients with intellectual disability and behavior abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Papuc, Sorina M; Hackmann, Karl; Andrieux, Joris; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Budi?teanu, Magdalena; Arghir, Aurora; Schrock, Evelin; ?u?ulan-Cuni??, Andreea C; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2015-05-01

    We report on the clinical data and molecular cytogenetic findings in three unrelated patients presenting with intellectual disability and behavior abnormalities. An overlapping microduplication involving 3p26.2-26.3 was identified in these patients. All three aberrations were confirmed and proven to be parentally inherited. The sizes of the duplications were different, with a common minimal region of 423,754 bp containing two genes - TRNT1 and CRBN. Here, we hypothesize that the copy number gain of CRBN gene might be responsible for developmental delay/intellectual disability. PMID:25858704

  14. Recurrent reciprocal 1q21.1 deletions and duplications associated with microcephaly or macrocephaly and developmental and behavioral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Berg, Jonathan S; Scaglia, Fernando; Belmont, John; Bacino, Carlos A; Sahoo, Trilochan; Lalani, Seema R; Graham, Brett; Lee, Brendan; Shinawi, Marwan; Shen, Joseph; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Pursley, Amber; Lotze, Timothy; Kennedy, Gail; Lansky-Shafer, Susan; Weaver, Christine; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Grebe, Theresa A; Arnold, Georgianne L; Hutchison, Terry; Reimschisel, Tyler; Amato, Stephen; Geragthy, Michael T; Innis, Jeffrey W; Obersztyn, Ewa; Nowakowska, Beata; Rosengren, Sally S; Bader, Patricia I; Grange, Dorothy K; Naqvi, Sayed; Garnica, Adolfo D; Bernes, Saunder M; Fong, Chin-To; Summers, Anne; Walters, W David; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome region 1q21.1 contains extensive and complex low-copy repeats, and copy number variants (CNVs) in this region have recently been reported in association with congenital heart defects1, developmental delay2,3, schizophrenia and related psychoses4,5. We describe 21 probands with the 1q21.1 microdeletion and 15 probands with the 1q21.1 microduplication. These CNVs were inherited in most of the cases in which parental studies were available. Consistent and statistically significant features of microcephaly and macrocephaly were found in individuals with micro-deletion and microduplication, respectively. Notably, a paralog of the HYDIN gene located on 16q22.2 and implicated in autosomal recessive hydrocephalus6 was inserted into the 1q21.1 region during the evolution of Homo sapiens7; we found this locus to be deleted or duplicated in the individuals we studied, making it a probable candidate for the head size abnormalities observed. We propose that recurrent reciprocal microdeletions and microduplications within 1q21.1 represent previously unknown genomic disorders characterized by abnormal head size along with a spectrum of developmental delay, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. These phenotypes are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. PMID:19029900

  15. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  16. Roles of repetitive sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  17. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kron, Miriam; Lang, Min; Adams, Ian T.; Sceniak, Michael; Longo, Frank; Katz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to behavioral arousal in symptomatic RTT mice. PMID:25147297

  18. Pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 suppresses anatomical, cellular, and behavioral abnormalities in neural-specific Pten knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Blundell, Jacqueline; Ogawa, Shiori; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Zhang, Wei; Sinton, Christopher; Powell, Craig M; Parada, Luis F

    2009-02-11

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) is a lipid phosphatase that counteracts the function of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K). Loss of function of PTEN results in constitutive activation of AKT and downstream effectors and correlates with many human cancers, as well as various brain disorders, including macrocephaly, seizures, Lhermitte-Duclos disease, and autism. We previously generated a conditional Pten knock-out mouse line with Pten loss in limited postmitotic neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Pten-null neurons developed neuronal hypertrophy and loss of neuronal polarity. The mutant mice exhibited macrocephaly and behavioral abnormalities reminiscent of certain features of human autism. Here, we report that rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), can prevent and reverse neuronal hypertrophy, resulting in the amelioration of a subset of PTEN-associated abnormal behaviors, providing evidence that the mTORC1 pathway downstream of PTEN is critical for this complex phenotype. PMID:19211884

  19. Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these behavioral

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  1. Behavioral abnormalities and circuit defects in the basal ganglia of a mouse model of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Portmann, Thomas; Yang, Mu; Mao, Rong; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Ellegood, Jacob; Dolen, Gul; Bader, Patrick L; Grueter, Brad A; Goold, Carleton; Fisher, Elaine; Clifford, Katherine; Rengarajan, Pavitra; Kalikhman, David; Loureiro, Darren; Saw, Nay L; Zhengqui, Zhou; Miller, Michael A; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Malenka, Robert C; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E

    2014-05-22

    A deletion on human chromosome 16p11.2 is associated with autism spectrum disorders. We deleted the syntenic region on mouse chromosome 7F3. MRI and high-throughput single-cell transcriptomics revealed anatomical and cellular abnormalities, particularly in cortex and striatum of juvenile mutant mice (16p11(+/-)). We found elevated numbers of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing the dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2(+)) and fewer dopamine-sensitive (Drd1(+)) neurons in deep layers of cortex. Electrophysiological recordings of Drd2(+) MSN revealed synaptic defects, suggesting abnormal basal ganglia circuitry function in 16p11(+/-) mice. This is further supported by behavioral experiments showing hyperactivity, circling, and deficits in movement control. Strikingly, 16p11(+/-) mice showed a complete lack of habituation reminiscent of what is observed in some autistic individuals. Our findings unveil a fundamental role of genes affected by the 16p11.2 deletion in establishing the basal ganglia circuitry and provide insights in the pathophysiology of autism. PMID:24794428

  2. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane may not cause learning and memory deficits and behavioral abnormality in the childhood of Cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lisheng; Wang, Zhi; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Ting; Lu, Fudin; Wang, Shouping; Li, Jing; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2015-01-01

    Results of animal studies have raised a significant concern that commonly used general anesthetics may induce neurotoxicity in children. It may be difficult to resolve this concern with human studies because randomizing children only for testing anesthetic toxicity may not be feasible. We randomized 6-day old male Cynomolgus monkeys to receive or not to receive sevoflurane anesthesia at surgical plane for 5?h. Sevoflurane is the most commonly used general anesthetic in children in the U.S.A. Here, we showed that sevoflurane anesthesia did not affect the behavior evaluated by holding cage method when the monkeys were 3 and 7 months old. However, there was an age-dependent decrease in the frequency of stress events and environmental exploration behavior during the test. Sevoflurane also did not affect the learning and memory of the monkeys when they were assessed from the age of 7 months. Finally, sevoflurane did not affect the expression of multiple neuron-specific proteins in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-month old monkeys after all behavioral and cognitive tests were completed. These results suggest that exposure of neonatal monkey to sevoflurane may not affect cognition, behavior and neuronal structures in childhood, indicating the safety of sevoflurane anesthesia in children. PMID:26046459

  3. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane may not cause learning and memory deficits and behavioral abnormality in the childhood of Cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lisheng; Wang, Zhi; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Ting; Lu, Fudin; Wang, Shouping; Li, Jing; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2015-01-01

    Results of animal studies have raised a significant concern that commonly used general anesthetics may induce neurotoxicity in children. It may be difficult to resolve this concern with human studies because randomizing children only for testing anesthetic toxicity may not be feasible. We randomized 6-day old male Cynomolgus monkeys to receive or not to receive sevoflurane anesthesia at surgical plane for 5?h. Sevoflurane is the most commonly used general anesthetic in children in the U.S.A. Here, we showed that sevoflurane anesthesia did not affect the behavior evaluated by holding cage method when the monkeys were 3 and 7 months old. However, there was an age-dependent decrease in the frequency of stress events and environmental exploration behavior during the test. Sevoflurane also did not affect the learning and memory of the monkeys when they were assessed from the age of 7 months. Finally, sevoflurane did not affect the expression of multiple neuron-specific proteins in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-month old monkeys after all behavioral and cognitive tests were completed. These results suggest that exposure of neonatal monkey to sevoflurane may not affect cognition, behavior and neuronal structures in childhood, indicating the safety of sevoflurane anesthesia in children. PMID:26046459

  4. Abnormal Eu behavior at formation of H2O- and Cl-bearing fluids during degassing of granite magmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleg Lukanin

    2010-01-01

    One of the important features of REE behavior in the process of decompression degassing of granite melts is the presence of europium anomalies in REE spectrum of forming fluid phase. Negative Eu anomaly in REE spectrum of fluids enriched by chlorine that were formed under high pressures at early stages of degassing relative to REE spectrum of granite melts may

  5. Deletion in the N-terminal Half of Olfactomedin 1 Modifies Its Interaction with Synaptic Proteins and Causes Brain Dystrophy and Abnormal Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Naoki; Sultana, Afia; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Cheng, Aiwu; Mattson, Mark P.; Tomarev, Stanislav I.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactomedin 1 (Olfm1) is a secreted glycoprotein that is preferentially expressed in neuronal tissues. Here we show that deletion of exons 4 and 5 from the Olfm1 gene, which encodes a 52 amino acid long region in the N-terminal part of the protein, increased neonatal death and reduced body weight of surviving homozygous mice. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed reduced brain volume and attenuated size of white matter tracts such as the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and optic nerve. Adult Olfm1 mutant mice demonstrated abnormal behavior in several tests including reduced marble digging, elevated plus maze test, nesting activity and latency on balance beam tests as compared with their wild-type littermates. The olfactory system was both structurally and functionally disturbed by the mutation in the Olfm1 gene as shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis and a smell test. Deficiencies of the olfactory system may contribute to the neonatal death and loss of body weight of Olfm1 mutant. Shotgun proteomics revealed 59 candidate proteins that co-precipitated with wild-type or mutant Olfm1 proteins in postnatal day 1 brain. Olfm1-binding targets included GluR2, Cav2.1, Teneurin-4 and Kidins220. Modified interaction of Olfm1 with binding targets led to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and activation of ERK1/2, MEK1 and CaMKII in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of Olfm1 mutant mice compared with their wild-type littermates. Excessive activation of the CaMKII and Ras-ERK pathways in the Olfm1 mutant olfactory bulb and hippocampus by elevated intracellular calcium may contribute to the abnormal behavior and olfactory activity of Olfm1 mutant mice. PMID:24095980

  6. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

  7. A gain-of-function mutation in the GABA receptor produces synaptic and behavioral abnormalities in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Homanics, G E; Elsen, F P; Ying, S-W; Jenkins, A; Ferguson, C; Sloat, B; Yuditskaya, S; Goldstein, P A; Kralic, J E; Morrow, A L; Harrison, N L

    2005-02-01

    In mammalian species, inhibition in the brain is mediated predominantly by the activation of GABAA receptors. We report here changes in inhibitory synaptic function and behavior in a mouse line harboring a gain-of-function mutation at Serine 270 (S270) in the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit. In recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 receptors, replacement of S270 by Histidine (H) results in an increase in sensitivity to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and slowing of deactivation following transient activation by saturating concentrations of GABA. Heterozygous mice expressing the S270H mutation are hyper-responsive to human contact, exhibit intention tremor, smaller body size and reduced viability. These mice also displayed reduced motor coordination, were hypoactive in the home cage, but paradoxically were hyperactive in a novel open field environment. Heterozygous knockin mice of both sexes were fertile but females failed to care for offspring. This deficit in maternal behavior prevented production of homozygous animals. Recordings from brain slices prepared from these animals revealed a substantial prolongation of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and a loss of sensitivity to the anesthetic isoflurane, in neurons that express a substantial amount of the alpha1 subunit. The results suggest that the biophysical properties of GABAA receptors are important in determining the time-course of inhibition in vivo, and suggest that the duration of synaptic inhibition is a critical determinant that influences a variety of behaviors in the mouse. PMID:15660664

  8. Cortical folding abnormalities in autism revealed by surface-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Christine Wu; Dierker, Donna; Mostafavi, Iman; Schumann, Cynthia M; Rivera, Susan M; Amaral, David G; Van Essen, David C

    2007-10-24

    We tested for cortical shape abnormalities using surface-based morphometry across a range of autism spectrum disorders (7.5-18 years of age). We generated sulcal depth maps from structural magnetic resonance imaging data and compared typically developing controls to three autism spectrum disorder subgroups: low-functioning autism, high-functioning autism, and Asperger's syndrome. The low-functioning autism group had a prominent shape abnormality centered on the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus that was associated with a sulcal depth difference in the anterior insula and frontal operculum. The high-functioning autism group had bilateral shape abnormalities similar to the low-functioning group, but smaller in size and centered more posteriorly, in and near the parietal operculum and ventral postcentral gyrus. Individuals with Asperger's syndrome had bilateral abnormalities in the intraparietal sulcus that correlated with age, intelligence quotient, and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised social and repetitive behavior scores. Because of evidence suggesting age-related differences in the developmental time course of neural alterations in autism, separate analyses on children (7.5-12.5 years of age) and adolescents (12.75-18 years of age) were also carried out. All of the cortical shape abnormalities identified across all ages were more pronounced in the children. These findings are consistent with evidence of an altered trajectory of early brain development in autism, and they identify several regions that may have abnormal patterns of connectivity in individuals with autism. PMID:17959814

  9. Hierarchical representation and machine learning from faulty jet engine behavioral examples to detect real time abnormal conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, U. K.; Ali, M.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical basis and operation of LEBEX, a machine-learning system for jet-engine performance monitoring, are described. The behavior of the engine is modeled in terms of four parameters (the rotational speeds of the high- and low-speed sections and the exhaust and combustion temperatures), and parameter variations indicating malfunction are transformed into structural representations involving instances and events. LEBEX extracts descriptors from a set of training data on normal and faulty engines, represents them hierarchically in a knowledge base, and uses them to diagnose and predict faults on a real-time basis. Diagrams of the system architecture and printouts of typical results are shown.

  10. Long-term recovery from hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical abnormalities induced by noise exposure during brain development. Evaluation of auditory pathway integrity.

    PubMed

    Uran, S L; Gómez-Casati, M E; Guelman, L R

    2014-10-01

    Sound is an important part of man's contact with the environment and has served as critical means for survival throughout his evolution. As a result of exposure to noise, physiological functions such as those involving structures of the auditory and non-auditory systems might be damaged. We have previously reported that noise-exposed developing rats elicited hippocampal-related histological, biochemical and behavioral changes. However, no data about the time lapse of these changes were reported. Moreover, measurements of auditory pathway function were not performed in exposed animals. Therefore, with the present work, we aim to test the onset and the persistence of the different extra-auditory abnormalities observed in noise-exposed rats and to evaluate auditory pathway integrity. Male Wistar rats of 15 days were exposed to moderate noise levels (95-97 dB SPL, 2 h a day) during one day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or during 15 days (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal biochemical determinations as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) behavioral assessments were performed. In addition, histological and functional evaluations of the auditory pathway were carried out in exposed animals. Our results show that hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical changes (impairments in habituation, recognition and associative memories as well as distortion of anxiety-related behavior, decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increases in antioxidant enzymes activities) induced by noise exposure were almost completely restored by PND 90. In addition, auditory evaluation shows that increased cochlear thresholds observed in exposed rats were re-established at PND 90, although with a remarkable supra-threshold amplitude reduction. These data suggest that noise-induced hippocampal and auditory-related alterations are mostly transient and that the effects of noise on the hippocampus might be, at least in part, mediated by the damage on the auditory pathway. However, we cannot exclude that a different mechanism might be responsible for the observed hippocampal-related changes. PMID:24911434

  11. Abnormal Diffusion Behavior of Zn in Cu/Sn-9 wt.%Zn/Cu Interconnects During Liquid-Solid Electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M. L.; Zhou, Q.; Zhao, N.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2013-10-01

    The diffusion behavior of Zn atoms and the interfacial reaction in Cu/Sn-9 wt.%Zn/Cu interconnects undergoing liquid-solid electromigration were investigated under a current density of 5.0 × 103 A/cm2 at 230°C. A reverse polarity effect was revealed, in which the interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the cathode grew continuously and were remarkably thicker than those at the anode. This behavior resulted from the directional migration of Zn atoms from the anode towards the cathode, which was induced by the positive effective charge number ( Z *) of the Zn atoms rather than by back-stress. Consequently, at the anode, dissolution and massive spalling of the Cu-Zn IMCs occurred, and the depletion of Zn atoms resulted in the transformation of initial interfacial Cu5Zn8 IMC into (Cu6Sn5 + CuZn); at the cathode, the interfacial Cu5Zn8 IMC gradually transformed into (Cu5Zn8 + CuZn); in the solder, the Zn content reduced continuously from 9 wt.% to 0.9 wt.%. A growth model is proposed to explain the reverse polarity effect, and the average Z * of Zn atoms in Cu5Zn8 was calculated to be +0.25 using this model.

  12. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or ?PD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and activated microglia in perivascular areas and brain parenchyma. Genetically resistant, chronically infected mice had substantially less inflammation. Conclusion In outbred mice, chronic, adult acquired T. gondii infection causes neurologic and behavioral abnormalities secondary to inflammation and loss of brain parenchyma. Perivascular inflammation is prominent particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus. Even resistant mice have perivascular inflammation. This mouse model of chronic T. gondii infection raises questions of whether persistence of this parasite in brain can cause inflammation or neurodegeneration in genetically susceptible hosts. PMID:18947414

  13. Deletion of densin-180 results in abnormal behaviors associated with mental illness and reduces mGluR5 and DISC1 in the postsynaptic density fraction.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Holly J; Luong, Tinh N; Medina-Marino, Andrew; Schenker, Leslie; Khorosheva, Eugenia; Indersmitten, Tim; Gunapala, Keith M; Steele, Andrew D; O'Dell, Thomas J; Patterson, Paul H; Kennedy, Mary B

    2011-11-01

    Densin is an abundant scaffold protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that forms a high-affinity complex with ?CaMKII and ?-actinin. To assess the function of densin, we created a mouse line with a null mutation in the gene encoding it (LRRC7). Homozygous knock-out mice display a wide variety of abnormal behaviors that are often considered endophenotypes of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. At the cellular level, loss of densin results in reduced levels of ?-actinin in the brain and selective reduction in the localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction, whereas the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors and other prominent PSD proteins are unchanged. In addition, deletion of densin results in impairment of mGluR- and NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression, alters the early dynamics of regulation of CaMKII by NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and produces a change in spine morphology. These results indicate that densin influences the function of mGluRs and CaMKII at synapses and contributes to localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction. They are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations that disrupt the organization and/or dynamics of postsynaptic signaling complexes in excitatory synapses can cause behavioral endophenotypes of mental illness. PMID:22072671

  14. Combination of neonatal PolyI:C and adolescent phencyclidine treatments is required to induce behavioral abnormalities with overexpression of GLAST in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Ando, Yu; Mori, Kentaro; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative incidences of multiple risk factors are related to pathology of psychiatric disorders. The present study was designed to examine combinative effects of a neonatal immune challenge with adolescent abused substance treatment on the psychological behaviors and molecular expressions in the adult. C57BL/6J mice were neonatally treated, with polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (PolyI:C: 5mg/kg) during postnatal days (PD) 2-6, then with phencyclidine (PCP: 10mg/kg) during adolescence (PD35-41). Locomotor activity was analyzed to evaluate sensitivity to PCP on PD35 and PD41. Emotional and cognitive tests were carried out on PD42-48. Neonatal PolyI:C treatment markedly enhanced sensitivity to PCP- and methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in the adolescent. Mice treated with both neonatal PolyI:C and adolescent PCP (PolyI:C/PCP) showed social deficit and object recognition memory impairment. The expression of glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the (PolyI:C/PCP)-treated mice. Infusion of glutamate transporter inhibitor (DL-TBOA: 1 nmol/bilaterally) into the PFC reversed the object recognition impairment in the (PolyI:C/PCP)-treated mice. These results indicate that the combined treatment of neonatal PolyI:C with adolescent PCP leads to behavioral abnormalities, which were associated with increase of GLAST expression in the adult PFC. PMID:24060653

  15. Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2?/? mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2?/? mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

  16. Repetition Effects in Grasping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Dixon; Scott McAnsh; Lenore Read

    2012-01-01

    The task in the present experiments was to reach out and grasp a novel object that afforded two possible grips. Different versions of the object were created that biased subjects to use one grip or the other. The dependent variable was the repetition effect, the tendency to repeat the grip that was used on the previous trial. In Experiment 1,

  17. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analysis of 220 fully sequenced porcine BACs generated by the Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative (http://www.nisc.nih.gov/) revealed 27 distinct, novel porcine repetitive elements ranging in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. This set of fully sequenced BACs covers approximately 1% of...

  18. Repetition through Successive Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littell, Katherine M.

    This study was conducted in an attempt to provide an alternative to the long-established method of tape listening and repetition drills, a method that has had disappointing results. It is suggested that the rate of speed of phonic presentation is not commensurate with the rate of comprehension. The proposed method seeks to prevent cognitive…

  19. The Impacts of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome Severity and Surgery Intervention on Psychological and Behavioral Abnormalities and Postoperative Recovery in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Xin; Wang, Haifei; Teng, Yaoshu; Yu, Daojun; Zhang, Haisheng; Shen, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of impact of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) severity on pediatric psychological and behavioral abnormalities. Material/Methods Fifty-one children aged 5–12 years with a confirmed diagnosis of OSAHS were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of OSAHS. They underwent bilateral tonsillectomy plus adenoidectomy or adenoidectomy alone. Repeated polysomnography and integrated visual and auditory continuous performance testing (IVA-CPT) was performed to assess full-scale response control quotient (FRCQ), full-scale attention quotient (FAQ), and hyperactivity (HYP) before surgery and 3 and 6 months after surgery. Results Mean FRCQ, FAQ, and HYP significantly improved over time in the 3 groups (FRCQ, F=292.05; FAQ, F=258.27; HYP, F=295.10, all P<0.001). FRCQ and HYP were not significantly different among the groups at the 3 time points. FAQ was significantly different among the groups (F=3.89, P<0.05). For FRCQ, FAQ, and HYP, there was no interaction between time and disease severity. Within groups, the effect of time on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and lowest oxygen saturation (LaSO2) were significant for each group and they were significantly different among the 3 groups at each time point (all P<0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that OSAHS may have a significant impact on self-control, attention, and hyperactivity in children, which is gradually alleviated after surgery. Disease severity was not closely related to preoperative mental and psychological function or postoperative recovery. Thus, we find it difficult to determine the impact degree of OSAHS severity on mental and psychological function or predict postoperative recovery by using OSAHS severity alone in children. PMID:25141885

  20. Cumulative effects of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Julian E; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Petraglia, Anthony L; Turner, Ryan C

    2014-01-01

    The majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the USA are mild in severity. Sports, particularly American football, and military experience are especially associated with repetitive, mild TBI (mTBI). The consequences of repetitive brain injury have garnered increasing scientific and public attention following reports of altered mood and behavior, as well as progressive neurological dysfunction many years after injury. This report provides an up-to-date review of the clinical, pathological, and pathophysiological changes associated with repetitive mTBI, and their potential for cumulative effects in certain individuals. PMID:24923392

  1. Growth differences associated with compulsive and stereotyped behavior disorders in adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Powell, S B; Bodfish, J W; Parker, D E; Crawford, T W; Golden, R N; Lewis, M H

    1996-01-01

    We have recently observed that compulsive behaviors in mentally retarded patients appear to be quite prevalent, can be reliably assessed, and have a high rate of co-occurrence with stereotyped and self-injurious behaviors in this population. As abnormal growth rate has been observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, we examined physical stature in adults with mental retardation who display repetitive movement disorders. Identification of cases with stereotypic movement disorder, and cases with compulsive behaviors was done using a symptom checklist and direct observation. Subjects with repetitive movement disorders were smaller in stature than control subjects, with gender differences observed across repetitive behavior disorders. Specifically, female subjects with compulsive behavior disorder, but not stereotypic movement disorder, were significantly shorter and weighted significantly less than same sex-matched controls. Conversely, male subjects with stereotypic movement disorder, but not compulsive disorder, were significantly shorter and weighed significantly less than same sex controls. These findings may point to a neuroendocrine abnormality associated with repetitive movement disorders. PMID:9160607

  2. Why repetition? Repetitive babbling, auditory feedback, and cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Mary K

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the reduplicated, or repetitive vocalizations of hearing infants and infants with profound hearing loss with and without cochlear implants using a new measure of repetition in order to address questions not only about the effects of cochlear implantation on repetitive babbling, but also about the reason repetitive vocalizations occur at all and why they emerge around 7 or 8months of age in hearing infants. Participants were 16 infants with profound hearing loss and 27 hearing infants who participated at a mean age of 9.9months and/or a mean age of 17.7months. Mean age at cochlear implantation for infants with profound hearing loss was 12.9months, and mean duration of implant use was 4.2months. The data show that before cochlear implantation, repetitive vocalizations were rare. However, 4months after cochlear implant activation, infants with hearing loss produced both repetitive vocalizations and repetitions per vocalization at levels commensurate with their hearing peers. The results support the hypothesis that repetition emerges as a means of vocal exploration during the time when hearing infants (and infants with cochlear implants) form auditory-motor representations and neural connections between cortical areas active in syllable production and syllable perception, during the transition from nonlinguistic to linguistic vocalization. PMID:25974171

  3. Repetition Blindness for Rotated Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, William G.; Zhou, Guomei; Man, Wai-Fung; Harris, Irina M.

