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1

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

2

The XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality.  

PubMed

The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants.Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency.That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. PMID:13969480

BARR, M L; CARR, D H; POZSONYI, J; WILSON, R A; DUNN, H G; JACOBSON, T S; MILLER, J R; LEWIS, M; CHOWN, B

1962-10-27

3

Sex chromosomes and their abnormalities  

E-print Network

to the age of the mother #12;Jacobs syndrome XYY Apparently normal phenotype with possibly increased height is indicated in such patients #12;Sex chromosome anuploidies #12;Klinefelter Syndrome XXY Underdeveloped 2 Barr bodies 1/1000 female births #12;Turner Syndrome XO Missing X chromosome Sexually

Dellaire, Graham

4

Cognitive and academic skills in children with sex chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-six unselected children with various sex chromosome abnormalities (14 boys with 47,XXY, 4 boys with 47,XYY, 11 girls with 47,XXX, 9 girls with 45,X, and 8 girls with SCA mosaicism), identified through the consecutive chromosome screening of 40,000 Denver newborns, have been followed developmentally and evaluated in a protocol that included intellectual, language, and achievement testing. Controls consisted of 12

Bruce G. Bender; Mary Linden; Arthur Robinson

1991-01-01

5

Mental development of unselected children with sex chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five children with sex chromosome aberrations found among 11000 consecutively newborn children from 1969 to 1974 have been followed with psychologicalpsychiatric examinations at four different times from the age of 1 year till the ages of 7 to 11. The results of the follow-up studies are presented, and it is concluded that diagnosis of sex chromosome aberrations at birth or

J. Nielsen; A. M. Sřrensen; K. Sřrensen

1981-01-01

6

Follow-up till age 3–4 of unselected children with sex chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Follow-up examination of 15 unselected children with aneuploid sex chromosome abnormalities has been made till between the age of 21\\/2 and 5 years. The mental development of the 15 children was in all cases within the normal range, but there was a tendency to some differences compared with their siblings.

Johannes Nielsen; Ingelise Sillesen

1976-01-01

7

Sex Chromosome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

2005-04-14

8

Prenatal Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Abnormalities: The 8Year Experience of a Single Medical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the indications for prenatal karyotyping of sex chromosomal abnormalities (SCAs) during pregnancy. Methods: All singleton pregnancies interrupted in our institute because of SCAs (1998–2005) were categorized into subgroups of 45,XO (Turner syndrome), 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), 47,XXX and 47,XYY. The indications for prenatal diagnostic testing were recorded. Results: There were 67 SCAs pregnancies: 33% Turner syndrome, 28% Klinefelter

Zvi Vaknin; Orit Reish; Ido Ben-Ami; Eli Heyman; Arie Herman; Ron Maymon

2008-01-01

9

Prenatal screening for chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) contributes significantly to fetal loss during pregnancy, as well as to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to fetal loss decreases as pregnancy continues with an estimated 50% of first trimester spontaneous abortions due to chromosomal abnormalities, but only 5% of stillbirths (after 28 weeks). Prenatal screening for aneuploidy (in particular Down

Lyn Chitty

10

A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm. It is possible that the Y chromosomal abnormality

Aisling Mulligan; Michael Gill; Michael Fitzgerald

2008-01-01

11

Genomics of Sex and Sex Chromosomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes are distinctive, not only because of their gender determining role, but also for genomic features that reflect their evolutionary history. The genomic sequences in the ancient sex chromosomes of humans and in the incipient sex chromosomes of medaka, stickleback, and papaya exhibit u...

12

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants  

E-print Network

EVOLUTION OF SEX CHROMOSOMES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 SEX CHROMOSOMES IN LAND PLANTSSex Chromosomes in Land Plants Ray Ming,1 Abdelhafid Bendahmane,2,3 and Susanne S. Renner4 1 reserved 1543-5008/11/0602-0485$20.00 Keywords land plants, pseudoautosomal region, sex determination, sex

Renner, Susanne

13

A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

2008-01-01

14

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

15

Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.  

PubMed

The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

2014-11-19

16

Reconstructing the Evolution of Vertebrate Sex Chromosomes  

E-print Network

Sex chromosomes and their evolution have captivated researchers since their discovery. For more than 100 years, the dominant model of sex chromosome evolution has held that differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the X and ...

Bellott, Daniel W.

17

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

18

Holoprosencephaly due to Numeric Chromosome Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common malformation of the human forebrain. When a clinician identifies a patient with HPE, a routine chromosome analysis is often the first genetic test sent for laboratory analysis in order to assess for a structural or numerical chromosome anomaly. An abnormality of chromosome number is overall the most frequently identified etiology in a patient with HPE. These abnormalities include trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and triploidy, though several others have been reported. Such chromosome number abnormalities are almost universally fatal early in gestation or in infancy. Clinical features of specific chromosome number abnormalities may be recognized by phenotypic manifestations in addition to the HPE. PMID:20104610

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N.; Meck, Jeanne M.; Muenke, Maximilian

2009-01-01

19

Gonadal sex chromosome complement in individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders  

SciTech Connect

Gonadal abnormalities are characteristically seen in patients with sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Morphologically these abnormalities can be variable and are hypothesized to be dependent on the sex chromosomal consititution of the gonad (independent of the chromosomal complement of other tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes). In this study, the gonadal sex chromosome complement was evaluated for potential mosaicism and correlated with the histopathology from 5 patients with known sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders. FISH techniques using X and Y chromosome specific probes were performed on nuclei extracted from paraffin embedded tissue. Gonadal tissue obtained from case 1 (a true hemaphroditic newborn) consisted of ovotestes and epididymis (left side) and ovary with fallopian tube (right side). Cytogenetic and FISH studies performed on blood, ovotestes and ovary revealed an XX complement. Cytogenetic analysis of blood from case 2, a 4-year-old with suspected Turner syndrome revealed 45,X/46,X,del(Y)(q11.21). FISH analysis of the resected gonads (histologically = immature testes) confirmed an X/XY mosaic complement. Histologically, the gonadal tissue was testicular. Severe autolysis prohibited successful analysis in the 2 remaining cases. In summary, molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gonadal tissue from individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders did not reveal tissue-specific anomalies which could account for differences observed pathologically.

Bridge, J.A.; Sanger, W.G.; Seemayer, T. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

20

Sex chromosome polymorphism in guppies.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes differ from autosomes by dissimilar gene content and, at a more advanced stage of their evolution, also in structure and size. This is driven by the divergence of the Y or W from their counterparts, X and Z, due to reduced recombination and the resulting degeneration as well as the accumulation of sex-specific and sexually antagonistic genes. A paradigmatic example for Y-chromosome evolution is found in guppies. In these fishes, conflicting data exist for a morphological and molecular differentiation of sex chromosomes. Using molecular probes and the previously established linkage map, we performed a cytogenetic analysis of sex chromosomes. We show that the Y chromosome has a very large pseudoautosomal region, which is followed by a heterochromatin block (HCY) separating the subtelomeric male-specific region from the rest of the chromosome. Interestingly, the size of the HCY is highly variable between individuals from different population. The largest HCY was found in one population of Poecilia wingei, making the Y almost double the size of the X and the largest chromosome of the complement. Comparative analysis revealed that the Y chromosomes of different guppy species are homologous and share the same structure and organization. The observed size differences are explained by an expansion of the HCY, which is due to increased amounts of repetitive DNA. In one population, we observed also a polymorphism of the X chromosome. We suggest that sex chromosome-linked color patterns and other sexually selected genes are important for maintaining the observed structural polymorphism of sex chromosomes. PMID:24676866

Nanda, Indrajit; Schories, Susanne; Tripathi, Namita; Dreyer, Christine; Haaf, Thomas; Schmid, Michael; Schartl, Manfred

2014-08-01

21

Maternal age-specific rates of numerical chromosome abnormalities with special reference to trisomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of maternal age on the incidence of chromosomally normal spontaneous abortion and different categories of chromosome abnormality among all clinically recognized human pregnancies was evaluated. The results provide no evidence for a significant association of age with sex chromosome monosomy or polyploidy, but clearly demonstrate an effect of age on the frequency of trisomy and chromosomally normal spontaneous

T. Hassold; D. Chiu

1985-01-01

22

Fertile male mice with three sex chromosomes: Evidence that infertility in XYY male mice is an effect of two Y chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mouse XYY males are sterile, presumably because pairing abnormalities resulting from the presence of three sex chromosomes lead to meiotic breakdown. We have produced male mice, designated XYY*X, that have three sex chromosome pairing regions but only one intact Y chromosome. Unexpectedly XYY*X males are fertile, although they are no more efficient in sex chromosome pairing than previously

Patricia A. Hunt; Eva M. Eicher

1991-01-01

23

Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos  

E-print Network

Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos CA de la Sena NS Fechheimer KE Nestor The Ohio-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) Japanese quail / embryos / heteroploidy / chromosomes INTRODUCTION Embryos zygotes and the etiology of heteroploid zygotes and embryos (Fechheimer, 1981, 1990). The Japanese quail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

Chromosomal Anomalies in Abnormal Human Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the cytogenetic observations on abnormal human pregnancies (anembryonic pregnancy, early fetal loss, and hydatidiform moles), and to detect the most frequent or typical chromosomal aberration for anembryonic pregnancy and early fetal loss. Study Design: Abnormal pregnancies were divided into three clinical and morphological groups: (a) anembryonic pregnancy; (b) early fetal loss,

1998-01-01

25

Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

1979-01-01

26

Recent Origin of the Papaya Sex Chromosomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. The sex chromosomes of papaya appear at the cytological level to be homomorphic but, at the molecular level, we are finding that the papaya Y chromosome shows features ...

27

Cognitive and neurological aspects of sex chromosome aneuploidies.  

PubMed

Sex chromosome aneuploidies are a common group of disorders that are characterised by an abnormal number of X or Y chromosomes. However, many individuals with these disorders are not diagnosed, despite established groups of core features that include aberrant brain development and function. Clinical presentations often include characteristic profiles of intellectual ability, motor impairments, and rates of neurological and psychiatric disorders that are higher than those of the general population. Advances in genetics and neuroimaging have substantially expanded knowledge of potential mechanisms that underlie these phenotypes, including a putative dose effect of sex chromosome genes on neuroanatomical structures and cognitive abilities. Continuing attention to emerging trends in research of sex chromosome aneuploidies is important for clinicians because it informs appropriate management of these common genetic disorders. Furthermore, improved understanding of underlying neurobiological processes has much potential to elucidate sex-related factors associated with neurological and psychiatric disease in general. PMID:24556008

Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

2014-03-01

28

Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ICSI treatment. PMID:24696767

Mierla, Dana; Jardan, Dumitru; Stoian, Veronica

2014-01-01

29

Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population  

SciTech Connect

Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

1995-02-27

30

Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with autism spectrum disorders from Taiwan.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by verbal communication impairments, social reciprocity deficits, and the presence of restricted interests and stereotyped behaviors. Genetic factors contribute to the incidence of ASD evidently. However, the genetic spectrum of ASD is highly heterogeneous. Chromosomal abnormalities contribute significantly to the genetic deficits of syndromic and non-syndromic ASD. In this study, we conducted karyotyping analysis in a sample of 500 patients (447 males, 53 females) with ASD from Taiwan, the largest cohort in Asia, to the best of our knowledge. We found three patients having sex chromosome aneuploidy, including two cases of 47, XXY and one case of 47, XYY. In addition, we detected a novel reciprocal chromosomal translocation between long arms of chromosomes 4 and 14, designated t(4;14)(q31.3;q24.1), in a patient with Asperger's disorder. This translocation was inherited from his unaffected father, suggesting it might not be pathogenic or it needs further hits to become pathogenic. In line with other studies, our study revealed that subjects with sex chromosomal aneuploidy are liable to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASD, and conventional karyotyping analysis is still a useful tool in detecting chromosomal translocation in patients with ASD, given that array-based comparative genomic hybridization technology can provide better resolution in detecting copy number variations of genomic DNA. PMID:24132905

Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Tsai, Wen-Che; Fang, Jye-Siung; Su, Ying-Cheng; Chou, Miao-Chun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

2013-10-01

31

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

32

The tilapias' chromosomes influencing sex determination.  

PubMed

The sex chromosomes of tilapias (family Cichlidae; genera Oreochromis, Sarotherodon and Tilapia) have been studied for over 50 years, which has gained interest from both agricultural and basic scientific perspectives. Several closely related tilapia species which can interbreed have been studied, and it has been repeatedly demonstrated that there is variation within and between species in the chromosomal sex-determination mechanism. Both male and female heterogametic sex-determination systems have been characterized, as well as epistatic and environmental influences on sex determination. Three different linkage groups (LG1, LG3 and LG23) have been identified as sex-associated chromosomes and have been subjected to further cytogenetic research and analyses of the genes located around the sex-determining region. Variation in the genetic and physical characteristics of the sex chromosomes makes tilapias an excellent model system for studying the evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes. This review summarizes the progress made along 5 decades of research and the current knowledge of the tilapias' sex chromosomes. PMID:24107438

Cnaani, A

2013-01-01

33

Evolution of sex chromosomes in Sauropsida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Reptiles (sauropsids) represent the sister group to mammals, and the basal members of Reptilia may provide a good model for the condition of the common ancestor of both groups. Sex-determining mechanisms (SDM) and organizations of sex chromosomes among genotypically sex-determining (GSD) species vary widely across reptiles. Birds and snakes, for example, are entirely GSD whereas other reptiles, like all

Christopher L. Organ; Daniel E. Janes

2008-01-01

34

Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A. [John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

35

Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex chromosome evolution.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes originate from autosomes. The accumulation of sexually antagonistic mutations on protosex chromosomes selects for a loss of recombination and sets in motion the evolutionary processes generating heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Recombination suppression and differentiation are generally viewed as the default path of sex chromosome evolution, and the occurrence of old, homomorphic sex chromosomes, such as those of ratite birds, has remained a mystery. Here, we analyze the genome and transcriptome of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and confirm that most genes on the sex chromosome are shared between the Z and W. Surprisingly, however, levels of gene expression are generally sex-biased for all sex-linked genes relative to autosomes, including those in the pseudoautosomal region, and the male-bias increases after gonad formation. This expression bias suggests that the emu sex chromosomes have become masculinized, even in the absence of ZW differentiation. Thus, birds may have taken different evolutionary solutions to minimize the deleterious effects imposed by sexually antagonistic mutations: some lineages eliminate recombination along the protosex chromosomes to physically restrict sexually antagonistic alleles to one sex, whereas ratites evolved sex-biased expression to confine the product of a sexually antagonistic allele to the sex it benefits. This difference in conflict resolution may explain the preservation of recombining, homomorphic sex chromosomes in other lineages and illustrates the importance of sexually antagonistic mutations driving the evolution of sex chromosomes. PMID:23547111

Vicoso, Beatriz; Kaiser, Vera B; Bachtrog, Doris

2013-04-16

36

Sequence of the chicken sex chromosomes  

E-print Network

In birds, as in mammals, the chromosome complement determines sex. Male birds are designated ZZ, female ZW. Mammals have the opposite system; males are XY and females XX. Both the avian ZW and mammalian XY pair are believed ...

Bellott, Daniel Winston

2010-01-01

37

[Chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukaemias].  

PubMed

Cytogenetic studies of acute myeloid leukaemias reveal non-random chromosomal abnormalities in 50-70% of karyotypes. Some are correlated with morphological and immunological parameters and constitute a prognostic factor independent of the other factors of risk: favourable for acute leukaemias myeloid with translocations t(8;21), t(15;17) and inversion or translocation of the chromosome 16, inv(16)/t(16;16), poor with deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 del(5q), rearrangement of the 11q23 region and complex karyotypes. The distribution of the anomalies depends on the age: 11q23 and t(8;21) more frequent for the child, del(5q) and complex anomalies more frequent for the adult. The karyotypes are essential for the diagnosis, the follow-up of the patients and the evaluation of the relapse. It plays a fundamental part in the detection of new genes and their partners implied in the leucemogenese. The knowledge of their function is essential to open new therapeutic ways. PMID:12927889

Mugneret, F; Callier, P; Favre-Audry, B

2003-08-01

38

Sex chromosome aneuploidy in cytogenetic findings of referral patients from south of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Chromosome abnormality (CA) including Sex chromosomes abnormality (SCAs) is one of the most important causes of disordered sexual development and infertility. SCAs formed by numerical or structural alteration in X and Y chromosomes, are the most frequently CA encountered at both prenatal diagnosis and at birth. Objective: This study describes cytogenetic findings of cases suspected with CA referred for cytogenetic study. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 4151 patients referred for cytogenetic analysis were cultured for chromosome preparation. Karyotypes were prepared for all samples and G-Banded chromosomes were analyzed using x100 objective lens. Sex chromosome aneuploidy cases were analyzed and categorized in two groups of Turners and Klinefelter’s syndrome (KFS). Results: Out of 230 (5.54%) cases with chromosomally abnormal karyotype, 122 (30%) cases suspected of sexual disorder showed SCA including 46% Turner’s syndrome, 46% KFS and the remaining other sex chromosome abnormalities. The frequency of classic and mosaic form of Turner’s syndrome was 33% and 67%, this was 55% and 45% for KFS, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows a relatively high sex chromosome abnormality in this region and provides cytogenetic data to assist clinicians and genetic counselors to determine the priority of requesting cytogenetic study. Differences between results from various reports can be due to different genetic background or ethnicity. PMID:25242988

Jouyan, Najmeh; Davoudi Dehaghani, Elham; Senemar, Sara; Shojaee, Ashraf; Mozdarani, Hossein

2012-01-01

39

Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

1978-01-01

40

Sex Chromosome Complement Influences Functional Callosal Myelination  

PubMed Central

In addition to androgen differences between males and females, there are genetic differences that are caused by unequal dosage of sex chromosome genes. Using the cuprizone-induced demyelination model, we recently showed that surgical gonadectomy of adult mice resulted in decreased normal myelination and remyelination compared to gonadally intact animals, suggesting a supporting role for sex hormones in the maintenance of myelination. However, inherent sex differences in normal myelination and remyelination persisted even after gonadectomy, with males consistently remyelinating to a lesser extent relative to normal myelination as assayed by axon conduction and immunohistochemistry. This suggests a potential role for the sex chromosome complement in mediating the differential rates of remyelination observed in males and females. The present study focuses on the impact that sex chromosomes might have on these myelination differences. Making use of the four core-genotype \\mice and cuprizone-diet induced demyelination/remyelination paradigm, our results demonstrate sex chromosome mediated asymmetry between XX and XY mice. The rate of functional remyelination following cuprizone diet-induced callosal demyelination in four core-genotype mice is attenuated in XY compared to XX animals of both gonadal sexes. Importantly, this difference arises only in the absence of circulating sex hormones following gonadectomy and confirms the role of sex hormones in the remyelination process reported earlier by our group. Because a genotype-mediated difference only arises following gonadectomy, the chromosomal contribution to myelination and remyelination is subtle yet significant. To explain this difference, we propose a possible asymmetry in expression of myelination-related genes in XX versus XY mice that needs to be investigated in future studies. PMID:23597832

Moore, Spencer; Patel, Rhusheet; Hannsun, Gemmy; Yang, Joy; Tiwari-Woodruff, Seema K.