    2010-01-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) is the finding that observers often miss the repetition of an item within a rapid stream of words or objects. Recent studies have shown that RB for objects is largely unaffected by variations in viewpoint between the repeated items. In 5 experiments, we tested RB under different axes of rotation, with different types of…

  4. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  5. Repetition suppression of faces is modulated by emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishai, Alumit; Pessoa, Luiz; Bikle, Philip C.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2004-06-01

    Single-unit recordings and functional brain imaging studies have shown reduced neural responses to repeated stimuli in the visual cortex. By using event-related functional MRI, we compared the activation evoked by repetitions of neutral and fearful faces, which were either task relevant (targets) or irrelevant (distracters). We found that within the inferior occipital gyri, lateral fusiform gyri, superior temporal sulci, amygdala, and the inferior frontal gyri/insula, targets evoked stronger responses than distracters and their repetition was associated with significantly reduced responses. Repetition suppression, as manifested by the difference in response amplitude between the first and third repetitions of a target, was stronger for fearful than neutral faces. Distracter faces, regardless of their repetition or valence, evoked negligible activation, indicating top-down attenuation of behaviorally irrelevant stimuli. Our findings demonstrate a three-way interaction between emotional valence, repetition, and task relevance and suggest that repetition suppression is influenced by high-level cognitive processes in the human brain. face perception | functional MRI

  6. Repetition suppression and multi-voxel pattern similarity differentially track implicit and explicit visual memory.

    PubMed

    Ward, Emily J; Chun, Marvin M; Kuhl, Brice A

    2013-09-11

    Repeated exposure to a visual stimulus is associated with corresponding reductions in neural activity, particularly within visual cortical areas. It has been argued that this phenomenon of repetition suppression is related to increases in processing fluency or implicit memory. However, repetition of a visual stimulus can also be considered in terms of the similarity of the pattern of neural activity elicited at each exposure--a measure that has recently been linked to explicit memory. Despite the popularity of each of these measures, direct comparisons between the two have been limited, and the extent to which they differentially (or similarly) relate to behavioral measures of memory has not been clearly established. In the present study, we compared repetition suppression and pattern similarity as predictors of both implicit and explicit memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned 20 participants while they viewed and categorized repeated presentations of scenes. Repetition priming (facilitated categorization across repetitions) was used as a measure of implicit memory, and subsequent scene recognition was used as a measure of explicit memory. We found that repetition priming was predicted by repetition suppression in prefrontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal regions; however, repetition priming was not predicted by pattern similarity. In contrast, subsequent explicit memory was predicted by pattern similarity (across repetitions) in some of the same occipitotemporal regions that exhibited a relationship between priming and repetition suppression; however, explicit memory was not related to repetition suppression. This striking double dissociation indicates that repetition suppression and pattern similarity differentially track implicit and explicit learning. PMID:24027275

  7. [Repetitive work and psychosomatic complaints].

    PubMed

    Liebrich, J; Geiger, L; Rupp, M

    1978-08-01

    200 workers of the Swiss watch industry were examined in an interdisciplinary study on the effect of repetitive work on the wellbeing of the worker. Women doing repetitive work with little autonomy complained more often about psychosomatic problems than the male workers doing non-repetitive work. This difference is interpreted as a difference of sexe rather than one of the work situation. However, there is a significant difference in the complaint about nervosity between women being paid monthly and women who were paid by piece or by hour with a premium. PMID:706840

  8. Dynamics of high repetition rate regenerative amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, M.; Gulbinas, V.; Michailovas, A.

    2007-07-01

    Dynamics features of high repetition rate continuously pumped solid-state regenerative amplifiers were studied numerically. A space independent rate equations and discrete-time dynamical system approach were used for system state evolution analysis. Regular single-energy operation, quasi-periodic pulsing and chaotic behavior regions are distinguished in space of control parameters. Diagrams of dynamical regimes comprehensively exhibiting operation features of the system are presented. Seed energy is shown to be an important parameter determining the stability space. Conditions of stable operation are described quantitatively.

  9. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure. PMID:21707165

  10. Paucity of moderately repetitive sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    We examined clones of renatured repetitive human DNA to find novel repetitive DNAs. After eliminating known repeats, the remaining clones were subjected to sequence analysis. These clones also corresponded to known repeats, but with greater sequence diversity. This indicates that either these libraries were depleted of short interspersed repeats in construction, or these repeats are much less prevalent in the human genome than is indicated by data from {und Xenopus} or sea urchin studies. We directly investigated the sequence composition of human DNA through traditional renaturation techniques with the goal of estimating the limits of abundance of repetitive sequence classes in human DNA. Our results sharply limit the maximum possible abundance to 1--2% of the human genome. Our estimate, minus the known repeats in this fraction, leaves about 1% (3 {times} 10{sup 7} nucleotides) of the human genome for novel repetitive elements. 2 refs. (MHB)

  11. Repetition in Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, T. G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Provides data indicating that development occurs in cycles, with behavioral competencies appearing and developing and then disappearing only to reappear again in a more complex form at a later age. Data on conservation and auditory-manual coordination in infancy are used to support this theory. (ED)

  12. On the relationship between persistent delay activity, repetition enhancement and priming

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Elisa M.; Mongillo, Gianluigi; Brunel, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Human efficiency in processing incoming stimuli (in terms of speed and/or accuracy) is typically enhanced by previous exposure to the same, or closely related stimuli—a phenomenon referred to as priming. In spite of the large body of knowledge accumulated in behavioral studies about the conditions conducive to priming, and its relationship with other forms of memory, the underlying neuronal correlates of priming are still under debate. The idea has repeatedly been advanced that a major neuronal mechanism supporting behaviorally-expressed priming is repetition suppression, a widespread reduction of spiking activity upon stimulus repetition which has been routinely exposed by single-unit recordings in non-human primates performing delayed-response, as well as passive fixation tasks. This proposal is mainly motivated by the observation that, in human fMRI studies, priming is associated to a significant reduction of the BOLD signal (widely interpreted as a proxy of the level of spiking activity) upon stimulus repetition. Here, we critically re-examine a large part of the electrophysiological literature on repetition suppression in non-human primates and find that repetition suppression is systematically accompanied by stimulus-selective delay period activity, together with repetition enhancement, an increase of spiking activity upon stimulus repetition in small neuronal populations. We argue that repetition enhancement constitutes a more viable candidate for a putative neuronal substrate of priming, and propose a minimal framework that links together, mechanistically and functionally, repetition suppression, stimulus-selective delay activity and repetition enhancement. PMID:25657630

  13. Repetitive RNA unwinding by RNA helicase A facilitates RNA annealing

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hye Ran; Xing, Li; Kleiman, Lawrence; Myong, Sua

    2014-01-01

    Helicases contribute to diverse biological processes including replication, transcription and translation. Recent reports suggest that unwinding of some helicases display repetitive activity, yet the functional role of the repetitiveness requires further investigation. Using single-molecule fluorescence assays, we elucidated a unique unwinding mechanism of RNA helicase A (RHA) that entails discrete substeps consisting of binding, activation, unwinding, stalling and reactivation stages. This multi-step process is repeated many times by a single RHA molecule without dissociation, resulting in repetitive unwinding/rewinding cycles. Our kinetic and mutational analysis indicates that the two double stand RNA binding domains at the N-terminus of RHA are responsible for such repetitive unwinding behavior in addition to providing an increased binding affinity to RNA. Further, the repetitive unwinding induces an efficient annealing of a complementary RNA by making the unwound strand more accessible. The complex and unusual mechanism displayed by RHA may help in explaining how the repetitive unwinding of helicases contributes to their biological functions. PMID:24914047

  14. Autism-Relevant Social Abnormalities and Cognitive Deficits in Engrailed-2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brielmaier, Jennifer; Matteson, Paul G.; Silverman, Jill L.; Senerth, Julia M.; Kelly, Samantha; Genestine, Matthieu; Millonig, James H.

    2012-01-01

    ENGRAILED 2 (En2), a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22829897

  15. Variation, Repetition, And Choice

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele; Lattal, Kennon A; dos Santos, Cristiano V; Matos, Ricardo A

    2005-01-01

    Experiment 1 investigated the controlling properties of variability contingencies on choice between repeated and variable responding. Pigeons were exposed to concurrent-chains schedules with two alternatives. In the REPEAT alternative, reinforcers in the terminal link depended on a single sequence of four responses. In the VARY alternative, a response sequence in the terminal link was reinforced only if it differed from the n previous sequences (lag criterion). The REPEAT contingency generated low, constant levels of sequence variation whereas the VARY contingency produced levels of sequence variation that increased with the lag criterion. Preference for the REPEAT alternative tended to increase directly with the degree of variation required for reinforcement. Experiment 2 examined the potential confounding effects in Experiment 1 of immediacy of reinforcement by yoking the interreinforcer intervals in the REPEAT alternative to those in the VARY alternative. Again, preference for REPEAT was a function of the lag criterion. Choice between varying and repeating behavior is discussed with respect to obtained behavioral variability, probability of reinforcement, delay of reinforcement, and switching within a sequence. PMID:15828592

  16. Can adverse neonatal experiences alter brain development and subsequent behavior?

    PubMed

    Anand, K J; Scalzo, F M

    2000-02-01

    Self-destructive behavior in current society promotes a search for psychobiological factors underlying this epidemic. Perinatal brain plasticity increases the vulnerability to early adverse experiences, thus leading to abnormal development and behavior. Although several epidemiological investigations have correlated perinatal and neonatal complications with abnormal adult behavior, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains rudimentary. Models of early experience, such as repetitive pain, sepsis, or maternal separation in rodents and other species have noted multiple alterations in the adult brain, correlated with specific behavioral phenotypes depending on the timing and nature of the insult. The mechanisms mediating such changes in the neonatal brain have remained largely unexplored. We propose that lack of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity from maternal separation and sensory isolation leads to increased apoptosis in multiple areas of the immature brain. On the other hand, exposure to repetitive pain may cause excessive NMDA/excitatory amino acid activation resulting in excitotoxic damage to developing neurons. These changes promote two distinct behavioral phenotypes characterized by increased anxiety, altered pain sensitivity, stress disorders, hyperactivity/attention deficit disorder, leading to impaired social skills and patterns of self-destructive behavior. The clinical important of these mechanisms lies in the prevention of early insults, effective treatment of neonatal pain and stress, and perhaps the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches that limit neuronal excitotoxicity or apoptosis. PMID:10657682

  17. Between memory and destiny: repetition.

    PubMed

    Marucco, Norberto Carlos

    2007-04-01

    This essay focuses mainly on the topic of repetition (agieren)-on its metapsychological, clinical, and technical conceptions. It contains a core problem, that is, the question of the represented, the nonrepresented, and the unrepresentable in the psyche. This problem, in turn, brings to light the dialectical relation between drive and object and its specific articulation with the traumatic. The author attributes special significance to its clinical expression as 'destiny.' He points out a shift in the theory of the cure from recollection and the unveiling of unconscious desire, to the possibility of understanding 'pure' repetition, which would constitute the very essence of the drive. The author highlights three types of repetition, namely, 'representative' (oedipal) repetition, the repetition of the 'nonrepresented' (narcissistic), which may gain representation, and that of the 'unrepresentable' (sensory impressions, 'lived experiences from primal times,' 'prelinguistic signifiers,' 'ungovernable mnemic traces'). The concept-the metaphor-drive embryo brings the author close to the question of the archaic in psychoanalysis, where the repetition in the act would express itself. 'Another unconscious' would zealously conceal the entombed (verschüttet) that we are not yet able to describe-the 'innermost' rather than the 'buried' (untergegangen) or the 'annihilated' (zugrunde gegangen)-through a mechanism whose way of expression is repetition in the act. With 'Constructions in analysis' as its starting point, this paper suggests a different technical implementation from that of the Freudian construction; its main material is what emerges in the present of the transference as the repetition of 'something' lacking as history. The memory of the analytic process offers a historical diachrony whereby a temporality freed from repetition and utterly unique might unfold in the analysis. This diachrony would no longer be the historical reconstruction of material truth, but the construction of something new. The author briefly introduces some aspects of his conception of the psyche and of therapeutic work in terms of what he has designated as psychic zones. These zones are associated with various modes of becoming unconscious, and they coexist with different degrees of prevalence according to the psychopathology. Yet each of them will emerge with unique features in different moments of every analysis, determining both the analyst's positions and the very conditions of the analytic field. The zone of the death drive and of repetition is at the center of this essay. 'Pure' repetition expresses a time halted by the constant reiteration of an atemporal present. In this case, the 'royal road' for the expression of 'that' unconscious will be the act. The analyst's presence and his own drive wager will be pivotal to provide a last attempt at binding that will allow the creation of the lost 'psychic fabric' and the construction, in a conjectural way, of some sort of 'history' that may unravel the entombed (verschüttet) elements that, in these patients' case, come to the surface in the act. The analysand's 'pure' repetition touches, resonates with something of the new unconscious of the analyst. All of this leads the author to underline once again the value of the analyst's self-analysis and reanalysis in searching for connections and especially in differentiating between what belongs to the analyst and what belongs to the analysand. A certain degree of unbinding ensures the preservation of something ungraspable that protects one from the other's appropriation. PMID:17392052

  18. Repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, S.-Y.

    1990-03-13

    I show that two spin rotators 180{degree} apart may be desirable for the repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect. I also calculate the effect of depolarization resonance on the repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect. It is shown that to first order in resonance strength, we can avoid the imperfection resonance if the energy of the beam is at G{gamma} = n + 1/2. The time available for accumulating the Stern-Gerlach kick is then limited by the intrinsic resonance. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours, Sensory Processing and Cognitive Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the…

  20. Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In…

  1. From anxiety to autism: spectrum of abnormal social behaviors modeled by progressive disruption of inhibitory neuronal function in the basolateral amygdala in Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Truitt; Tammy J. Sajdyk; Amy D. Dietrich; Brandon Oberlin; Christopher J. McDougle; Anantha Shekhar

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  Social behaviors are disrupted in several psychiatric disorders. The amygdala is a key brain region involved in social behaviors,\\u000a and amygdala pathology has been implicated in disease states ranging from social anxiety disorder to autism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To test the effects of progressive disruption of the inhibitory function within the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA)\\u000a on conspecific social interaction in rats

  2. Optogenetic Stimulation of Lateral Orbitofronto-Striatal Pathway Suppresses Compulsive Behaviors

    E-print Network

    Burguiere, Eric

    Dysfunctions in frontostriatal brain circuits have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, including those characterized by the presence of repetitive behaviors. We developed an optogenetic approach to block repetitive, ...

  3. Mitochondrial abnormalities in temporal lobe of autistic brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guomei; Gutierrez Rios, Puri; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Akman, Hasan Orhan; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Tanji, Kurenai; Dwork, Andrew; Schon, Eric A; Dimauro, Salvatore; Goldman, James; Sulzer, David

    2013-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consists of a group of complex developmental disabilities characterized by impaired social interactions, deficits in communication and repetitive behavior. Multiple lines of evidence implicate mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. In postmortem BA21 temporal cortex, a region that exhibits synaptic pathology in ASD, we found that compared to controls, ASD patients exhibited altered protein levels of mitochondria respiratory chain protein complexes, decreased Complex I and IV activities, decreased mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme SOD2, and greater oxidative DNA damage. Mitochondrial membrane mass was higher in ASD brain, as indicated by higher protein levels of mitochondrial membrane proteins Tom20, Tim23 and porin. No differences were observed in either mitochondrial DNA or levels of the mitochondrial gene transcription factor TFAM or cofactor PGC1?, indicating that a mechanism other than alterations in mitochondrial genome or mitochondrial biogenesis underlies these mitochondrial abnormalities. We further identified higher levels of the mitochondrial fission proteins (Fis1 and Drp1) and decreased levels of the fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) in ASD patients, indicating altered mitochondrial dynamics in ASD brain. Many of these changes were evident in cortical pyramidal neurons, and were observed in ASD children but were less pronounced or absent in adult patients. Together, these findings provide evidence that mitochondrial function and intracellular redox status are compromised in pyramidal neurons in ASD brain and that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs during early childhood when ASD symptoms appear. PMID:23333625

  4. Brief Report: Assessment of Development and Abnormal Behavior in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Revised Psychoeducational Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steerneman, Pim; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 20 children (ages 3-6) with autism and 20 children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) examined the validity of a Dutch version of the revised Psychoeducational Profile (PEP-R). No differences were found on the PEP-R developmental subscales, but on the pathology subscales children with autism showed more severe behavior than…

  5. How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

  6. How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier

    2014-06-01

    A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

  7. 21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an external...delivers transcranial repetitive pulsed magnetic fields of sufficient magnitude...

  8. 21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an external...delivers transcranial repetitive pulsed magnetic fields of sufficient magnitude...

  9. 21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an external...delivers transcranial repetitive pulsed magnetic fields of sufficient magnitude...

  10. Repetitive Delone sets and quasicrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFFREY C. LAGARIAS; PETER A. B. PLEASANTS

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of characterizing the simplest discrete\\u000apoint sets that are aperiodic, using invariants based on topological dynamics.\\u000aA Delone set whose patch-counting function N(T), for radius T, is finite for\\u000aall T is called repetitive if there is a function M(T) such that every ball of\\u000aradius M(T)+T contains a copy of each kind of patch

  11. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  12. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza; Strandgren, Charlotte; Pernold, Karin; Richard, Thibaud J C; Van Leeuwen, Fred W; Dantuma, Nico P; Damberg, Peter; Hultenby, Kjell; Ulfhake, Brun; Mugnaini, Enrico; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824C>T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin. PMID:25343989

  13. Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report. PMID:25031630

  14. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  15. Renal abnormalities in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B

    1993-01-01

    We have evaluated laboratory and clinical manifestations of renal disease in 96 patients with leprosy, looking for a sensitive and early marker for detection and possibly follow-up of nephropathy in these patients. Microscopic hematuria was observed in 21.9% of the cases (with dysmorphic erythrocytes in 71.4% of them). Abnormal microalbuminuria and urinary beta 2-microglobulin were found in 15.8 and 19.8% of the cases, respectively. We have observed a high frequency of hematuria, abnormal microalbuminuria and elevation of urinary beta 2-microglobulin in these patients still with normal serum creatinine. PMID:8289988

  16. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a spectrum of neuropathological changes following repetitive brain trauma in athletes and military personnel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive traumatic brain injury experienced in sport and military service. In most instances, the clinical symptoms of the disease begin after a long period of latency ranging from several years to several decades. The initial symptoms are typically insidious, consisting of irritability, impulsivity, aggression, depression, short-term memory loss and heightened suicidality. The symptoms progress slowly over decades to include cognitive deficits and dementia. The pathology of CTE is characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and astrocytes in a pattern that is unique from other tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease. The hyperphosphorylated tau abnormalities begin focally, as perivascular neurofibrillary tangles and neurites at the depths of the cerebral sulci, and then spread to involve superficial layers of adjacent cortex before becoming a widespread degeneration affecting medial temporal lobe structures, diencephalon and brainstem. Most instances of CTE (>85% of cases) show abnormal accumulations of phosphorylated 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein that are partially colocalized with phosphorylated tau protein. As CTE is characterized pathologically by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, by abnormal deposits of phosphorylated tau and by 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein and is associated clinically with behavioral and personality changes, as well as cognitive impairments, CTE is increasingly categorized as an acquired frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Currently, some of the greatest challenges are that CTE cannot be diagnosed during life and the incidence and prevalence of the disorder remain uncertain. Furthermore, the contribution of age, gender, genetics, stress, alcohol and substance abuse to the development of CTE remains to be determined. PMID:24423082

  17. Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

  18. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter (inventor); Hutto, William R. (inventor); Philips, Albert R. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  19. Terminology, Notation & Data Structures Computing Repetitions & Runs

    E-print Network

    Smyth, William F.

    Outline Terminology, Notation & Data Structures Computing Repetitions & Runs The Maximum Number (n, Hamilton, Canada email: smyth@mcmaster.ca 10­12 May 2012 1 / 20 #12;Outline Terminology, Notation & Data further. 2 / 20 #12;Outline Terminology, Notation & Data Structures Computing Repetitions & Runs

  20. Serial Position Effects in Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, P.; Lipinski, J.; Abbs, B.; Lin, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of research has emphasized the linkage between performance in immediate serial recall of lists, nonword repetition, and word learning. Recently, it has been reported that primacy and recency effects are obtained in repetition of individual syllables within nonwords (Gupta, in press). Five experiments examined whether such…

  1. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  2. A repetitive probe for FISH analysis of bovine interphase nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Slimane, Wafa; Vaiman, Daniel; Godard, Sophie; Vaiman, Anne; Cribiu, Edmond; Renard, Jean-Paul

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate repetitive DNA sequence probes for the analysis of interphase nuclei by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Such probes are useful for the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplanted embryos. Of the seven probes (E1A, E4A, Ba, H1A, W18, W22, W5) that were generated and partially sequenced, five corresponded to previously described Bos taurus repetitive DNA (E1A, E4A, Ba, W18, W5), one probe (W22) shared no homology with other DNA sequences and one (H1A) displayed a significant homology with Rattus norvegicus mRNA for secretin receptor transmembrane domain 3. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation was performed on metaphase bovine fibroblast cells and showed that five of the seven probes hybridised most centromeres (E1A, E4A, Ba, W18, W22), one labelled the arms of all chromosomes (W5) and the H1A probe was specific to three chromosomes (ch14, ch20, and ch25). Moreover, FISH with H1A resulted in interpretable signals on interphase nuclei in 88% of the cases, while the other probes yielded only dispersed overlapping signals. PMID:14736403

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Pathophysiological Tissue Changes Associated With Repetitive Movement: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ann E; Barbe, Mary F

    2006-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) represent approximately one third of workers’ compensation costs in US private industry, yet estimates of acceptable exposure levels for forceful and repetitive tasks are imprecise, in part, due to lack of measures of tissue injury in humans. In this review, the authors discuss the scope of upper-extremity WMSDs, the relationship between repetition rate and forcefulness of reaching tasks and WMSDs, cellular responses to injury in vivo and in vitro, and animal injury models of repetitive, forceful tasks. The authors describe a model using albino rats and present evidence related to tissue injury and inflammation due to a highly repetitive reaching task. A conceptual schematic for WMSD development and suggestions for further research are presented. Animal models can enhance our ability to predict risk and to manage WMSDs in humans because such models permit the direct observation of exposed tissues as well as motor behavior. PMID:11856068

  5. Not all repetition is alike: Different benefits of repetition in amnesia and normal memory

    PubMed Central

    Verfaellie, Mieke; Rajaram, Suparna; Fossum, Karen; Williams, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    While it is well known that repetition can enhance memory in amnesia, little is known about which forms of repetition are most beneficial. This study compared the effect on recognition memory of repetition of words in the same semantic context and in varied semantic contexts. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which these forms of repetition affect performance, participants were asked to make Remember/Know judgments during recognition. These judgments were used to make inferences about the contribution of recollection and familiarity to performance. For individuals with intact memory, the two forms of repetition were equally beneficial to overall recognition, and were associated with both enhanced Remember and Know responses. However, varied repetition was associated with a higher likelihood of Remember responses than was fixed repetition. The two forms of repetition also conferred equivalent benefits on overall recognition in amnesia, but in both cases, this enhancement was manifest exclusively in enhanced Know responses. We conclude that the repetition of information, and especially repetition in varied contexts, enhances recollection in individuals with intact memory, but exclusively affects familiarity in patients with severe amnesia. PMID:18419835

  6. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  7. Developmental Norms for the Sentence Repetition Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, John A.; MacDonald, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Obtained developmental norms for the Sentence Repetition Test from children (N=1,081) ranging in age from three to 13 years. Utilized a substanially larger number of children in each age group than previous reports. (Author/LLL)

  8. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  9. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Internet , kids often spend hours at the computer. So it's important for parents to know about ... to the stress of repetitive motions at the computer or overuse injuries in sports. RSI in kids ...

  10. Repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes

    PubMed Central

    Eller, C. Daniel; Regelson, Moira; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stan; Horvath, Steve; Marahrens, York

    2007-01-01

    Housekeeping genes are expressed across a wide variety of tissues. Since repetitive sequences have been reported to influence the expression of individual genes, we employed a novel approach to determine whether housekeeping genes can be distinguished from tissue-specific genes their repetitive sequence context. We show that Alu elements are more highly concentrated around housekeeping genes while various longer (>400-bp) repetitive sequences ("repeats"), including Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) elements, are excluded from these regions. We further show that isochore membership does not distinguish housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes and that repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes in every isochore. The distinct repetitive sequence environment, in combination with other previously published sequence properties of housekeeping genes, were used to develop a method of predicting housekeeping genes on the basis of DNA sequence alone. Using expression across tissue types as a measure of success, we demonstrate that repetitive sequence environment is by far the most important sequence feature identified to date for distinguishing housekeeping genes. PMID:17141428

  11. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Modulates Evoked-Gamma Frequency Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Joshua M.; Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Horrell, Tim; Mathai, Grace; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been reported that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have abnormal reactions to the sensory environment and visuo-perceptual abnormalities. Electrophysiological research has provided evidence that gamma band activity (30-80 Hz) is a physiological indicator of the co-activation of cortical cells engaged in processing visual stimuli and integrating different features of a stimulus. A number of studies have found augmented and indiscriminative gamma band power at early stages of visual processing in ASD; this may be related to decreased inhibitory processing and an increase in the ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition. Low frequency or ‘slow’ (?1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits. Methods We wanted to test the hypothesis of gamma band abnormalities at early stages of visual processing in ASD by investigating relative evoked (i.e. ~ 100 ms) gamma power in 25 subjects with ASD and 20 age-matched controls using Kanizsa illusory figures. Additionally, we wanted to assess the effects of 12 sessions of bilateral ‘slow’ rTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on evoked gamma activity using a randomized controlled design. Results In individuals with ASD evoked gamma activity was not discriminative of stimulus type, whereas in controls early gamma power differences between target and non-target stimuli were highly significant. Following rTMS individuals with ASD showed significant improvement in discriminatory gamma activity between relevant and irrelevant visual stimuli. We also found significant improvement in the responses on behavioral questionnaires (i.e., irritability, repetitive behavior) as a result of rTMS. Conclusion We proposed that ‘slow’ rTMS may have increased cortical inhibitory tone which improved discriminatory gamma activity at early stages of visual processing. rTMS has the potential to become an important therapeutic tool in ASD treatment and has shown significant benefits in treating core symptoms of ASD with few, if any side effects. PMID:21116441

  12. Clomipramine treatment for stereotype and related repetitive movement disorders associated with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M H; Bodfish, J W; Powell, S B; Golden, R N

    1995-11-01

    The efficacy of the serotonin uptake inhibitor clomipramine in the treatment of stereotyped and related repetitive behavior disorders was tested in individuals with severe and profound mental retardation. A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of clomipramine was associated with significant reductions in the frequency and intensity of stereotyped behavior and teacher ratings of stereotypy, hyperactivity, and irritability as well as increased adaptive engagement and decreased staff intervention for nontargeted behavior problems. Adverse effects occurred in 3 of the 10 subjects. Of the 7 subjects who tolerated the drug, 6 exhibited a clinically significant improvement in one or more repetitive behaviors. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that clomipramine is effective in treating stereotyped and related behaviors associated with mental retardation. PMID:8554777

  13. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  14. The abnormal fontanel.

    PubMed

    Kiesler, Joseph; Ricer, Rick

    2003-06-15

    The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median time of closure is 13.8 months. The most common causes of a large anterior fontanel or delayed fontanel closure are achondroplasia, hypothyroidism, Down syndrome, increased intracranial pressure, and rickets. A bulging anterior fontanel can be a result of increased intracranial pressure or intracranial and extracranial tumors, and a sunken fontanel usually is a sign of dehydration. A physical examination helps the physician determine which imaging modality, such as plain films, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, or magnetic resonance imaging, to use for diagnosis. PMID:12825844

  15. Serial rapists and their victims: reenactment and repetition.

    PubMed

    Burgess, A W; Hazelwood, R R; Rokous, F E; Hartman, C R; Burgess, A G

    1988-01-01

    The major finding in this study of 41 serial rapists is the large numbers of reported and unreported victims. For over 1200 attempted and completed rapes, there were 200 convictions. The hidden rapes or earliest nonreported victims of these men as boys and adolescents were identified from their families, their neighborhood, and their schools. Examining the possible link between childhood sexual abuse and criminal behavior in this sample of 41 serial rapists, 56.1% were judged to have at least one forced or exploitive abuse experience in boyhood, as compared to a study of 2,972 college males reporting 7.3% experiencing boyhood sexual abuse. Looking within the abused samples, 56.1% of the rapists reported forced sex, compared to the college sample's 30.4%. Also, the rapist sample revealed higher rates of family member as abuser (48.4%), compared to 22.2% for the college sample. Retrospective reconstruction of the sexual activities and assertive behaviors of these men as boys reveals that 51% of the boys reenact the abuse as a preadolescent with their earliest victims being known to them (48% as neighborhood girls), family (25% as sisters), or girlfriend (25%). The onset of rape fantasies in midadolescence (mean age 16.9) crystalizes the earlier sexually initiated behaviors into juvenile behaviors of spying, fetish burglaries, molestations, and rapes. Repetition of these juvenile behaviors set their criminal patters on strangers--their next group of victims. To reduce victimization, serial rapists need to be identified early and stopped. This means acknowledging and reporting boy sexual abuse. This includes being sensitive to the reenactment behaviors noted in the initiated activities of abused children, which in turn need to be differentiated from peer play. Closer attention needs to be paid to families with incest behavior to insure that younger children are protected. Adolescents showing early repetitive juvenile delinquent behaviors must be assessed for physical and sexual abuse, and intervention must be planned to deal with the victimization. In the investigation and apprehension of serial rapists, law enforcement might pay closer attention to fetish burglaries and the spying, secretive behaviors that serve as the prototype for rape behavior. PMID:3421601

  16. Knockdown of sodium channel NaV1.6 blocks mechanical pain and abnormal bursting activity of afferent neurons in inflamed sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A; Ye, Ling; Mao, Ju-Xian; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many preclinical pain models and initiates many other pathological changes, but its molecular basis is not well understood. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 can underlie repetitive firing and excitatory persistent and resurgent currents. We used in vivo knockdown of this channel via local injection of siRNA to examine its role in chronic pain after local inflammation of the rat lumbar sensory ganglia. In normal dorsal root ganglion (DRG), quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that cells capable of firing repetitively had significantly higher relative expression of NaV1.6. In inflamed DRG, spontaneously active bursting cells expressed high levels of NaV1.6 immunoreactivity. In vivo knockdown of NaV1.6 locally in the lumbar DRG at the time of DRG inflammation completely blocked development of pain behaviors and abnormal spontaneous activity, while having only minor effects on unmyelinated C cells. Current research on isoform-specific sodium channel blockers for chronic pain is largely focused on NaV1.8 because it is present primarily in unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors, or on NaV1.7 because lack of this channel causes congenital indifference to pain. However, the results suggest that NaV1.6 may be a useful therapeutic target for chronic pain and that some pain conditions may be mediated primarily by myelinated A fiber sensory neurons. PMID:23622763

  17. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development. PMID:10441191

  18. Neuroimaging evidence for processes underlying repetition of ignored stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eva; Gebhardt, Helge; Ruprecht, Christoph; Gallhofer, Bernd; Sammer, Gebhard

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged response times are observed with targets having been presented as distractors immediately before, called negative priming effect. Among others, inhibitory and retrieval processes have been suggested underlying this behavioral effect. As those processes would involve different neural activation patterns, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study including 28 subjects was conducted. Two tasks were used to investigate stimulus repetition effects. One task focused on target location, the other on target identity. Both tasks are known to elicit the expected response time effects. However, there is less agreement about the relationship of those tasks with the explanatory accounts under consideration. Based on within-subject comparisons we found clear differences between the experimental repetition conditions and the neutral control condition on neural level for both tasks. Hemodynamic fronto-striatal activation patterns occurred for the location-based task favoring the selective inhibition account. Hippocampal activation found for the identity-based task suggests an assignment to the retrieval account; however, this task lacked a behavioral effect. PMID:22563478

  19. Reinforcing Robot Perception of Multi-Modal Events through Repetition and Redundancy and Repetition and Redundancy

    E-print Network

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo

    Reinforcing Robot Perception of Multi-Modal Events through Repetition and Redundancy and Repetition, are processed simultaneously, and the integration of all such percepts at the brain's cerebral cortex forms our sensorial modality often influences the perception of stimuli in other modalities. Auditory processing

  20. The Effects of Delayed Reinforcement on Variability and Repetition of Response Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Amy L.; Ward, Ryan D.; Burke, K. Anne; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of delays to reinforcement on key peck sequences of pigeons maintained under multiple schedules of contingencies that produced variable or repetitive behavior. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4, in the repeat component only the sequence right-right-left-left earned food, and in the vary component four-response…

  1. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  2. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  3. Mitigation of nonlinearities using conjugate data repetition.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Henrik; Johannisson, Pontus; Karlsson, Magnus; Andrekson, Peter A

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a time-domain implementation of generalized phase-conjugated twin waves which we call conjugate data repetition. A theory based on time-domain perturbation analysis explaining the mitigation of nonlinear effects is provided, and the concept is evaluated using numerical simulations. Compared to PM-QPSK at the same channel bit rate, the single-channel transmission reach in a conventional system with standard single-mode fiber of conjugate data repetition-QPSK is increased by approximately a factor of 2. PMID:25836107

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  5. Exploring the effects of seated whole body vibration exposure on repetitive asymmetric lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the physiological and behavioral responses to repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers repeatedly lifted a box (15% of lifter's capacity) positioned in front of them at ankle level to a location on their left side at waist level at the rate of 10 lifts/min for a period of 60 minutes. Prior to lifting, participants were seated on a vibrating platform for 60 minutes; in one of the two sessions the platform did not vibrate. Overall, the physiological responses assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy signals for the erector spinae muscles decreased significantly over time during the seating and the lifting tasks (p < 0.001). During repetitive asymmetric lifting, behavioral changes included increases in peak forward bending motion, twisting movement, and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine. The lateral bending movement of the spine and the duration of each lift decreased significantly over the 60 minutes of repetitive lifting. With exposure to whole body vibration, participants twisted farther (p = 0.046) and twisted faster (p = 0.025). These behavioral changes would suggest an increase in back injury risk when repetitive lifting tasks are preceded by whole body vibration exposure. PMID:25264920

  6. Large-scale detection of repetitions

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, W. F.

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorics on words began more than a century ago with a demonstration that an infinitely long string with no repetitions could be constructed on an alphabet of only three letters. Computing all the repetitions (such as ?TTT??or ?CGACGA??) in a given string x of length n is one of the oldest and most important problems of computational stringology, requiring time in the worst case. About a dozen years ago, it was discovered that repetitions can be computed as a by-product of the ?(n)-time computation of all the maximal periodicities or runs in x. However, even though the computation is linear, it is also brute force: global data structures, such as the suffix array, the longest common prefix array and the Lempel–Ziv factorization, need to be computed in a preprocessing phase. Furthermore, all of this effort is required despite the fact that the expected number of runs in a string is generally a small fraction of the string length. In this paper, I explore the possibility that repetitions (perhaps also other regularities in strings) can be computed in a manner commensurate with the size of the output. PMID:24751872

  7. A compact,repetitive trigger generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Chen; Jin-liang Liu; Jing-ming Gao

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative design of compact trigger generator with repetitive pulse to drive high voltage gas switch. The basic circuit of trigger generator is analyzed by using P-Spice software. The trigger generator consists of a charging capacitor, a pulse transformer, a trigger gas switch and a control circuit. The incorporate design of capacitor and transformer enables the generator

  8. Lsh, an epigenetic guardian of repetitive elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaqiang Huang; Tao Fan; Qingsheng Yan; Heming Zhu; Stephen Fox; Haleem J. Issaq; Lionel Best; Lisa Gangi; David Munroe; Kathrin Muegge

    2004-01-01

    The genome is burdened with repetitive seq- uences that are generally embedded in silenced chromatin. We have previously demonstrated that Lsh (lymphoid-specific helicase) is crucial for the con- trol of heterochromatin at pericentromeric regions consisting of satellite repeats. In this study, we searched for additional genomic targets of Lsh by examining the effects of Lsh deletion on repeat regions and

  9. Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

    2009-01-01

    The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment at…

  10. [Dystonia, tremor and repetitive instrumental use].

    PubMed

    Jedynak, C P; Youssov, K; Apartis, E; Welter, M-L; Willer, J-C; Agid, Y

    2008-01-01

    Three characteristic observations are presented along with three tables presenting 24 patients with the following elements in common: excessively repeated use of an instrument such as a pen, a musical instrument or a tool. The appearance after that use of a central pathological phenomenon that includes a local dystonia of a hand or the mouth, a tremor, or the association of a tremor and a dystonia, all within the muscular domain corresponding to that of the use. The discussion, which is based exclusively on the clinical findings, deals with the following elements: the role of the use of the instrument rather than task itself, the predominant pathogenic factor which is the repetitive action, to which is added a genetic component in one incompletely penetrant case of DYT 1, and a probable genetic susceptibility in the others. The absence of improvement with rest distinguishes this central pathology from rheumatologic or orthopaedic problems involving repetitive activities. The evolution is slowly declining when the responsible action is continued. This occurs in three stages: a specific disorder involving only the use of the particular instrument, a more enlarged involvement affecting other activities and eventually a dystonia associated with a tremor or a postural tremor always located to the initial area. The therapeutic interventions suggested by the pathologic role of the repetitive movement is: (1) to advise a new training for the instrument that excludes the habitual movement; (2) to advise the patient to vary any newly acquired repetitive movements. PMID:18342058

  11. Student Self-Selection and Test Repetition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderman, Donald L.

    1981-01-01

    Student self-selection in deciding to repeat a test was examined by contrasting the test performance of students taking the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) as juniors and again as seniors with the test performance of students taking the SAT only once as juniors. Results suggest there is self-selection in test repetition. (Author/GK)

  12. Effect of Repetitive Film Showings on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Tavish, C. L.

    In a study made in 1949 to determine the increment in learning that could be attributed to repetition, four general science films were shown to each of four groups of college students in such a way that each group saw one of the films once, a second film twice, a third film three times, and a fourth film four times. The experimental population…

  13. REPETITIVE IMPACT BETWEEN TWO ORTHOGONAL BEAMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth K. Ervin

    Contact between two beam-like structures is a situation that occurs in piping systems, among other applications. For example, anti-vibration bars are fitted between the tubes in some steam generator designs. The interference fit can become worn and impact can take place between the tube and bar when either becomes worn. This paper investigates the repetitive impact dynamics of two orthogonal

  14. Nonword Repetition and Vocabulary Use in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine; George, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: There is general consensus that the ability to repeat nonsense words is related to vocabulary size in young children, but there is considerable debate about the nature of the relationship and the mechanisms that underlie it. Research with adults has proposed a shared neural substrate for nonword repetition (NWR) and language production,…

  15. Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

  16. BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION USING REPETITIVE STRUCTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mitchell Parry; Irfan Essa

    2005-01-01

    Blind source separation algorithms typically involve decorrelat- ing time-aligned mixture signals. The usual assumption is that all sources are active at all times. However, if this is not the case, we show that the unique pattern of source activity\\/inactivity helps sep- aration. Music is the most obvious example of sources exhibiting repetitive structure because it is carefully constructed. We present

  17. Pressure wave charged repetitively pulsed gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarny, Vijay A. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A repetitively pulsed gas laser in which a system of mechanical shutters bracketing the laser cavity manipulate pressure waves resulting from residual energy in the cavity gas following a lasing event so as to draw fresh gas into the cavity and effectively pump spent gas in a dynamic closed loop.

  18. Side effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, E M

    2000-01-01

    The side effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation are largely unexplored and the limits of safe exposure have not been determined except as regards the acute production of seizures. Although tissue damage is unlikely, however, cognitive and other adverse effects have been observed and the possibility of unintended long-term changes in brain function are theoretically possible. PMID:11126186

  19. Using Repetition to Make Ideas Stick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykins, Alicia N.

    2015-01-01

    In elementary school, the use of repetitive songs to help children remember concepts is commonplace and is usually very effective. Unfortunately for many students, this strategy is generally not used in later grades. A group of mathematics teachers at Westerville South High School in Westerville, Ohio, have taken this approach to a new creative…

  20. Resistance to change of operant variation and repetition.

    PubMed Central

    Doughty, A H; Lattal, K A

    2001-01-01

    A multiple chained schedule was used to compare the relative resistance to change of variable and fixed four-peck response sequences in pigeons. In one terminal link, a response sequence produced food only if it occurred infrequently relative to 15 other response sequences (vary). In the other terminal link, a single response sequence produced food (repeat). Identical variable-interval schedules operated in the initial links. During baseline, lower response rates generally occurred in the vary initial link, and similar response and reinforcement rates occurred in each terminal link. Resistance of responding to prefeeding and three rates of response-independent food delivered during the intercomponent intervals then was compared between components. During each disruption condition, initial- and terminal-link response rates generally were more resistant in the vary component than in the repeat component. During the response-independent food conditions, terminal-link response rates were more resistant than initial-link response rates in each component, but this did not occur during prefeeding. Variation (in vary) and repetition (in repeat) both decreased during the response-independent food conditions in the respective components, but with relatively greater disruption in repeat. These results extend earlier findings demonstrating that operant variation is more resistant to disruption than is operant repetition and suggest that theories of response strength, such as behavioral momentum theory, must consider factors other than reinforcement rate. The implications of the results for understanding operant response classes are discussed. PMID:11599639

  1. Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project

    E-print Network

    --------------------------------------------------------Context Dependent Manufacturers Regulatory Agencies Company (Management, Dispatch, Maintenance) Flight and Cabin Crews ATC #12;Economic and Regulatory Pressures Philosophies Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Taxonomy of the Domain Economic and Regulatory Pressures Pertaining to Dealing with and Training

  2. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    PubMed Central

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. We describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetiton Task (SRT) that eliminates this confound and report findings from three validity studies. Method Ninety-five preschool children with Speech Delay and 63 with Typical Speech, completed an assessment battery that included the Nonword Repetition Task (NRT: Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) and the SRT. SRT stimuli include only four of the earliest occurring consonants and one early occurring vowel. Results Study 1 findings indicated that the SRT eliminated the speech confound in nonword testing with speakers who misarticulate. Study 2 findings indicated that the accuracy of the SRT to identify expressive language impairment was comparable to findings for the NRT. Study 3 findings illustrated the SRT’s potential to interrogate speech processing constraints underlying poor nonword repetition accuracy. Results supported both memorial and auditory-perceptual encoding constraints underlying nonword repetition errors in children with speech-language impairment. Conclusion The SRT appears to be a psychometrically stable and substantively informative nonword repetition task for emerging genetic and other research with speakers who misarticulate. PMID:19635944

  3. Physical and Social Impairment in Persons With Repetitive Behavior Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Woods; Patrick C. Friman; Ellen J. Teng

    In this chapter we reviewed a variety of harmful medical and non medical problems associated with tic disorders, trichotillomania,\\u000a and other RBDs. We also attempted to explain the potential etiology of the concerns, and discussed possible strategies for\\u000a their clinical management. Although this chapter summarized the extant research on these topics, it is clear that the lines\\u000a of investigation are

  4. Armor materials’ behavior under repetitive dense plasma shots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokova, V.; Laas, T.; Ainsaar, A.; Priimets, J.; Ugaste, Ü.; Väli, B.; Gribkov, V. A.; Maslyaev, S. A.; Demina, E. V.; Dubrovsky, A. V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Prusakova, M. D.; Mikli, V.

    2014-05-01

    Experiments on the plasma focus device PF-12 have been carried out to investigate changes in the structure of the surface and bulk of tungsten and tungsten doped with 1% lanthanum oxide after repeated powerful deuterium plasma shots (8, 25 and 100). The surface morphology of the targets exposed to plasma streams is analyzed by electron and optical microscopy. Due to the plasma effect, different surface structures, such as wave-like structures, a melted layer, a mesh of microcracks, droplets, craters, crevices and holes, appear. The change of cross-section hardness after a number of shots in different materials is investigated.

  5. 10 CFR 62.17 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 62.17 Section...NON-FEDERAL AND REGIONAL LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES Request for...Commission Determination § 62.17 Elimination of repetition. In any...

  6. 10 CFR 72.18 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 72.18...HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE License Application...and Contents § 72.18 Elimination of repetition. In...

  7. Repetitive Control of a Novel Linear Magnetostrictive Actuator 

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Ruikang

    2014-08-10

    periodic signal. The repetitive controller is designed based on an estimated model of the system which does not consider the model nonlinearities. In the repetitive controller, a learning controller helps the actuator track the reference signal faithfully...

  8. Repetitive Control of a Novel Linear Magnetostrictive Actuator

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Ruikang

    2014-08-10

    This thesis presents the repetitive control (RC) design of a novel linear magnetostrictive actuator. A repetitive controller is developed and tested on a novel linear magnetostrictive actuator to improve the tracking accuracy of the actuator to a...

  9. Coupled Behavior Analysis with Applications

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    Coupled Behavior Analysis with Applications Professor Longbing Cao () Director, Advanced Analytics behaviors? · What is behavior? · What are coupled behaviors? · What is coupled behavior analysis (CBA · Coupled Hidden Markov Model-based abnormal behavior analysis · Open issues and prospects #12;Why Coupled

  10. Repetition rates in heavy ion beam driven fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    The limits on the cavity gas density required for beam propagation and condensation times for material vaporized by target explosions can determine the maximum repetition rate of Heavy Ion Beam (HIB) driven fusion reactors. If the ions are ballistically focused onto the target, the cavity gas must have a density below roughly 10-4 torr (3×1012 cm-3) at the time of propagation; other propagation schemes may allow densities as high as 1 torr or more. In some reactor designs, several kilograms of material may be vaporized off of the target chamber walls by the target generated x-rays, raising the average density in the cavity to 100 tor or more. A one-dimensional combined radiation hydrodynamics and vaporization and condensation computer code has been used to simulate the behavior of the vaporized material in the target chambers of HIB fusion reactors.

  11. DETECTING ABNORMAL FISH TRAJECTORIES USING CLUSTERED AND LABELED DATA

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Bob

    DETECTING ABNORMAL FISH TRAJECTORIES USING CLUSTERED AND LABELED DATA Cigdem Beyan, Robert B We propose an approach for the analysis of fish trajectories in unconstrained underwater videos. Trajectories are classified into two classes: normal trajectories which contain the usual behavior of fish

  12. The Matrix Converter Drive Performance Under Abnormal Input Voltage Conditions

    E-print Network

    Hava, Ahmet

    The Matrix Converter Drive Performance Under Abnormal Input Voltage Conditions Jun-Koo Kang-8530, Japan e-mail:kang@yaskawa.co.jp Abstract- The matrix converter is a direct frequency conversion device disturbances can degrade its performance and reliability. In this paper, the behavior of the matrix converter

  13. Repetitive Behaviours in Typically Developing 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan; Tandos, Jonathan; McConachie, Helen; Meins, Elizabeth; Parkinson, Kathryn; Wright, Charlotte; Turner, Michelle; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Le Couteur, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Repetitive behaviours are an essential part of the diagnosis of autism but are also commonly seen in typically developing children. The current study investigated the frequency and factor structure of repetitive behaviours in a large community sample of 2-year-olds. Methods: A new measure, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ-2)…

  14. Robust Repetitive Controller for Fast AFM Imaging

    E-print Network

    Necipoglu, Serkan; Has, Yunus; Guvenc, Levent; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2012-01-01

    Currently, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the most preferred Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) method due to its numerous advantages. However, increasing the scanning speed and reducing the interaction forces between the probe's tip and the sample surface are still the two main challenges in AFM. To meet these challenges, we take advantage of the fact that the lateral movements performed during an AFM scan is a repetitive motion and propose a Repetitive Controller (RC) for the z-axis movements of the piezo-scanner. The RC utilizes the profile of the previous scan line while scanning the current line to achieve a better scan performance. The results of the scanning experiments performed with our AFM set-up show that the proposed RC significantly outperforms a conventional PI controller that is typically used for the same task. The scan error and the average tapping forces are reduced by 66% and 58%, respectively when the scan speed is increased by 7-fold.