2013-01-01

41

Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis of sex chromosome in non-obstructive azoospermic men.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare results of karyotypes and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique among non-obstructive azoospermic men and to evaluate feasibility of using FISH to assess the types of major sex chromosome abnormalities. We compared results of karyotypes and FISH technique in those patients, and the association between genetic abnormality and clinical and hormonal parameters was evaluated. We studied 68 non-obstructive azoospermic men using conventional cytogenetics and FISH. Karyotyping revealed chromosomal abnormalities in 28 males (41%); the most common was Klinefelter syndrome (82%). FISH proved very effective in verifying low level of mosaisim in two cases with Klinefelter syndrome and complex chromosomal rearrangements in four cases with structural sex chromosome abnormalities. Our results indicate that genetic testing and screening is important in men with hypergonadotrophic azoospermia prior to the employment of assisted reproduction techniques. FISH analysis is recommended before discussing the risk of chromosomal aberrations in the offspring of infertile couples. PMID:23346943

Sadik, D I; Seifeldin, N S

2014-04-01

42

Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in the Stickleback Fishes (Gasterosteidae)  

E-print Network

Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in the Stickleback Fishes (Gasterosteidae) Joseph A. Ross1,2¤ , James R, United States of America Abstract Diverse sex-chromosome systems are found in vertebrates, particularly been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex

Shapiro, Mike

43

Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

In therian mammals (placentals and marsupials), sex is determined by an XX female: XY male system, in which a gene (SRY) on the Y affects male determination. There is no equivalent in other amniotes, although some taxa (notably birds and snakes) have differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZW female: ZZ male system with no homology with mammal sex chromosomes, in which dosage of a Z-borne gene (possibly DMRT1) affects male determination. As the most basal mammal group, the egg-laying monotremes are ideal for determining how the therian XY system evolved. The platypus has an extraordinary sex chromosome complex, in which five X and five Y chromosomes pair in a translocation chain of alternating X and Y chromosomes. We used physical mapping to identify genes on the pairing regions between adjacent X and Y chromosomes. Most significantly, comparative mapping shows that, contrary to earlier reports, there is no homology between the platypus and therian X chromosomes. Orthologs of genes in the conserved region of the human X (including SOX3, the gene from which SRY evolved) all map to platypus chromosome 6, which therefore represents the ancestral autosome from which the therian X and Y pair derived. Rather, the platypus X chromosomes have substantial homology with the bird Z chromosome (including DMRT1) and to segments syntenic with this region in the human genome. Thus, platypus sex chromosomes have strong homology with bird, but not to therian sex chromosomes, implying that the therian X and Y chromosomes (and the SRY gene) evolved from an autosomal pair after the divergence of monotremes only 166 million years ago. Therefore, the therian X and Y are more than 145 million years younger than previously thought. PMID:18463302

Veyrunes, Frédéric; Waters, Paul D; Miethke, Pat; Rens, Willem; McMillan, Daniel; Alsop, Amber E; Grützner, Frank; Deakin, Janine E; Whittington, Camilla M; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Kremitzki, Colin L; Graves, Tina; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Warren, Wes; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

2008-06-01

44

Autosomal spindle fibres influence subsequent sex-chromosome movement in crane-fly spermatocytes.  

PubMed

In meiosis-I crane-fly spermatocytes 3 autosomal half-bivalents move to each pole in anaphase while the 2 sex-chromosomal univalents remain at the equator. The sex chromosomes move to opposite poles only after the autosomes reach the poles; the sex chromosomes start to move polewards about 25 min after the autosomal half-bivalents have begun to move. We irradiated portions of single autosomal spindle fibres with an ultraviolet microbeam and found that these irradiation altered the subsequent sex-chromosome movements. Two effects were observed. In one, one of the sex chromosomes did not move at all; the sex cin after the autosomal half-bivalents have begun to move. We irradiated portions of single autosomal spindle fibres with an ultraviolet microbeam and found that these irradiation altered the subsequent sex-chromosome movements. Two effects were observed. In one, one of the sex chromosomes did not move at all; the sex cin after the autosomal half-bivalents have begun to move. We irradiated portions of single autosomal spindle fibres with an ultraviolet microbeam and found that these irradiation altered the subsequent sex-chromosome movements. Two effects were observed. In one, one of the sex chromosomes did not move at all; the sex chromosome that remained at the equator would normally have moved to the pole associated with the irradiated autosomal spindle fibre. In the second, both sex chromosomes moved to the same pole, always that of the non-irradiated side. These effects occurred whether or not autosomal anaphase movement was blocked by the irradiation. There was no wavelength dependence for altering sex-chromosome movements. Sex-chromosome movements were altered only when at least one sex-chromosomal spindle fibre was adjacent to the irradiated autosomal spindle fibre; when neither sex chromosome had a spindle fibre adjacent to the irradiated autosomal spindle fibres the chromosomes always moved normally. Irradiation of sex-chromosomal spindle fibres during sex-chromosomal anaphase showed short blockages of movement (usually 5-8 min), and then complete recovery. Direct irradiation of sex-chromosomal spindle fibres (without irradiating autosomal spindle fibres) when the autosomes were in anaphase but the sex chromosomes were in metaphase never caused abnormal sex-chromosome movements. These results eliminate the possibility that when we irradiated autosomal spindle fibres that were adjacent to sex-chromosomal spindle fibres the sex-chromosomal spindle fibres were irradiated inadvertently and were unable to recover from the damage. We suggest that the irradiations of autosomal spindle fibres alter a control system involved in "turning on' sex-chromosomal spindle fibre motors, rather than directly altering the motors. We suggest that interactions between spindle fibres are somehow involved in this control system. PMID:7198129

Sillers, P J; Forer, A

1981-06-01

45

Chromosome Imbalance as a Driver of Sex Disparity in Disease  

PubMed Central

It has long been recognized that men and women exhibit different risks for diverse disorders ranging from metabolic to autoimmune diseases. However, the underlying causes of these disparities remain obscure. Analysis of patients with chromosomal abnormalities, including Turner syndrome (45X) and Klinefelter syndrome (47XXY), has highlighted the importance of X-linked gene dosage as a contributing factor for disease susceptibility. Escape from X-inactivation and X-linked imprinting can result in transcriptional differences between normal men and women as well as in patients with sex chromosome abnormalities. Animal models support a role for X-linked gene dosage in disease with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) emerging as a prime candidate for a pleiotropic effector. OGT encodes a highly regulated nutrient-sensing epigenetic modifier with established links to immunity, metabolism and development. PMID:25031659

Abramowitz, Lara K.; Olivier-Van Stichelen, Stéphanie; Hanover, John A.

2014-01-01

46

autosomal segments to the sex chromosomes.  

E-print Network

avian Z and platypus Xs merely coincidental, or could potentially reflect a common ancestral genetic of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes. Genome Res. 18, 965­973. 3. Fridolfsson, A analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution. Nature 453, 175­183. 10. Gru¨ tzner, F

Schafer, William R.

47

THE EVOLUTION OF SEX CHROMOSOMES IN PAPAYA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of plant species with male, female, and hermaphrodite plants. Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a primitive Y chromosome that contains a male-specific region with severe recombination suppression and DNA sequence degeneration. Our recent results showed tha...

48

Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

2008-01-01

49

Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in the Stickleback Fishes (Gasterosteidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse sex-chromosome systems are found in vertebrates, particularly in teleost fishes, where different systems can be found in closely related species. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex-determination gene, the appearance of a new sex-determination gene on an autosome, and fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. To better

Joseph A. Ross; James R. Urton; Jessica Boland; Michael D. Shapiro; Catherine L. Peichel

2009-01-01

50

A primitive Y chromosome in papaya marks incipient sex chromosome evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many diverse systems for sex determination have evolved in plants and animals. One involves physically distinct (heteromorphic) sex chromosomes (X and Y, or Z and W) that are homozygous in one sex (usually female) and heterozygous in the other (usually male). Sex chromosome evolution is thought to involve suppression of recombination around the sex determination genes, rendering permanently heterozygous a

Zhiyong Liu; Paul H. Moore; Hao Ma; Christine M. Ackerman; Makandar Ragiba; Qingyi Yu; Heather M. Pearl; Minna S. Kim; Joseph W. Charlton; John I. Stiles; Francis T. Zee; Andrew H. Paterson; Ray Ming

2004-01-01

51

On the origin of sex chromosomes from meiotic drive.  

PubMed

Most animals and many plants make use of specialized chromosomes (sex chromosomes) to determine an individual's sex. Best known are the XY and ZW sex-determination systems. Despite having evolved numerous times, sex chromosomes present something of an evolutionary puzzle. At their origin, alleles that dictate development as one sex or the other (primitive sex chromosomes) face a selective penalty, as they will be found more often in the more abundant sex. How is it possible that primitive sex chromosomes overcome this disadvantage? Any theory for the origin of sex chromosomes must identify the benefit that outweighs this cost and enables a sex-determining mutation to establish in the population. Here we show that a new sex-determining allele succeeds when linked to a sex-specific meiotic driver. The new sex-determining allele benefits from confining the driving allele to the sex in which it gains the benefit of drive. Our model requires few special assumptions and is sufficiently general to apply to the evolution of sex chromosomes in outbreeding cosexual or dioecious species. We highlight predictions of the model that can discriminate between this and previous theories of sex-chromosome origins. PMID:25392470

Úbeda, Francisco; Patten, Manus M; Wild, Geoff

2015-01-01

52

The role of chromosome abnormalities in reproductive failure  

E-print Network

trisomies determined using molecular probes are presented and the proportion of sperm and eggs that are nullisomic or disomic for a sex chromo- some or an autosome 16, 18 or 21 is calculated. chromosome

Boyer, Edmond

53

Evolution of sex chromosomes in Sauropsida.  

PubMed

Reptiles (sauropsids) represent the sister group to mammals, and the basal members of Reptilia may provide a good model for the condition of the common ancestor of both groups. Sex-determining mechanisms (SDM) and organizations of sex chromosomes among genotypically sex-determining (GSD) species vary widely across reptiles. Birds and snakes, for example, are entirely GSD whereas other reptiles, like all crocodilians, exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Here we explore the evolution of sex chromosomes and SDM within reptiles, using family-level analyses of character evolution and applying parsimony, likelihood, Bayesian, and stochastic methods. We find support for the common ancestor of amphisbaenians and whiptail lizards (Laterata) possessing the XY (male heterogametic) GSD mechanism, while the ancestors of Testudines and Crocodylia, as well as the larger group Archosauromorpha (here containing turtles) are inferred to have exhibited TSD. We also find evidence consistent with the hypothesis that the XY system is more labile and evolves faster than does the ZW (female heterogametic) system. Phylogenetic-based speciation tests do not support an association between GSD and speciation, and reject the hypothesis that the presence of the XY system is associated with speciation in reptiles. PMID:21669812

Organ, Christopher L; Janes, Daniel E

2008-10-01

54

Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for  

E-print Network

Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex York, NY, and approved March 8, 2013 (received for review October 1, 2012) Sex chromosomes originate for a loss of recombination and sets in motion the evolutionary processes generating heteromorphic sex

Nachman, Michael

55

Comparative chromosome mapping of sex-linked genes and identification of sex chromosomal rearrangements in the Japanese wrinkled frog ( Rana rugosa , Ranidae) with ZW and XY sex chromosome systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are regional variations of sex chromosome morphologies in the Japanese wrinkled frog, Rana rugosa (2n?=?26): heterogametic ZZ\\/ZW-type and XX\\/XY-type sex chromosomes, and two different types of homomorphic sex chromosomes.\\u000a To search for homology between the ZW and XY sex chromosomes and the chromosome rearrangements that have occurred during sex\\u000a chromosomal differentiation in R. rugosa, we performed chromosome mapping of

Yoshinobu Uno; Chizuko Nishida; Yuki Oshima; Satoshi Yokoyama; Ikuo Miura; Yoichi Matsuda; Masahisa Nakamura

2008-01-01

56

The role of chromosomal rearrangements in the evolution of Silene latifolia sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silene latifolia is a model plant for studies of the early steps of sex chromosome evolution. In comparison to mammalian sex chromosomes that\\u000a evolved 300 mya, sex chromosomes of S. latifolia appeared approximately 20 mya. Here, we combine results from physical mapping of sex-linked genes using polymerase chain\\u000a reaction on microdissected arms of the S. latifolia X chromosome, and fluorescence in situ

Roman Hobza; Eduard Kejnovsky; Boris Vyskot; Alex Widmer

2007-01-01

57

Turnover of sex chromosomes in the stickleback fishes (gasterosteidae).  

PubMed

Diverse sex-chromosome systems are found in vertebrates, particularly in teleost fishes, where different systems can be found in closely related species. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex-determination gene, the appearance of a new sex-determination gene on an autosome, and fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. To better understand these evolutionary transitions, a detailed comparison of sex chromosomes between closely related species is essential. Here, we used genetic mapping and molecular cytogenetics to characterize the sex-chromosome systems of multiple stickleback species (Gasterosteidae). Previously, we demonstrated that male threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have a heteromorphic XY pair corresponding to linkage group (LG) 19. In this study, we found that the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) has a heteromorphic XY pair corresponding to LG12. In black-spotted stickleback (G. wheatlandi) males, one copy of LG12 has fused to the LG19-derived Y chromosome, giving rise to an X(1)X(2)Y sex-determination system. In contrast, neither LG12 nor LG19 is linked to sex in two other species: the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and the fourspine stickleback (Apeltes quadracus). However, we confirmed the existence of a previously reported heteromorphic ZW sex-chromosome pair in the fourspine stickleback. The sex-chromosome diversity that we have uncovered in sticklebacks provides a rich comparative resource for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the rapid turnover of sex-chromosome systems. PMID:19229325

Ross, Joseph A; Urton, James R; Boland, Jessica; Shapiro, Michael D; Peichel, Catherine L

2009-02-01

58

Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in the Stickleback Fishes (Gasterosteidae)  

PubMed Central

Diverse sex-chromosome systems are found in vertebrates, particularly in teleost fishes, where different systems can be found in closely related species. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex-determination gene, the appearance of a new sex-determination gene on an autosome, and fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. To better understand these evolutionary transitions, a detailed comparison of sex chromosomes between closely related species is essential. Here, we used genetic mapping and molecular cytogenetics to characterize the sex-chromosome systems of multiple stickleback species (Gasterosteidae). Previously, we demonstrated that male threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have a heteromorphic XY pair corresponding to linkage group (LG) 19. In this study, we found that the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) has a heteromorphic XY pair corresponding to LG12. In black-spotted stickleback (G. wheatlandi) males, one copy of LG12 has fused to the LG19-derived Y chromosome, giving rise to an X1X2Y sex-determination system. In contrast, neither LG12 nor LG19 is linked to sex in two other species: the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and the fourspine stickleback (Apeltes quadracus). However, we confirmed the existence of a previously reported heteromorphic ZW sex-chromosome pair in the fourspine stickleback. The sex-chromosome diversity that we have uncovered in sticklebacks provides a rich comparative resource for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the rapid turnover of sex-chromosome systems. PMID:19229325

Ross, Joseph A.; Urton, James R.; Boland, Jessica; Shapiro, Michael D.; Peichel, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

59

Sex chromosomes, synapsis, and cohesins: a complex affair  

Microsoft Academic Search

During first meiotic prophase, homologous chromosomes are held together by the synaptonemal complex, a tripartite proteinaceous structure that extends along the entire length of meiotic bivalents. While this feature is applicable for autosomes, sex chromosomes often escape from this rule. Many species present sex chromosomes that differ between them in their morphology, length, and gene content. Moreover, in some species,

Jesús Page; Roberto de la Fuente; Rocío Gómez; Adela Calvente; Alberto Viera; María Teresa Parra; Juan Luis Santos; Soledad Berríos; Raúl Fernández-Donoso; José Ángel Suja; Julio S. Rufas

2006-01-01

60

Sex Chromosome Complement Affects Nociception and Analgesia in Newborn Mice  

E-print Network

Sex Chromosome Complement Affects Nociception and Analgesia in Newborn Mice Laura Gioiosa, Xuqi, whereas males are often more sensitive to analgesia induced by -agonists. Sex differences are found even the contribution of the direct action of sex chromosome genes in hotplate and tail withdrawal tests. We used the 4

Sandini, Giulio

61

Autosomal origin of sex chromosome in a polyploid plant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While theory on sex chromosome evolution is well developed, evidence of the early stages of this process remains elusive, in part because this process unfolded in many animals so long ago. The relatively recent and repeated evolution of separate sexes (dioecy) and sex chromosomes in plants, however,...

62

The unique sex chromosome system in platypus and echidna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A striking example of the power of chromosome painting has been the resolution of the male platypus karyotype and the pairing\\u000a relationships of the chain of ten sex chromosomes. We have extended our analysis to the nine sex chromosomes of the male echidna.\\u000a Cross-species painting with platypus shows that the first five chromosomes in the chain are identical in both,

M. A. Ferguson-Smith; W. Rens

2010-01-01

63

Chromosomal Abnormalities in a Series of Children with Autistic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of 127 children diagnosed with autistic disorder the karyotypes of 8, on whom data were available, showed the following chromosomal abnormalities: breakage, a 47 XY pattern, trisomy 13, inversion-duplication of chromosome 15, 47 XY, +der (15) (pter q15: p11 pter), 47 XXY and 46 XY, inv (2) (p11:q13pat, 3q+). Compared to those who were not karyotyped or

M. Mary Konstantareas; S. Homatidis

1999-01-01

64

Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13  

SciTech Connect

A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

65

NIH scientists visualize how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells  

Cancer.gov

For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to another chromosome. A chromosome translocation is visualized with images within circles indicating chromosome breaks.