  15. Changes in vergence dynamics due to repetition.

    PubMed

    Jainta, Stephanie; Bucci, Maria Pia; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Kapoula, Zoï

    2011-08-15

    Vergence insufficiency is frequent in many populations including children with vertigo in the absence of measurable vestibular dysfunction. Orthoptic exercises are typically used to improve vergence and the clinical practice suggests that simple repetition of vergence movements improves it. Objective eye movement recordings were used to asses the dynamics and spatial-temporal properties of convergence (8.7°) and divergence (2.7°) along the midline while these movements were repeated 80 times. Eight children, aged on average 13years and showing vertigo symptoms accompanied with vergence insufficiency, participated. For both, convergence and divergence the velocity increased and the overall duration decreased; the amplitude of the mean transient component of the response changed significantly. These findings are compatible with models of double mode control of vergence eye movements (transient - open-loop vs. sustained - closed loop). Due to simple repetitions a real improvement in the dynamics of vergence along the midline occurred. PMID:21745493

  16. Modulation of abnormal synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA3 neurons of spontaneously epileptic rats (SERs) by levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Hanaya, Ryosuke; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Serikawa, Tadao; Kurisu, Kaoru; Arita, Kazunori; Sasa, Masashi

    2011-11-25

    Levetiracetam (LEV) inhibits partial refractory epilepsy in human, and both convulsive and absence-like seizures in the spontaneously epileptic rat (SER). Two-thirds of hippocampal CA3 neurons in SER show a long-lasting depolarization shift, with accompanying repetitive firing upon mossy fiber stimulation. This abnormal excitability is probably attributable to abnormalities in the L-type Ca(2+) channels. We performed electrophysiological studies to elucidate the mechanism underlying the antiepileptic effects of LEV via intracellular recording from the hippocampal CA3 neurons in slice preparations of SER and non-epileptic Wistar rats. LEV (100 ?M) inhibited the depolarization shift with repetitive firing by mossy fiber stimulation (MFS), without affecting the first spike in SER CA3 neurons. At a higher dose (1mM), LEV suppressed the first spike in all SER neurons (including the CA3 neurons which showed only a single action potential by MFS), while the single action potential of Wistar rat CA3 neurons remained unaffected. SER CA3 neurons with MFS-induced abnormal firing exhibited a higher number of repetitive spikes when a depolarization pulse was applied in the SER CA3 neurons. LEV (100 ?M, 1mM) reduced the repetitive firing induced by a depolarization pulse applied without affecting Ca(2+) spike in SER neurons. LEV is known not to bind glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. These findings suggest that the therapeutic concentration of LEV inhibits abnormal firing of the CA3 neurons by modulating abnormal synaptic transmission and abnormal Na(+) channels in SER. PMID:21968023

  17. Repetition probability effects for inverted faces.

    PubMed

    Grotheer, Mareike; Hermann, Petra; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán; Kovács, Gyula

    2014-11-15

    It has been shown, that the repetition related reduction of the blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal is modulated by the probability of repetitions (P(rep)) for faces (Summerfield et al., 2008), providing support for the predictive coding (PC) model of visual perception (Rao and Ballard, 1999). However, the stage of face processing where repetition suppression (RS) is modulated by P(rep) is still unclear. Face inversion is known to interrupt higher level configural/holistic face processing steps and if modulation of RS by P(rep) takes place at these stages of face processing, P(rep) effects are expected to be reduced for inverted when compared to upright faces. Therefore, here we aimed at investigating whether P(rep) effects on RS observed for face stimuli originate at the higher-level configural/holistic stages of face processing by comparing these effects for upright and inverted faces. Similarly to previous studies, we manipulated P(rep) for pairs of stimuli in individual blocks of fMRI recordings. This manipulation significantly influenced repetition suppression in the posterior FFA, the OFA and the LO, independently of stimulus orientation. Our results thus reveal that RS in the ventral visual stream is modulated by P(rep) even in the case of face inversion and hence strongly compromised configural/holistic face processing. An additional whole-brain analysis could not identify any areas where the modulatory effect of probability was orientation specific either. These findings imply that P(rep) effects on RS might originate from the earlier stages of face processing. PMID:25123974

  18. Phosphor thermometry at high repetition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, N.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

    2013-09-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilizing the luminescence properties of thermographic phosphors. Typically these ceramic materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Photomultipliers and high-speed camera systems are used to transiently detect the subsequently emitted luminescence decay point wise or two-dimensionally resolved. Based on appropriate calibration measurements, the luminescence lifetime is converted to temperature. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. For the first time, the authors realized a high-speed phosphor thermometry system combining a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterized regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating in terms of heating effects has been investigated. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of one sample per crank angle degree at an engine speed of 1000 rpm. This experiment has proven that high-speed phosphor thermometry is a promising diagnostic tool for the resolution of surface temperature transients.

  19. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  20. Differential fractional anisotropy abnormalities in adolescents with ADHD or schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Nicholas D.; Karatekin, Canan; White, Tonya; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia and ADHD are associated with similar deficits in working memory, attention, and inhibition. Both disorders also involve abnormalities of white matter integrity, possibly reflecting neural communication disruptions. There are likely some regional white matter abnormalities that underlie the common cognitive impairment, though also some regional abnormalities unique to each disorder. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter integrity, as indicated by fractional anisotropy (FA), in adolescents with schizophrenia (n=15) or ADHD (n=14) and healthy controls (n=26). Schizophrenia patients had uniquely low FA, relative to the other two groups, in bilateral cerebral peduncles, anterior and posterior corpus callosum, right anterior corona radiata, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. ADHD patients had uniquely high FA in left inferior and right superior frontal regions. Both clinical groups had lower FA than controls in left posterior fornix. The two disorders generally demonstrated distinct patterns of abnormal connectivity suggesting that common cognitive and behavioral deficits derive from distinct sources, though the posterior fornix may be involved in both disorders. Schizophrenia was associated with abnormally low FA in widespread circuitry indicative of general connectivity disruptions, whereas ADHD was associated with abnormally high FA in frontal networks that may indicate impaired branching of fibers. PMID:20153608

  1. Abnormal movement preparation in task-specific focal hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Jakob; Paus, Sebastian; Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

  2. Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

  3. Grey matter abnormalities in trichotillomania: morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Menzies, Lara A.; Fineberg, Naomi A.; del Campo, Natalia; Suckling, John; Craig, Kevin; Müller, Ulrich; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Trichotillomania (repetitive hair-pulling) is an Axis I psychiatric disorder whose neurobiological basis is incompletely understood. Whole-brain trichotillomania neuroimaging studies are lacking. Aims To investigate grey and white matter abnormalities over the whole brain in patients with trichotillomania. Method Eighteen patients with DSM–IV trichotillomania and 19 healthy controls undertook structural magnetic resonance imaging after providing written informed consent. Differences in grey and white matter were investigated using computational morphometry. Results Patients with trichotillomania showed increased grey matter densities in the left striatum, left amygdalo-hippocampal formation, and multiple (including cingulate, supplementary motor, and frontal) cortical regions bilaterally. Conclusions Trichotillomania was associated with structural grey matter changes in neural circuitry implicated in habit learning, cognition and affect regulation. These findings inform animal models of the disorder and highlight key regions of interest for future translational research. PMID:18757980

  4. Postural Abnormalities: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children in grades 4 through 12 with postural abnormalities. An introductory chapter covers definitions and…

  5. [A boy with nail abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

  6. Steganography with Least Histogram Abnormality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinpeng Zhang; Shuozhong Wang; Kaiwen Zhang

    2003-01-01

    A novel steganographic scheme is proposed which avoids asymmetry inherent in conventional LSB embedding techniques so that abnormality in the image histogram is kept minimum. The proposed technique is capable of re- sisting the ?2 test and RS analysis, as well as a new steganalytic method named GPC analysis as introduced in this paper. In the described steganographic tech- nique,

  7. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:25811227

  8. Recovering sound sources from embedded repetition

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Josh H.; Wrobleski, David; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Cocktail parties and other natural auditory environments present organisms with mixtures of sounds. Segregating individual sound sources is thought to require prior knowledge of source properties, yet these presumably cannot be learned unless the sources are segregated first. Here we show that the auditory system can bootstrap its way around this problem by identifying sound sources as repeating patterns embedded in the acoustic input. Due to the presence of competing sounds, source repetition is not explicit in the input to the ear, but it produces temporal regularities that listeners detect and use for segregation. We used a simple generative model to synthesize novel sounds with naturalistic properties. We found that such sounds could be segregated and identified if they occurred more than once across different mixtures, even when the same sounds were impossible to segregate in single mixtures. Sensitivity to the repetition of sound sources can permit their recovery in the absence of other segregation cues or prior knowledge of sounds, and could help solve the cocktail party problem. PMID:21199948

  9. Episodic repetitive thought: dimensions, correlates, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Stanton, Annette L; Flynn, Sarah McQueary; Roach, Abbey R; Testa, Jamie J; Hardy, Jaime K

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive thought (RT) - attentive, prolonged, or frequent thought about oneself and one's world - plays an important role in many models of psychological and physical ill health (e.g., rumination and worry), as well as models of recovery and well-being (e.g., processing and reminiscing). In these models, repetitive thought is typically treated as stable or trait-like. In contrast, episodic RT reflects what people have "on their minds" at a particular point in time. In four studies, young women (N=94), college students (N=166), first-year law students (N=73), and older adults (N=174) described their episodic RT, which was then rated for qualities including valence, purpose, and theme. Episodic RT valence was associated with mood and depressive symptoms both between (Studies 1-4) and within people (Studies 3-4), and it mediated the effects of dispositional coping through emotional approach (Study 1). The effect of episodic RT valence in turn was moderated by other properties of episodic RT, including purpose, "trait" valence, and theme (Studies 1-4). The study of episodic RT complements that of trait RT and allows for observations of how RT and psychological adjustment change in concert and in context, as well as examining how the RT qualities that are not reflected in trait measures affect adjustment. PMID:21861772

  10. Investigation of a repetitive pulsed electrothermal thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. L.; Fleischer, D.; Goldstein, S. A.; Tidman, D. A.; Winsor, N. K.

    1986-01-01

    A pulsed electrothermal (PET) thruster with 1000:1 ratio nozzle is tested in a repetitive mode on water propellant. The thruster is driven by a 60J pulse forming network at repetition rates up to 10 Hz (600W). The pulse forming network has a .31 ohm impedance, well matched to the capillary discharge resistance of .40 ohm, and is directly coupled to the thruster electrodes without a switch. The discharge is initiated by high voltage breakdown, typically at 2500V, through the water vapor in the interelectrode gap. Water is injected as a jet through a .37 mm orifice on the thruster axis. Thruster voltage, current and impulse bit are recorded for several seconds at various power supply currents. Thruster to power ratio is typically T/P = .07 N/kW. Tank background pressure precludes direct measurement of exhaust velocity which is inferred from calculated pressure and temperature in the discharge to be about 14 km/sec. Efficiency, based on this velocity and measured T/P is .54 + or - .07. Thruster ablation is zero at the throat and becomes measurable further upstream, indicating that radiative ablation is occurring late in the pulse.

  11. A system for repetitive pulsed corona plasmas, with ecological applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Georgeseut; A. Vulpe; R. Minea

    2003-01-01

    A depollution system for gases, using the repetitive pulsed corona plasmas, is described. The main sub-systems are: High-voltage repetitive pulser; treatment chamber; gas flow circuit; gas analyzer. The high-voltage repetitive pulser discharges a capacitor in the primary of a pulse transformer. The high-voltage switch is a thyratron. Many construction manners were tested for the pulse transformer. High-voltage pulses with 25-100

  12. Mastoid abnormalities in down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. J. Glass; D. K. Yousefzadeh; N. J. Roizen

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected\\u000a children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality\\u000a may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child’s hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors\\u000a which are important

  13. Infertile mares with chromosome abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Stewart-Scott

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities have been detected in five mares identified by their poor reproductive performance. All had small gonads and absent or irregular oestrous cycles. One mare was 65, XXX, two were 64, XY sex-reversal females and two were sex chromosome mosaics with karyotypes of 63, XO\\/64, XX\\/64, XY and 63, XO\\/64, XX respectively. This report supports the suggestion made in

  14. Atlas: Cartilage Abnormalities and Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Liebl; Thomas M. Link

    \\u000a The following chapter illustrates cartilage abnormalities and provides semiquantitative scores for these lesions. The focus\\u000a of this chapter is on the most frequently used Recht (modified Noyes and Stabler) score [1, 2] and Whole-Organ-MRI-Score (WORMS)\\u000a [3]. These scores have been used in a number of previous studies and have been found helpful in assessing the grade of cartilage\\u000a lesions, in

  15. Ovarian Steroidogenic Abnormalities in PCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica K. Wickenheisser; Jan M. McAllister

    Androgen excess, theca, granulosa, polycystic ovary syndrome, steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, estrogen, insulin sensitivity,\\u000a signaling defect. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, clinically heterogeneous disorder that affects approximately\\u000a 6–10% of premenopausal women [1, 2]. Hyperandrogenemia is the biochemical hallmark of PCOS. Reproductive and endocrine abnormalities\\u000a include disordered gonadotropin secretion, oligomenorrhea and anovulatory infertility, and endometrial hyperplasia. Obesity,\\u000a hirsutism, acne, and alopecia

  16. Nonword repetition and reading in deaf children with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report analyses of nonword repetition responses from 76 experienced pediatric cochlear implants users. Nonword repetition performance reflects the participants’ reliance on their phonological system, which has been found to be related to phonological awareness skills and reading in normal-hearing children. We found that nonword repetition performance was strongly correlated with several measures of reading readiness and reading in deaf children with cochlear implants. Correlations between nonword repetition performance and reading indicate that the children relied on their knowledge of phonology to complete the reading tasks. PMID:21442032

  17. Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography

    E-print Network

    Desolneux, Agnès

    Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography Mohamed Hachama, Agn`es Desolneux (e.g. lesions) in mammography are solved separately, although the solutions of these problems 2006 #12;Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography 179 The definition

  18. Nanosecond, repetitively pulsed microdischarge vacuum ultraviolet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J.; Fierro, A.; Walls, B.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2014-02-01

    A microdischarge is driven by short pulses (80 ns FWHM) with peak current levels up to 80 A, with a repetition frequency of 1 MHz (1 pulse/?s) allowing for ˜550 W input power. Experiments in pure argon (Ar2*, 127 nm) and argon-hydrogen (Lyman-?, 121.6 nm) were conducted. Using short pulses, the argon excimer emission was not observed. Alternatively, Ar-H2 operated at both higher power and efficiency (0.63%) whenever pulsed. Using Ar-H2, the experiments result in an average generated vacuum ultraviolet power just above 3.4 W with a peak power of 42.8 W, entirely at Lyman-?.

  19. Abnormal Supranuclear Eye Movements in the Child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine Cassidy; David Taylor; Christopher Harris

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal eye movements in the infant or young child can be congenital or acquired. They may be a result of abnormal early visual development or a sign of underlying neurologic or neuromuscular disease. It is important to be able to detect these abnormalities and to distinguish them from normal but immature eye movements. The spectrum of disease in children differs

  20. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    PubMed Central

    Iosa, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number ? known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with ?, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620?±?0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629?±?0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684?±?0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from ? (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait. PMID:23862161

  1. GRAPE - GIS Repetition Using Audio-Visual Repetition Units and its Leanring Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederhuber, M.; Brugger, S.

    2011-09-01

    A new audio-visual learning medium has been developed at the Department of Environmental Sciences at ETH Zurich (Switzerland), for use in geographical information sciences (GIS) courses. This new medium, presented in the form of Repetition Units, allows students to review and consolidate the most important learning concepts on an individual basis. The new material consists of: a) a short enhanced podcast (recorded and spoken slide show) with a maximum duration of 5 minutes, which focuses on only one important aspect of a lecture's theme; b) one or two relevant exercises, covering different cognitive levels of learning, with a maximum duration of 10 minutes; and c), solutions for the exercises. During a pilot phase in 2010, six Repetition Units were produced by the lecturers. Twenty more Repetition Units will be produced by our students during the fall semester of 2011 and 2012. The project is accompanied by a 5-year study (2009 - 2013) that investigates learning success using the new material, focussing on the question, whether or not the new material help to consolidate and refresh basic GIS knowledge. It will be analysed based on longitudinal studies. Initial results indicate that the new medium helps to refresh knowledge as the test groups scored higher than the control group. These results are encouraging and suggest that the new material with its combination of short audio-visual podcasts and relevant exercises help to consolidate students' knowledge.

  2. Optimal work breaks in deterministic and probabilistic repetitive projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Photios G. Ioannou; Chachrist Srisuwanrat

    2007-01-01

    An effective way to reduce the duration and cost of projects with repetitive activities is through the relaxation of resource continuity and the introduction of work breaks at strategic points between repetitive project units. This paper describes the problem and introduces the basic concepts for determining the optimal location and duration of work breaks for both deterministic and probabilistic activity

  3. Optimal work breaks in deterministic and probabilistic repetitive projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Photios G. Ioannou; Chachrist Srisuwanrat

    2007-01-01

    An effective way to reduce the duration and cost of pro- jects with repetitive activities is through the relaxation of resource continuity and the introduction of work breaks at strategic points between repetitive project units. This paper describes the problem and introduces the basic concepts for determining the optimal location and duration of work breaks for both deterministic and probabilistic

  4. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63... DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN...Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In its...

  5. Exclusion of Repetitive DNA Elements from Gnathostome Hox Clusters

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    agnathan lineages, lampreys and hagfish, also exhibit multiple Hox clusters which, however, arose throughExclusion of Repetitive DNA Elements from Gnathostome Hox Clusters Claudia Fried a , Sonja J, Austria Abstract The Hox gene clusters of gnathostomes have a strong tendency to exclude repetitive DNA

  6. Parallel Neural Network Learning Through Repetitive Bounded Depth Trajectory Branching

    E-print Network

    Obradovic, Zoran

    Parallel Neural Network Learning Through Repetitive Bounded Depth Trajectory Branching Iuri Mehr and can be represented by sequence of points in the weight space that we call a learning trajectory. In this paper a new learning approach based on repetitive bounded depth trajectory branching M proposed

  7. Two Forms of Spoken Repetition in a Girl with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stribling, Penny; Rae, John; Dickerson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background: The talk of persons with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) often features distinctive forms of repetition (echophenomena). Although often characterized as meaningless or inappropriate, there is evidence that such practices can sometimes have communicative functions. Aims: To investigate the interactional organization of repetition

  8. Medical Images Authentication through Repetitive Index Modulation Based Watermarking

    E-print Network

    Li, Chang-Tsun

    Medical Images Authentication through Repetitive Index Modulation Based Watermarking Chang-Tsun Li}@dcs.warwick.ac.uk Abstract. In this work we propose a Repetitive Index Modulation (RIM) based digital watermarking scheme-dependent watermark and embeds the watermark in the background areas. Therefore when any pixel of the ROI is attacked

  9. Phonological Repetition-Suppression in Bilateral Superior Temporal Sulci

    PubMed Central

    Vaden, Kenneth I.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Hickok, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is critically involved in phonological processing during speech perception, although there are conflicting accounts regarding the degree of lateralization. The current fMRI experiment aimed to identify phonological processing during speech perception through repetition-suppression effects. Repetition-suppression occurs when brain activity decreases from repetitive presentation of stimulus characteristics, in regions of cortex that process those characteristics. We manipulated the degree of phonological repetition among words in short lists to obtain systematic decreases in brain response, indicative of phonological processing. The fMRI experiment presented seventeen participants with recorded wordlists, of low, medium, or high phonological repetition, defined by how many phonemes were shared among words. Bilaterally, middle STS demonstrated activity differences consistent with our prediction of repetition-suppression, as responses decreased systematically with each increase in phonological repetition. Phonological repetition-suppression in bilateral STS converges with neuroimaging evidence for phonological processing, and word deafness resulting from bilateral superior temporal lesions. PMID:19651222

  10. Early Grade Repetition and Inattention Associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coude, Francois X.; Mignot, Claire; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Munnich, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors analyze the occurrence of grade repetition and inattention in children diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Method: The participant group consisted of 310 patients with NF1 and a control group of 242 individuals. The number of grade repetitions for each participant during his or her time in elementary, middle, and…

  11. A Negative Effect of Repetition in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Daniel J.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2012-01-01

    One of the foundational principles of human memory is that repetition (i.e., being presented with a stimulus multiple times) improves recall. In the current study a group of participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once, a negative repetition effect. Such a…

  12. Lexical Repetition in Second Language Learners' Peer Play Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydland, Veslemoy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have pointed to the importance of second language learners' use of repetition for conversational participation and language learning. This study researched the significance of repetition, varying in type and complexity, for second language learning children's verbal participation in play as well as their academic language skills and…

  13. Nonosseous abnormalities on bone scans.

    PubMed

    Loutfi, Issa; Collier, B David; Mohammed, Ahmed M

    2003-09-01

    Although bone scanning is a test primarily concerned with skeletal abnormalities, important nonosseous findings are occasionally present on the images. To gauge the significance of such nonosseous uptake and, in particular, to determine whether these findings contain useful diagnostic information, the technical and medical staff in nuclear medicine must recognize the various patterns of nonbony uptake and understand their causes. The objectives of this article are to demonstrate the appearances of nonosseous uptake on bone scans, to categorize the forms of soft-tissue uptake, to emphasize technical artifacts leading to soft-tissue uptake, and to highlight the clinical significance of pathologic soft-tissue uptake. PMID:12968045

  14. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  15. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  16. Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duggal, Neil

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  17. Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech

    PubMed Central

    Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2013-01-01

    Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g., Patel, 2008). But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011). If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech. PMID:23576998

  18. Repetitive exposure: Brain and reflex measures of emotion and attention

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of massed repetition on the modulation of the late positive potential elicited during affective picture viewing were investigated in two experiments. Despite a difference in the number of repetitions across studies (from 5 to 30), results were quite similar: the late positive potential continued to be enhanced when viewing emotional, compared to neutral, pictures. On the other hand, massed repetition did prompt a reduction in the late positive potential that was most pronounced for emotional pictures. Startle probe P3 amplitude generally increased with repetition, suggesting diminished attention allocation to repeated pictures. The blink reflex, however, continued to be modulated by hedonic valence, despite massive massed repetition. Taken together, the data suggest that the amplitude of the late positive potential during picture viewing reflects both motivational significance and attention allocation. PMID:20701711

  19. Self-controlled KR schedules: does repetition order matter?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jae T; Carter, Michael J; Hansen, Steve

    2013-08-01

    The impact of an experimenter-defined repetition schedule on the utility of a self-controlled KR context during motor skill acquisition was examined. Participants were required to learn three novel spatial-temporal tasks in either a random or blocked repetition schedule with or without the opportunity to control their KR. Results from the retention period showed that participants provided control over their KR schedule in a random repetition schedule demonstrated superior learning. However, performance measures from the transfer test showed that, independent of repetition schedule, learners provided the opportunity to control their KR schedule demonstrated superior transfer performance compared to their yoked counterparts. The dissociated impact of repetition schedule and self-controlled KR schedules on retention and transfer is discussed. PMID:24054895

  20. Variation and repetition in the spelling of young children.

    PubMed

    Treiman, Rebecca; Decker, Kristina; Kessler, Brett; Pollo, Tatiana Cury

    2015-04-01

    A number of investigators have suggested that young children, even those who do not yet represent the phonological forms of words in their spellings, tend to use different strings of letters for different words. However, empirical evidence that children possess a concept of between-word variation has been weak. In a study by Pollo, Kessler, and Treiman (2009), in fact, prephonological spellers were more likely to write different words in the same way than would be expected on the basis of chance, not less likely. In the current study, preschool-age prephonological and phonological spellers showed a tendency to repeat spellings and parts of spellings that they had recently used. However, even prephonological spellers (mean age?4 years 8 months) showed more repetition when spelling the same word twice in succession than when spelling different words. The results suggest that children who have not yet learned to use writing to represent the sounds of speech show some knowledge that writing represents words and, thus, should vary to show differences between them. The results further suggest that in spelling, as in other domains, children have a tendency to repeat recent behaviors. PMID:25637713

  1. Repetitive calls of juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels ( Spermophilus richardsonii ) communicate response urgency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurtis J. Warkentin; Annika T. H. Keeley; James F. Hare

    2001-01-01

    Richardson's ground squirrels, Spermophilus richardsonii, produce both repetitive and non-repetitive antipredator calls. While many hypotheses have been advanced to explain non-repetitive calls, the function of repetitive calling has received relatively little attention. We presented juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels with a predator model at distances ranging from 1 to 8 m and recorded the subsequent repetitive calls on digital audiotape. The

  2. Extreme developmental temperatures result in morphological abnormalities in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta): a climate change perspective.

    PubMed

    Telemeco, Rory S; Warner, Daniel A; Reida, Molly K; Janzen, Fredric J

    2013-06-01

    Increases in extreme environmental events are predicted to be major results of ongoing global climate change and may impact the persistence of species. We examined the effects of heat and cold waves during embryonic development of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in natural nests on the occurrence of abnormal shell morphologies in hatchlings. We found that nests exposed to extreme hot temperatures for >60 h produced more hatchlings with abnormalities than nests exposed to extreme hot temperatures for shorter periods, regardless of whether or not nesting females displayed abnormal morphologies. We observed no effect of extreme cold nest temperatures on the occurrence of hatchlings with abnormalities. Moreover, the frequency of nesting females with abnormal shell morphologies was approximately 2-fold lower than that of their offspring, suggesting that such abnormalities are negatively correlated with survival and fitness. Female turtles could potentially buffer their offspring from extreme heat by altering aspects of nesting behavior, such as choosing shadier nesting sites. We addressed this hypothesis by examining the effects of shade cover on extreme nest temperatures and the occurrence of hatchling abnormalities. While shade cover was negatively correlated with the occurrence of extreme hot nest temperatures, it was not significantly correlated with abnormalities. Therefore, female choice of shade cover does not appear to be a viable target for selection to reduce hatchling abnormalities. Our results suggest that increases in the frequency and intensity of heat waves associated with climate change might perturb developmental programs and thereby reduce the fitness of entire cohorts of turtles. PMID:23731815

  3. Stereotypical Behaviors in Chimpanzees Rescued from the African Bushmeat and Pet Trade

    PubMed Central

    Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M.; Kameka, Marjanne; Dube, Ashlynn

    2012-01-01

    Many orphaned chimpanzees whose mothers are illegally killed for their meat (bushmeat) in Africa are sold as pets or kept caged at hotels and businesses to attract tourists. As a result of being separated from their mothers and other chimpanzees at an early age, and spending years in impoverished captive conditions, some of these individuals engage in abnormal behaviors, including stereotypically scratching at their flesh and repetitively rocking back and forth. This paper presents case studies of Poco and Safari, two chimpanzees who were rescued by sanctuaries after living alone on display for humans at businesses for the first 7 to 8 years of their lives. Decades after their rescue, they still engage in stereotypical behaviors as a result of the psychological and physical trauma they endured early on. This paper combines data from in depth interviews with caregivers and direct observations of abnormal behaviors to assess psychological distress in captive-living chimpanzees. Our results highlight some lesser known harms of the bushmeat trade and the detrimental life-long consequences that keeping chimpanzees as “pets” can have on their mental health. PMID:25379223

  4. Reduced Activity of Protein Kinase C in the Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Regressive Autism: Relationship with Developmental Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lina; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with unknown etiology. In some cases, typically developing children regress into clinical symptoms of autism, a condition known as regressive autism. Protein kinases are essential for G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated signal transduction, and are involved in neuronal functions, gene expression, memory, and cell differentiation. Recently, we reported decreased activity of protein kinase A (PKA) in the frontal cortex of subjects with regressive autism. In the present study, we analyzed the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) in the cerebellum and different regions of cerebral cortex from subjects with regressive autism, autistic subjects without clinical history of regression, and age-matched control subjects. In the frontal cortex of subjects with regressive autism, PKC activity was significantly decreased by 57.1% as compared to age-matched control subjects (p = 0.0085), and by 65.8% as compared to non-regressed autistic subjects (p = 0.0048). PKC activity was unaffected in the temporal, parietal and occipital cortices, and in the cerebellum in both autism groups, i.e., regressive and non-regressed autism as compared to control subjects. These results suggest brain region-specific alteration of PKC activity in the frontal cortex of subjects with regressive autism. Further studies showed a negative correlation between PKC activity and restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped pattern of behavior (r= -0.084, p = 0.0363) in autistic individuals, suggesting involvement of PKC in behavioral abnormalities in autism. These findings suggest that regression in autism may be attributed, in part, to alterations in G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated signal transduction involving PKA and PKC in the frontal cortex. PMID:22949890

  5. Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for medication-resistant burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Y; Badran, B W; Gonzales, T S; George, M S

    2015-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a persistent and chronic burning sensation in the mouth in the absence of any abnormal organic findings. The pathophysiology of BMS is unclear and its treatment is not fully established. Although antidepressant medication is commonly used for treatment, there are some medication-resistant patients, and a new treatment for medication-resistant BMS is needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technology approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of depression. Recent studies have found beneficial effects of TMS for the treatment of pain. A case of BMS treated successfully with daily left prefrontal rTMS over a 2-week period is reported here. Based on this patient's clinical course and a recent pain study, the mechanism by which TMS may act to decrease the burning pain is discussed. PMID:25979192

  6. Can the Edinburgh Risk of Repetition Scale Predict Repetition of Deliberate Self-Poisoning in an Australian Clinical Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory Leigh; Clover, Kerrie Ann; Bryant, Jennifer Lynn; Whyte, Ian MacGregor

    2002-01-01

    Tests the ability of the Edinburgh Risk of Repetition Scale (ERRS) to identify patients at high risk for repeat deliberate self-poisoning (DSP). A statistically significant relationship between ERRS scores and repetition was observed; however, sensitivity and specificity were low. The ERRS had limited value in identifying patients at high risk of…

  7. Repetitive sequence families in Alces alces americana.

    PubMed

    Blake, R D; Wang, J Z; Beauregard, L

    1997-05-01

    High-resolution derivative melting was used to obtain detailed distributions of local (G + C) contents in a number of ruminant DNAs. Profiles over low (G + C) regions [20-36% (G + C)] are congruent for all ruminants. This region represents 45-50% of the nuclear DNA content and primarily contains intergenic and intron sequences. The high (G + C) region, where most coding sequences are found [38-68% (G + C)], is marked by satellite bands denoting the presence of transcriptionally inert, tandemly repetitive sequence families. These bands can be analyzed for the abundance, base composition, and sequence divergence of satellite families with relatively high precision. Band patterns are unique to each species; even closely related species can be readily distinguished by their base distribution profiles. Variations in nuclear DNA contents in ruminants, determined by flow cytometry, are primarily due to variations in abundances of these repetitive sequence families. Thus, A. alces (moose) is found to have 8.85 +/- 0.2 pg DNA/cell, 25% more than the average in ruminants, while the base distribution curve indicates the presence of an unusually abundant satellite of 52.6% (G + C). The size (1 kb) and sequence of this satellite corresponds to satellite-I of other cervids, and in consequence it is designated Alces-I. The sequence of a cloned repeat of Alces-I has a length of 968 bp, a (G + C) content of 52.6%, and contributes 35%, or almost 3 million copies to the nuclear DNA, exceeding by approximately 300% the average array size of this repeat family in related cervids. In situ hybridization indicates the repeat is distributed throughout centromeric regions of all 62 acrocentric autosomes. Alces-I has much greater-than-expected numbers of GG, GA, and AG and far fewer numbers of TA and CG duplets, characteristics of all tandem repeats. The sequence is judged to be orthologous with satellite-I sequences from Rangifer tarandus (caribou), Capreolus capreolus (roe deer), Muntiacus muntjac (Chinese muntjac) and Muntiacus reevesi (Indian muntjac), as well as Antilocapra americana (pronghorn), and the bovids Bos taurus and Ovis aries. A tentative tree for the five cervids is in excellent agreement with one proposed on the basis of morphological characteristics. Differences from a consensus sequence indicate transversions exceed transitions by almost twofold, suggesting that substitutions occur randomly, or nearly so. PMID:9115175

  8. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  9. [Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motoaki

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that approximately one third of patients with major depression are medication-resistant. In spite of partial responsiveness to antidepressants, most of the medication-resistant patients remain incompletely remitted without successful social reintegration. Symptom severity could be mild to moderate for many of them due to the incomplete remission, and, thus, electroconvulsive therapy is not applicable for them. However, they usually feel some difficulty performing cognitive behavioral therapy or social rehabilitation training due to residual symptoms such as thought inhibition and hypobulia. Under such conditions, those patients are longing for treatment options complementary to antidepressants, for less painful social reintegration. In October 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States finally approved repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for medication-resistant patients with major depression. The main reason for the FDA approval was that rTMS had shown similar effectiveness (effect size around 0.39 in a recent meta-analysis) to antidepressants for medication-resistant patients without serious adverse effects. TMS is a brain stimulation methodology employing magnetic energy which can penetrate the skull bone without energy decay, and, thus, eddy currents induced by TMS can stimulate cerebral cortices effectively and locally. When TMS is repetitively delivered over several hundreds of pulses within a session, stimulation effects can be observed beyond the stimulation period as aftereffects. Moreover, when a daily rTMS session is repeated over several weeks, rTMS could have antidepressant effects. Clinical trials of rTMS for depression have employed two kinds of rTMS protocol of high-frequency (facilitatory) rTMS over the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) and low-frequency (inhibitory) rTMS over the right DLPFC. Although the antidepressant action of rTMS over DLPFC has not been fully elucidated, the neuronal level hypothesis includes the induction of neuroplasticity and activation of the dopamine system, and the neuronal circuitry level hypothesis includes the activation of the left DLPFC and inhibition of the right DLPFC and (para) limbic system such as the subgenual cingulate cortex and amygdala. On the therapeutic application of rTMS in clinical psychiatry, neuroethics and low invasiveness should be fully considered along with a negative history of punitive electroconvulsive therapy and prefrontal lobotomy. It is important to investigate the neurobiological mechanism of rTMS treatment and to place rTMS in a suitable position within comprehensive treatment algorithms of major depression. PMID:23367835

  10. Sensorimotor gating abnormalities in young males with fragile X syndrome and Fmr1-knockout mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P W Frankland; Y Wang; B Rosner; T Shimizu; B W Balleine; E M Dykens; E M Ornitz; A J Silva

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene (FMR1) disorder affecting cognitive and behavioral function in humans. This syndrome is characterized by a cluster of abnormalities including lower IQ, attention deficits, impairments in adaptive behavior and increased incidence of autism. Here, we show that young males with FXS have profound deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI), a basic marker

  11. SI Engine with repetitive NS spark plug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancheshniy, Sergey; Nikipelov, Andrey; Anokhin, Eugeny; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Laplase Team; Mipt Team; Pu Team

    2013-09-01

    Now de-facto the only technology for fuel-air mixtures ignition in IC engines exists. It is a spark discharge of millisecond duration in a short discharge gap. The reason for such a small variety of methods of ignition initiation is very specific conditions of the engine operation. First, it is very high-pressure of fuel-air mixture - from 5-7 atmospheres in old-type engines and up to 40-50 atmospheres on the operating mode of HCCI. Second, it is a very wide range of variation of the oxidizer/fuel ratio in the mixture - from almost stoichiometric (0.8-0.9) at full load to very lean (? = 0.3-0.5) mixtures at idle and/or economical cruising mode. Third, the high velocity of the gas in the combustion chamber (up to 30-50 m/s) resulting in a rapid compression of swirling inlet flow. The paper presents the results of tests of distributed spark ignition system powered by repetitive pulse nanosecond discharge. Dynamic pressure measurements show the increased pressure and frequency stability for nanosecond excitation in comparison with the standard spark plug. Excitation by single nanosecond high-voltage pulse and short train of pulses was examined. In all regimes the nanosecond pulsed excitation demonstrate a better performance.

  12. Repetitive, electron-beam diode development

    SciTech Connect

    McClenahan, C.R.; Martinez, L.E.; Pena, G.E.; Weber, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    We constructed a stacked-Blumlein pulse generator that can deliver pulses of nearly 200 kV to an electron beam diode load. This pulse generator has an output impedance of 100 {Omega} and a pulse width of 80 ns. It can operate continuously at pulse repetition rates as high as 500 Hz. We discharged the pulse generator into two diodes. One had a 2.9 cm diameter sintered bronze cathode, and the other had a 4.0 cm diameter graphite cathode with points machined into it. The sintered bronze cathode turned on completely with a peak, macroscopic field of 100 kV/cm. The graphite cathode required a peak, macroscopic field of 150 kV/cm in order to operate reproducibly. Nevertheless, only about 10% of the area of the graphite cathode emitted. The bronze cathode operated at 30 Hz, and it exhibited heat damage. Specifically, it melted in places. Conversely, the graphite cathode, operated at 50 Hz, exhibited little damage: principally, minor erosion around the perimeter.

  13. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Barr, Mera S; Farzan, Faranak; Wing, Victoria C; George, Tony P; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2011-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is now being tested for its ability to treat addiction. This review discusses current research approaches and results of studies which measured the therapeutic use of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug addiction. The research in this area is limited and therefore all studies evaluating the therapeutic use of rTMS in tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug addiction were retained including case studies through NCBI PubMed ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ) and manual searches. A total of eight studies were identified that examined the ability of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and cocaine addiction. The results of this review indicate that rTMS is effective in reducing the level of cravings for smoking, alcohol, and cocaine when applied at high frequencies to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, these studies suggest that repeated sessions of high frequency rTMS over the DLPFC may be most effective in reducing the level of smoking and alcohol consumption. Although work in this area is limited, this review indicates that rTMS is a promising modality for treating drug addiction. PMID:22200135

  14. The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232

  15. Why repetitive DNA is essential to genome function.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, James A; von Sternberg, Richard

    2005-05-01

    There are clear theoretical reasons and many well-documented examples which show that repetitive, DNA is essential for genome function. Generic repeated signals in the DNA are necessary to format expression of unique coding sequence files and to organise additional functions essential for genome replication and accurate transmission to progeny cells. Repetitive DNA sequence elements are also fundamental to the cooperative molecular interactions forming nucleoprotein complexes. Here, we review the surprising abundance of repetitive DNA in many genomes, describe its structural diversity, and discuss dozens of cases where the functional importance of repetitive elements has been studied in molecular detail. In particular, the fact that repeat elements serve either as initiators or boundaries for heterochromatin domains and provide a significant fraction of scaffolding/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) suggests that the repetitive component of the genome plays a major architectonic role in higher order physical structuring. Employing an information science model, the 'functionalist' perspective on repetitive DNA leads to new ways of thinking about the systemic organisation of cellular genomes and provides several novel possibilities involving repeat elements in evolutionarily significant genome reorganisation. These ideas may facilitate the interpretation of comparisons between sequenced genomes, where the repetitive DNA component is often greater than the coding sequence component. PMID:15921050

  16. Central Adaptations to Repetitive Grasping in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sirevaag, Erik J.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented cortical activity during repetitive grasping mitigates repetition-related decrease in cortical efficiency in young adults. It is unclear if similar processes occur with healthy aging. We recorded movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) during 150 repetitive handgrip contractions at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in healthy young (n = 10) and old (n = 10) adults. Repetitions were grouped into two Blocks (Block 1 and 2: repetitions 1–60 and 91–150, respectively) and analyzed separately to assess the effects of aging and block. EMG of the flexor digitorum superficialis and handgrip force were also recorded. No changes in EMG or MVC were observed across blocks for either group. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for MRCPs recorded from mesial (FCz, Cz, CPz) and motor (C1, C3, Cz) electrode sites, with younger adults demonstrating significant increases in MRCP amplitude. Focal MRCP activity in response to repetitive grasping resulted in minimal changes (i.e. Block 1 versus Block 2) in older adults. Central adaptive processes change across the lifespan, showing increasingly less focal activation in older adults during repetitive grasping. Our findings are consistent with previous paradigms demonstrating more diffuse cortical activation during motor tasks in older adults. PMID:21519868

  17. Central adaptations to repetitive grasping in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Falvo, Michael J; Sirevaag, Erik J; Rohrbaugh, John W; Earhart, Gammon M

    2011-10-01

    Augmented cortical activity during repetitive grasping mitigates repetition-related decrease in cortical efficiency in young adults. It is unclear if similar processes occur with healthy aging. We recorded movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) during 150 repetitive handgrip contractions at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in healthy young (n = 10) and old (n = 10) adults. Repetitions were grouped into two Blocks (Block 1 and 2: repetitions 1-60 and 91-150, respectively) and analyzed separately to assess the effects of aging and block. EMG of the flexor digitorum superficialis and handgrip force were also recorded. No changes in EMG or MVC were observed across blocks for either group. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for MRCPs recorded from mesial (FCz, Cz, CPz) and motor (C1, C3, Cz) electrode sites, with younger adults demonstrating significant increases in MRCP amplitude. Focal MRCP activity in response to repetitive grasping resulted in minimal changes (i.e. Block 1 versus Block 2) in older adults. Central adaptive processes change across the lifespan, showing increasingly less focal activation in older adults during repetitive grasping. Our findings are consistent with previous paradigms demonstrating more diffuse cortical activation during motor tasks in older adults. PMID:21519868

  18. Congenital Abnormalities and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. Methods We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS). Results The frequency of congential anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Conclusions Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary. PMID:21080921

  19. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887

  20. White Matter Abnormalities and Animal Models Examining a Putative Role of Altered White Matter in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyun; Li, Xin-Min

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1% of the population worldwide. Although the dopamine (DA) hypothesis is still keeping a dominant position in schizophrenia research, new advances have been emerging in recent years, which suggest the implication of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will briefly review some of recent human studies showing white matter abnormalities in schizophrenic brains and altered oligodendrocyte-(OL-) and myelin-related genes in patients with schizophrenia and will consider abnormal behaviors reported in patients with white matter diseases. Following these, we will selectively introduce some animal models examining a putative role of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The emphasis will be put on the cuprizone (CPZ) model. CPZ-fed mice show demyelination and OLs loss, display schizophrenia-related behaviors, and have higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex. These features suggest that the CPZ model is a novel animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:22937274

  1. Dysphagia as the primary clinical abnormality in two dogs with inflammatory myopathy.

    PubMed

    Ryckman, L Rachael; Krahwinkel, Dennis J; Sims, Michael H; Donnell, Robert L; Moore, Peter F; Shelton, G Diane

    2005-05-01

    Two adult Boxers were evaluated because of chronic dysphagia of several years' duration. Serum creatine kinase activity was high in both dogs, but other hematologic or serum biochemical abnormalities were not detected. Esophagraphy revealed abnormalities of the cricopharyngeal phase of swallowing in both dogs, and electromyography of the pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles revealed complex repetitive discharges, positive sharp waves, and fibrillation potentials characteristic of primary myopathy or neuropathy. Because of the severity of their condition, both dogs were euthanatized. Histologically, mixed-cell infiltrates were seen in sections of the masseter and thyropharyngeal muscles. Results of indirect immunofluorescence staining for proteins associated with dystrophic myopathy were unremarkable, except for decreased staining for integrin alpha7. A diagnosis of chronic inflammatory myopathy was made. The clinical importance of reduced staining for integrin alpha7 could not be determined but was considered to be a result of the myopathy. PMID:15882004

  2. Analysis of Response Repetition as an Error-Correction Strategy During Sight-Word Reading

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    A great deal is known about the effects of positive reinforcement on response acquisition; by contrast, much less research has been conducted on contingencies applied to errors. We examined the effects of response repetition as an error-correction procedure on the sight-word reading performance of 11 adults with developmental disabilities. Study 1 compared single-response (SR) repetition and multiple-response (MR) repetition, and results showed that all 6 participants acquired more sight words with the MR procedure. Study 2 compared MR error correction following every incorrect response (continuous) and following one third of incorrect responses (intermittent), and results showed that all 6 participants acquired more sight words when error correction was continuous. Study 3 compared MR error correction in which errors required practice of the training word (relevant) versus a different word (irrelevant), and results showed that 3 of 9 participants showed better performance under the relevant condition; however, all participants showed improvement even under the irrelevant condition. Findings are discussed in terms of the behavioral processes by which error correction may enhance performance during acquisition. PMID:16463531

  3. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  4. Abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG.

    PubMed

    Wolthuis, D F G J; van Asbeck, E V; Kozicz, T; Morava, E

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or hyperinsulinism had abnormal fat distribution, while normoglycemic patients showed this feature in 50% of the cases. This statistically significant difference suggests an etiological role of the insulin receptor in developing abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG. PMID:24063868

  5. Stimulus repetition modulates gamma-band synchronization in primate visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Nicolas M.; Bosman, Conrado A.; Vinck, Martin; Roberts, Mark; Oostenveld, Robert; Desimone, Robert; De Weerd, Peter; Fries, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    When a sensory stimulus repeats, neuronal firing rate and functional MRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses typically decline, yet perception and behavioral performance either stay constant or improve. An additional aspect of neuronal activity is neuronal synchronization, which can enhance the impact of neurons onto their postsynaptic targets independent of neuronal firing rates. We show that stimulus repetition leads to profound changes of neuronal gamma-band (?40–90 Hz) synchronization. Electrocorticographic recordings in two awake macaque monkeys demonstrated that repeated presentations of a visual grating stimulus resulted in a steady increase of visually induced gamma-band activity in area V1, gamma-band synchronization between areas V1 and V4, and gamma-band activity in area V4. Microelectrode recordings in area V4 of two additional monkeys under the same stimulation conditions allowed a direct comparison of firing rates and gamma-band synchronization strengths for multiunit activity (MUA), as well as for isolated single units, sorted into putative pyramidal cells and putative interneurons. MUA and putative interneurons showed repetition-related decreases in firing rate, yet increases in gamma-band synchronization. Putative pyramidal cells showed no repetition-related firing rate change, but a decrease in gamma-band synchronization for weakly stimulus-driven units and constant gamma-band synchronization for strongly driven units. We propose that the repetition-related changes in gamma-band synchronization maintain the interareal stimulus signaling and sharpen the stimulus representation by gamma-synchronized pyramidal cell spikes. PMID:24554080

  6. The use of pharmacologic pain sensitization in the treatment of repetitive hair-pulling.

    PubMed

    Ristvedt, S L; Christenson, G A

    1996-08-01

    A significant problem for many individuals who engage in repetitive hair-pulling is the fact that they experience no discomfort associated with their behavior, and can thus carry on with hair-pulling outside of conscious awareness. The present case study was an attempt to address this problem through the use of a commercially available topical cream which enhances pain sensitivity. A 38-yr-old female applied the cream daily to two affected areas on her scalp. The increased pain sensitization, in conjunction with the habit reversal technique, resulted in markedly decreased hair-pulling. PMID:8870291

  7. Repetition in visual word identification: benefits and costs.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S; Kipps, Tahli J; Matthews, Julian R

    2014-10-01

    University students performed lexical tasks with visually presented target words after the presentation of an identical or unrelated prime, at short (80-120?ms) or longer (410-710?ms) prime-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Experiment 1 showed perceptual identification benefits in vocal responding at a short SOA that were reduced (accuracy) or reversed (latency) at a longer SOA. Experiment 2 showed a transition from a repetition benefit to a cost over 3 SOAs in a target-masked version of the lexical decision task (LDT; target displayed for only 141?ms). In Experiment 3 the repetition cost was replicated at a 530-ms SOA in the LDT with masked targets, but a repetition benefit was observed in the conventional LDT (target displayed until response). The dependence of repetition costs on target masking is more consistent with biases based on episodic confusions than refractoriness of lexical representations. PMID:25248100

  8. Short palindromic repetitive DNA elements in enterobacteria: a survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Bachellier; Jean-Marie Clément; Maurice Hofnung

    1999-01-01

    We present a survey of short palindromic repetitive elements in enterobacteria. Seven families are presented. Five were already known (RSA, IRU, 29-bp repeats, BIMEs and boxC), and their properties are updated; in particular, a new composite element is shown to include the formerly identified boxC repeats. Two repetitions, YPAL1 and YPAL2, found primarily in Yersinia, are described here for the

  9. Unique repetitive sequences of 170 bp in Chlorella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Hirano; Yutaka Takeda; Tatsuichi Iwamura

    1986-01-01

    Cot analysis ofChlorella DNA revealed that the genome of the unicellular green alga contained a small amount of repetitive sequences (at most 15% of the total DNA). Short repetitive sequences (SRS) of 170 bp produced by enzymatic digestion of algal DNA with eitherHaeIII,HinfI, orPstI, were found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their copy number was estimated to be a few

  10. Hypothalamic Agrp neurons drive stereotypic behaviors beyond feeding.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Marcelo O; Zimmer, Marcelo R; Bober, Jeremy; Horvath, Tamas L

    2015-03-12

    The nervous system evolved to coordinate flexible goal-directed behaviors by integrating interoceptive and sensory information. Hypothalamic Agrp neurons are known to be crucial for feeding behavior. Here, however, we show that these neurons also orchestrate other complex behaviors in adult mice. Activation of Agrp neurons in the absence of food triggers foraging and repetitive behaviors, which are reverted by food consumption. These stereotypic behaviors that are triggered by Agrp neurons are coupled with decreased anxiety. NPY5 receptor signaling is necessary to mediate the repetitive behaviors after Agrp neuron activation while having minor effects on feeding. Thus, we have unmasked a functional role for Agrp neurons in controlling repetitive behaviors mediated, at least in part, by neuropeptidergic signaling. The findings reveal a new set of behaviors coupled to the energy homeostasis circuit and suggest potential therapeutic avenues for diseases with stereotypic behaviors. PMID:25748653

  11. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  12. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  13. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal

  14. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  15. Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Schedl

    2007-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

  16. Pathophysiology of Cancer: Hormonal and Metabolic Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Heber; N. S. Tchekmedyian

    1992-01-01

    Despite the development of advanced nutritional support technology, malnutrition remains a significant morbid and mortal complication of cancer. A number of metabolic abnormalities have been demonstrated in malnourished cancer patients, including increased protein breakdown, increased glucose production, increased lipolysis, hypogonadism in male patients, and insulin resistance. Previous studies conducted under metabolic ward conditions have demonstrated that metabolic abnormalities interfere with

  17. Dark Immunofluorescence: Correlation with Serum Immunoglobulin Abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    List, J.; Buckland, M. S.; Thobhani, B.; Sheed, C. J.; Mann, J. C.; Claxton, M.; Heelan, B.

    2006-01-01

    Occasional serum samples (<0.5%) tested by indirect immunofluorescence showed less fluorescence than did negative-control serum. A retrospective review of these patients' serum immunoglobulins revealed a high percentage of abnormalities (71%, versus 22% of controls). We suggest that this observation should be reported when seen and that the clinician should be alerted to an association with immunoglobulin abnormalities. PMID:16971516

  18. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  19. Sonographically detected abnormalities of the umbilical cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Shipp; B. Bromley; B. R. Benacerraf

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken as a retrospective chart review to evaluate the range of umbilical cord abnormalities detected by prenatal sonography, as well as the outcome and pathologic correlation. Methods: We identified 13 cases of umbilical cord abnormalities detected sonographically over a 46-month period. We evaluated the ultrasound appearance, size, location, and color Doppler characteristic in each case. Results:

  20. Unsupervised Abnormality Detection in Video Surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuya Nanri; Nobuyuki Otsu

    2005-01-01

    The detection of abnormal movements is an important prob- lem in video surveillance applications. We propose an unsupervised method for abnormal movement detection in scenes containing multiple persons. Our method uses cu- bic higher-order local auto-correlation (CHLAC) to extract movement features. We show that the additive property of CHLAC in combination with a linear subspace method is well suited to

  1. Detecting electrocardiogram abnormalities with independent component analysis

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    detection of abnormal conditions in the heart. Unsupervised ICA neural networks can demix the components of measured ECG signals. Such components may correspond to individual heart functions, either normal for diagnosis well in advance of the actual onset of heart attack, in which abnormalities in the original

  2. Retinal Circulatory Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert T. Feke; Sheldon M. Buzney; Hironobu Ogasawara; Naoki Fujio; Douglas G. Goger; Norman P. Spack; Kenneth H. GabbayX

    Purpose. To quantify retinal circulatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes; to compare blood speed and blood flow in major temporal retinal arteries as well as total retinal arterial cross-section measured in patients to that measured in controls without diabetes; to determine which factors are related to the measured abnormalities within the patient group. Methods. The laser Doppler technique

  3. Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

    2008-03-01

    Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

  4. Ovarian dysgenesis in individuals with chromosomal abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Cunniff; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Kurt Benirschke

    1991-01-01

    To understand better the pathogenesis of ovarian dysgenesis in individuals with abnormalities such as 45,X Turner syndrome, trisomy 13, and trisomy 18, we have examined microscopically the ovaries of 36 infants with a number of chromosomal abnormalities confirmed by karyotype analysis. All infants with trisomy 13, trisomy 18, triploidy, and 45,X were found to have severe ovarian dysgenesis characterized by

  5. Multidetector computed tomography of congenital aortic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Alistair C; Sriharan, Mona; Lazoura, Olga; Padley, Simon P G; Nicol, Edward D; Rubens, Michael B

    2014-04-01

    For many years invasive angiographic techniques have been considered as the gold standard for the assessment of large arterial abnormalities. However, the complexities and complications inherent to invasive imaging have meant that more recently non-invasive techniques such as echocardiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and multidetector CT (MDCT) have been increasingly used in congenital cardiovascular disorders. In particular, MDCT has emerged as a fundamental tool for the diagnosis and pre-surgical work-up of aortic abnormalities due to its high spatial resolution, large area of coverage, and short scan time, and therefore is now one of the most widely used modalities for the detection of congenital abnormalities of the aorta. The purpose of this pictorial review is to review the spectrum of abnormalities of the aorta than can be reliably detected by MDCT both in infants and in adulthood. Abnormalities of the aortic root, ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta will be described separately. PMID:24560026

  6. Statistical Analysis of Abnormal Electric Power Grid Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ferryman, Thomas A.; Amidan, Brett G.