66

How mammalian sex chromosomes acquired their peculiar gene content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It has become increasingly evident that gene content of the sex chromosomes is markedly different from that of the autosomes. Both sex chromosomes appear enriched for genes related to sexual differentiation and reproduc- tion;butcuriously,thehumanXchromosomealsoseems to bear a preponderance of genes linked to brain and muscle functions. In this review, we will synthesize several evolutionary theories that may account for

Eric J. Vallender; Bruce T. Lahn

2004-01-01

67

Single Origin of Sex Chromosomes and Multiple Origins of B Chromosomes in Fish Genus Characidium  

PubMed Central

Chromosome painting with DNA probes obtained from supernumerary (B) and sex chromosomes in three species of fish genus Characidium (C. gomesi, C. pterostictum and C. oiticicai) showed a close resemblance in repetitive DNA content between B and sex chromosomes in C. gomesi and C. pterostictum. This suggests an intraspecific origin for B chromosomes in these two species, probably deriving from sex chromosomes. In C. oiticicai, however, a DNA probe obtained from its B chromosome hybridized with the B but not with the A chromosomes, suggesting that the B chromosome in this species could have arisen interspecifically, although this hypothesis needs further investigation. A molecular phylogenetic analysis performed on nine Characidium species, with two mtDNA genes, showed that the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in these species is a derived condition, and that their origin could have been unique, a conclusion also supported by interspecific chromosome painting with a CgW probe derived from the W chromosome in C. gomesi. Summing up, our results indicate that whereas heteromorphic sex chromosomes in the genus Characidium appear to have had a common and unique origin, B chromosomes may have had independent origins in different species. Our results also show that molecular phylogenetic analysis is an excellent complement for cytogenetic studies by unveiling the direction of evolutionary chromosome changes. PMID:25226580

Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Serrano, Érica Alves; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; da Costa Silva, Guilherme José; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Oliveira, Cláudio; Foresti, Fausto

2014-01-01

68

Maintenance of ancestral sex chromosomes in Palearctic tree frogs: direct evidence from Hyla orientalis.  

PubMed

Contrasting with the situation found in birds and mammals, sex chromosomes are generally homomorphic in poikilothermic vertebrates. This homomorphy was recently shown to result from occasional X-Y recombinations (not from turnovers) in several European species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea, H. intermedia and H. molleri). Because of recombination, however, alleles at sex-linked loci were rarely diagnostic at the population level; support for sex linkage had to rely on multilocus associations, combined with occasional sex differences in allelic frequencies. Here, we use direct evidence, obtained from anatomical and histological analyses of offspring with known pedigrees, to show that the Eastern tree frog (H. orientalis) shares the same pair of sex chromosomes, with identical patterns of male heterogamety and complete absence of X-Y recombination in males. Conservation of an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes, regularly rejuvenated via occasional X-Y recombination, seems thus a widespread pattern among Hyla species. Sibship analyses also identified discrepancies between genotypic and phenotypic sex among offspring, associated with abnormal gonadal development, suggesting a role for sexually antagonistic genes on the sex chromosomes. PMID:23735903

Stöck, M; Savary, R; Zaborowska, A; Górecki, G; Brelsford, A; Rozenblut-Ko?cisty, B; Ogielska, M; Perrin, N

2013-01-01

69

Homologous sex chromosomes in three deeply divergent anuran species.  

PubMed

Comparative genomic studies are revealing that, in sharp contrast with the strong stability found in birds and mammals, sex determination mechanisms are surprisingly labile in cold-blooded vertebrates, with frequent transitions between different pairs of sex chromosomes. It was recently suggested that, in context of this high turnover, some chromosome pairs might be more likely than others to be co-opted as sex chromosomes. Empirical support, however, is still very limited. Here we show that sex-linked markers from three highly divergent groups of anurans map to Xenopus tropicalis scaffold 1, a large part of which is homologous to the avian sex chromosome. Accordingly, the bird sex determination gene DMRT1, known to play a key role in sex differentiation across many animal lineages, is sex linked in all three groups. Our data provide strong support for the idea that some chromosome pairs are more likely than others to be co-opted as sex chromosomes because they harbor key genes from the sex determination pathway. PMID:23888863

Brelsford, Alan; Stöck, Matthias; Betto-Colliard, Caroline; Dubey, Sylvain; Dufresnes, Christophe; Jourdan-Pineau, Hélčne; Rodrigues, Nicolas; Savary, Romain; Sermier, Roberto; Perrin, Nicolas

2013-08-01

70

Cretaceous park of sex determination: sex chromosomes are conserved across iguanas.  

PubMed

Many poikilothermic vertebrate lineages, especially among amphibians and fishes, possess a rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, while in endotherms there is a notable stability of sex chromosomes. Reptiles in general exhibit variability in sex-determining systems; as typical poikilotherms, they might be expected to have a rapid turnover of sex chromosomes. However, molecular data which would enable the testing of the stability of sex chromosomes are lacking in most lineages. Here, we provide molecular evidence that sex chromosomes are highly conserved across iguanas, one of the most species-rich clade of reptiles. We demonstrate that members of the New World families Iguanidae, Tropiduridae, Leiocephalidae, Phrynosomatidae, Dactyloidae and Crotaphytidae, as well as of the family Opluridae which is restricted to Madagascar, all share homologous sex chromosomes. As our sampling represents the majority of the phylogenetic diversity of iguanas, the origin of iguana sex chromosomes can be traced back in history to the basal splitting of this group which occurred during the Cretaceous period. Iguanas thus show a stability of sex chromosomes comparable to mammals and birds and represent the group with the oldest sex chromosomes currently known among amniotic poikilothermic vertebrates. PMID:24598109

Rovatsos, Michail; Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

2014-03-01

71

Identification of sex chromosomes in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the male trout there is a difference in the quinacrine banding and C-banding patterns between the two homologs of the second largest chromosome pair. This chromosome is the only large submetacentric in the karyotype, making it easy to identify and suggesting that the sex chromosomes have become differentiated since the time of tetraploidization. In males one homolog has a

R. B. Phillips; P. E. Ihssen

1985-01-01

72

Chromosome landmarks and autosome-sex chromosome translocations in Rumex hastatulus, a plant with XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system.  

PubMed

Rumex hastatulus is the North American endemic dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. It is differentiated into two chromosomal races: Texas (T) race characterised by a simple XX/XY sex chromosome system and North Carolina (NC) race with a polymorphic XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. The gross karyotype morphology in NC race resembles the derived type, but chromosomal changes that occurred during its evolution are poorly understood. Our C-banding/DAPI and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments demonstrated that Y chromosomes of both races are enriched in DAPI-positive sequences and that the emergence of polymorphic sex chromosome system was accompanied by the break of ancestral Y chromosome and switch in the localization of 5S rDNA, from autosomes to sex chromosomes (X and Y2). Two contrasting domains were detected within North Carolina Y chromosomes: the older, highly heterochromatinised, inherited from the original Y chromosome and the younger, euchromatic, representing translocated autosomal material. The flow-cytometric DNA estimation showed ?3.5 % genome downsizing in the North Carolina race. Our results are in contradiction to earlier reports on the lack of heterochromatin within Y chromosomes of this species and enable unambiguous identification of autosomes involved in the autosome-heterosome translocation, providing useful chromosome landmarks for further studies on the karyotype and sex chromosome differentiation in this species. PMID:25394583

Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra; Kula, Adam; Ksi??czyk, Tomasz; Chojnicka, Joanna; Sliwinska, Elwira; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

2014-11-14

73

Chromosome evolution in fish: sex chromosome variability in Eigenmannia virescens (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae).  

PubMed

New data are presented on the sex chromosomes of the fish species Eigenmannia virescens (Gymnotiformes, Sternopygidae). A new finding, involving the occurrence of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes, is described in specimens sampled from the Săo Francisco and Amazon river basins in Brazil. All individuals had a chromosome number of 2n = 38. The homologs of the sex chromosome pair from the Săo Francisco river basin sample differed only in their morphology, while those from the Amazonian sample differed both in morphology and heterochromatin pattern. A possible model for the evolution of the sex chromosomes in E. virescens is proposed, including data from populations from the Paraná (Brazil) river basin, in which male heterogamety has already been described. The occurrence of different sex chromosome systems in species and populations of the neotropical freshwater fish fauna is discussed. PMID:12900560

de Almeida-Toledo, L F; Daniel-Silva, M F Z; Moysés, C B; Fonteles, S B A; Lopes, C E; Akama, A; Foresti, F

2002-01-01

74

Additional chromosomal abnormalities in patients with a previously detected abnormal karyotype, mental retardation, and dysmorphic features.  

PubMed

The detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with mental retardation (MR) and dysmorphic features increases with improvements of molecular cytogenetic methods. We report on six patients referred for detailed characterization of chromosomal abnormalities (four translocations, one inversion, one deletion) detected by conventional cytogenetics, in whom metaphase CGH revealed imbalances not involved in the initially detected rearrangements. The detected abnormalities were validated by real-time PCR. Parents were investigated by CGH in four cases. The genomic screening revealed interstitial deletions of 2q33.2-q34, 3p21, 4q12-q13.1, 6q25, 13q22.2-q31.1, and 14q12. The estimated minimum sizes of the deletions ranged from 2.65 to 9.27 Mb. The CGH assay did not reveal imbalances that colocalized with the breakpoints of the inversion or the translocations. The deletion of 6q included ESR1, in which polymorphisms are associated with variation of adult height. FOXG1B, known to be involved in cortical development, was located in the 14q deletion. The results illustrate that whole-genome molecular cytogenetic analysis of phenotypically affected patients with abnormal conventional karyotypes may detect inapparent molecular cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with microscopic chromosomal abnormalities and that these data provide additional information of clinical importance. PMID:16955412

Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Kirchhoff, Maria; Tümer, Zeynep; Jepsen, Birgit; Brřndum-Nielsen, Karen; Cohen, Monika; Hamborg-Petersen, Bente; Bryndorf, Thue; Tommerup, Niels; Skovby, Flemming

2006-10-15

75

The genetics of sex chromosomes: evolution and implications for hybrid incompatibility  

PubMed Central

Heteromorphic sex chromosomes, where one sex has two different types of sex chromosomes, face very different evolutionary consequences than do the autosomes. Two important features of sex chromosomes arise from being present in only copy in one of the sexes: dosage compensation and the meiotic silencing of sex chromosomes. Other differences arise because sex chromosomes spend unequal amounts of time in each sex. Thus, the impact of evolutionary processes (mutation, selection, genetic drift, and meiotic drive) differs substantially between each sex chromosome, and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. Sex chromosomes also play a disproportionate role in Haldane’s rule and other important patterns related to hybrid incompatibility, and thus speciation. We review the consequences of sex chromosomes on hybrid incompatibility. A theme running through this review is that epigenetic processes, notably those related to chromatin, may be more important to the evolution of sex chromosomes and the evolution of hybrid incompatibility than previously recognized. PMID:23025408

Johnson, Norman A.; Lachance, Joseph

2012-01-01

76

The genetics of sex chromosomes: evolution and implications for hybrid incompatibility.  

PubMed

Heteromorphic sex chromosomes, where one sex has two different types of sex chromosomes, face very different evolutionary consequences than do autosomes. Two important features of sex chromosomes arise from being present in only one copy in one of the sexes: dosage compensation and the meiotic silencing of sex chromosomes. Other differences arise because sex chromosomes spend unequal amounts of time in each sex. Thus, the impact of evolutionary processes (mutation, selection, genetic drift, and meiotic drive) differs substantially between each sex chromosome, and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. Sex chromosomes also play a disproportionate role in Haldane's rule and other important patterns related to hybrid incompatibility, and thus speciation. We review the consequences of sex chromosomes on hybrid incompatibility. A theme running through this review is that epigenetic processes, notably those related to chromatin, may be more important to the evolution of sex chromosomes and the evolution of hybrid incompatibility than previously recognized. PMID:23025408

Johnson, Norman A; Lachance, Joseph

2012-05-01

77

In vitro leukocyte sex chromosome replication patterns of bovine chimeras  

E-print Network

considered to be late-replicating. Preferential inactivation of abnormal X chromosomes appears to be the rule in the mammalian female. In an XX/X iso-X mosaic human female, Mukherjee, Burkholder, Burkholder, Sinha and Ghosal (1966) found that the iso.... Mukherjee and Sinha (1963) found distinct replicative patterns for each chromosome of the bovine (Bos taurus) complement in leukocyte culture. Both X chromosomes replicated their long arms before the short, and the late X was sometimes the only chromosome...

Bowling, George Michael

1972-01-01

78

Cell lineage involvement of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in hematologic neoplasms.  

PubMed

Analysis of most hematologic neoplasms indicates the involvement of one or more cell lineages in the bone marrow and/or the blood but rules out the involvement of all lineages in any one neoplasm. It is important to detect lineage involvement in order to clarify which stem cells are involved in leukemia, to predict prognosis, and to select appropriate treatment. Our aim was to study the cell lineage involvement of some of the recurrent chromosomal abnormalities seen in hematological neoplasms. The direct morphology-antibody-chromosomes (MAC) method was used. The deletion 20q in myeloproliferative diseases (MPD), the deletion of 5q and t(1;7) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and t(3;3) in acute myeloid leukemia subtype M7 (AML-M7) were seen in all or at least in two myeloid lineages. These were interpreted as stem cell abnormalities. Deletion 13q in MPD, t(8;21) in AML-M2 and t(15;17) in AML-M3 were seen in granulocytic lineages only; t(14;18) in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and trisomy 12 as the sole abnormality in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) were seen only in immunoglobulin light chain clonal B cells; inversion 14 in T-CLL was seen only in T cells, whereas t(15;14) in acute lymphocytic leukemia with eosinophilia (ALL-EO) was seen in lymphoid stem cells but not in mature granulocytes or lymphocytes. Additional abnormalities (in addition to the Philadelphia chromosome) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were seen in all myeloid cell lineages and also in mature granulocytes, B cells, and large granular lymphocytes. Abnormalities in Hodgkin's disease were restricted to CD30-positive Reed-Sternberg cells. Trisomy 8 and monosomy 7 are abnormalities that may be present in either stem cells or any of the single cell lineages. PMID:7520272

Knuutila, S; Teerenhovi, L; Larramendy, M L; Elonen, E; Franssila, K O; Nylund, S J; Timonen, T; Heinonen, K; Mahlamäki, E; Winqvist, R

1994-06-01

79

Prognostic significance of single chromosome abnormalities in preleukemic states.  

PubMed

Clinical outcome was evaluated in 43 patients with a myelodysplastic syndrome or myeloproliferative disorder and a bone marrow clone containing a single chromosome abnormality: monosomy 7/del(7q), trisomy 8, i(17q), del(5q), del(20q), or a t(2;11). Those with one of the first three abnormalities (22 patients) had shorter survival, more frequent progression to leukemia, and less response to treatment with 13-Cis-retinoic acid than did those in the latter three groups (21 patients). Additional data on these subgroups of preleukemic patients may confirm the prognostic value of such karyotypic information. PMID:2790739

Nowell, P C; Besa, E C

1989-10-01

80

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

81

Fetal Facial Defects: Associated Malformations and Chromosomal Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an 8-year period, facial defects were observed in 146 (7%) of the 2,086 fetuses that underwent karyotyping in our unit because of fetal malformations and\\/or growth retardation. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 37 of 56 (66%) fetuses with micrognathia, in 10 of 13 (77%) with macroglossia, in 31 of 64 (48 %) with cleft lip and palate, in 5

K. H. Nicolaides; D. R. Salvesen; R. J. M. Snijders; C. M. Gosden

1993-01-01

82

Sex Chromosome Evolution in Amniotes: Applications for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries  

PubMed Central

Variability among sex chromosome pairs in amniotes denotes a dynamic history. Since amniotes diverged from a common ancestor, their sex chromosome pairs and, more broadly, sex-determining mechanisms have changed reversibly and frequently. These changes have been studied and characterized through the use of many tools and experimental approaches but perhaps most effectively through applications for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Individual BAC clones carry 100–200?kb of sequence from one individual of a target species that can be isolated by screening, mapped onto karyotypes, and sequenced. With these techniques, researchers have identified differences and similarities in sex chromosome content and organization across amniotes and have addressed hypotheses regarding the frequency and direction of past changes. Here, we review studies of sex chromosome evolution in amniotes and the ways in which the field of research has been affected by the advent of BAC libraries. PMID:20981143

Janes, Daniel E.; Valenzuela, Nicole; Ezaz, Tariq; Amemiya, Chris; Edwards, Scott V.

2011-01-01

83

An XX/XY heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the Australian chelid turtle Emydura macquarii: A new piece in the puzzle of sex chromosome  

E-print Network

An XX/XY heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the Australian chelid turtle Emydura macquarii: A new piece in the puzzle of sex chromosome evolution in turtles Pedro Alonzo Martinez1 *, Tariq Ezaz2, Emydura, evolution, G-banding, sex chromosomes, sex determination, speciation, turtles Abstract

Canberra, University of

84

Evolution of sex chromosomes ZW of Schistosoma mansoni inferred from chromosome paint and BAC mapping analyses.  

PubMed

Chromosomes of schistosome parasites among digenetic flukes have a unique evolution because they exhibit the sex chromosomes ZW, which are not found in the other groups of flukes that are hermaphrodites. We conducted molecular cytogenetic analyses for investigating the sex chromosome evolution using chromosome paint analysis and BAC clones mapping. To carry this out, we developed a technique for making paint probes of genomic DNA from a single scraped chromosome segment using a chromosome microdissection system, and a FISH mapping technique for BAC clones. Paint probes clearly identified each of the 8 pairs of chromosomes by a different fluorochrome color. Combination analysis of chromosome paint analysis with Z/W probes and chromosome mapping with 93 BAC clones revealed that the W chromosome of Schistosoma mansoni has evolved by at least four inversion events and heterochromatinization. Nine of 93 BAC clones hybridized with both the Z and W chromosomes, but the locations were different between Z and W chromosomes. The homologous regions were estimated to have moved from the original Z chromosome to the differentiated W chromosome by three inversions events that occurred before W heterohcromatinization. An inversion that was observed in the heterochromatic region of the W chromosome likely occurred after W heterochromatinization. These inversions and heterochromatinization are hypothesized to be the key factors that promoted the evolution of the W chromosome of S. mansoni. PMID:22831897

Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; LoVerde, Philip T

2012-12-01

85

Mitotic chromosomes and the W-sex chromosome of the great horned owl (Bubo V. virginianus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitotic chromosomes from the feather pulp and leucocyte cultures of the great horned owl (Bubo v. virginianus) were analyzed in both the sexes. The largest pair of chromosomes are acrocentrics while those of the second and the third pair have a short arm 1\\/6th the size of the large one. Chromosomes of the fourth and the fifth pairs have a

Awtar Krishan; G. J. Haiden; R. N. Shoffner

1965-01-01

86

Evolution of Genomic Structures on Mammalian Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Throughout mammalian evolution, recombination between the two sex chromosomes was suppressed in a stepwise manner. It is thought that the suppression of recombination led to an accumulation of deleterious mutations and frequent genomic rearrangements on the Y chromosome. In this article, we review three evolutionary aspects related to genomic rearrangements and structures, such as inverted repeats (IRs) and palindromes (PDs), on the mammalian sex chromosomes. First, we describe the stepwise manner in which recombination between the X and Y chromosomes was suppressed in placental mammals and discuss a genomic rearrangement that might have led to the formation of present pseudoautosomal boundaries (PAB). Second, we describe ectopic gene conversion between the X and Y chromosomes, and propose possible molecular causes. Third, we focus on the evolutionary mode and timing of PD formation on the X and Y chromosomes. The sequence of the chimpanzee Y chromosome was recently published by two groups. Both groups suggest that rapid evolution of genomic structure occurred on the Y chromosome. Our re-analysis of the sequences confirmed the species-specific mode of human and chimpanzee Y chromosomal evolution. Finally, we present a general outlook regarding the rapid evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:23024603

Katsura, Yukako; Iwase, Mineyo; Satta, Yoko

2012-01-01

87

Sex-Specific Embryonic Gene Expression in Species with Newly Evolved Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosome dosage differences between females and males are a significant form of natural genetic variation in many species. Like many species with chromosomal sex determination, Drosophila females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y. Fusions of sex chromosomes with autosomes have occurred along the lineage leading to D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda. The resulting neo-sex chromosomes are gradually evolving the properties of sex chromosomes, and neo-X chromosomes are becoming targets for the molecular mechanisms that compensate for differences in X chromosome dose between sexes. We have previously shown that D. melanogaster possess at least two dosage compensation mechanisms: the well- characterized MSL-mediated dosage compensation active in most somatic tissues, and another system active during early embryogenesis prior to the onset of MSL-mediated dosage compensation. To better understand the developmental constraints on sex chromosome gene expression and evolution, we sequenced mRNA from individual male and female embryos of D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda, from ?0.5 to 8 hours of development. Autosomal expression levels are highly conserved between these species. But, unlike D. melanogaster, we observe a general lack of dosage compensation in D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda prior to the onset of MSL-mediated dosage compensation. Thus, either there has been a lineage-specific gain or loss in early dosage compensation mechanism(s) or increasing X chromosome dose may strain dosage compensation systems and make them less effective. The extent of female bias on the X chromosomes decreases through developmental time with the establishment of MSL-mediated dosage compensation, but may do so more slowly in D. miranda than D. pseudoobscura. These results also prompt a number of questions about whether species with more sex-linked genes have more sex-specific phenotypes, and how much transcript level variance is tolerable during critical stages of development. PMID:24550743

Lott, Susan E.; Villalta, Jacqueline E.; Zhou, Qi; Bachtrog, Doris; Eisen, Michael B.

2014-01-01

88

Neo-sex chromosomes and adaptive potential in tortricid pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in genome architecture often have a significant effect on ecological specialization and speciation. This effect may be further enhanced by involvement of sex chromosomes playing a disproportionate role in reproductive isolation. We have physically mapped the Z chromosome of the major pome fr...

89

Prospective studies on children with sex chromosome aneuploidy  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Growth and Development from Early to Midadolescence of Children with X and Y Chromosome Aneuploidy: The Toronto Study; Sex Chromomal Aneuploidy: Perspective and Longitudinal Studies; Psychologic Study of XYY and XXY Men; and Cellular and Molecular Studies in Human Chromosomal Diseases.

Ratcliffe, S.G.; Paul, N.

1986-01-01

90

The Sex Chromosomes of Frogs: Variability and Tolerance Offer Clues to Genome Evolution and Function  

PubMed Central

Frog sex chromosomes offer an ideal system for advancing our understanding of genome evolution and function because of the variety of sex determination systems in the group, the diversity of sex chromosome maturation states, the ease of experimental manipulation during early development. After briefly reviewing sex chromosome biology generally, we focus on what is known about frog sex determination, sex chromosome evolution, and recent, genomics-facilitated advances in the field. In closing we highlight gaps in our current knowledge of frog sex chromosomes, and suggest priorities for future research that can advance broad knowledge of gene dose and sex chromosome evolution. PMID:25031658

Malcom, Jacob W.; Kudra, Randal S.; Malone, John H.

2014-01-01

91

THE CONTROLLING ELEMENT IN SEX CHROMOSOME BEHAVIOR IN SCIARAl  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENETIC and cytological studies have been made on a number of species of Sciara (see METZ 1938 for review). Common to all of these species is a series of unusual and remarkable cytological phenomena which involve the sex chromosome and which are related to the differentiation of sex in this genus. The first of these is encountered at the second

HELEN V. CROUSE

92

Multiple Sex-Associated Regions and a Putative Sex Chromosome in Zebrafish Revealed by RAD Mapping  

E-print Network

sequencing showed that two SNPs in dmrt1 previously suggested to be functional candidates for sex, Moscow, Idaho, United States of America Abstract Within vertebrates, major sex determining genes can chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified

Hohenlohe, Paul A.

93

Counseling parents before prenatal diagnosis: do we need to say more about the sex chromosome aneuploidies?  

PubMed

Sex chromosome trisomies (SCT), an extra X chromosome in females (triple X, XXX), males with an extra X chromosome (Klinefelter syndrome, XXY) or an extra Y chromosome (XYY) occur because of errors during meiosis and are relatively frequent in humans. Their identification has never been the goal of prenatal diagnosis (PD) but they almost never escape detection by any of the methods commonly in use. Despite recommendations and guide-lines which emphasize the importance of structured counseling before and after PD, most women remain unaware that testing for serious genetic abnormalities is more likely to uncover these trisomies. With the increasing use of PD more and more prospective parents receive a diagnosis of sex chromosome trisomies and are faced with the dilemma of whether to terminate the pregnancy or to carry it to term. Despite the dramatic and emotionally devastating consequences of having to make such a decision, they have little opportunity to consider in advance the possible outcomes of such a pregnancy and, rather than relying on their own feelings and judgements, are forced to depend on the advice of counseling professionals who may or may not themselves be fully aware of what having an extra sex chromosome can mean to the development of a child. We address here the principles of reproductive autonomy together with an analysis of the major issues that ought to be discussed with the parents before a PD is carried out in order to minimize detrimental effects caused by this unexpected finding. PMID:24115600

Lalatta, Faustina; Tint, G Stephen

2013-11-01

94

Sex chromosome differentiation in Belostoma (Insecta: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae).  

PubMed

Belostoma, a genus of the family Belostomatidae, includes species of great ecological importance as biocontrol agents. Few species of these species have been the subject of cytogenetic analyses. Karyotypic evolution in this genus involves agmatoploidy and simploidy; there are also different sex chromosome systems. We examined two Belostoma species (B. dilatatum and B. candidulum) collected from the Paranapanema River Basin (Brazil). Mitotic and meiotic analysis revealed 2n(?) = 26 + X?X?X?Y for B. dilatatum and 2n(?) = 14 + XY for B. candidulum; both karyotypes have holokinetic chromosomes. Differences in heterochromatin distribution were also observed between the species, besides variation in the localization of CMA??/DAPI? blocks. The existence of different types of sex chromosome systems in these species was confirmed based on arrangements of the chromosomes in different meiotic stages. We identified a new sex system in B. dilatatum, and make the first cytogenetic report on B. candidulum. PMID:22653651

Bardella, V B; Dias, A L; Giuliano-Caetano, L; Ribeiro, J R I; da Rosa, R

2012-01-01

95

The effects of Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities on survival and management in oesophageal atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognisable chromosomal abnormalities occur in over 5% of patients with oesophageal atresia (OA). In a review of 670 patients with OA chromosomal abnormalities were identified in 35 (5.2%), of whom 16 had trisomy 18 and 12 had trisomy 21. In patients with trisomy 18, the diagnosis should be suspected on clinical grounds and confirmed on analysis of chromosomes; no active

S. W. Beasley; M. Allen; N. Myers

1997-01-01

96

The effects of Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities on survival and management in oesophageal atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognisable chromosomal abnormalities occur in over 5% of patients with oesophageal atresia (OA). In a review of 670 patients with OA chromosomal abnormalities were identified in 35 (5.2%); of whom 16 had trisomy 18 and 12 had trisomy 21. In patients with trisomy 18, the diagnosis should be suspected on clinical grounds and confirmed on analysis of chromosomes; no active

S. W. Beasley; M. AllenN; N. Myers

1997-01-01

97

Homomorphic sex chromosomes and the intriguing Y chromosome of Ctenomys rodent species (Rodentia, Ctenomyidae).  

PubMed

Unlike the X chromosome, the mammalian Y chromosome undergoes evolutionary decay resulting in small size. This sex chromosomal heteromorphism, observed in most species of the fossorial rodent Ctenomys, contrasts with the medium-sized, homomorphic acrocentric sex chromosomes of closely related C. maulinus and C. sp. To characterize the sequence composition of these chromosomes, fluorescent banding, self-genomic in situ hybridization, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with an X painting probe were performed on mitotic and meiotic plates. High molecular homology between the sex chromosomes was detected on mitotic material as well as on meiotic plates immunodetected with anti-SYCP3 and anti-?H2AX. The Y chromosome is euchromatic, poor in repetitive sequences and differs from the X by the loss of a block of pericentromeric chromatin. Inferred from the G-banding pattern, an inversion and the concomitant prevention of recombination in a large asynaptic region seems to be crucial for meiotic X chromosome inactivation. These peculiar findings together with the homomorphism of Ctenomys sex chromosomes are discussed in the light of the regular purge that counteracts Muller's ratchet and the probable mechanisms accounting for their origin and molecular homology. PMID:25227566

Suárez-Villota, Elkin Y; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Foresti, Fausto; Gallardo, Milton H

2014-01-01

98

An XX\\/XY heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the Australian chelid turtle Emydura macquarii : A new piece in the puzzle of sex chromosome evolution in turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal sex determination is the prevalent system found in animals but is rare among turtles. In fact, heteromorphic sex\\u000a chromosomes are known in only seven of the turtles possessing genotypic sex determination (GSD), two of which correspond to\\u000a cryptic sex microchromosomes detectable only with high-resolution cytogenetic techniques. Sex chromosomes were undetected\\u000a in previous studies of Emydura macquarii, a GSD side-necked

Pedro Alonzo Martinez; Tariq Ezaz; Nicole Valenzuela; Arthur Georges; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

2008-01-01

99

Chromosome breakage in human preimplantation embryos from carriers of structural chromosomal abnormalities in relation to fragile sites, maternal age, and poor sperm factors.  

PubMed

Chromosome breakage is a fairly widespread phenomenon in preimplantation embryos affecting at least 10% of day 3 cleavage stage embryos. It may be detected during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). For carriers of structural chromosomal abnormalities, PGD involves the removal and testing of single blastomeres from cleavage stage embryos, aiming towards an unaffected pregnancy. Twenty-two such couples were referred for PGD, and biopsied blastomeres on day 3 and untransferred embryos (day 5/6) were tested using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with appropriate probes. This study investigated whether chromosome breakage (a) was detected more frequently in cases where the breakpoint of the aberration was in the same chromosomal band as a fragile site and (b) was influenced by maternal age, sperm parameters, reproductive history, or the sex of the carrier parent. The frequency of breakage seemed to be independent of fragile sites, maternal age, reproductive history, and sex of the carrier parent. However, chromosome breakage was very significantly higher in embryos from male carriers with poor sperm parameters versus embryos from male carriers with normal sperm parameters. Consequently, embryos from certain couples were more prone to chromosome breakage, fragment loss, and hence chromosomally unbalanced embryos, independently of meiotic segregation. PMID:22179562

Xanthopoulou, L; Ghevaria, H; Mantzouratou, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Delhanty, J D A

2012-01-01

100

Robin sequence associated with karyotypic mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Robin sequence is characterized by cleft palate, hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis and respiratory difficulties. The Robin sequence may be observed as an isolated defect or as part of about 33 syndromes; however, to our knowledge, it has never been reported associated with chromosome 22 abnormalities. We examined a two-month-old black boy with a severe case of Robin sequence. Exam revealed a small child with hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis, high palate and respiratory difficulty with continuous apnea episodes resulting in cyanotic lips and nails. In order to relieve the upper airway obstruction, his tongue was attached to the lower lip. Later a tracheostomy was performed. On follow-up exam, this patient was found to have developmental delay. Cytogenetic studies of both peripheral blood and fibroblast cells showed mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities which were designated as follows: 45,XY,-22/46,XY,-22,+r(22)/46,XY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies confirmed the identity of the r(22) and showed the presence of the DiGeorge locus (D22575) but the absence of the D22539 locus which maps to 22q13.3. Reported cases of r(22) show no association with Robin sequence. However, r(22) has been associated with flat bridge of the nose, bulbous tip of the nose, epicanthus and high palate, all characteristics that we also observed in this case. These unusual cytogenetic findings may be causally related to the dysmorphology found in the patient we report.

Salinas, C.F.; Jastrzab, J.M.; Centu, E.S. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

1994-09-01

101

Conserved synteny between the chicken Z sex chromosome and human chromosome 9 includes the male regulatory gene DMRT1: a comparative (re)view on avian sex determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-determination mechanisms in birds and mammals evolved independently for more than 300 million years. Unlike mammals, sex determination in birds operates through a ZZ\\/ZW sex chromosome system, in which the female is the heterogametic sex. However, the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Comparative gene mapping revealed that several genes on human chromosome 9 (HSA 9) have homologs on the

I. Nanda; E. Zend-Ajusch; Z. Shan; F. Grützner; M. Schartl; D. W. Burt; M. Koehler; V. M. Fowler; G. Goodwin; W. J. Schneider; S. Mizuno; G. Dechant; T. Haaf; M. Schmid

2000-01-01

102

Chromosomal Gene Movements Reflect the Recent Origin and Biology of Therian Sex Chromosomes  

E-print Network

Chromosomal Gene Movements Reflect the Recent Origin and Biology of Therian Sex Chromosomes Lukasz ancestral autosomes and have substantially differentiated. It was shown that X-linked genes have generated duplicate intronless gene copies (retrogenes) on autosomes due to this differentiation. However, the precise

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

Male breast cancer, age and sex chromosome aneuploidy  

PubMed Central

Background: In cultured, dividing transformed T lymphocytes and in dividing bone marrow cells from normal men and those with a haematological malignancy, sex chromosome aneuploidy has been found to increase in prevalence and degree with age. This has rarely been investigated in non-dividing uncultured blood samples. The loss and gain of the X chromosome in dividing transformed lymphocytes in women with age is much more frequent than that of the Y chromosome in males. However, paradoxically X chromosome aneuploidy is rarely seen in the dividing cells of bone marrow of females. Methods: In blood samples from 565 men with breast cancer and 54 control men from the England and Wales general population, 80 cell nuclei per sample were scored for presence of X and Y chromosomes using fluorescent centromeric probes. Results: Sex chromosome aneuploidy, largely Y chromosome loss, was present in 63% of cases and 57% of controls, with the prevalence and degree of aneuploidy increasingly sharply and highly significantly with age. At ages 65–80 years, 71% of cases and 85% of controls showed aneuploidy and 15% and 25%, respectively, had ?10% of cells aneuploid. Allowing for age, aneuploidy was less prevalent (P=0.03) in cases than controls. Conclusion: Sex chromosome aneuploidy in non-dividing nuclei of peripheral blood cells is frequent in adult men, the prevalence and degree increasing sharply with age. The possible relation of sex chromosome aneuploidy to breast cancer risk in men, and to cancer risk generally, needs further investigation, ideally in cohort studies. PMID:23299533

Jacobs, P A; Maloney, V; Cooke, R; Crolla, J A; Ashworth, A; Swerdlow, A J

2013-01-01

104

Weird animal genomes and the evolution of vertebrate sex and sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

Humans, mice, and even kangaroos have an XX female:XY male system of sex determination, in which the Y harbors a male-dominant sex-determining gene SRY. Birds have the opposite, ZZ males and ZW females, and may use a dosage-sensitive Z-borne gene. Other reptiles have genetic sex but no visible sex chromosomes, or determine sex by temperature of egg incubation. How can we make sense of so much variation? How do systems change in evolution? Studies of some unlikely animals-platypus and dragon lizards, frogs and fish-confirm that evolutionary transitions have occurred between TSD and GSD systems, between XY and ZW systems, and even between male and female heterogametic systems. Here I explore nonmodel systems that offer some new perspectives on some venerable questions of sex and sex chromosomes. PMID:18983263

Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

2008-01-01

105

In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two centuries after the duck-billed platypus was discovered, monotreme chromosome systems remain deeply puzzling. Karyotypes of males, or of both sexes, were claimed to contain several unpaired chromosomes (including the X chromosome) that form a multi-chromosomal chain at meiosis. Such meiotic chains exist in plants and insects but are rare in vertebrates. How the platypus chromosome system works to determine

Frank Grützner; Willem Rens; Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush; Nisrine El-Mogharbel; Patricia C. M. O'Brien; Russell C. Jones; Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

2004-01-01

106

Sex Steroids and Sex Chromosomes at Odds? Alfred Jost's proposal in the 1940s (1) that testes are crucial  

E-print Network

Sex Steroids and Sex Chromosomes at Odds? Alfred Jost's proposal in the 1940s (1) that testes of sexual differentiation into `Sex chromosomal genes determine the differentiation of the go- nads doctrine may not be as generally applicable as first thought. Several sex differences, for example in bird

de Vries, Geert J.