    2010-10-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a technique to analyze Phasor Measurement Unit data to identify typical patterns, atypical events and precursors to a blackout or other undesirable event. The approach combines a data-driven multivariate analysis with an engineering-model approach. The method identifies atypical events, provides a plane English description of the event, and the capability to use drill-down graphics for detailed investigations. The tool can be applied to the entire grid, individual organizations (e.g. TVA, BPA), or specific substations (e.g., TVA_CUMB). The tool is envisioned for (1) event investigations, (2) overnight processing to generate a Morning Report that characterizes the previous days activity with respect to previous activity over the previous 10-30 days, and (3) potentially near-real-time operation to support the grid operators. This paper presents the current status of the tool and illustrations of its application to real world PMU data collected in three 10-day periods in 2007.

  7. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine G Akers; Steven A Kushner; Ana T Leslie; Laura Clarke; Derek van der Kooy; Jason P Lerch; Paul W Frankland

    2011-01-01

    Background  Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral\\u000a disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities\\u000a and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high\\u000a resolution MRI to

  8. Mental disorders in abnormal offenders in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pal, S

    1997-01-01

    The case notes of all 64 referred abnormal offenders (mental patients with criminal records) sent to a psychiatric hospital between January 1971 to May 1996 were examined. It was found that severe mental disorder like schizophrenia (27 out of 64) was the most common cause of violent crimes such as homicide. Epilepsy 10.9 (n = 7) was another important neuropsychiatric condition related to violence. Alcohol and cannabis abuse were an associated factor in 21 (32.8%) referred cases. Culture bound syndromes like "Amok Syndrome" and "Spirit Possession Syndrome" were also found as a cause of violent behavior. PMID:9212605

  9. Ciliary dysfunction in developmental abnormalities and diseases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj; Berbari, Nicolas F; Yoder, Bradley K

    2008-01-01

    Cilia are small microtubule-based cellular appendages that are broadly classified as being either motile or immotile (primary cilia). Since their initial discovery several centuries ago, motile cilia have been of general interest to basic scientists and others who study the dynamics and physiological relevance of their motility. More recent discoveries have found that motile and immotile cilia, the later of which are present on nearly all cells in the mammalian body, also have major roles during development and in postnatal life. Dysfunction of the cilium is the basis for multiple human genetic disorders that have collectively been called the ciliopathies. The phenotypes associated with cilia dysfunction in mammals are diverse and include randomization of the left-right body axis, abnormalities in neural tube closure and patterning, skeletal defects such as polydactyly, cystic kidney, liver, and pancreatic diseases, blindness and anosmia, behavioral and cognitive defects, and obesity. The connection between disease and developmental defects due to the loss of ciliary function has brought the efforts of the biomedical research establishment to bear on this underappreciated and long overlooked organelle. Several groups have applied en silico, genetic, and biochemical approaches to identify the components of the cilia proteome. The resulting datasets have contributed to a remarkable increase in the rate at which human ciliopathy disease loci are being identified. This intense basic and clinical research interest has revealed that the cilium is a very complex sensory machine involved in transducing extracellular stimuli involved in many different signaling pathways into cellular responses. Although major advances have been made in understanding the importance of the cilium, it remains enigmatic how the cilium functions to coordinate signaling pathways and how loss of this organelle results in the severe defects observed in human ciliopathies. PMID:19147012

  10. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or ?Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression), of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable), -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis), or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q) that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process. PMID:25960862

  11. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu

    2013-01-01

    High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100?GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55?ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7?nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary. PMID:24226153

  13. Repetition of Deliberate Self-Harm: A Study of the Characteristics and Subsequent Deaths in Patients Presenting to a General Hospital According to Extent of Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Camilla; Bergen, Helen; Casey, Deborah; Hawton, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Repetition of deliberate self-harm (DSH) is common. Some patients repeat multiple times. We have investigated the characteristics of repeaters, and mortality in three groups of DSH patients by repetition status. Data collected by the Oxford Monitoring System for Attempted Suicide were used to examine the pattern of repetition of DSH patients…

  14. Physical chromosome mapping of repetitive DNA sequences in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: Evidences for a differential distribution of repetitive elements in the sex chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irani A. Ferreira; Cesar Martins

    2008-01-01

    Repetitive DNAs have been extensively applied as physical chromosome markers on comparative studies, identification of chromosome rearrangements and sex chromosomes, chromosome evolution analysis, and applied genetics. Here we report the characterization of repetitive DNA sequences from the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) genome by construction and screening of plasmid library enriched with repetitive DNAs, analysis of a BAC-based physical map, and

  15. Review of repetitive-pulse-power component technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    The trend in repetitive-pulse-power system design is toward higher energies, larger average power levels, and faster pulse-repetition rates. This trend results in requirements for components with higher reliability, lower losses, and longer life times. Critical components for these pulsed power systems will be reviewed. Emphasis in this paper will be placed on those components and materials requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems especially when operated at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time. Switches are by far the weakest active components in pulse-power systems. Improved insulation in systems and components is essential to increasing energy density and reliability. Results of recent capacitor and switch experiments are discussed. Recent developments in switch and pulse-transformer design are reviewed.

  16. Harmonic Current Suppression for PMSM by Repetitive Perfect Tracking Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    PM motor drives are widely used for high performance servo applications. However, PM motor has imperfect sinusoidal flux distribution which causes harmonic current. Dead time of inverter and current measurement error leads to harmonic current, too. The repetitive control method was applied to the harmonic current suppression. For the repetitive control which is based on the internal model principle, the characteristic of the harmonic suppression is excellent. However, it amplifies inter-harmonic components. The inter-harmonic components have frequencies with non-integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. Therefore, the feedforward compensation is applied for the harmonic current to improve a suppression characteristic. Authors proposed harmonic current suppression control of PM motor in ?? coordinate by using repetitive perfect tracking control with PWM-hold model. Finally, we show the advantages of proposed method by simulations and experiments.

  17. Post-Tetanic Repetitive Activity in the Cat Soleus Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Standaert, Frank G.

    1963-01-01

    Subsequent to conditioning by a high frequency stimulus axons of the cat soleus nerve respond to single stimuli with brief trains of repetitive action potentials. This phenomenon, post-tetanic repetitive activity (PTR), was studied in individual axons and single motor units of an in situ cat soleus nerve-muscle preparation. The occurrence, intensity, and duration of PTR are principally dependent on the frequency and duration of the conditioning tetanus. PTR occurs synchronously in the axon and muscles of single motor units. An analysis of the temporal relationships of the repetitive nerve and muscle potentials showed that PTR is generated in the motor nerve terminal. It is postulated that PTR is produced by a generator potential which is developed in the post-tetanic period between the unmyelinated nerve terminal and the last node of Ranvier. PMID:14060448

  18. Efficient, compact power supply for repetitively pulsed, ``triggerless'' cathodic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, André; MacGill, Robert A.; McVeigh, Thomas A.

    1999-12-01

    A power supply for "triggerless," repetitively pulsed cathodic arcs has been developed. It is based on a thyristor-switched, high-voltage, high-current, pulse-forming network (PFN). It can provide high pulsed currents (up to 2 kA), with duration of 600 ?s, and pulse repetition rate of up to 10 Hz. Higher repetition rates are possible at lower current. The rectangular pulse shape and amplitude are reproducible to within a few percent. Cathodic arc initiation is extremely reliable because the charging voltage is much higher than the minimum starting voltage for the triggerless arc initiation method. The energy utilization efficiency is very high by intentionally mismatching load and PFN impedances and by using an efficiency-enhancing diode; the stored energy is dissipated primarily in the arc.

  19. Abnormalities of lung function in hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E J; Hall, D R

    1976-01-01

    Twenty subjects with symptoms of hay fever were studied to see whether abnormalities could be detected in the function of small airways. The investigations included dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies, closing capacity, residual volume, transfer factor, and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves. The tests were repeated in the winter when symptoms had resolved. Frequency dependence of compliance was found in eight subjects with symptoms (40%), closing capacities being abnormal in only two instances. Conventional pulmonary function tests, including expiratory flow rates at mid vital capacity, were within the predicted range of all subjects. When tests were repeated in the winter, frequency dependence of compliance was no longer present in subjects whose symptoms had resolved. The study suggests that reversible small airway abnormalities are present in a significant proportion of subjects with symptoms of hay fever and that such abnormalities are best detected by the measurement of dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies. PMID:769243

  20. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  1. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... freeze abnormal cervical tissue, which then sloughs off. • Laser therapy—A focused beam of light is used ... tissue is removed from the cervix. Cryotherapy: A freezing technique used to destroy diseased tissue; also known ...

  2. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Common abnormalities include cysts in the pinna or skin tags . Many children are born with ears that stick ... affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, unless there is cartilage ...

  3. T cell immune abnormalities in immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xuebin; Zhang, Liping; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal T cell immunity. Cytotoxic T cells, abnormal T regulatory cells, helper T cell imbalance, megakaryocyte maturation abnormalities and abnormal T cell anergy are involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. The loss of T cell-mediated immune tolerance to platelet auto-antigens plays a crucial role in immune thrombocytopenia. The induction of T cell tolerance is an important mechanism by which the pathogenesis and treatment of immune thrombocytopenia can be studied. Studies regarding the roles of the new inducible costimulator signal transduction pathway, the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and the nuclear factor kappa B signal transduction pathway in the induction of T cell tolerance can help improve our understanding of immune theory and may provide a new theoretical basis for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:25274611

  4. ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

  5. Comparison of concentric and eccentric bench press repetitions to failure.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Stephen B; Brown, Lee E; Hooker, Steven P; Swan, Pamela D; Buman, Matthew P; Alvar, Brent A; Black, Laurie E

    2015-04-01

    Eccentric muscle actions (ECC) are characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Muscles acting eccentrically are capable of producing higher levels of force compared with muscles acting concentrically. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ECC bench press yields greater strength than concentric (CON) as determined by 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Additionally, a comparison was made examining differences in the number of repetitions to failure at different relative intensities of 1RM. Thirty healthy men (age = 24.63 ± 5.6 years) were tested for 1RM in CON and ECC bench press and the number of repetitions completed at 60, 70, 80, and 90% 1RM. For CON repetitions, the weight was mechanically lowered to the chest, and the participant pressed it up until the elbows were fully extended. The ECC bench press consisted of lowering a barbell from a fully extended elbow position to the chest in a continuous controlled manner for 3 seconds as determined by electronic metronome. Paired t-tests showed that ECC 1RM (115.99 ± 31.08 kg) was significantly (p ? 0.05) greater than CON 1RM (93.56 ± 26.56 kg), and the number of repetitions completed at 90% 1RM was significantly (p ? 0.05) greater in ECC (7.67 ± 3.24) as compared with CON (4.57 ± 2.21). There were no significant differences in number of completed repetitions during CON and ECC bench press at 60, 70, and 80% 1RM. These data indicate that ECC actions yield increased force capabilities (?120%) as compared with CON in the bench press and may be less prone to fatigue, especially at higher intensities. These differences suggest a need to develop unique strategies for training eccentrically. PMID:25268291

  6. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food...Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  7. A relational view of causality in normal and abnormal development.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Gilbert; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2002-01-01

    An understanding of developmental phenomena demands a relational or coactive concept of causality, as opposed to a conceptualization that assumes that singular causes can act in isolation. In this article we present a developmental psychobiological systems view of relational (bidirectional, coactional) causality, in which it is proposed that developmental outcomes are a consequence of at least two specific components of coaction from the same or different levels of a developmental system. The levels are genetic, neural, behavioral, and environmental; the latter level includes the cultural, social, and physical aspects of an organism's environment. We show the applicability of this view to the understanding of the development of normal and abnormal behavioral and psychological phenotypes through illustrations from the existing animal and human literature. Finally, we discuss future possibilities and potential stumbling blocks in the implementation of a more fully realized bidirectional, coactional perspective in developmental psychopathological research. PMID:12349867

  8. TECHWR-L: Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you work in front of a computer a lot, you are probably a candidate for Repetitive-Stress Injuries (RSI). This article from TECHWR-L entitled, Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries: A Guide for the Technical Communicator gives some helpful tips for preventing the aches, pains, hand problems and eye strain associated with repeated computer usage. The article discusses different mouse options, keyboard options, and other adjustments you can make to lessen your risk of RSI and make typing at the computer a little more pleasant. Additional links at the bottom provide further information on healthy computing.

  9. Some stereotypic behaviors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are correlated with both perseveration and the ability to cope with acute stressors

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Ori; Paukner, Annika; Terkel, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent sub-group of abnormal repetitive behaviors among captive animals is that of stereotypies. Previous studies have demonstrated some resemblance between stereotypy in captive animals and in humans, including the involvement of neurological malfunctions that lead to the expression of stereotypies. This malfunction can be evaluated through the use of neuropsychological tasks that assess perseveration as implying a failure of the basal ganglia (BG) to operate properly. Other studies, in contrast, have suggested that stereotypies are the product of neurologically intact individuals reacting to the abnormal nature of their surroundings, and are possibly characterized by an adaptive feature that enables the subject to cope with such adversity. Employing neuropsychological tests and also measuring the levels of fecal corticoids in captive rhesus macaques, we tested the hypothesis that stereotypies are related both to brain pathology and to a coping mechanism with stress, resembling accounts by autistic individuals exhibiting basal ganglia malfunction, and who report a sense of relief when performing stereotypies. Self-directed and fine-motor stereotypies exhibited by the monkeys were positively correlated with perseveration, suggesting BG malfunction; while self-directed stereotypies were also negatively correlated with an increase in fecal corticoids following a stress challenge, suggesting a related coping mechanism. We therefore suggest that not all repetitive, unvarying, and apparently functionless behaviors should be regarded as one homogeneous group of stereotypic behaviors; and that, reflecting reports from autistic individuals, self-directed stereotypies in captive rhesus monkeys are related both to brain pathology, and to an adaptive mechanism that allows those that express them to better cope with acute stressors. PMID:22366267

  10. Oral Health Behavior: Acquisition and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Frank D.

    1976-01-01

    The author (1) presents data drawn from a fourteen-week program on oral health care involving second-grade students; (2) concludes that such a program is successful in promoting short-term behavioral change; and (3) stresses the need for periodic reinforcement and repetition to assure behavior maintenance over time. (MB)

  11. Recurrent coronal jets induced by repetitively accumulated electric currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Démoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Ding, M. D.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Liu, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Jets of plasma are frequently observed in the solar corona. A self-similar recurrent behavior is observed in a fraction of them. Aims: Jets are thought to be a consequence of magnetic reconnection; however, the physics involved is not fully understood. Therefore, we study some jet observations with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolutions. Methods: The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets were observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board SDO measured the vector magnetic field, from which we derive the magnetic flux evolution, the photospheric velocity field, and the vertical electric current evolution. The magnetic configuration before the jets is derived by the nonlinear force-free field extrapolation. Results: Three EUV jets recurred in about one hour on 17 September 2010 in the following magnetic polarity of active region 11106. We derive that the jets are above a pair of parasitic magnetic bipoles that are continuously driven by photospheric diverging flows. The interaction drove the buildup of electric currents, which we observed as elongated patterns at the photospheric level. For the first time, the high temporal cadence of the HMI allows the evolution of such small currents to be followed. In the jet region, we found that the integrated absolute current peaks repetitively in phase with the 171 Å flux evolution. The current buildup and its decay are both fast, about ten minutes each, and the current maximum precedes the 171 Å also by about ten minutes. Then, the HMI temporal cadence is marginally fast enough to detect such changes. Conclusions: The photospheric current pattern of the jets is found to be associated with the quasi-separatrix layers deduced from the magnetic extrapolation. From previous theoretical results, the observed diverging flows are expected to continuously build such currents. We conclude that the magnetic reconnection occurs periodically, in the current layer created between the emerging bipoles and the large-scale active region field. The periodic magnetic reconnection induced the observed recurrent coronal jets and the decrease of the vertical electric current magnitude. Two movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents, apparatus, instrumentation, and controls necessary to isolate and identify abnormal genetically determined hemoglobin types. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents, apparatus, instrumentation, and controls necessary to isolate and identify abnormal genetically determined hemoglobin types. (b)...

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cells as a model for telomeric abnormalities in ICF type I syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sagie, Shira; Ellran, Erika; Katzir, Hagar; Shaked, Rony; Yehezkel, Shiran; Laevsky, Ilana; Ghanayim, Alaa; Geiger, Dan; Tzukerman, Maty; Selig, Sara

    2014-07-15

    Human telomeric regions are packaged as constitutive heterochromatin, characterized by extensive subtelomeric DNA methylation and specific histone modifications. ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) type I patients carry mutations in DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) that methylates de novo repetitive sequences during early embryonic development. ICF type I patient fibroblasts display hypomethylated subtelomeres, abnormally short telomeres and premature senescence. In order to study the molecular mechanism by which the failure to de novo methylate subtelomeres results in accelerated telomere shortening, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from 3 ICF type I patients. Telomeres were elongated in ICF-iPSCs during reprogramming, and the senescence phenotype was abolished despite sustained subtelomeric hypomethylation and high TERRA levels. Fibroblast-like cells (FLs) isolated from differentiated ICF-iPSCs maintained abnormally high TERRA levels, and telomeres in these cells shortened at an accelerated rate, leading to early senescence, thus recapitulating the telomeric phenotype of the parental fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that the abnormal telomere phenotype associated with subtelomeric hypomethylation is overridden in cells expressing telomerase, therefore excluding telomerase inhibition by TERRA as a central mechanism responsible for telomere shortening in ICF syndrome. The data in the current study lend support to the use of ICF-iPSCs for modeling of phenotypic and molecular defects in ICF syndrome and for unraveling the mechanism whereby subtelomeric hypomethylation is linked to accelerated telomeric loss in this syndrome. PMID:24549038

  15. White Matter Abnormalities in Major Depression: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and Rumination Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nianming Zuo; Jiliang Fang; Xueyu Lv; Yuan Zhou; Yang Hong; Tao Li; Haibing Tong; Xiaoling Wang; Weidong Wang; Tianzi Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is usually accompanied by altered white matter in the prefrontal cortex, the parietal lobe and the limbic system. As a behavioral abnormity of MDD, rumination has been believed to be a substantial indicator of the mental state of the depressive state. So far, however, no report that we are aware of has

  16. Fetal Calcifications Are Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Ellika; Sirotkina, Meeli; Marnerides, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objective The biological importance of calcifications occasionally noted in fetal tissues (mainly liver) at autopsy or ultrasound is largely unexplored. Previous reports hint at an association to infection, circulatory compromise, malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. To identify factors associated with calcifications, we have performed a case-control study on the largest cohort of fetuses with calcifications described thus far. Methods One-hundred and fifty-one fetuses with calcifications and 302 matched controls were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital. Chromosome analysis by karyotyping or quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction was performed. Autopsy and placenta reports were scrutinized for presence of malformations and signs of infection. Results Calcifications were mainly located in the liver, but also in heart, bowel, and other tissues. Fetuses with calcifications showed a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities than controls; 50% vs. 20% (p<0.001). The most frequent aberrations among cases included trisomy 21 (33%), trisomy 18 (22%), and monosomy X (18%). A similar distribution was seen among controls. When comparing cases and controls with chromosomal abnormalities, the cases had a significantly higher prevalence of malformations (95% vs. 77%, p=0.004). Analyzed the other way around, cases with malformations had a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities compared with controls, (66% vs. 31%, p<0.001). Conclusion The presence of fetal calcifications is associated with high risk of chromosomal abnormality in combination with malformations. Identification of a calcification together with a malformation at autopsy more than doubles the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality, compared with identification of a malformation only. We propose that identification of a fetal tissue calcification at autopsy, and potentially also at ultrasound examination, should infer special attention towards co-existence of malformations, as this would be a strong indicator for a chromosomal abnormality. PMID:25923652

  17. The cancellation of repetitive noise and vibration by active nethods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghtesadi, Kh.; Chaplin, G. B. B.

    The active attenuation of diesel engine noise is discussed as well as the active control of vibration. The system used is found to work best with repetitive sources of noise. Applications of active noise attentuation include noise inside helicopters and propellor aircraft, auxilliary generators and large compressors, and noise on emergency vehicles such as fire engines and snow cats.

  18. Design of repetitively pulsed megavolt pulse transformer systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohwein

    1984-01-01

    The development of repetitively pulsed megavolt pulse transformer systems in this country has been associated with the fusion research program at Sandia National Laboratories. Early experiments with comparatively small air-core transformer systems demonstrated efficient, reliable operation using low voltage parallel capacitor banks as the primary energy stores. Over a period fo several years rep-rated transformer systems have been upgraded through

  19. LINEAR REPETITIVE PROCESS CONTROL THEORY APPLIED TO A PHYSICAL EXAMPLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRZYSZTOF GAËKOWSKI; ERIC ROGERS; WOJCIECH PASZKE; DAVID H. OWENS

    2003-01-01

    In the case of linear dynamics, repetitive processes are a distinct class of 2D linear systems with uses in areas ranging from long-wall coal cutting and metal rolling operations to iterative learning control schemes. The main feature which makes them distinct from other classes of 2D linear systems is that information propagation in one of the two independent directions only

  20. 2C-2 Pulse Repetition Rate Excitation of Contrast Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Vos; D. E. Goertzu; N. de Jong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new bubble excitation mode, in which larger bubbles are stimulated to oscillate by a sequence of short high-frequency ultrasound (US) pulses. By tuning both the pressure burst and its repetition frequency, ultrasound contrast agent bubbles can achieve significant radial excursion at their apparent resonance frequency. The excitation method can be used in situations where resonance frequencies

  1. Repetitive thought and self-reported sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Iijima, Yudai; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2012-12-01

    Repetitive thought has been focused upon as a transdiagnostic risk factor for depression, anxiety, and poor physical health. Among the forms of repetitive thought, rumination and worry are considered to play important roles in the onset and maintenance of insomnia. However, there have been few attempts to clarify the similarities, differences, and interaction between the functions of rumination and worry in sleep problems. Furthermore, no study has investigated the prospective relationships between these two forms of repetitive thought and sleep disturbance. In the present study, we examined the prospective associations between repetitive thought and subjective sleep quality, measured by a self-report questionnaire. A total of 208 undergraduates participated in a 2-wave longitudinal survey with an interval of 3weeks between assessments. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that baseline rumination predicted reduction in the follow-up assessment of subjective sleep quality, controlling for levels of depressive and anxious symptoms. This main effect of rumination was qualified by the levels of worry; for individuals with higher levels of worry, rumination was associated with greater reduction in subjective sleep quality. These results suggest that both rumination and worry have unique associations with sleep and that their interaction is especially important in sleep problems. PMID:23046780

  2. Repetitive peptide boosting progressively enhances functional memory CTLs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of functional memory CTLs holds promise for fighting critical infectious diseases through vaccination, but so far, no effective regime has been identified. We show here that memory CTLs can be enhanced progressively to high levels by repetitive intravenous boosting with peptide and adjuvan...