107

Genetic mapping of sex determination in a wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, reveals earliest form of sex chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of separate sexes (dioecy) from hermaphroditism is one of the major evolutionary transitions in plants, and this transition can be accompanied by the development of sex chromosomes. Studies in species with intermediate sexual systems are providing unprecedented insight into the initial stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here, we describe the genetic mechanism of sex determination in the octoploid,

R B Spigler; K S Lewers; D S Main; T-L Ashman

2008-01-01

108

Neurogenin 3 mediates sex chromosome effects on the generation of sex differences in hypothalamic neuronal development  

PubMed Central

The organizational action of testosterone during critical periods of development is the cause of numerous sex differences in the brain. However, sex differences in neuritogenesis have been detected in primary neuronal hypothalamic cultures prepared before the peak of testosterone production by fetal testis. In the present study we assessed the hypothesis of that cell-autonomous action of sex chromosomes can differentially regulate the expression of the neuritogenic gene neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) in male and female hypothalamic neurons, generating sex differences in neuronal development. Neuronal cultures were prepared from male and female E14 mouse hypothalami, before the fetal peak of testosterone. Female neurons showed enhanced neuritogenesis and higher expression of Ngn3 than male neurons. The silencing of Ngn3 abolished sex differences in neuritogenesis, decreasing the differentiation of female neurons. The sex difference in Ngn3 expression was determined by sex chromosomes, as demonstrated using the four core genotypes mouse model, in which a spontaneous deletion of the testis-determining gene Sry from the Y chromosome was combined with the insertion of the Sry gene onto an autosome. In addition, the expression of Ngn3, which is also known to mediate the neuritogenic actions of estradiol, was increased in the cultures treated with the hormone, but only in those from male embryos. Furthermore, the hormone reversed the sex differences in neuritogenesis promoting the differentiation of male neurons. These findings indicate that Ngn3 mediates both cell-autonomous actions of sex chromosomes and hormonal effects on neuritogenesis. PMID:25071448

Scerbo, María J.; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Cisternas, Carla D.; Brunotto, Mabel; Arevalo, Maria A.; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Cambiasso, María J.

2014-01-01

109

Genome structure and primitive sex chromosome revealed in Populus  

SciTech Connect

We constructed a comprehensive genetic map for Populus and ordered 332 Mb of sequence scaffolds along the 19 haploid chromosomes in order to compare chromosomal regions among diverse members of the genus. These efforts lead us to conclude that chromosome XIX in Populus is evolving into a sex chromosome. Consistent segregation distortion in favor of the sub-genera Tacamahaca alleles provided evidence of divergent selection among species, particularly at the proximal end of chromosome XIX. A large microsatellite marker (SSR) cluster was detected in the distorted region even though the genome-wide distribute SSR sites was uniform across the physical map. The differences between the genetic map and physical sequence data suggested recombination suppression was occurring in the distorted region. A gender-determination locus and an overabundance of NBS-LRR genes were also co-located to the distorted region and were put forth as the cause for divergent selection and recombination suppression. This hypothesis was verified by using fine-scale mapping of an integrated scaffold in the vicinity of the gender-determination locus. As such it appears that chromosome XIX in Populus is in the process of evolving from an autosome into a sex chromosome and that NBS-LRR genes may play important role in the chromosomal diversification process in Populus.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Blaudez, D [UMR, France

2008-01-01

110

The evolution of sex chromosomes in the genus Rumex (Polygonaceae): Identification of a new species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

The structural features and evolutionary state of the sex chromosomes of the XX/XY species of Rumex are unknown. Here, we report a study of the meiotic behaviour of the XY bivalent in Rumex acetosella and R. suffruticosus, a new species which we describe cytogenetically for the first time in this paper, and also that of the XY(1)Y(2) trivalent of R. acetosa by both conventional cytogenetic techniques and analysis of synaptonemal complex formation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with satellite DNA and rDNA sequences as probes was used to analyse the degree of cytogenetic differentiation between the X and Y chromosomes in order to depict their evolutionary stage in the three species. Contrasting with the advanced state of genetic differentiation between the X and the Y chromosomes in R. acetosa, we have found that R. acetosella and R. suffruticosus represent an early stage of genetic differentiation between sex chromosomes. Our findings further demonstrate the usefulness of the genus Rumex as a model for analysing the evolution of sex chromosomes in plants, since within this genus it is now possible to study the different levels of genetic differentiation between the sex chromosomes and to analyse their evolutionary history from their origin. PMID:17899410

Cuńado, Nieves; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; de la Herrán, Roberto; Ruiz Rejón, Carmelo; Ruiz Rejón, Manuel; Santos, Juan Luis; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

2007-01-01

111

Neo-sex chromosomes and adaptive potential in tortricid pests  

PubMed Central

Changes in genome architecture often have a significant effect on ecological specialization and speciation. This effect may be further enhanced by involvement of sex chromosomes playing a disproportionate role in reproductive isolation. We have physically mapped the Z chromosome of the major pome fruit pest, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), and show that it arose by fusion between an ancestral Z chromosome and an autosome corresponding to chromosome 15 in the Bombyx mori reference genome. We further show that the fusion originated in a common ancestor of the main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae, comprising almost 700 pest species worldwide. The Z–autosome fusion brought two major genes conferring insecticide resistance and clusters of genes involved in detoxification of plant secondary metabolites under sex-linked inheritance. We suggest that this fusion significantly increased the adaptive potential of tortricid moths and thus contributed to their radiation and subsequent speciation. PMID:23569222

Nguyen, Petr; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Šíchová, Jindra; K?ta, Václav; Dalíková, Martina; ?apková Frydrychová, Radmila; Neven, Lisa G.; Sahara, Ken; Marec, František

2013-01-01

112

INSIGHT INTO THE ORIGINS OF THE RUMEX ACETOSA SEX CHROMOSOMES AND MECHANISMS CAUSING DIMORPHISM.  

E-print Network

??Sex conferring chromosomes are subject to rapid change throughout evolution. Y-chromosomes (male determining) are subject to extensive chromatin remodeling and higher mutation rates than the… (more)

Forrest, Samuel

2008-01-01

113

Evidence for different origin of sex chromosomes in snakes, birds, and mammals and step-wise differentiation of snake sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

All snake species exhibit genetic sex determination with the ZZ/ZW type of sex chromosomes. To investigate the origin and evolution of snake sex chromosomes, we constructed, by FISH, a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 109 cDNA clones. Eleven of the 109 clones were localized to the Z chromosome. All human and chicken homologues of the snake Z-linked genes were located on autosomes, suggesting that the sex chromosomes of snakes, mammals, and birds were all derived from different autosomal pairs of the common ancestor. We mapped the 11 Z-linked genes of E. quadrivirgata to chromosomes of two other species, the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) and the habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis), to investigate the process of W chromosome differentiation. All and 3 of the 11 clones were localized to both the Z and W chromosomes in P. molurus and E. quadrivirgata, respectively, whereas no cDNA clones were mapped to the W chromosome in T. flavoviridis. Comparative mapping revealed that the sex chromosomes are only slightly differentiated in P. molurus, whereas they are fully differentiated in T. flavoviridis, and E. quadrivirgata is at a transitional stage of sex-chromosome differentiation. The differentiation of sex chromosomes was probably initiated from the distal region on the short arm of the protosex chromosome of the common ancestor, and then deletion and heterochromatization progressed on the sex-specific chromosome from the phylogenetically primitive boids to the more advanced viperids. PMID:17110446

Matsubara, Kazumi; Tarui, Hiroshi; Toriba, Michihisa; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Nishida-Umehara, Chizuko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Matsuda, Yoichi

2006-11-28

114

Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution  

PubMed Central

Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Yh). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Yh chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution. PMID:22869747

Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E.; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F. Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J.; Chen, Cuixia; Man Wai, Ching; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

115

Rare Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities in Prenatal Diagnosis; Clinical and Cytogenetic Findings on 10125 Prenatal Cases.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this study was presentation of the ultrasonographic findings and perinatal autopsy of cases with rare chromosomal abnormalities. Material and Method: A total of 10125 prenatal cases over 17 years including 8731 amniocentesis, 973 chorionic villus sampling, and 421 fetal blood sampling cases were evaluated for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Conventional cytogenetic studies, fluorescence in situ hybridization studies, and Array-CGH analysis techniques were used for genetic analysis. Results: A structural chromosomal abnormality was observed in 95 cases. The most frequently observed structural abnormalities were balanced translocations with a frequency of 53.7% (51 cases) followed by unbalanced translocations (16.8%), inversions (11.6%), supernumerary marker chromosomes (8.4%), duplications (4.2%), deletions and ring chromosomes (2.1%) and complex translocation (1.1%). Rare structural chromosomal abnormalities including de novo balanced translocations, unbalanced translocations, inversions, duplications, deletions, ring chromosomes, and supernumerary marker chromosomes were detected in 24 cases. Conclusion: The rate of rare chromosomal abnormalities varies from 2.4% (South East Ireland) to 12.9% (Northern England) in Europe with a total rate of 7.4/10 000 births. In our study, the overall rate of chromosomal abnormality in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was 3.7%, similar to South East Ireland. Ultrasonographic and perinatal autopsy findings of the cases with rare structural chromosomal abnormalities are important for proper genetic counseling for further similar cases. PMID:25301051

Yakut, Sezin; Cet?n, Zafer; S?m?ek, Mehmet; Mend?c?o?lu, Ibrahim Inanç; Toru, Havva Serap; Karaüzüm, Sibel Berker; Lülec?, Güven

2014-10-10

116

The Staurotypus turtles and aves share the same origin of sex chromosomes but evolved different types of heterogametic sex determination.  

PubMed

Reptiles have a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms and types of sex chromosomes. Turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination and genotypic sex determination, with male heterogametic (XX/XY) and female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW) sex chromosomes. Identification of sex chromosomes in many turtle species and their comparative genomic analysis are of great significance to understand the evolutionary processes of sex determination and sex chromosome differentiation in Testudines. The Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus, Kinosternidae, Testudines) and the giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii) have heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes with a low degree of morphological differentiation; however, their origin and linkage group are still unknown. Cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) revealed that the X and Y chromosomes of S. triporcatus have homology with P. sinensis chromosome 6, which corresponds to the chicken Z chromosome. We cloned cDNA fragments of S. triporcatus homologs of 16 chicken Z-linked genes and mapped them to S. triporcatus and S. salvinii chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Sixteen genes were localized to the X and Y long arms in the same order in both species. The orders were also almost the same as those of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) Z chromosome, which retains the primitive state of the avian ancestral Z chromosome. These results strongly suggest that the X and Y chromosomes of Staurotypus turtles are at a very early stage of sex chromosome differentiation, and that these chromosomes and the avian ZW chromosomes share the same origin. Nonetheless, the turtles and birds acquired different systems of heterogametic sex determination during their evolution. PMID:25121779

Kawagoshi, Taiki; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

2014-01-01

117

INVESTIGATION Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation Is Disrupted  

E-print Network

of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes

Dean, Matthew D.

118

THE CONTRIBUTION OF FEMALE MEIOTIC DRIVE TO THE EVOLUTION OF NEO-SEX CHROMOSOMES  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY1Y2 sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X1X2Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY1Y2 sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X1X2Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes. PMID:23025609

Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun

2012-01-01

119

The contribution of female meiotic drive to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY(1) Y(2) sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X(1) X(2) Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY(1) Y(2) sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X(1) X(2) Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes. PMID:23025609

Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun

2012-10-01

120

Sex-biased chromatin and regulatory cross-talk between sex chromosomes, autosomes, and mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Several autoimmune and neurological diseases exhibit a sex bias, but discerning the causes and mechanisms of these biases has been challenging. Sex differences begin to manifest themselves in early embryonic development, and gonadal differentiation further bifurcates the male and female phenotypes. Even at this early stage, however, there is evidence that males and females respond to environmental stimuli differently, and the divergent phenotypic responses may have consequences later in life. The effect of prenatal nutrient restriction illustrates this point, as adult women exposed to prenatal restrictions exhibited increased risk factors of cardiovascular disease, while men exposed to the same condition did not. Recent research has examined the roles of sex-specific genes, hormones, chromosomes, and the interactions among them in mediating sex-biased phenotypes. Such research has identified testosterone, for example, as a possible protective agent against autoimmune disorders and an XX chromosome complement as a susceptibility factor in murine models of lupus and multiple sclerosis. Sex-biased chromatin is an additional and likely important component. Research suggesting a role for X and Y chromosome heterochromatin in regulating epigenetic states of autosomes has highlighted unorthodox mechanisms of gene regulation. The crosstalk between the Y chromosomes and autosomes may be further mediated by the mitochondria. The organelles have solely maternal transmission and exert differential effects on males and females. Altogether, research supports the notion that the interaction between sex-biased elements might exert novel regulatory functions in the genome and contribute to sex-specific susceptibilities to autoimmune and neurological diseases. PMID:24422881

2014-01-01

121

Sexually Antagonistic “Zygotic Drive” of the Sex Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic conflict is perplexing because it causes the fitness of a species to decline rather than improve. Many diverse forms of genomic conflict have been identified, but this extant tally may be incomplete. Here, we show that the unusual characteristics of the sex chromosomes can, in principle, lead to a previously unappreciated form of sexual genomic conflict. The phenomenon occurs

William R. Rice; Sergey Gavrilets; Urban Friberg

2008-01-01

122

Increased prevalence of sex chromosome aneuploidies in specific language impairment and dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Aim Sex chromosome aneuploidies increase the risk of spoken or written language disorders but individuals with specific language impairment (SLI) or dyslexia do not routinely undergo cytogenetic analysis. We assess the frequency of sex chromosome aneuploidies in individuals with language impairment or dyslexia. Method Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping was performed in three sample sets: a clinical cohort of individuals with speech and language deficits (87 probands: 61 males, 26 females; age range 4 to 23 years), a replication cohort of individuals with SLI, from both clinical and epidemiological samples (209 probands: 139 males, 70 females; age range 4 to 17 years), and a set of individuals with dyslexia (314 probands: 224 males, 90 females; age range 7 to 18 years). Results In the clinical language-impaired cohort, three abnormal karyotypic results were identified in probands (proband yield 3.4%). In the SLI replication cohort, six abnormalities were identified providing a consistent proband yield (2.9%). In the sample of individuals with dyslexia, two sex chromosome aneuploidies were found giving a lower proband yield of 0.6%. In total, two XYY, four XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), three XXX, one XO (Turner syndrome), and one unresolved karyotype were identified. Interpretation The frequency of sex chromosome aneuploidies within each of the three cohorts was increased over the expected population frequency (approximately 0.25%) suggesting that genetic testing may prove worthwhile for individuals with language and literacy problems and normal non-verbal IQ. Early detection of these aneuploidies can provide information and direct the appropriate management for individuals. PMID:24117048

Simpson, Nuala H; Addis, Laura; Brandler, William M; Slonims, Vicky; Clark, Ann; Watson, Jocelynne; Scerri, Thomas S; Hennessy, Elizabeth R; Bolton, Patrick F; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Knight, Julian C; Stein, John; Talcott, Joel B; O'Hare, Anne; Baird, Gillian; Paracchini, Silvia; Fisher, Simon E; Newbury, Dianne F; Consortium, SLI

2014-01-01

123

Nucleolar precursor body distribution in pronuclei is correlated to chromosomal abnormalities in embryos.  

PubMed

In-vitro generated human embryos have low implantation rates and high chromosomal abnormalities. Embryos are mostly selected on the basis of microscopic morphological examination. The relationship between pronuclear morphology and chromosomal abnormalities was investigated in this study. Zygotes were scored according to pronuclear morphology on day 1. Excess embryos that were not transferred or cryopreserved on day 3 were fixed. Chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were analysed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). A total of 125 embryos were analysed; 58 (46%) were abnormal, 32 (26%) were mosaic and 35 (28%) were normal. Results were analysed according to different pronuclear morphology. Zygotes with polarized pattern had a significantly lower incidence of chromosome abnormality than those with a non-polarized pattern. The presence of cytoplasmic halo, the size of each pronucleus and the number of nucleolar precursor body had no significant effect on chromosomal abnormalities. In conclusion, embryos generated from zygotes with polarized pattern have fewer chromosomal abnormalities compared with other patterns. A simple microscopic examination during fertilization confirmation would be useful to select embryos with fewer chromosomal abnormalities, preferably in combination with other observations shown to correlate with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:12930583

Coskun, Serdar; Hellani, Ali; Jaroudi, Kamal; Al-Mayman, Hend; Al-Kabra, Maya; Qeba, Meshal

2003-01-01

124

Chromosome number and sex determination coevolve in turtles.  

PubMed

Although much progress has been achieved in understanding the genetic basis of adaptation, the drivers of genome evolution remain obscure. For instance, extensive variation among reptilian genomes continues largely unexplained, yet reptiles hold critical clues about vertebrate evolution. Turtles posses diverse chromosome numbers (2N = 28-66) derived from extensive genomic rearrangements, plus varied sex-determining mechanisms (genotypic and temperature-dependent). Here, we show that rates of evolution in turtle chromosome number are ~20-fold higher along phylogenetic branches where transitions between sex-determining mechanisms also occur, revealing a strong coevolution of these traits and making drift a less likely driver. Directional tests indicate that both traits evolved effectively in synchrony. These events occurred near global extremes in temperature shifts over the last 200 million years, although the role of climate change remains unknown at this point. Two alternative testable explanations for these patterns are proposed. First, selection for sex determination turnover may co-opt mechanisms (e.g., chromatin remodeling) favoring genomic rearrangements. Alternatively, chromosomal rearrangements underlying diploid number evolution may alter gene regulation enabling transitions in sex-determining mechanisms. Our data indicate that the evolution of sex determination is intimately linked to profound genomic changes underlying diploid number evolution, the ecological context of which remains intriguing. PMID:21644965

Valenzuela, Nicole; Adams, Dean C

2011-06-01

125

Multi-institutional study on the correlation between chromosomal abnormalities and epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is an abundance of literature describing the association of chromosome aberrations with epilepsy, only a few refer to the detailed features of epilepsy. It is important to investigate the associations between specific chromosome abnormalities and features of epilepsy to identify genes involved in epilepsy and treat them more effectively. We investigated the correlation between specific chromosome aberrations and

Tomohiro Kumada; Masatoshi Ito; Tomoko Miyajima; Tatsuya Fujii; Takehiko Okuno; Toshin Go; Haruo Hattori; Mieko Yoshioka; Kenichiro Kobayashi; Osamu Kanazawa; Jun Tohyama; Noriyuki Akasaka; Takanori Kamimura; Mutsuo Sasagawa; Hideki Amagane; Kozo Mutoh; Yuriko Yamori; Toyoko Kanda; Naoko Yoshida; Haruyo Hirota; Rieko Tanaka; Yasushi Hamada

2005-01-01

126

Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics.  