  3. Avoiding Repetition in Generated Text Mary Ellen Foster

    E-print Network

    Foster, Mary Ellen

    Avoiding Repetition in Generated Text Mary Ellen Foster Informatik VI: Robotics and Embedded White Department of Linguistics The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA mwhite realiser (White, 2006a). In the usual OpenCCG realisation process, when a logical form is transformed

  4. Repetitive stress injury: diagnosis or self-fulfilling prophecy?

    PubMed

    Szabo, R M; King, K J

    2000-09-01

    * The vague definitions of so-called repetitive stress injuries are indicative of the fact that scientific studies have failed to show that repetitive motion causes injury. * Given the uncertainty about causation, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) is a more readily accepted term to describe these phenomena. * There is little doubt that most ergonomic interventions increase comfort in the work environment, which is of great benefit to the worker. Many proponents of ergonomics assert that the elimination of certain risk factors related to force, repetition, and posture can prevent or even cure work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity. However, there is little scientific support for this position. * Undue reliance on ergonomics to treat musculoskeletal disorders, to the exclusion of proper diagnosis and attention to medical and health risk factors, can have adverse consequences for the patient. * Science rather than politics and public policy should determine what causes injury and disease. * The failure of numerous plaintiffs in litigation regarding repetitive stress injury due to use of computer keyboards is important because, when judges and lay jurors were presented with both sides of the issue, they rejected these claims in a forum (the judicial system) that traditionally compensates individuals bringing so-called mass-tort cases. PMID:11005523

  5. Exclusion of Repetitive DNA Elements from Gnathostome Hox Clusters

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    ­Fernâ??andez, 1996; Prohaska et al., 2003a). The two agnathan lineages, lampreys and hagfish, also exhibit multipleExclusion of Repetitive DNA Elements from Gnathostome Hox Clusters Claudia Fried a , Sonja J­1090 Wien, Austria Abstract The Hox gene clusters of gnathostomes have a strong tendency to exclude

  6. Context-Dependent Repetition Effects on Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opitz, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    One widely acknowledged way to improve our memory performance is to repeatedly study the to be learned material. One aspect that has received little attention in past research regards the context sensitivity of this repetition effect, that is whether the item is repeated within the same or within different contexts. The predictions of a…

  7. A guaranteed compression scheme for repetitive DNA sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Rivals; Max Dauchet; Olivier Delgrange

    1996-01-01

    We present a text compression scheme dedicated to DNA sequences. The exponential growing of the number of sequences creates a real need for analyzing tools. A specific need emerges for methods that perform sequences classification upon various criteria, one of which is the sequence repetitiveness. A good lossless compression scheme is able to distinguish between “random” and “significative” repeats. Theoretical

  8. Repetitive excitation of charge oscillations in semiconductor heterostructures

    E-print Network

    Purdue University

    Repetitive excitation of charge oscillations in semiconductor heterostructures 1.Brener, P. C. M semiconductor heterostructures simulating an n-level system. Two GaAs/Al,Ga,-As samples were used in this work; accepted for publication 16 August 1993) We create forced excitonic charge oscillations in semiconductor

  9. Comparison of four discrete-time repetitive control algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Kempf; William Messner; Masayoshi Tomizuka; Roberto Horowitz

    1993-01-01

    Four different algorithms used for cancellation of periodic disturbances are presented and compared. For each method, the theoretical advantages and disadvantages, computational complexity, execution time, and method of implementation are discussed. Experimental data from the use of these algorithms in compensating for repetitive disturbances present in the tracking servo of a computer disk drive are presented

  10. Electrical aging and electroluminescence in epoxy under repetitive voltage surges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Stone; R. G. Van Heeswijk; R. Bartnikas

    1992-01-01

    An extensive statistical accelerated aging experiment, involving a total of 180 unfilled type epoxy specimens, has been conducted to determine the number of voltage surges required to initiate electrical trees under various magnitudes, surge repetition rates, and polarity conditions. The specimens were tested one at a time according to a full factorial experimental design. During many of the aging tests,

  11. Risk assessment of repetitive movements in the citrus fruit industry.

    PubMed

    Proto, A R; Zimbalatti, G

    2010-10-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are injuries of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage, or spinal discs and are often classified as soft tissue injuries. They are the result of chronic or gradual development and are not caused by acute incidents such as slips, trips, or falls. The significance of this phenomenon prompted us to carry out a broader study of pathologies attributable to repetitive movements in the upper limbs within the citrus growing industry. Calabria, a very important region for citrus fruit growing in Italy, was chosen as the study area. The study analyzed the risks of repetitive movements for 180 workers on 35 different farms using the OCRA (Occupational Repetitive Actions) checklist method By analyzing the scores obtained in the different work phases, it was possible to determine the tasks that incur more risk in the citrus fruit industry. The OCRA checklist considers all the repetitive tasks involved in a complex job and estimates the level of exposure to each worker. In support of the specific aims of the present study, it is possible to identify a series of working conditions for which the level of risk may be reasonably estimated and for which it is possible to adopt a checklist system. The results of this study suggest that there must be a significant increase in the use of effective ergonomic interventions in the workplace in order to attain reductions in the number of local musculoskeletal complaints. PMID:21180347

  12. Rapid divergence of repetitive DNAs in Brassica relatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dal-Hoe Koo; Chang Pyo Hong; Jacqueline Batley; Yong Suk Chung; David Edwards; Jae-Wook Bang; Yoonkang Hur; Yong Pyo Lim

    2011-01-01

    Centromeric, subtelomeric, and telomeric repetitive DNAs were characterized in Brassica species and the related Raphanus sativus and Arabidopsis thaliana. In general, rapid divergence of the repeats was found. The centromeric tandem satellite repeats were differentially distributed in the species studied, suggesting that centromeric repeats have diverged during the evolution of the A\\/C and B genome lineages. Sequence analysis of centromeric

  13. A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi'an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

  14. Long-life high-repetition-rate triggered spark gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Watson

    1979-01-01

    A forced-air-blown triggered spark gap (TSG) switch system is described which is capable of high repetition rates on a continuous basis. Further, a TSG comparative study is presented. It is shown that the system consists of two TSG's, each discharging its own 30-ohm pulse cable into a common load. Switching losses of about 28 percent of the stored cable energy

  15. Cross-Language Nonword Repetition by Bilingual and Monolingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Jennifer; Kohnert, Kathryn; Lobitz, Kelann F.; Pham, Giang T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying children with primary or specific language impairment (LI) in languages other than English continues to present a diagnostic challenge. This study examined the utility of English and Spanish nonword repetition (NWR) to identify children known to have LI. Method: Participants were 4 groups of school-age children (N = 187).…

  16. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Processes in Word Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Wendy S.; Duran, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K.; Luevano, Genoveva; Arzate, Jose C.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial…

  17. Strength tests for elite rowers: low- or high-repetition?

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the utility of low- and high-repetition maximum (RM) strength tests used to assess rowers. Twenty elite heavyweight males (age 23.7 ± 4.0 years) performed four tests (5 RM, 30 RM, 60 RM and 120 RM) using leg press and seated arm pulling exercise on a dynamometer. Each test was repeated on two further occasions; 3 and 7 days from the initial trial. Per cent typical error (within-participant variation) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated using log-transformed repeated-measures data. High-repetition tests (30 RM, 60 RM and 120 RM), involving seated arm pulling exercise are not recommended to be included in an assessment battery, as they had unsatisfactory measurement precision (per cent typical error > 5% or ICC < 0.9). Conversely, low-repetition tests (5 RM) involving leg press and seated arm pulling exercises could be used to assess elite rowers (per cent typical error ? 5% and ICC ? 0.9); however, only 5 RM leg pressing met criteria (per cent typical error = 2.7%, ICC = 0.98) for research involving small samples (n = 20). In summary, low-repetition 5 RM strength testing offers greater utility as assessments of rowers, as they can be used to measure upper- and lower-body strength; however, only the leg press exercise is recommended for research involving small squads of elite rowers. PMID:24359532

  18. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  19. Using Markov Models and Hidden Markov Models to Find Repetitive

    E-print Network

    Karplus, Kevin

    Using Markov Models and Hidden Markov Models to Find Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic Sequences for using simple Markov models and hidden Markov models hmms to search for interesting sequences for automatically constructing simple Markov models and hidden Markov models from small training sets

  20. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  1. Repetitions in Words--Part III Narad Rampersad

    E-print Network

    Liège, Université de

    into finitely many sets, then one set contains arbitrarily large arithmetic progressions. #12;Subsequences w = w in a subsequence indexed by an arithmetic progression. #12;Repetitions in arithmetic progressions Theorem (Carpi alphabet that avoids (1 + 1/pm )-powers in arithmetic progressions of all differences, except those

  2. Gender Differences in Repetitive Language in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M. M.; Abbeduto, L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Verbal perseveration (i.e. excessive self-repetition) is a characteristic of male individuals with fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about its occurrence among females or its underlying causes. This project examined the relationship between perseveration and (1) gender, (2) cognitive and linguistic ability, and (3) language…

  3. Nonword Repetition in Children and Adults: Effects on Movement Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Smith, Anne; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Hearing and repeating novel phonetic sequences, or novel nonwords, is a task that taps many levels of processing, including auditory decoding, phonological processing, working memory, speech motor planning and execution. Investigations of nonword repetition abilities have been framed within models of psycholinguistic processing, while the motor…

  4. Compact solid state high repetition rate variable amplitude pulse generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott J. Pendleton; Daniel Singleton; Andras Kuthi; Martin A. Gundersen

    2009-01-01

    Presented is a solid state high repetition-rate pulse generator with adjustable output amplitude, together with a resonant LC charger. This pulse generator was designed for transient plasma production for ignition and other aerospace plasma applications. The design of the pulse-forming network makes use of commercially available insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) switching a capacitor bank into a METGLAS transformer together

  5. Simple, fast rise time, high repetition rate Pockels cell driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plourde, B.; Mack, M. E.; Verro, E.

    1980-04-01

    A thyratron Pockels cell driver capable of optically switching Pockels cells of up to 2.5 cm aperture in 6 ns at repetition rates of up to 1000 Hz is described. The circuit is based on a modified HY-2 thyratron.

  6. Simple, fast rise time, high repetition rate Pockels cell driver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Plourde; M. E. Mack; E. Verro

    1980-01-01

    A thyratron Pockels cell driver capable of optically switching Pockels cells of up to 2.5 cm aperture in 6 ns at repetition rates of up to 1000 Hz is described. The circuit is based on a modified HY-2 thyratron.

  7. Laser cutting of aluminum with high-repetition-rate pulses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren Maher

    1997-01-01

    The precision laser machining (PLM) consortium is developing advanced lasers for machining and investigating process improvements. Recent cutting experiments completed by Boeing at TRW on aluminum alloys included pulse repetition rates up to 220 kHz from a diode-pumped neodymium YAG laser. Overall, cutting speed increased with power over the range tested and results were of a quality and speed to

  8. Abnormal hepatocellular mitochondria in methylmalonic acidemia.

    PubMed

    Wilnai, Yael; Enns, Gregory M; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Higgins, John; Vogel, Hannes

    2014-10-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is one of the most frequently encountered forms of branched-chain organic acidemias. Biochemical abnormalities seen in some MMA patients, such as lactic acidemia and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate excretion, suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to investigate the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in MMA, we examined liver tissue for evidence of mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities. Five explanted livers obtained from MMA mut(0) patients undergoing liver transplantation were biopsied. All patients had previous episodes of metabolic acidosis, lactic acidemia, ketonuria, and hyperammonemia. All biopsies revealed a striking mitochondriopathy by electron microscopy. Mitochondria were markedly variable in size, shape, and conformation of cristae. The inner matrix appeared to be greatly expanded and the cristae were diminutive and disconnected. No crystalloid inclusions were noted. This series clearly documents extensive mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormalities in liver samples from MMA patients undergoing transplantation, providing pathological evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of MMA mut(0). Considering the trend to abnormally large mitochondria, the metabolic effects of MMA may restrict mitochondrial fission or promote fusion. The correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological abnormalities in MMA may provide insights for better understanding and monitoring of optimized or novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24933007

  9. Electroencephalographic abnormalities in patients with snake bites.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Ganaikabahu, B; Pushparajan, K; Wijesekera, J

    1995-01-01

    Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were obtained for 26 patients with snake bite to observe the cerebral impact of snake venom. All snakes were identified; 19 (73%) were Russell's vipers, one (4%) was a common cobra, five (19%) were hump-nosed vipers, and one (4%) was a dog-faced fresh water snake. The EEG was abnormal in 25 patients (96%) and these results included all the snake species identified. The EEG abnormalities observed were reduced alpha activity, increased theta/beta activity or sharp waves (grade 1), sharp waves or spikes and slow waves (grade 2), or diffuse delta activity (grade 3). Grade 1 changes occurred in 16 patients (62%), grade 11 in eight patients (31%), and grade 111 in one patient (4%). Thus, grade 2 and 3 changes, which were moderately severe to severe abnormalities, occurred in nine patients (35%). One patient had acute renal failure and two others had mild jaundice and hyponatremia. These three patients had EEG abnormalities that were similar to those observed in the remaining 22 patients. The altered EEG, suggestive of an encephalopathy, appeared within hours of the bite and persisted for several days without clinical neurologic effects. The changes were seen mainly in the temporal lobe. Similar changes occurred in both patients with and without antivenom therapy. It appeared that the EEG abnormalities are a consequence of the effects of venom from the bites of a variety of snakes. PMID:7856822

  10. Repetitive intermittent hypoxia induces respiratory and somatic motor recovery after chronic cervical spinal injury.

    PubMed

    Lovett-Barr, Mary R; Satriotomo, Irawan; Muir, Gillian D; Wilkerson, Julia E R; Hoffman, Michael S; Vinit, Stéphane; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2012-03-14

    Spinal injury disrupts connections between the brain and spinal cord, causing life-long paralysis. Most spinal injuries are incomplete, leaving spared neural pathways to motor neurons that initiate and coordinate movement. One therapeutic strategy to induce functional motor recovery is to harness plasticity in these spared neural pathways. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) (72 episodes per night, 7 nights) increases synaptic strength in crossed spinal synaptic pathways to phrenic motoneurons below a C2 spinal hemisection. However, CIH also causes morbidity (e.g., high blood pressure, hippocampal apoptosis), rendering it unsuitable as a therapeutic approach to chronic spinal injury. Less severe protocols of repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia may elicit plasticity without associated morbidity. Here we demonstrate that daily acute intermittent hypoxia (dAIH; 10 episodes per day, 7 d) induces motor plasticity in respiratory and nonrespiratory motor behaviors without evidence for associated morbidity. dAIH induces plasticity in spared, spinal pathways to respiratory and nonrespiratory motor neurons, improving respiratory and nonrespiratory (forelimb) motor function in rats with chronic cervical injuries. Functional improvements were persistent and were mirrored by neurochemical changes in proteins that contribute to respiratory motor plasticity after intermittent hypoxia (BDNF and TrkB) within both respiratory and nonrespiratory motor nuclei. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia may be an effective and non-invasive means of improving function in multiple motor systems after chronic spinal injury. PMID:22423083

  11. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Applications Normalized Prefrontal Dysfunctions and Cognitive-Related Metabolic Profiling in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hualong; Geng, Yuan; Han, Bing; Qiang, Jing; Li, Xiaoli; Sun, Meiyu; Wang, Qian; Wang, Mingwei

    2013-01-01

    Chronic high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has recently received increasing interests as a therapeutic procedure for neurodegenerative diseases. To identify the metabolism mechanism underlying the improving effects of rTMS, we observed that high frequency (25Hz) rTMS for 14 days could reverse the decline of the performance of the passive avoidance task in aged mice. We further investigated the metabolite profiles in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in those mice and found that rTMS could also reverse the metabolic abnormalities of gamma-aminobutyric acid, N-acetyl aspartic, and cholesterol levels to the degree similar to the young mice. These data suggested that the rTMS could ameliorate the age-related cognitive impairment and improving the metabolic profiles in PFC, and potentially can be used to improve cognitive decline in the elderly. PMID:24278445

  12. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  13. Referenceless stratification of parenchymal lung abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Bartholmai, Brian J; Robb, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces computational tools that could enable personalized, predictive, preemptive, and participatory (P4) Pulmonary medicine. We demonstrate approaches to (a) stratify lungs from different subjects based on the spatial distribution of parenchymal abnormality and (b) visualize the stratification through glyphs that convey both the grouping efficacy and an iconic overview of an individual's lung wellness. Affinity propagation based on regional parenchymal abnormalities is used in the referenceless stratification. Abnormalities are computed using supervised classification based on Earth Mover's distance. Twenty natural clusters were detected from 372 CT lung scans. The computed clusters correlated with clinical consensus of 9 disease types. The quality of inter- and intra-cluster stratification as assessed by ANOSIM R was 0.887 +/- 0.18 (pval < 0.0005). The proposed tools could serve as biomarkers to objectively diagnose pathology, track progression and assess pharmacologic response within and across patients. PMID:22003703

  14. Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in cerebellar disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, M. F.; Zee, D. S.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in patients with cerebellar degeneration are reported. Three-axis magnetic search-coil recordings of the eye and head were performed in eight cerebellar patients. Among these patients, examples of directional cross-coupling were found during (1) high-frequency, high-acceleration head thrusts; (2) constant-velocity chair rotations with the head fixed; (3) constant-velocity optokinetic stimulation; and (4) following repetitive head shaking. Cross-coupling during horizontal head thrusts consisted of an inappropriate upward eye-velocity component. In some patients, sustained constant-velocity yaw-axis chair rotations produced a mixed horizontal-torsional nystagmus and/or an increase in the baseline vertical slow-phase velocity. Following horizontal head shaking, some patients showed an increase in the slow-phase velocity of their downbeat nystagmus. These various forms of cross-coupling did not necessarily occur to the same degree in a given patient; this suggests that different mechanisms may be responsible. It is suggested that cross-coupling during head thrusts may reflect a loss of calibration of brainstem connections involved in the direct vestibular pathways, perhaps due to dysfunction of the flocculus. Cross-coupling during constant-velocity rotations and following head shaking may result from a misorientation of the angular eye-velocity vector in the velocity-storage system. Finally, responses to horizontal optokinetic stimulation included an inappropriate torsional component in some patients. This suggests that the underlying organization of horizontal optokinetic tracking is in labyrinthine coordinates. The findings are also consistent with prior animal-lesion studies that have shown a role for the vestibulocerebellum in the control of the direction of the VOR.

  15. Motivation for Variable Length Intervals and Hierarchical Phase Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Lau; Erez Perelman; Greg Hamerly; Timothy Sherwood; Brad Calder

    2005-01-01

    Most programs are repetitive, where similar behavior can be seen at different execution times. Proposed algorithms au- tomatically group similar portions of a program's execution into phases, where the intervals in each phase have homo- geneous behavior and similar resource requirements. These prior techniques focus on fixed length intervals (such as a hundred million instructions) to find phase behavior. Fixed

  16. Ocular motor abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, C A; Kennard, C

    2015-02-01

    Eye movements are a source of valuable information to both clinicians and scientists as abnormalities of them frequently act as clues to the localization of a disease process. Classically, they are divided into two main types: those that hold the gaze, keeping images steady on the retina (vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes) and those that shift gaze and redirect the line of sight to a new object of interest (saccades, vergence, and smooth pursuit). Here we will review some of the major ocular motor abnormalities present in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412716

  17. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  18. Photosensitivity, abnormal porphyrin profile, and sideroblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Lim, H W; Cooper, D; Sassa, S; Dosik, H; Buchness, M R; Soter, N A

    1992-08-01

    Cutaneous photosensitivity in a 43-year-old man with idiopathic sideroblastic anemia associated with an abnormal porphyrin profile is reported. This condition was associated with elevated free erythrocyte porphyrin, plasma protoporphyrin, urine porphyrins (predominantly coproporphyrin), stool porphyrins (predominantly protoporphyrin), decreased ferrochelatase activity, and deletion of portions of the long arms of chromosomes 18 and 20. Five other patients with sideroblastic anemia and abnormal porphyrin profiles have been described; all but one of these patients had photosensitivity. The porphyrin profile of this patient is similar to that of three other previously described patients. PMID:1517489

  19. Ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry with a 0.5 MHz pulse repetition rate nanosecond laser

    PubMed Central

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has great potential for detecting disease-associated biomarkers in blood and lymph flow, as well as real-time control of the efficacy of photothermal (PT) and other therapies through the counting of circulating abnormal objects. We report on a high speed PAFC with a Yb-doped fiber laser having a 0.5-MHz pulse repetition rate at a wavelength of 1064 nm, pulse width of 10 ns, and energy up to 100 µJ. This is the first biomedical application of PA and PT techniques operating at the highest pulse repetition rate of nanosecond lasers that provide 100-fold enhancement in detection speed of carbon nanotube clusters, as well as real-time monitoring of the flow velocity of individual targets through the width of PA signals. The laser pulse rate limits for PT and PA techniques depending on the sizes of laser beam and targets and flow velocity are discussed. We propose time-overlapping mode and generation of periodic nano- and microbubbles as PA-signal and PT-therapy amplifiers, including discrimination of small absorbing targets among large ones. Taking into account the relatively low level of background signals from most biotissues at 1064 nm, our data suggest that a nanosecond Yb-doped fiber laser operating at high pulse repetition rate could be a promising optical source for time-resolved PA and PT cytometry, imaging, microscopy, and therapy, including detection of nanoparticles and cells flowing at velocities up to 2.5 m/s. PMID:20588705

  20. High voltage repetitive pulsed nanosecond discharges as a selective source of reactive species

    E-print Network

    Guerra García, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    High voltage nanosecond duration discharges can be used in a repetitive manner to create a sustained pool of short lived excited species and ions and long-lived radicals in a gas. Although the suitability of the Repetitive ...

  1. Estimating enrichment of repetitive elements from high-throughput sequence data

    E-print Network

    Luquette, Lovelace J.

    We describe computational methods for analysis of repetitive elements from short-read sequencing data, and apply them to study histone modifications associated with the repetitive elements in human and mouse cells. Our ...

  2. Genome wide survey, discovery and evolution of repetitive elements in three Entamoeba species.

    E-print Network

    Lorenzi, Hernan

    Background: Identification and mapping of repetitive elements is a key step for accurate gene prediction and overall structural annotation of genomes. During the assembly and annotation of three highly repetitive amoeba ...

  3. The position of repetitive DNA sequence in the southern cattle tick genome permits chromosome identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using meiotic chromosome preparations and highly repetitive DNA from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, was undertaken to investigate genome organization. Several classes of highly repetitive DNA elements were identified by screening a R. micr...

  4. Slitrk5 deficiency impairs corticostriatal circuitry and leads to obsessive-compulsive–like behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shmelkov, Sergey V; Hormigo, Adília; Jing, Deqiang; Proenca, Catia C; Bath, Kevin G; Milde, Till; Shmelkov, Evgeny; Kushner, Jared S; Baljevic, Muhamed; Dincheva, Iva; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Gale, Nicholas W; Yancopoulos, George D; Ninan, Ipe; Lee, Francis S; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder defined by the presence of obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsive actions, and it often encompasses anxiety and depressive symptoms1,2. Recently, the corticostriatal circuitry has been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD3,4. However, the etiology, pathophysiology and molecular basis of OCD remain unknown. Several studies indicate that the pathogenesis of OCD has a genetic component5–8. Here we demonstrate that loss of a neuron-specific transmembrane protein, SLIT and NTRK-like protein-5 (Slitrk5), leads to OCD-like behaviors in mice, which manifests as excessive self-grooming and increased anxiety-like behaviors, and is alleviated by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Slitrk5?/? mice show selective overactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex, abnormalities in striatal anatomy and cell morphology and alterations in glutamate receptor composition, which contribute to deficient corticostriatal neurotransmission. Thus, our studies identify Slitrk5 as an essential molecule at corticostriatal synapses and provide a new mouse model of OCD-like behaviors. PMID:20418887

  5. Repetitive Behaviour in Children with High Functioning Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandt, Fiona; Prior, Margot; Kyrios, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were compared on a range of repetitive behaviours. Parents reported similar levels of sameness behaviour and repetitive movements in the clinical groups, although children with OCD engaged in more repetitive behaviour focussed around routines and…

  6. Piggyback Cooperative Repetition for Reliable Broadcasting of Safety Messages in VANETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Yang; Jinhua Guo; Ying Wu

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle safety communication applications require safety messages to be received by all the targeted vehicles within their lifetime. We propose a piggybacked cooperative repetition approach for reliably broadcasting safety messages in VANETs. Repetitions by neighbors that receive the original transmission can effectively cover the areas that are missed in the original transmissions. Moreover, the repetitions are piggybacked by the newly

  7. The Effect of Repetition Types on Listening Tests in an EFL Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horness, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study was an investigation into the effects of repetition on a listening comprehension test for second language learners. Repetition has been previously examined in a cursory way, usually as a secondary question to a primary treatment. Additionally, the method of repetition was limited to one way and to one treatment condition; therefore, it…

  8. Analysis of the Encoding Factors That Produce the Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most basic finding in memory research is the repetition effect--the fact that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled "fewer" targets than a group who studied…

  9. Removal of Default-State Associated Inhibition During Repetition Priming Improves Response Articulation

    PubMed Central

    Dacks, Andrew M.; Siniscalchi, Michael J.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavior is a product of both the stimuli encountered and the current internal state. At the level of the nervous system, the internal state alters the biophysical properties of, and connections between, neurons establishing a “network state”. To establish a network state, the nervous system must be altered from an initial default/resting state, but what remains unclear is the extent to which this process represents induction from a passive default state or the removal of suppression by an active default state. We use repetition priming (a history-dependent improvement of behavioral responses to repeatedly encountered stimuli) to determine the cellular mechanisms underlying the transition from the default to the primed network state. We demonstrate that both removal of active suppression and induction of neuron excitability changes each contribute separately to the production of a primed state. The feeding system of Aplysia californica displays repetition priming via an increase in the activity of the radula closure neuron B8, which results in increased bite strength with each motor program. We found that during priming, B8 received progressively less inhibitory input from the multi-functional neurons B4/5. Additionally, priming enhanced the excitability of B8, but the rate at which B8 activity increased as a result of these changes was regulated by the progressive removal of inhibitory input. Thus, the establishment of the network state involves the induction of processes from a rested state, yet the consequences of these processes are conditional upon critical gating mechanisms actively enforced by the default state. PMID:23223294

  10. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  11. Kidney Transplantation: The Use of Abnormal Kidneys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauro Branding; Antonio Marcos Arnulf Fraga; Mauro Roberto Rufino Bergonse; Carl Kjellstrand; Anuar Michel Matni; Gilson Lacerda; Pedro Alejandro Gordan; Altair Jacob Mocelin

    1983-01-01

    We transplanted 6 anatomically abnormal kidneys: a horseshoe kidney that after division was transplanted into 2 recipients; 1 kidney with ureteral stones and hydronephrosis; 1 ectopic and 1 hydronephrotic kidney; 2 kidneys with extensive ureteric lesions, donated as free organs. All these kidneys ultimately had normal function in the recipients, long-term in 4. 2 patients died but in neither was

  12. Brain Stem MRI Signal Abnormalities in CADASIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Chabriat; R. Mrissa; C. Levy; K. Vahedi; H. Taillia; M. T. Iba-Zizen; A. Joutel; E. Tournier-Lasserve; M.-G. Bousser

    Background—We recently showed that the severity of MRI signal abnormalities increases with age in CADASIL, an arteriopathy due to mutations of notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. Previous results also suggest that the various hemispheric subcortical areas have a different vulnerability to ischemia in this disease. The distribution of the lesions at the brain stem level has not yet been

  13. Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos CA de la Sena NS Fechheimer KE Nestor The Ohio-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) Japanese quail / embryos / heteroploidy / chromosomes INTRODUCTION Embryos zygotes and the etiology of heteroploid zygotes and embryos (Fechheimer, 1981, 1990). The Japanese quail

  14. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  15. Some pathological abnormalities of New Zealand fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Diggles

    2003-01-01

    A number of pathological abnormalities previously unrecorded in New Zealand fishes are described. A silver trevally (Pseudocaranx dentex) captured from the Bay of Islands exhibited swim bladder ectasia. Black oreo (Allocyttus niger) and smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus) had cysts of unknown aetiology (CUEs) in the gills at prevalences up to 76% and 81%, respectively, in some fishing areas. The CUEs

  16. Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

  17. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  18. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  19. Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phuong-Thu T Pham; Phuong-Chi T Pham; Alan H Wilkinson; Susie Q Lew

    2000-01-01

    Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease. Sickle cell nephropathy is indicated by sickled erythrocytes, with the consequent effects of decreased medullary blood flow, ischemia, microinfarct and papillary necrosis. Impaired urinary concentrating ability, renal acidification, hematuria, and potassium secretion are also found. There may be a causal relationship between an increase in nitric oxide synthesis and experimental sickle cell nephropathy, and

  20. On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N = 39 and N = 15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

  1. High power repetitive TEA CO2 pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guilong; Li, Dianjun; Xie, Jijiang; Zhang, Laiming; Chen, Fei; Guo, Jin; Guo, Lihong

    2012-07-01

    A high power repetitive spark-pin UV-preionized TEA CO2 laser system is presented. The discharge for generating laser pulses is controlled by a rotary spark switch and a high voltage pulsed trigger. Uniform glow discharge between two symmetrical Chang-electrodes is realized by using an auto-inversion circuit. A couple of high power axial-flow fans with the maximum wind speed of 80 m/s are used for gas exchange between the electrodes. At a repetitive operation, the maximum average output laser power of 10.4 kW 10.6 ?m laser is obtained at 300 Hz, with an electro-optical conversion efficiency of 15.6%. At single pulsed operation, more pumping energy and higher gases pressures can be injected, and the maximum output laser energy of 53 J is achieved.

  2. Discharge pumped non-chain repetitively pulsed HF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ke; Yi, Aiping; Tang, Ying; Zhu, Feng; Ma, Lianying; Yu, Li; Shen, Yanlong; Huang, Chao; Huang, Xin; Qian, Hang; Liu, Jingru; Ye, Xisheng

    2013-05-01

    The design and performance of a closed cycle, repetitively pulsed HF laser is described. The homogeneous glow discharge is formed with UV pre-ionization and transverse discharge structure. The optimal output parameters of single pulse operation are given by the investigation of discharge characteristics in SF6 /C2H6 gas mixture and output characteristics of laser pulse. The repetitively pulse energy stability of laser device are checked with different conditions of gas flowing velocity, charging voltage and total pressure of gas mixture. It is shown that the maximal output energy of laser pulse of 0.6J, peak power 3MW are obtained. Total efficiency of laser device is about 2.4%. When the gas mixture circulating with 4m/s flowing velocity, the maximal running frequency of 50Hz are obtained and operating stability keep well. Under these conditions, the laser pulse energy keeps stable and the average output power is 18W.

  3. High repetition rate plasma mirror device for attosecond science.

    PubMed

    Borot, A; Douillet, D; Iaquaniello, G; Lefrou, T; Audebert, P; Geindre, J-P; Lopez-Martens, R

    2014-01-01

    This report describes an active solid target positioning device for driving plasma mirrors with high repetition rate ultra-high intensity lasers. The position of the solid target surface with respect to the laser focus is optically monitored and mechanically controlled on the nm scale to ensure reproducible interaction conditions for each shot at arbitrary repetition rate. We demonstrate the target capabilities by driving high-order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors produced on glass targets with a near-relativistic intensity few-cycle pulse laser system operating at 1 kHz. During experiments, residual target surface motion can be actively stabilized down to 47?nm (root mean square), which ensures sub-300-as relative temporal stability of the plasma mirror as a secondary source of coherent attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation in pump-probe experiments. PMID:24517742

  4. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians’ Judgments Of Psychological Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person’s current behaviors? The appropriate role of life-event context in assessment has long been the subject of intense debate and scrutiny among clinical theorists, yet relatively little is known about clinicians’ own judgments in practice. We propose a proportionate-response hypothesis, such that judgments of abnormality are influenced by whether the behaviors are a disproportionate response to past events, rendering them difficult to understand or explain. We presented licensed, practicing clinical psychologists (N=77) with vignettes describing hypothetical people’s behaviors (disordered, mildly distressed, or unaffected) that had been preceded by either traumatic or mildly distressing events. Experts’ judgments of abnormality were strongly and systematically influenced by the degree of mismatch between the past event and current behaviors in strength and valence, such that the greater the mismatch, the more abnormal the person seemed. A separate, additional group of clinical psychologists (N=20) further confirmed that the greater the degree of mismatch, the greater the perceived difficulty in understanding the patient. These findings held true across clinicians of different theoretical orientations and in disorders for which these patterns of judgments ran contrary to formal recommendations in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000). The rationality of these effects and implications for clinical decision science are discussed. PMID:22142425

  5. Repetitively pulsed Cr:LiSAF laser for lidar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1994-03-01

    A Cr:LiSAF laser has been successfully operated at time averaged powers up to 11 W and at pulse repetition rates to 12 Hz. During Q-switch operation, output energy as high as 450 mJ (32 ns FWHM) was obtained. Finally, line narrowed Q-switched pulses (< 0.1 nm) from the Cr:LiSAF laser were successfully used as a tunable light source for lidar to measure atmospheric water content.

  6. Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitively pulsed, intense- ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.; Reass, W.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Coates, D.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Schleinitz, H.M. [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States). Central Research and Development Dept.; Lovberg, R.H. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Greenly, J.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Plasma Studies

    1996-07-01

    A number of intense ion beams applications are emerging requiring repetitive high-average-power beams. These applications include ablative deposition of thin films, rapid melt and resolidification for surface property enhancement, advanced diagnostic neutral beams for the next generation of Tokamaks, and intense pulsed-neutron sources. We are developing a 200-250 keV, 15 kA, 1 {mu}s duration, 1-30 Hz intense ion beam accelerator to address these applications.

  7. Neuromuscular fatigue during repetitive stimulation in elderly and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia M. Cupido; Audrey L. Hicks; Joan Martin

    1992-01-01

    Summary  The purpose of this investigation was to examine the integrity of neuromuscular transmission and impulse propagation during fatigue by examining the muscle compound action potential (M wave) in elderly and young adults. The tibialis anterior muscle of nine elderly [{ie567-1}=67.7 (SE 1.7) years] and nine young [{ie567-2}=26.7 (SE 1.2) years] adults was maximally stimulated repetitively at frequencies of 20, 30

  8. Long-Life High-Repetition-Rate Triggered Spark Gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Watson

    1980-01-01

    A forced-air-blown triggered spark gap (TSG) switch system capable of high-repetition rates on a continuous basis as well as a TSG comparative study is described. The system consists of two TSG's, each discharging its own 30-¿ pulse cable into a common load. The system was operated at 30 kV, 1 kHz, for 39 ?? 106 shots with erosion rates of

  9. A 500 kA repetitive opening switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. McCormick; J. Barber

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a 500 kA repetitive switch as part of railgun experiments at the Center for Electromechanical Research at the University of Texas is described. Switch performance was monitored during on-state, commutation, off-state and make phases of switching and in a post-mortem analysis of the rotor and collectors. A total of 84 high-current tests were conducted with the switch

  10. Nosology and Theories of Repetitive and Restricted Behaviours and Interests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eynat Gal

    \\u000a Repetitive and restrictive behaviours and interests (RRBI) are defining core features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD),\\u000a described in Kanner’s original paper (1943). They are also one of three behavioural domains – the other being deficits in\\u000a social interaction and deficits in communication required for the current diagnosis of autism (ICD-10, World Health Organization,\\u000a 1990; DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994). These

  11. Modulation of corticospinal excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumiko Maeda; Julian Paul Keenan; Jose Maria Tormos; Helge Topka; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to modulate the corticospinal excitability and the effects appear to last beyond the duration of the rTMS itself. Different studies, employing different rTMS parameters, report different modulation of corticospinal excitability ranging from inhibition to facilitation. Intraindividual variability of these effects and their reproducibility are unclear.Methods: We examined the modulatory effects of rTMS

  12. Modulation of corticospinal excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumiko Maeda; Julian Paul Keenan; Jose Maria Tormos; Helge Topka; Alvaro Pascual-leone

    Abstract Objective: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to modulate the corticospinal excitability and the effects appear to last beyond the duration of the rTMS itself. Different studies, employing different rTMS parameters, report different modulation of corticospinal excitability ranging from inhibition to facilitation. Intraindividual variability of these effects and their reproducibility are unclear. Methods: We examined the modulatory effects

  13. Highly Effective, Repetitive Nanosecond-Range Ka-band BWO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Yalandin; S. N. Rukin; V. G. Shpak; S. A. Shunailov; V.V. Rostov; G. A. Mesyats

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-stationary mode of operation of a high-efficiency 38-GHz nanosecond relativistic microwave backward-wave oscillator at a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz has been demonstrated. A hybrid modulator based on an SM-3N SOS driver and on an energy compression unit containing a pulse-forming line and a spark gap was used to produce 5-ns electron-beam-accelerating pulses of the trapezoidal shape. Optimization

  14. Compact 200Hz pulse repetition GW Marx generator system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Nunnally; J. R. Mayes; T. A. Holt; C. W. Hatfield; M. B. Lara; T. R. Smith

    2009-01-01

    The compact, wave-erection, GW-class Marx generator has been previously reported for use in 5 ns to sub-ns risetime pulsed power applications. This generator topology has recently been adapted for high Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) applications and is the basis for a new high-PRF pulsed power system. The 33-J generator is capable of delivering a 300-kV pulse into a matched 50-Ohm

  15. A linear mixed model analysis of masked repetition priming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhold Kliegl; Michael E. J. Masson; Eike M. Richter

    2010-01-01

    We examined individual differences in masked repetition priming by re-analysing item-level response-time (RT) data from three experiments. Using a linear mixed model (LMM) with subjects and items specified as crossed random factors, the originally reported priming and word-frequency effects were recovered. In the same LMM, we estimated parameters describing the distributions of these effects across subjects. Subjects' frequency and priming

  16. A linear mixed model analysis of masked repetition priming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhold Kliegl; Eike M. Richter

    2009-01-01

    We examined individual differences in masked repetition priming by re-analysing item-level response-time (RT) data from three experiments. Using a linear mixed model (LMM) with subjects and items specified as crossed random factors, the originally reported priming and word-frequency effects were recovered. In the same LMM, we estimated parameters describing the distributions of these effects across subjects. Subjects' frequency and priming

  17. Increasing effects of repetitive cocaine administration in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Post; Harvey Rose

    1976-01-01

    REPORTS of chronic cocaine (and related psychomotor stimulant) administration suggest that tolerance develops to many drug effects1-3. A few studies of high dose cocaine administration have suggested that, on the contrary, repetitive administration may be associated with increasing effects on cocaine-induced convulsions in the rat4,5 and monkey6 and increasing bizarre visual and inhibitory behaviour, as well as dyskinesias, in the

  18. Patterns of tandem repetition in plant whole genome assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Andrew H. Paterson

    2009-01-01

    Tandem repeats often confound large genome assemblies. A survey of tandemly arrayed repetitive sequences was carried out in\\u000a whole genome sequences of the green alga Chlamydomonas\\u000a reinhardtii, the moss Physcomitrella patens, the monocots rice and sorghum, and the dicots Arabidopsis thaliana, poplar, grapevine, and papaya, in order to test how these assemblies deal with this fraction of DNA. Our results

  19. A possible mechanism of repetitive firing of myelinated axon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander G. Dimitrov

    2009-01-01

    A unique mechanism is proposed according to which processes within the internodal axolemma are responsible for repetitive\\u000a activation of myelinated axon with deficit of internodal potassium conductance. A numerical simulation of activity in axon\\u000a with 21 nodes was performed. The axon was represented by cables for axoplasmic and periaxonal spaces. Accumulation and diffusion\\u000a of ions were taken into account. Fine

  20. Improved executive functioning following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Moser, D J; Jorge, R E; Manes, F; Paradiso, S; Benjamin, M L; Robinson, R G

    2002-04-23

    The cognitive effects of active and sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were examined in 19 middle-aged and elderly patients with refractory depression. Patients received either active (n = 9) or sham (n = 10) rTMS targeted at the anterior portion of the left middle frontal gyrus. Patients in the active rTMS group improved significantly on a test of cognitive flexibility and conceptual tracking (Trail Making Test-B). PMID:11971103

  1. Ultra-low-jitter repetitive solid state picosecond switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Frost; T. H. Martin; R. J. Focia; J. S. H. Schoenberg

    1999-01-01

    Ultra-low-jitter repetitive solid state picosecond switching is being developed for application to electromagnetic impulse sources. Ultra-low-jitter and fast risetime are required to synchronize multiple modules of radiating array sources. Laser controlled photoconducting switches provide low jitter but have limited lifetime and are too expensive for many commercial applications. The authors are studying an alternative method using inexpensive delayed avalanche breakdown

  2. AFLPs Represent Highly Repetitive Sequences in Asparagus Officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella Marie Reamon-Büttner; Thomas Schmidt; Christian Jung

    1999-01-01

    The chromosomal and genomic organization of 5 cloned AFLP fragments in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were investigated. Two of the 5 AFLP loci were sex-linked. The fragments, amplified with EcoRI\\/MseI primers, ranged from 107 to 267 bp and were AT-rich. Southern hybridization gave interspersed, middle repetitive to high copy sequence signals. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) exhibited hybridization signals on all

  3. Paleoclimate controls on stratigraphic repetition of chemical and siliciclastic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, C.B. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Climate is a primary control on sediment flux from continental sources into sedimentary systems. In warm climates, siliciclastic input is greatest under highly seasonal rainfall. Nonseasonal conditions favor formation of end member chemical rocks; perennially wet climates are conductive to coal formation, whereas dry climates produce carbonates and/or evaporites. Stratigraphic repetition of siliciclastic and chemical rocks therefore appears to be related to paleoclimate cycles as well as to transgressive-regressive events and tectonics.

  4. Serial Assessment of Physiological Evaluation Indices for Repetitive Mental Workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Karita, Keita

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of daily repetitive mental workload on physiological indices. Especially, the index derived from the nasal skin temperature(NST) measured by the infrared thermography was focused. The NST was the physiological index representing the sympathetic nervous system activity. The NST declines with the sympathetic nervous system's activation. The mental workload causes sympathetic nervous system's activation, so the mental workload can be measured by NST as a declining temperature. We have found that the relationship between the amount of mental workload and the NST declining under time pressure, even more complex stimuli. However, there's no study on evaluating the NST measured for the repetitive mental workload for certain period of time. In this paper, the NST and other physiological indices, which were Fm? wave component of Electroencephalograms(EEG) and high frequency component(HF) of R-wave interval time series of Electrocardiograms(ECG) were serially measured and evaluated on repetitive mental workload. Significant difference was found between those NST indices in each experiment by paired t-test. A stability of NST as an evaluation index for MWL was proved.

  5. Non-signalling parallel repetition using de Finetti reductions

    E-print Network

    Rotem Arnon-Friedman; Renato Renner; Thomas Vidick

    2014-11-06

    In the context of multiplayer games, the parallel repetition problem can be phrased as follows: given a game $G$ with optimal winning probability $1-\\alpha$ and its repeated version $G^n$ (in which $n$ games are played together, in parallel), can the players use strategies that are substantially better than ones in which each game is played independently? This question is relevant in physics for the study of correlations and plays an important role in computer science in the context of complexity and cryptography. In this work the case of multiplayer non-signalling games is considered, i.e., the only restriction on the players is that they are not allowed to communicate during the game. For complete-support games (games where all possible combinations of questions have non-zero probability to be asked) with any number of players we prove a threshold theorem stating that the probability that non-signalling players win more than a fraction $1-\\alpha+\\beta$ of the $n$ games is exponentially small in $n\\beta^2$, for every $0\\leq \\beta \\leq \\alpha$. For games with incomplete support we derive a similar statement, for a slightly modified form of repetition. The result is proved using a new technique, based on a recent de Finetti theorem, which allows us to avoid central technical difficulties that arise in standard proofs of parallel repetition theorems.

  6. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  7. Abnormal superfluid fraction of harmonically trapped few-fermion systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D

    2014-06-13

    Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this Letter determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia I(q). Analogous abnormal behavior of I(q) has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments. PMID:24972215

  8. Brain morphological abnormalities in 49,XXXXY syndrome: A pediatric magnetic resonance imaging study???

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Baker, Eva H.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wade, Benjamin; Clasen, Liv S.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2013-01-01

    As a group, people with the sex chromosome aneuploidy 49,XXXXY have characteristic physical and cognitive/behavioral tendencies, although there is high individual variation. In this study we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain morphometry in 14 youth with 49,XXXXY compared to 42 age-matched healthy controls. Total brain size was significantly smaller (t = 9.0, p < .001), and rates of brain abnormalities such as colpocephaly, plagiocephaly, periventricular cysts, and minor craniofacial abnormalities were significantly increased. White matter lesions were identified in 50% of subjects, supporting the inclusion of 49,XXXXY in the differential diagnosis of small multifocal white matter lesions. Further evidence of abnormal development of white matter was provided by the smaller cross sectional area of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that increased dosage of genes on the X chromosome has adverse effects on white matter development. PMID:23667827

  9. [Obsessive compulsive disorder--intrusive thoughts, impulses and repetitive behaviours as an expression of a significant disease].

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Rufer, Michael; Brühl, Annette; Baumann-Vogel, Heide; Delsignore, Aba

    2013-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common and associated with marked impairment and reduced quality of life. In the general practitioner's office as well as in the specialist's consultation, patients with OCD usually present intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviours (compulsions). OCD sufferers generally recognize their obsessions and compulsions as irrational. Without treatment, OCD often takes a chronic course. Some basic aspects can help to identify patients suffering from OCD earlier and to initiate sufficient therapy. With evidence-based treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy and adequate psychopharmacotherapy, many patients can achieve complete symptom remission. Initial treatment can be initiated in the general practitioner's office. PMID:23823684

  10. Assessment and Treatment of Excessive Straightening and Destructive Behavior in an Adolescent Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David E.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Sweeney, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors such as excessive straightening are commonly observed among individuals with autism. Attempts to prevent these behaviors may increase the likelihood of other problem behaviors. The present study was designed to assess and treat the excessive straightening and associated destructive behaviors of a 16-year-old boy who had been…

  11. Abnormalities in signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, Frank C; Khoury, Charbel C; Buller, Carolyn L; Chen, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by a plethora of signaling abnormalities that together ultimately result in the clinical and pathologic hallmarks of DN, namely progressive albuminuria followed by a gradual decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to kidney failure, and accompanied by podocyte loss, progressive glomerular sclerosis and, ultimately, progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Over the past few years, the general understanding of the abnormalities in signaling pathways that lead to DN has expanded considerably. In this review, some of the important pathways that appear to be involved in driving this process are discussed, with special emphasis on newer findings and insights. Newer concepts regarding signaling changes in bradykinin, mTOR, JAK/STAT, MCP-1, VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, activated protein C and other pathways are discussed. PMID:20224802

  12. Abnormalities of the foetal cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Toi, Ants; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has concentrated on readily visible cerebral structures including head size, shape, ventricles, CSP (cavum septi pellucidi), cerebellar size/vermian presence and cisterna magna. However, apart from these easily visible structures it is important to evaluate the brain itself. Patients who initially appear to have mild isolated findings such as borderline ventriculomegaly in fact can have many more subtle findings that significantly alter prognosis and management that can be detected on detailed examination of the brain. There has been rapid evolution in imaging these foetuses, especially with neurosonography and MRI, and a revolution in understanding the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms. There is increasing emphasis to detect cortical abnormalities as early as possible. This article reviews development of the cerebral cortex, the classification, aetiologies and clinical manifestations of cortical disorders, normal and abnormal appearances at ultrasound and MRI, and approaches to investigation. PMID:19235759

  13. Vestibular and Saccadic Abnormalities in Gaucher's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke; Halmagyi, G Michael; Todd, Michael J; Aw, Swee T

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher's disease (GD) is a hereditary lysosomal storage disease characterized by abnormal deposition of glucocerebroside due to the enzyme glucocerebrosidase deficiency, resulting in multi-organ pathology. GD type III has a progressive neurological involvement. We studied the vestibular and saccadic abnormalities in GD type III to determine if these parameters may be useful for assessing neurological involvement. We evaluated the vestibular and saccadic responses of two siblings with genetically identified GD type III on enzyme replacement therapy. Vestibular functions were assessed with the head impulse test (HIT), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), and electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Saccadic functions were investigated with volitional horizontal and vertical saccades to ±20°. Three-dimensional head and eye movements were recorded with dual-search coils and VEMP with surface electrodes. HIT showed impaired individual semicircular canal function with halved angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains and absent horizontal refixation saccade. Ocular and cervical VEMPs to air-conducted clicks were absent in the older sibling, and only cervical VEMP was present in the younger sibling indicating otolithic dysfunction. EVS showed prolonged onset latency and attenuated tonic and phasic responses suggesting impaired neural conduction and vestibular function. Horizontal saccadic velocity was miniscule (<30°/s) and multiple back-to-back saccades with saccade-vergence interaction were utilized to minimize eye position error in the older sibling. Vertical saccades were slightly abnormal, but vergence and smooth pursuit were normal in both siblings. Our findings suggest that GD affected the vestibular nuclei in addition to the paramedian pontine reticular formation. These vestibular and saccadic abnormalities may be useful biomarkers to monitor neurological deterioration. PMID:24142279

  14. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  15. Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities in adults with falciparum malaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. KOCHAR; B. L. K UMAWAT; A. JOSHI; S. P. VYAS

    1998-01-01

    from admission to discharge, and weekly thereafter in those with persistent changes. All patients were severe anaemia ( p<0.001), as compared to uncom- plicated malaria ( p<0.01). The association of papil- treated by a protocol based on WHO guidelines. Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities were: retinal haem- loedema and cerebral malaria was highly significant compared to severe non-cerebral malaria ( p< orrhages, 40

  16. The handicap of abnormal colour vision.

    PubMed

    Cole, Barry L

    2004-07-01

    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour. PMID:15312030

  17. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Allin; M Rooney; T Griffiths; M Cuddy; J Wyatt; L Rifkin; R Murray

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Individuals born before 33 weeks’ gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS.Method: We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term-born controls at 17–18

  18. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R

    2006-01-01

    Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 17–18?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529

  19. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  20. Screening for abnormal haemoglobins: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J; Schwartz, F C; Little, A J; Raine, D N

    1973-11-01

    A pilot study has been made of the implication of screening for abnormal haemoglobins in immigrant schoolchildren. An abnormality was detected by capillary blood haemoglobin electrophoresis in 8.4% of 6,835 children and a haemoglobinopathy outpatient clinic had to be established to deal with the heavy work load which resulted. The clinic was also used to determine the value of investigating the remaining members of the family once an abnormality had been detected in one child.Healthy siblings with normal haemoglobin electrophoretic patterns and normal iron and folate levels were studied to determine a normal range for haemoglobin in relation to age for adequately nourished immigrant children. The lower limit of the normal range was close to the mean value minus 1(1/2) S.D.; by using this definition 10.3% of 280 children were subsequently found to be anaemic.Population screening of this type is desirable, but further pilot studies of patient education, genetic counselling, organization of specimen collection, data processing, and follow-up health care facilities are required before screening is extended more widely in the United Kingdom. PMID:4753245