PubMed

Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a very conserved ZW system of sex determination in which males have two copies of a large, gene-rich Z chromosome, and females have a single Z and a female-specific W chromosome. The avian ZW system is quite the reverse of the well-studied mammalian XY chromosome system, and evolved independently from different autosomal blocs. Despite the different gene content of mammal and bird sex chromosomes, there are many parallels. Genes on the bird Z and the mammal X have both undergone selection for male-advantage functions, and there has been amplification of male-advantage genes and accumulation of LINEs. The bird W and mammal Y have both undergone extensive degradation, but some birds retain early stages and some mammals terminal stages of the process, suggesting that the process is more advanced in mammals. Different sex-determining genes, DMRT1 and SRY, define the ZW and XY systems, but DMRT1 is involved in downstream events in mammals. Birds show strong cell autonomous specification of somatic sex differences in ZZ and ZW tissue, but there is growing evidence for direct X chromosome effects on sexual phenotype in mammals. Dosage compensation in birds appears to be phenotypically and molecularly quite different from X inactivation, being partial and gene-specific, but both systems use tools from the same molecular toolbox and there are some signs that galliform birds represent an early stage in the evolution of a coordinated system. PMID:24599719

Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

2014-04-01

127

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

; Growth failure Mental retardation Flat occiput Dysplastic ears Intestinal stenosis Hypotonic muscles tongue Short, broad hands Congenital heart disease Trisomy 21 #12; Trisomy 18 Mental retardation Rarely survive to birth (1/7500 births) #12; Trisomy 13 Severe mental retardation, growth retardation

Dellaire, Graham

128

The Evolution of Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determination in Vertebrates and the Key Role of DMRT1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of vertebrate sex determination are reviewed in the light of what is known about the origin and evolution of sex chromosomes. All vertebrate males have testes that are similar in anatomy and in spermatogenesis. Despite a variety of sex chromosome systems, the same cascade of genes operate in the differentiation of testes and male genitalia. Only the primary signal

M. Ferguson-Smith

2007-01-01

129

CYTOGENETIC ABNORMALITY IN MAN—Wider Implications of Theories of Sex Chromatin Origin  

PubMed Central

Female nuclei may be identified by means of sex chromatin. In general the number of sex chromatin bodies is one less than the number of X chromosomes. An exception to this rule is a case of sex chromatin-positive XO Turner's syndrome. This case suggests the possibility of sex chromatin-positive XY males, and it may be evidence for chromosomal differentiation. PMID:14473851

Miles, Charles P.

1962-01-01

130

Sequencing the mouse Y chromosome reveals convergent gene acquisition and amplification on both sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

We sequenced the MSY (male-specific region of the Y chromosome) of the C57BL/6J strain of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus. In contrast to theories that Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and gene poor, the mouse MSY is 99.9% euchromatic and contains about 700 protein-coding genes. Only 2% of the MSY derives from the ancestral autosomes that gave rise to the mammalian sex chromosomes. Instead, all but 45 of the MSY's genes belong to three acquired, massively amplified gene families that have no homologs on primate MSYs but do have acquired, amplified homologs on the mouse X chromosome. The complete mouse MSY sequence brings to light dramatic forces in sex chromosome evolution: lineage-specific convergent acquisition and amplification of X-Y gene families, possibly fueled by antagonism between acquired X-Y homologs. The mouse MSY sequence presents opportunities for experimental studies of a sex-specific chromosome in its entirety, in a genetically tractable model organism. PMID:25417157

Soh, Y Q Shirleen; Alföldi, Jessica; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Brown, Laura G; Graves, Tina; Minx, Patrick J; Fulton, Robert S; Kremitzki, Colin; Koutseva, Natalia; Mueller, Jacob L; Rozen, Steve; Hughes, Jennifer F; Owens, Elaine; Womack, James E; Murphy, William J; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C

2014-11-01

131

Evolution of multiple sex chromosomes in the spider genus Malthonica (Araneae: Agelenidae) indicates unique structure of the spider sex chromosome systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most spiders exhibit a multiple sex chromosome system, X1X20, whose origin has not been satisfactorily explained. Examination of the sex chromosome systems in the spider genus Malthonica (Agelenidae) revealed considerable diversity in sex chromosome constitution within this group. Besides modes X1X20 (M. silvestris) and X1X2X30 (M. campestris), a neo-X1X2X3X4X5Y system in M. ferruginea was found. Ultrastructural analysis of spread pachytene

Ji?í Král

2007-01-01

132

Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans.  

PubMed

Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

Cox, Kimberly H; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F

2014-10-01

133

Acute promyelocytic leukaemia with a PML-RARA insertional translocation and a chromosome 21 abnormality in XYY syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

The concomitant presence of the XYY syndrome with haematological malignancies is rare. This report presents a case of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) with the promyelocytic leukaemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARA) gene insertional translocation and a chromosome 21 abnormality in a 29-year-old XYY male patient. Karyotype analysis revealed an abnormal karyotype of 47,XYY [14]/46,XYY,-21[16]. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the existence of a PML-RARA fusion gene. The patient was treated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy. Laboratory results revealed that the coagulopathy improved and the patient achieved complete remission, based on bone-marrow morphology. The patient then received sequential monthly therapy using arsenic trioxide, followed by ATRA, followed by chemotherapy; he has survived disease-free for 36 months. Our findings suggest that the additional chromosomal abnormalities involving the sex chromosomes and chromosome 21 did not affect the prognosis of APL, and that the sequential treatment strategy had a good clinical effect without being associated with severe side-effects. PMID:25223426

He, Yi; Li, Xudong; Wang, Dongning; Zhang, Erhong; Hu, Yuan; Wang, Wenwen; Huang, Renwei; Xiao, Ruozhi

2014-12-01

134

Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation, Evolutionary Strata, and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation  

PubMed Central

Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females). Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae), but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae) and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae). Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases). This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution), but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex chromosomes evolution. PMID:24015111

Zektser, Yulia; Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

2013-01-01

135

Sexually Antagonistic “Zygotic Drive” of the Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Genomic conflict is perplexing because it causes the fitness of a species to decline rather than improve. Many diverse forms of genomic conflict have been identified, but this extant tally may be incomplete. Here, we show that the unusual characteristics of the sex chromosomes can, in principle, lead to a previously unappreciated form of sexual genomic conflict. The phenomenon occurs because there is selection in the heterogametic sex for sex-linked mutations that harm the sex of offspring that does not carry them, whenever there is competition among siblings. This harmful phenotype can be expressed as an antagonistic green-beard effect that is mediated by epigenetic parental effects, parental investment, and/or interactions among siblings. We call this form of genomic conflict sexually antagonistic “zygotic drive”, because it is functionally equivalent to meiotic drive, except that it operates during the zygotic and postzygotic stages of the life cycle rather than the meiotic and gametic stages. A combination of mathematical modeling and a survey of empirical studies is used to show that sexually antagonistic zygotic drive is feasible, likely to be widespread in nature, and that it can promote a genetic “arms race” between the homo- and heteromorphic sex chromosomes. This new category of genomic conflict has the potential to strongly influence other fundamental evolutionary processes, such as speciation and the degeneration of the Y and W sex chromosomes. It also fosters a new genetic hypothesis for the evolution of enigmatic fitness-reducing traits like the high frequency of spontaneous abortion, sterility, and homosexuality observed in humans. PMID:19096519

Rice, William R.; Gavrilets, Sergey; Friberg, Urban

2008-01-01

136

Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

1995-01-02

137

Increased number of sex chromosomes affects height in a nonlinear fashion: a study of 305 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidy.  

PubMed

Tall stature and eunuchoid body proportions characterize patients with 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome, whereas patients with 45,X Turner syndrome are characterized by impaired growth. Growth is relatively well characterized in these two syndromes, while few studies describe the growth of patients with higher grade sex chromosome aneuploidies. It has been proposed that tall stature in sex chromosome aneuploidy is related to an overexpression of SHOX, although the copy number of SHOX has not been evaluated in previous studies. Our aims were therefore: (1) to assess stature in 305 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidy and (2) to determine the number of SHOX copies in a subgroup of these patients (n = 255) these patients and 74 healthy controls. Median height standard deviation scores in 46,XX males (n = 6) were -1.2 (-2.8 to 0.3), +0.9 (-2.2 to +4.6) in 47,XXY (n = 129), +1.3 (-1.8 to +4.9) in 47,XYY (n = 44), +1.1 (-1.9 to +3.4) in 48,XXYY (n = 45), +1.8 (-2.0 to +3.2) in 48,XXXY (n = 9), and -1.8 (-4.2 to -0.1) in 49,XXXXY (n = 10). Median height standard deviation scores in patients with 45,X (n = 6) were -2.6 (-4.1 to -1.6), +0.7 (-0.9 to +3.2) in 47,XXX (n = 40), -0.6 (-1.9 to +2.1) in 48,XXXX (n = 13), and -1.0 (-3.5 to -0.8) in 49,XXXXX (n = 3). Height increased with an increasing number of extra X or Y chromosomes, except in males with five, and in females with four or five sex chromosomes, consistent with a nonlinear effect on height. PMID:20425825

Ottesen, Anne Marie; Aksglaede, Lise; Garn, Inger; Tartaglia, Nicole; Tassone, Flora; Gravholt, Claus H; Bojesen, Anders; Sřrensen, Kaspar; Jřrgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Gerdes, Tommy; Lind, Anne-Marie; Kjaergaard, Susanne; Juul, Anders

2010-05-01

138

Mouse models for evaluating sex chromosome effects that cause sex differences in non-gonadal tissues  

PubMed Central

XX and XY cells have a different number of X and Y genes. These differences in their genomes cause sex differences in the functions of cells, both in the gonads and in non-gonadal tissues. This review discusses mouse models that have shed light on these direct genetic effects of sex chromosomes that cause sex differences in physiology. Because many sex differences in tissues are caused by different effects of male and female gonadal hormones, it is important to attempt to discriminate between direct genetic and hormonal effects. Numerous mouse models exist in which the number of X or Y genes is manipulated, to observe the effects on phenotype. In two models, the Afour core genotypes@ model and SF1 knockout gonadless mice, it has been possible to detect sex chromosome effects that are not explained by group differences in gonadal hormones. Moreover, mouse models are available to determine whether the sex chromosome effects are caused by X or Y genes. PMID:19207816

Arnold, Arthur P.

2009-01-01

139

Construction of physical maps for the sex-specific regions of papaya sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It is trioecious with three sex forms: male, female, and hermaphrodite. Sex determination is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes with two slightly different Y chromosomes, Y for male and Yh for hermaphrodite. The sex chromosome genotypes are XY (male), XYh (hermaphrodite), and XX (female). The papaya hermaphrodite-specific Yh chromosome region (HSY) is pericentromeric and heterochromatic. Physical mapping of HSY and its X counterpart is essential for sequencing these regions and uncovering the early events of sex chromosome evolution and to identify the sex determination genes for crop improvement. Results A reiterate chromosome walking strategy was applied to construct the two physical maps with three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The HSY physical map consists of 68 overlapped BACs on the minimum tiling path, and covers all four HSY-specific Knobs. One gap remained in the region of Knob 1, the only knob structure shared between HSY and X, due to the lack of HSY-specific sequences. This gap was filled on the physical map of the HSY corresponding region in the X chromosome. The X physical map consists of 44 BACs on the minimum tiling path with one gap remaining in the middle, due to the nature of highly repetitive sequences. This gap was filled on the HSY physical map. The borders of the non-recombining HSY were defined genetically by fine mapping using 1460?F2 individuals. The genetically defined HSY spanned approximately 8.5?Mb, whereas its X counterpart extended about 5.4?Mb including a 900 Kb region containing the Knob 1 shared by the HSY and X. The 8.5?Mb HSY corresponds to 4.5?Mb of its X counterpart, showing 4?Mb (89%) DNA sequence expansion. Conclusion The 89% increase of DNA sequence in HSY indicates rapid expansion of the Yh chromosome after genetic recombination was suppressed 2–3 million years ago. The genetically defined borders coincide with the common BACs on the minimum tiling paths of HSY and X. The minimum tiling paths of HSY and its X counterpart are being used for sequencing these X and Yh-specific regions. PMID:22568889

2012-01-01

140

Extinct and Extant Reptiles: A Model System for the Study of Sex Chromosome Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The evolution and functional dynamics of sex chromosomes are focuses of current biological research. Although common organismal\\u000a morphologies and functions of males and females are found among amniotes, underlying sex chromosome organizations and sex-determining\\u000a mechanisms are widely variable. This chapter investigates the role that reptiles play in the study of sex chromosome evolution.\\u000a Reptile studies have described the coevolution of

Daniel E. Janes

141

Neo-sex chromosomes in the black muntjac recapitulate incipient evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The regular mammalian X and Y chromosomes diverged from each other at least 166 to 148 million years ago, leaving few traces of their early evolution, including degeneration of the Y chromosome and evolution of dosage compensation. RESULTS: We studied the intriguing case of black muntjac, in which a recent X-autosome fusion and a subsequent large autosomal inversion within

Qi Zhou; Jun Wang; Ling Huang; Wen-hui Nie; Jin-huan Wang; Yan Liu; Xiang-yi Zhao; Feng-tang Yang; Wen Wang

2008-01-01

142

Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the cases from 16 population-based registries in 11 European countries diagnosed prenatally or before 1 year of age, and delivered between 2000 and 2006. Cases were all unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. There were 10,323 cases with a chromosome abnormality, giving a total birth prevalence rate of 43.8/10,000 births. Of these, 7335 cases had trisomy 21,18 or 13, giving individual prevalence rates of 23.0, 5.9 and 2.3/10,000 births, respectively (53, 13 and 5% of all reported chromosome errors, respectively). In all, 473 cases (5%) had a sex chromosome trisomy, and 778 (8%) had 45,X, giving prevalence rates of 2.0 and 3.3/10,000 births, respectively. There were 1,737 RCA cases (17%), giving a prevalence of 7.4/10,000 births. These included triploidy, other trisomies, marker chromosomes, unbalanced translocations, deletions and duplications. There was a wide variation between the registers in both the overall prenatal diagnosis rate of RCA, an average of 65% (range 5-92%) and the prevalence of RCA (range 2.4-12.9/10,000 births). In all, 49% were liveborn. The data provide the prevalence of families currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care. PMID:22234154

Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

2012-05-01

143

Tracking the evolution of sex chromosome systems in Melanoplinae grasshoppers through chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNA sequences  

PubMed Central

Background The accumulation of repetitive DNA during sex chromosome differentiation is a common feature of many eukaryotes and becomes more evident after recombination has been restricted or abolished. The accumulated repetitive sequences include multigene families, microsatellites, satellite DNAs and mobile elements, all of which are important for the structural remodeling of heterochromatin. In grasshoppers, derived sex chromosome systems, such as neo-XY?/XX? and neo-X1X2Y?/X1X1X2X2?, are frequently observed in the Melanoplinae subfamily. However, no studies concerning the evolution of sex chromosomes in Melanoplinae have addressed the role of the repetitive DNA sequences. To further investigate the evolution of sex chromosomes in grasshoppers, we used classical cytogenetic and FISH analyses to examine the repetitive DNA sequences in six phylogenetically related Melanoplinae species with X0?/XX?, neo-XY?/XX? and neo-X1X2Y?/X1X1X2X2? sex chromosome systems. Results Our data indicate a non-spreading of heterochromatic blocks and pool of repetitive DNAs (C0t-1 DNA) in the sex chromosomes; however, the spreading of multigene families among the neo-sex chromosomes of Eurotettix and Dichromatos was remarkable, particularly for 5S rDNA. In autosomes, FISH mapping of multigene families revealed distinct patterns of chromosomal organization at the intra- and intergenomic levels. Conclusions These results suggest a common origin and subsequent differential accumulation of repetitive DNAs in the sex chromosomes of Dichromatos and an independent origin of the sex chromosomes of the neo-XY and neo-X1X2Y systems. Our data indicate a possible role for repetitive DNAs in the diversification of sex chromosome systems in grasshoppers. PMID:23937327

2013-01-01

144

Laser isolation of plant sex chromosomes: studies on the DNA composition of the X and Y sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia.  

PubMed

X and Y sex chromosomes from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia (white campion) were isolated from mitotic metaphase chromosome preparations on polyester membranes. Autosomes were ablated using an argon ion laser microbeam and isolated sex chromosomes were then recovered on excised fragments of polyester membrane. Sex chromosome associated DNA sequences were amplified using the degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and pools of DOP-PCR products were used to investigate the genomic organization of the S. latifolia sex chromosomes. The chromosomal locations of cloned sex chromosome repeat sequences were analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and data complementary to laser ablation studies were obtained by genomic in situ hybridization. In combination, these studies demonstrate that the X and Y sex chromosomes of S. latifolia are of very similar DNA composition and also that they share a significant repetitive DNA content with the autosomes. The evolution of sex chromosomes in Silene is discussed and compared with that in another dioecious species, Rumex acetosa. PMID:9352647

Scutt, C P; Kamisugi, Y; Sakai, F; Gilmartin, P M

1997-10-01

145

Chromosomal distribution of cytonuclear genes in a dioecious plant with sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

The coordination between nuclear and organellar genes is essential to many aspects of eukaryotic life, including basic metabolism, energy production, and ultimately, organismal fitness. Although nuclear genes are biparentally inherited, mitochondrial and chloroplast genes are almost exclusively maternally inherited, and this asymmetry may lead to a bias in the chromosomal distribution of nuclear genes whose products act in the mitochondria or chloroplasts. In particular, because X-linked genes have a higher probability of cotransmission with organellar genes (2/3) compared with autosomal genes (1/2), selection for coadaptation has been predicted to lead to an overrepresentation of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes on the X chromosome relative to autosomes. In contrast, the occurrence of sexually antagonistic organellar mutations might lead to selection for movement of cytonuclear genes from the X chromosome to autosomes to reduce male mutation load. Recent broad-scale comparative studies of N-mt distributions in animals have found evidence for these hypotheses in some species, but not others. Here, we use transcriptome sequences to conduct the first study of the chromosomal distribution of cytonuclear interacting genes in a plant species with sex chromosomes (Rumex hastatulus; Polygonaceae). We found no evidence of under- or overrepresentation of either N-mt or N-cp genes on the X chromosome, and thus no support for either the coadaptation or the sexual-conflict hypothesis. We discuss how our results from a species with recently evolved sex chromosomes fit into an emerging picture of the evolutionary forces governing the chromosomal distribution of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes. PMID:25193309

Hough, Josh; Ĺgren, J Arvid; Barrett, Spencer C H; Wright, Stephen I

2014-09-01

146

Chromosomal Distribution of Cytonuclear Genes in a Dioecious Plant with Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

The coordination between nuclear and organellar genes is essential to many aspects of eukaryotic life, including basic metabolism, energy production, and ultimately, organismal fitness. Although nuclear genes are biparentally inherited, mitochondrial and chloroplast genes are almost exclusively maternally inherited, and this asymmetry may lead to a bias in the chromosomal distribution of nuclear genes whose products act in the mitochondria or chloroplasts. In particular, because X-linked genes have a higher probability of cotransmission with organellar genes (2/3) compared with autosomal genes (1/2), selection for coadaptation has been predicted to lead to an overrepresentation of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes on the X chromosome relative to autosomes. In contrast, the occurrence of sexually antagonistic organellar mutations might lead to selection for movement of cytonuclear genes from the X chromosome to autosomes to reduce male mutation load. Recent broad-scale comparative studies of N-mt distributions in animals have found evidence for these hypotheses in some species, but not others. Here, we use transcriptome sequences to conduct the first study of the chromosomal distribution of cytonuclear interacting genes in a plant species with sex chromosomes (Rumex hastatulus; Polygonaceae). We found no evidence of under- or overrepresentation of either N-mt or N-cp genes on the X chromosome, and thus no support for either the coadaptation or the sexual-conflict hypothesis. We discuss how our results from a species with recently evolved sex chromosomes fit into an emerging picture of the evolutionary forces governing the chromosomal distribution of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes. PMID:25193309

Hough, Josh; Ĺgren, J. Arvid; Barrett, Spencer C.H.; Wright, Stephen I.

2014-01-01

147

The evolution of sex chromosomes in the genus Rumex (Polygonaceae): Identification of a new species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural features and evolutionary state of the sex chromosomes of the XX\\/XY species of Rumex are unknown. Here, we report a study of the meiotic behaviour of the XY bivalent in Rumex acetosella and R. suffruticosus, a new species which we describe cytogenetically for the first time in this paper, and also that of the XY1Y2 trivalent of R.

Nieves Cuńado; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Roberto de la Herrán; Carmelo Ruiz Rejón; Manuel Ruiz Rejón; Juan Luis Santos; Manuel A. Garrido-Ramos

2007-01-01

148

vol. 160, supplement the american naturalist december 2002 Sex Chromosomes and Sexual Selection in Poeciliid Fishes  

E-print Network

vol. 160, supplement the american naturalist december 2002 Sex Chromosomes and Sexual Selection to investigate the physical linkage of male and female sexually selected characters in this species through mapping studies. Keywords: sexual selection, sex chromosomes, Y chromosome, Poe- ciliidae, Poecilia

149

Cloning and characterization of dispersed repetitive DNA derived from microdissected sex chromosomes of Rumex acetosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Rumex acetosa is characterized by a multiple chromosome system (2n = 12 + XX for females, and 2n =1 2 + XY1Y2 for males), in which sex is determined by the ratio between the number of X chromosomes and autosome sets. For a better understanding of the molecular structure and evolution of plant sex chromosomes, we have generated a

Beatrice Mariotti; Rafael Navajas-pérez; Rafael Lozano; John S. Parker; Roberto De La Herrán; Carmelo Ruiz Rejón; Manuel Ruiz Rejón; Manuel Garrido-ramos; Manuel Jamilena

150

Multiple sex chromosomes in the light of female meiotic drive in amniote vertebrates.  

PubMed

It is notable that the occurrence of multiple sex chromosomes differs significantly between major lineages of amniote vertebrates. In this respect, birds are especially conspicuous, as multiple sex chromosomes have not been observed in this lineage so far. On the other hand, in mammals, multiple sex chromosomes have evolved many times independently. We hypothesize that this contrast can be related to the different involvement of sex-specific sex chromosomes in female meiosis subjected to the female meiotic drive under male versus female heterogamety. Essentially, the male-specific Y chromosome is not involved in female meiosis and is therefore sheltered against the effects of the female meiotic drive affecting the X chromosome and autosomes. Conversely, the Z and W sex chromosomes are both present in female meiosis. Nonrandom segregation of these sex chromosomes as a consequence of their rearrangements connected with the emergence of multiple sex chromosomes would result in a biased sex ratio, which should be penalized by selection. Therefore, the emergence of multiple sex chromosomes should be less constrained in the lineages with male rather than female heterogamety. Our broader phylogenetic comparison across amniotes supports this prediction. We suggest that our results are consistent with the widespread occurrence of female meiotic drive in amniotes. PMID:24590843

Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

2014-04-01

151

Recent gene-capture on the UV sex chromosomes of the moss Ceratodon purpureus  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes evolve from ordinary autosomes through the expansion and subsequent degeneration of a region of suppressed recombination that is inherited through one sex. Here we investigate the relative timing of these processes in the UV sex chromosomes of the moss Ceratodon purpureus using molecular population genetic analyses of eight newly discovered sex-linked loci. In this system recombination is suppressed on both the female-transmitted (U) sex chromosome and the male-transmitted (V) chromosome. Genes on both chromosomes therefore should show the deleterious effects of suppressed recombination and sex-limited transmission, while purifying selection should maintain homologs of genes essential for both sexes on both sex chromosomes. Based on analyses of eight sex-linked loci, we show that the non-recombining portions of the U and V-chromosomes expanded in at least two events (~0.6 – 1.3 MYA and ~2.8 – 3.5 MYA), after the divergence of C. purpureus from its dioecious sister species, Trichodon cylindricus and Cheilothela chloropus. Both U and V-linked copies showed reduced nucleotide diversity and limited population structure, compared to autosomal loci, suggesting that the sex chromosomes experienced more recent selective sweeps that the autosomes. Collectively these results highlight the dynamic nature of gene composition and molecular evolution on non-recombining portions of the U and V sex chromosomes. PMID:24094335

McDaniel, Stuart F.; Neubig, Kurt M.; Payton, Adam C.; Quatrano, Ralph S.; Cove, David J.

2013-01-01

152

Sex chromosome inactivation in germ cells: emerging roles of DNA damage response pathways  

E-print Network

REVIEW Sex chromosome inactivation in germ cells: emerging roles of DNA damage response pathways / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published online: 2 March 2012 Ă? Springer Basel AG 2012 Abstract Sex. Recent progress has revealed the underlying mechanisms of sex chromosome inactivation in male meiosis

Dean, Matthew D.

153

Regulation of sex chromosome constitution of somatic and germ cells in the wood lemming  

E-print Network

Regulation of sex chromosome constitution of somatic and germ cells in the wood lemming A. GROPP K displays certain peculiar features. (a) The sex ratio shows a prevalence of females, and some females produce only female offspring. (b) A conside- rable proportion of the females has XY sex chromosomes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

Genetics of dioecy and causal sex chromosomes in plants.  

PubMed

Dioecy (separate male and female individuals) ensures outcrossing and is more prevalent in animals than in plants. Although it is common in bryophytes and gymnosperms, only 5% of angiosperms are dioecious. In dioecious higher plants, flowers borne on male and female individuals are, respectively deficient in functional gynoecium and androecium. Dioecy is inherited via three sex chromosome systems: XX/XY, XX/X0 and WZ/ZZ, such that XX or WZ is female and XY, X0 or ZZ are males. The XX/XY system generates the rarer XX/X0 and WZ/ZZ systems. An autosome pair begets XY chromosomes. A recessive loss-of-androecium mutation (ana) creates X chromosome and a dominant gynoecium-suppressing (GYS) mutation creates Y chromosome. The ana/ANA and gys/GYS loci are in the sex-determining region (SDR) of the XY pair. Accumulation of inversions, deleterious mutations and repeat elements, especially transposons, in the SDR of Y suppresses recombination between X and Y in SDR, making Y labile and increasingly degenerate and heteromorphic from X. Continued recombination between X and Y in their pseudoautosomal region located at the ends of chromosomal arms allows survival of the degenerated Y and of the species. Dioecy is presumably a component of the evolutionary cycle for the origin of new species. Inbred hermaphrodite species assume dioecy. Later they suffer degenerate-Y-led population regression. Cross-hybridization between such extinguishing species and heterologous species, followed by genome duplication of segregants from hybrids, give rise to new species. PMID:24840848

Kumar, Sushil; Kumari, Renu; Sharma, Vishakha

2014-04-01

155

Rapid De Novo Evolution of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation in Silene latifolia, a Plant with Young Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ?10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S. latifolia XY chromosomes have gradually stopped recombining and the Y chromosome is undergoing degeneration as in animal sex chromosomes. However, this work has been limited by the paucity of sex-linked genes available. Here, we used 35 Gb of RNA-seq data from multiple males (XY) and females (XX) of an S. latifolia inbred line to detect sex-linked SNPs and identified more than 1,700 sex-linked contigs (with X-linked and Y-linked alleles). Analyses using known sex-linked and autosomal genes, together with simulations indicate that these newly identified sex-linked contigs are reliable. Using read numbers, we then estimated expression levels of X-linked and Y-linked alleles in males and found an overall trend of reduced expression of Y-linked alleles, consistent with a widespread ongoing degeneration of the S. latifolia Y chromosome. By comparing expression intensities of X-linked alleles in males and females, we found that X-linked allele expression increases as Y-linked allele expression decreases in males, which makes expression of sex-linked contigs similar in both sexes. This phenomenon is known as dosage compensation and has so far only been observed in evolutionary old animal sex chromosome systems. Our results suggest that dosage compensation has evolved in plants and that it can quickly evolve de novo after the origin of sex chromosomes. PMID:22529744

Deschamps, Clothilde; Mousset, Sylvain; Widmer, Alex; Marais, Gabriel A. B.

2012-01-01

156

Abnormal skin fibroblast cytogenetics in four dysmorphic patients with normal lymphocyte chromosomes.  

PubMed Central

Four patients with features suggestive of chromosome disorders but with normal lymphocyte karyotypes were found to have chromosome aberrations in skin fibroblast karyotypes. Although mosaicism for chromosome abnormalities in lymphocyte cultures is common, apparent restriction of mosaicism to one tissue is unusual. We suggest that after examination of lymphocyte karyotypes, certain patients warrant cytogenetic evaluation of a second tissue, usually cultured skin fibroblasts. Images Fig. 1 PMID:155399

Pagon, R A; Hall, J G; Davenport, S L; Aase, J; Norwood, T H; Hoehn, H W

1979-01-01

157

Scientists find that chromosomal abnormalities are associated with aging and cancer  

Cancer.gov

Two new studies have found that large structural abnormalities in chromosomes, some of which have been associated with increased risk of cancer, can be detected in a small fraction of people without a prior history of cancer. The studies found that these alterations in chromosomes appear to increase with age, particularly after the age of 50, and may be associated with an increased risk for cancer. Mosaicism, the type of structural abnormality in chromosomes that is described in these studies, results from a DNA alteration that is present in some of the body's cells but not in others. A person with mosaicism has a mixture of normal and mutated cells.

158

Non-homologous sex chromosomes of birds and snakes share repetitive sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snake sex chromosomes provided Susumo Ohno with the material on which he based his theory of how sex chromosomes differentiate\\u000a from autosomal pairs. Like birds, snakes have a ZZ male\\/ZW female sex chromosome system, in which the snake Z is a macrochromosome\\u000a much the same size as the bird Z. However, the gene content shows clearly that the snake and

Denis O’Meally; Hardip R. Patel; Rami Stiglec; Stephen D. Sarre; Arthur Georges; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves; Tariq Ezaz

2010-01-01

159

Characterization of sex chromosomes in rainbow trout and coho salmon using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of characterizing the sex chromosomes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to identify the sex chromosomes of coho salmon (O. kisutch), we used molecular markers OmyP9, 5S rDNA, and a growth hormone gene fragment (GH2), as FISH probes. Metaphase chromosomes were obtained from lymphocyte cultures from farm specimens of rainbow trout and coho salmon. Rainbow trout sex

P. Iturra; N. Lam; M. dela Fuente; N. Vergara; J. F. Medrano

2001-01-01

160

Sex differences in juvenile mouse social behavior are influenced by sex chromosomes and social context  

PubMed Central

Play behavior in juvenile primates, rats, and other species is sexually dimorphic, with males demonstrating more play than females. In mice, sex differences in juvenile play have only been examined in out-bred CD-1 mice. In this strain, contrary to other animals, male mice display less play soliciting than females. Using an established same-sex dyadic interaction test, we examined play in inbred C57BL/6J (B6) 21 day-old mice. When paired with non-siblings, males tended to be more social than females, spending more time exploring the test cage. Females displayed significantly more anogenital sniffing and solicited play more frequently than did males. To determine if the origin of the sex difference was sex chromosome genes or gonadal sex, next we used the four core genotype (FCG) mouse. We found significant interactions between gonadal sex and genotype for several behaviors. Finally, we asked if sibling pairs (as compared to non-siblings) would display qualitative or quantitatively different behavior. In fact, XX females paired with a sibling were more social and less exploratory or investigative, while XY males exhibited less investigative and play soliciting behaviors in tests with siblings. Many neurobehavioral disorders, like autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are sexually dimorphic in incidence and patients interact less than normal with other children. Our results suggest that sex chromosome genes interact with gonadal hormones to shape the development of juvenile social behavior, and that social context can drastically alter sex differences. These data may have relevance for understanding the etiology of sexually dimorphic disorders such as ASD. PMID:21414140

Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.

2011-01-01

161

The Importance of Screening and Prenatal Diagnosis in the Identification of the Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background and aims: The obstetric care of a pregnancy, as it is practiced today, includes non-invasive screening approaches as well as invasive procedures for the definitive prenatal diagnosis of fetal disorders correlations between indications for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis and results of the chromosomal analysis made upon fetal cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the correlations between the screening test results and results of chromosomal analysis on fetal cells. Methods: Amniotic fluid samples from 1159 pregnant women were studied with the rapid FISH method and the cytogenetic analysis (karyotype). The results from both methods were compared. Results: The indications to perform prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis for numerical chromosomal abnormalities were: abnormal results of double or triple test, advanced maternal age, fetal abnormality detected through ultrasound examination, and positive family history for chromosomal anomalies. In our study we identified 30 cases with abnormal numeric chromosomes (18 cases of trisomy 21, 4 cases of trisomy 18, 3 cases of trisomy X, 1 case of monosomy, 2 cases of trisomy XYY, 1 case of trisomy XXY and 1 case of triploidy). Conclusions: This report confirms the importance of screening and the cytogenetic diagnosis in the identification of the numerical chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:22368694

NEAGOS, Daniela; CRETU, Ruxandra; SFETEA, Roxana Corina; BOHILTEA, Laurentiu Camil

2011-01-01

162

INDEPENDENT STRATUM FORMATION ON THE AVIAN SEX CHROMOSOMES REVEALS INTER-CHROMOSOMAL GENE CONVERSION AND PREDOMINANCE OF PURIFYING SELECTION ON THE W CHROMOSOME  

PubMed Central

We used a comparative approach spanning three species and 90 million years to study the evolutionary history of the avian sex chromosomes. Using whole transcriptomes, we assembled the largest cross-species dataset of W-linked coding content to date. Our results show that recombination suppression in large portions of the avian sex chromosomes has evolved independently, and that long-term sex chromosome divergence is consistent with repeated and independent inversions spreading progressively to restrict recombination. In contrast, over short-term periods we observe heterogeneous and locus-specific divergence. We also uncover four instances of gene conversion between both highly diverged and recently evolved gametologs, suggesting a complex mosaic of recombination suppression across the sex chromosomes. Lastly, evidence from 16 gametologs reveal that the W chromosome is evolving with a significant contribution of purifying selection, consistent with previous findings that W-linked genes play an important role in encoding sex-specific fitness. PMID:25066800

Wright, Alison E; Harrison, Peter W; Montgomery, Stephen H; Pointer, Marie A; Mank, Judith E

2014-01-01

163

Sex determination in Madagascar geckos of the genus Paroedura (Squamata: Gekkonidae): are differentiated sex chromosomes indeed so evolutionary stable?  

PubMed

Among amniote vertebrates, geckos represent a clade with exceptional variability in sex determination; however, only a minority of species of this highly diverse group has been studied in this respect. Here, we describe for the first time a female heterogamety in the genus Paroedura, the group radiated in Madagascar and adjacent islands. We identified homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome in Paroedura masobe, Paroedura oviceps, Paroedura karstophila, Paroedura stumpffi, and Paroedura lohatsara. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed that female-specific sequences are greatly amplified in the W chromosome of P. lohatsara and that P. gracilis seems to possess a derived system of multiple sex chromosomes. Contrastingly, neither CGH nor heterochromatin visualization revealed differentiated sex chromosomes in the members of the Paroedura picta-Paroedura bastardi-Paroedura ibityensis clade, which is phylogenetically nested within lineages with a heterochromatic W chromosome. As a sex ratio consistent with genotypic sex determination has been reported in P. picta, it appears that the members of the P. picta-P. bastardi-P. ibityensis clade possess homomorphic, poorly differentiated sex chromosomes and may represent a rare example of evolutionary loss of highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe revealed a telomere-typical pattern in all species and an accumulation of telomeric sequences in the centromeric region of autosomes in P. stumpffi and P. bastardi. Our study adds important information for the greater understanding of the variability and evolution of sex determination in geckos and demonstrates how the geckos of the genus Paroedura provide an interesting model for studying the evolution of the sex chromosomes. PMID:25056523

Koubová, Martina; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, Michail; Farka?ová, Klára; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

2014-12-01

164

Growth and differentiation of circulating hemopoietic stem cells with atomic bomb irradiation-induced chromosome abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

The effects of atomic bomb irradiation on hemopoietic stem cells were studied cytogenetically using single colonies derived from hemopoietic progenitor cells. The subjects studied were 21 healthy atomic bomb survivors (10 males and 11 females) in the high dose exposure group (100+ rad) with a known high incidence (10% or more) of radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities in their peripheral blood lymphocytes (stimulated with phytohemagglutinin), and 11 nonexposed healthy controls (5 males and 6 females). Colony formation by circulating granulocyte-macrophage (GM-CFC) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells was made by the methylcellulose method using peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chromosome specimens were prepared from single colonies by our micromethod. The total number of colonies analyzed in the exposed group was 131 for GM-CFC and 75 for BFU-E. Chromosome abnormalities were observed in 15 (11.5%) and 9 (12.0%) colonies, respectively. In the control group, the total number of colonies analyzed was 61 for GM-CFC and 41 for BFU-E. None of these colonies showed chromosome abnormalities. The difference in incidence of chromosome abnormalities was highly significant by an exact test; p = 0.003 for GM-CFC and 0.017 for BFU-E. The karyotypes of chromosome abnormalities obtained from the colonies in the exposed group were mostly translocations, but deletion and marker chromosomes were also observed. In two individuals, such karyotypic abnormalities as observed in the peripheral lymphocytes were also seen in the myeloid progenitor cells. This finding suggests that atomic bomb irradiation produced a chromosome aberration on multipotent hemopoietic stem cells common to myeloid and lymphoid lineages.

Amenomori, T.; Honda, T.; Otake, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Ichimaru, M.

1988-11-01

165

MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

Rosen, M.; And Others

1971-01-01

166

Progressive Recombination Suppression and Differentiation in Recently Evolved Neo-sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Recombination suppression leads to the structural and functional differentiation of sex chromosomes and is thus a crucial step in the process of sex chromosome evolution. Despite extensive theoretical work, the exact processes and mechanisms of recombination suppression and differentiation are not well understood. In threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a different sex chromosome system has recently evolved by a fusion between the Y chromosome and an autosome in the Japan Sea lineage, which diverged from the ancestor of other lineages approximately 2 Ma. We investigated the evolutionary dynamics and differentiation processes of sex chromosomes based on comparative analyses of these divergent lineages using 63 microsatellite loci. Both chromosome-wide differentiation patterns and phylogenetic inferences with X and Y alleles indicated that the ancestral sex chromosomes were extensively differentiated before the divergence of these lineages. In contrast, genetic differentiation appeared to have proceeded only in a small region of the neo-sex chromosomes. The recombination maps constructed for the Japan Sea lineage indicated that recombination has been suppressed or reduced over a large region spanning the ancestral and neo-sex chromosomes. Chromosomal regions exhibiting genetic differentiation and suppressed or reduced recombination were detected continuously and sequentially in the neo-sex chromosomes, suggesting that differentiation has gradually spread from the fusion point following the extension of recombination suppression. Our study illustrates an ongoing process of sex chromosome differentiation, providing empirical support for the theoretical model postulating that recombination suppression and differentiation proceed in a gradual manner in the very early stage of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:23436913

Natri, Heini M.; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha

2013-01-01

167

Comparative mapping reveals autosomal origin of sex chromosome in octoploid Fragaria virginiana.  

PubMed

Recent evolution of separate sexes in flowering plants provides unparalleled opportunities for understanding the early stages of sex chromosome evolution, including their origin from autosomes. Moreover, the transition from combined to separate sexes can be associated with speciation via polyploidization in angiosperms, suggesting that genome doubling/merger may facilitate sterility mutations required for sex chromosome formation. To gain insight into the origin of sex chromosomes in a polyploid plant, we doubled the simple sequence repeat (SSR) density and increased genome coverage in a genetic map of octoploid Fragaria virginiana, a species purported to have a "proto-sex" chromosome, where limited recombination occurs between 2 linked "loci" carrying the male- and female-sterility mutations. Incorporation of almost 3 times the number of SSR markers into the current map facilitated complete characterization of the F. virginiana proto-sex chromosome, revealing its largely autosomal nature and the location of the sex-determining region toward the distal end. Furthermore, extensive synteny between our genetic map and a map involving diploid hermaphroditic congeners allowed assignment of linkage groups to homeologous groups, identification of the proto-sex chromosome's autosomal homoeolog, and detection of a putative rearrangement near the sex-determining region. Fine mapping and additional comparative work will shed light on the intriguing possibility that rearrangements during polyploidization were involved in the evolution of sex chromosomes in Fragaria. PMID:20421320

Spigler, Rachel B; Lewers, Kim S; Johnson, Anna L; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2010-01-01

168

Genomic Characterization of Prenatally Detected Chromosomal Structural Abnormalities Using Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S.; Florio, Joanne R.; Rossi, Michael R.; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J.

2013-01-01

169

Genomic characterization of prenatally detected chromosomal structural abnormalities using oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization.  

PubMed

Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S; Florio, Joanne R; Rossi, Michael R; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J

2011-07-01

170

Mammalian sex—Origin and evolution of the Y chromosome and SRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex determination in vertebrates is accomplished through a highly conserved genetic pathway. But surprisingly, the downstream events may be activated by a variety of triggers, including sex determining genes and environmental cues. Amongst species with genetic sex determination, the sex determining gene is anything but conserved, and the chromosomes that bear this master switch subscribe to special rules of evolution

Paul D. Waters; Mary C. Wallis; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

2007-01-01

171

The origin and evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, birds, snakes and many lizards and fish, sex is determined genetically (either male XY heterogamy or female ZW heterogamy), whereas in alligators, and in many reptiles and turtles, the temperature at which eggs are incubated determines sex. Evidently, different sex-determining systems (and sex chromosome pairs) have evolved independently in different vertebrate lineages. Homology shared by Xs and Ys

A M Livernois; J A M Graves; P D Waters

2012-01-01

172

The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ\\/ZW micro-sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae: Reptilia) is an agamid lizard endemic to Australia. Like crocodilians and many turtles, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common in agamid lizards, although many species have genotypic sex determination (GSD). P. vitticeps is reported to have GSD, but no detectable sex chromosomes. Here we used molecular cytogenetic and differential banding techniques to reveal sex

Tariq Ezaz; Alexander E. Quinn; Ikuo Miura; Stephen D. Sarre; Arthur Georges; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

2005-01-01

173

LEOPARD syndrome with partly normal skin and sex chromosome mosaicism.  

PubMed

We report on a family with LEOPARD syndrome which was molecularly proven (p.Thr468Met in PTPN11) in a father and his adult son. The father had multiple lentigines dispersed equally over his body; the son was similarly affected except for the left part of thorax, back and left arm, which were completely devoid of lentigines and only showed a few nevi. In addition, the son was found to have a mosaic karyotype, 47,XYY/46,XY, in lymphocytes. Skin biopsies from the pigmented and unpigmented forearm showed that mainly a 47,XYY karyotype was present in the pigmented skin and mainly a 46,XY karyotype in the unpigmented skin. In both fibroblast cultures the PTPN11 mutation was present, and no additional mutation could be detected. We discuss the various possible explanations for this phenotype, which include the possibility of coincidence; revertant mosaicism; silencing of a second PTPN11 mutation; gene(s) located on a sex chromosome influencing the phenotype; and epigenetic influences. We favor that the co-occurrence of a sex chromosome mosaicism and mosaicism for skin symptoms in a single patient with LEOPARD syndrome is coincidence, but that mosaicism for LEOPARD skin symptoms in itself may well be more frequent and needs additional studies. Each of the above-hypothesized mechanisms may then remain possible. PMID:17935252

Writzl, Karin; Hoovers, Jan; Sistermans, Erik A; Hennekam, Raoul C M

2007-11-01

174

Sex Chromosomes and Karyotype of the (Nearly) Mythical Creature, the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae)  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha) encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae). If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n?=?36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes). 2n?=?36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n?=?38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates. PMID:25119263

Pokorná, Martina Johnson; Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

2014-01-01

175

Dissociable Effects of Sry and Sex Chromosome Complement on Activity, Feeding and Anxiety-Related Behaviours in Mice  

PubMed Central

Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine ‘four core genotype’ (FCG) model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression) and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry (‘sex chromosome complement’ effects) to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry) exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry); in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes) XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water) consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i) the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii) dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions. PMID:24009762

Kopsida, Eleni; Lynn, Phoebe M.; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S.; Davies, William

2013-01-01

176

A Large Pseudoautosomal Region on the Sex Chromosomes of the Frog Silurana tropicalis  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosome divergence has been documented across phylogenetically diverse species, with amphibians typically having cytologically nondiverged (“homomorphic”) sex chromosomes. With an aim of further characterizing sex chromosome divergence of an amphibian, we used “RAD-tags” and Sanger sequencing to examine sex specificity and heterozygosity in the Western clawed frog Silurana tropicalis (also known as Xenopus tropicalis). Our findings based on approximately 20 million genotype calls and approximately 200 polymerase chain reaction-amplified regions across multiple male and female genomes failed to identify a substantially sized genomic region with genotypic hallmarks of sex chromosome divergence, including in regions known to be tightly linked to the sex-determining region. We also found that expression and molecular evolution of genes linked to the sex-determining region did not differ substantially from genes in other parts of the genome. This suggests that the pseudoautosomal region, where recombination occurs, comprises a large portion of the sex chromosomes of S. tropicalis. These results may in part explain why African clawed frogs have such a high incidence of polyploidization, shed light on why amphibians have a high rate of sex chromosome turnover, and raise questions about why homomorphic sex chromosomes are so prevalent in amphibians. PMID:23666865

Bewick, Adam J.; Chain, Frédéric J.J.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Sesay, Abdul; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Owens, Nick D.L.; Seifertova, Eva; Krylov, Vladimir; Macha, Jaroslav; Tlapakova, Tereza; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Zarsky, Vojtech; Evans, Ben J.

2013-01-01

177

Novel sex-determining genes in fish and sex chromosome evolution.  

PubMed

Although the molecular mechanisms underlying many developmental events are conserved across vertebrate taxa, the lability at the top of the sex-determining (SD) cascade has been evident from the fact that four master SD genes have been identified: mammalian Sry; chicken DMRT1; medaka Dmy; and Xenopus laevis DM-W. This diversity is thought to be associated with the turnover of sex chromosomes, which is likely to be more frequent in fishes and other poikilotherms than in therian mammals and birds. Recently, four novel candidates for vertebrate SD genes were reported, all of them in fishes. These include amhy in the Patagonian pejerrey, Gsdf in Oryzias luzonensis, Amhr2 in fugu and sdY in rainbow trout. These studies provide a good opportunity to infer patterns from the seemingly chaotic picture of sex determination systems. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the master SD genes in fishes. PMID:23335327

Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

2013-04-01

178

Interchromosomal Duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y Chromosome Imply a Distinct Evolutionary Origin of the Sex Chromosomes Compared to Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background Diptera have an extraordinary variety of sex determination mechanisms, and Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for this group. However, the Drosophila sex determination pathway is only partially conserved and the family Tephritidae affords an interesting example. The tephritid Y chromosome is postulated to be necessary to determine male development. Characterization of Y sequences, apart from elucidating the nature of the male determining factor, is also important to understand the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes within the Tephritidae. We studied the Y sequences from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Its Y chromosome is minute and highly heterochromatic, and displays high heteromorphism with the X chromosome. Methodology/Principal Findings A combined Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) approach was used to investigate the Y chromosome to derive information on its sequence content. The Y chromosome is strewn with repetitive DNA sequences, the majority of which are also interdispersed in the pericentromeric regions of the autosomes. The Y chromosome appears to have accumulated small and large repetitive interchromosomal duplications. The large interchromosomal duplications harbour an importin-4-like gene fragment. Apart from these importin-4-like sequences, the other Y repetitive sequences are not shared with the X chromosome, suggesting molecular differentiation of these two chromosomes. Moreover, as the identified Y sequences were not detected on the Y chromosomes of closely related tephritids, we can infer divergence in the repetitive nature of their sequence contents. Conclusions/Significance The identification of Y-linked sequences may tell us much about the repetitive nature, the origin and the evolution of Y chromosomes. We hypothesize how these repetitive sequences accumulated and were maintained on the Y chromosome during its evolutionary history. Our data reinforce the idea that the sex chromosomes of the Tephritidae may have distinct evolutionary origins with respect to those of the Drosophilidae and other Dipteran families. PMID:21408187

Gabrieli, Paolo; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Bonomi, Angelica; Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Franz, Gerald; Jessup, Andrew; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

2011-01-01

179

Alterations and Abnormal Mitosis of Wheat Chromosomes Induced by Wheat-Rye Monosomic Addition Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. ‘Mianyang11’×rye S. cereale L. ‘Kustro’ and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with ‘Mianyang11’ followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in ‘Mianyang11’. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat. PMID:23936213

Fu, Shulan; Yang, Manyu; Fei, Yunyan; Tan, Feiquan; Ren, Zhenglong; Yan, Benju; Zhang, Huaiyu; Tang, Zongxiang

2013-01-01

180

Risk of chromosomal abnormalities, with emphasis on live-born offspring of young mothers  

SciTech Connect

In a large public urban hospital obstetrics service with >123,000 deliveries in a 10-year period (1980-89), the frequencies (0.12%) of any type of chromosomal abnormality and of trisomy syndromes were analyzed for maternal age-related risk, by logistic regression. Focusing on very young gravidas, we found that in the study period there were 9,332 births (7.5% of all deliveries) to mothers {le}16 years old. Estimated risks of chromosomal abnormalities among offspring associated with very young maternal age (9-16 years) were similar to those age-associated risks of mothers 20-29 years old. Risks of chromosomal abnormalities increase with advancing maternal age and are independent of ethnicity. 15 refs., 9 tabs.

Little, B.B.; Ramin, S.M.; Cambridge, B.S. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

181

Unequal mitotic sister chromatid exchange: A rare mechanism for chromosomal abnormality resulting in duplication/deletion of chromosome 7q  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of unequal mitotic chromatid exchange, which has rarely been reported as a mechanism for microscopic chromosomal anomalies. The proposita was born at 40 weeks, after an uneventful pregnancy, of parents with a negative family history. The baby was small for gestational age and had dysmorphic features, including scaphocephaly, bilateral epicanthal folds and palpebral ptosis, mild hypertelorism, hypoplasia of orbital contours, right coloboma, bulbous prominent nose, retrognathism, downturned mouth, low set posteriorly rotated ears, tapering of the limbs. bilateral Sydney creases. At 5 months, she was under the 5th percentile for height, weight and head circumference, and had a mild developmental delay. The karyotype showed an abnormality of chromosome 7 in all cells, half with a duplication and half with a deletion of the same region; 46,XX,del(7)(q33{yields}q34)/46,XX,dup(7)(q33{yields}q34). This chromosomal abnormality could be explained by an unequal chromatid exchange occuring in the first mitosis of the embryo. To our knowledge, only one such human microscopic abnormality, involving chromosome Y, has been reported to date. This type of genetic unbalance could be missed by molecular techniques.

Eydoux, P.; Ortenberg, J.; Chalifoux, N. [Montreal Children`s Hospital, Quebec (Canada)

1994-09-01

182

A time stamp comparative analysis of frequent chromosomal abnormalities in Romanian patients.  

PubMed

Chromosome abnormalities represent the leading cause in many human genetic disorders. Gain or loss of genetic material can disrupt the normal expression of genes important in fetal development and result in abnormal phenotypes. Approximately 60% of first-trimester spontaneous abortions exhibit karyotype abnormalities. The majority of these abnormalities consist of numerical chromosomal changes, such as autosomal trisomy, monosomy X and polyploidy. In our current study, 411 cases were analyzed over a period of 5 years, which reflected the incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities in Romania. Down syndrome showed the highest frequency at 79%. At 2.6% structural chromosome abnormality syndromes and Turner syndrome followed suit. Next were the Edwards and Patau syndromes with an incidence of 1.2%. Klinefelter, Cri du chat and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes all had an incidence of 0.7%. Finally, the lowest frequencies were shown by Williams at 0.4% and only one case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with abnormal karyotype. The average maternal age at childbirth was 31.15 years (SD?=?6.96) and the average paternal age was 33.41 years (SD?=?7.17). PMID:23570267

Suciu, Nicolae; Plaiasu, Vasilica

2014-01-01

183

Loss of sex chromosomes in the hematopoietic disorders: Questions, concerns and data interpretation  

SciTech Connect

The significance of sex chromosome aberrations in the hematopoietic disorders has not yet been defined. Interpretive problems stem from (1) the loss of a sex chromosome associated with aging, (2) sex chromosome loss as the sole aberration in leukemia is rare, (3) random -(X or Y) is observed frequently in bone marrow samples, and (4) constitutional sex chromosome anomalies must be ruled out in cancer and follow-up may not be possible. The COH database identified 41 patients (pts) with sex chromosome loss. Loss of a sex chromosome was common in myeloid disorders (21/41). In t(8;21) leukemia (n=10), -(X or Y) was a common secondary karyotypic change. Additionally, -Y was associated with clonal evolution in 2 Ph + CML pts. In 2 elderly pts with myeloid disorders, -(X or Y) was observed in complex karyotypes with dmins; however, in the lymphoproliferative disorders -(X or Y) was noted in elderly pts without apparent pathogenetic significance. Three pts had constitutional sex chromosome aberrations: CML in 45,X; ALL in 47, XXY; and RAEB-IT in mos45,X/46,XX. In the mos45,X/46,XX pt, the leukemic clone was associated with the 45,X line without other karyotypic changes. Non-clonal aberrations were observed in 11 cases; in 3 cases these non-clonal losses were observed in serial samples. In a sex-mismatched BMT case, -(X or Y) in 4 cells was one of the first pathogenetic signs of leukemia relapse. These data suggest (1) interpretation of sex chromosome loss in leukemia must be made with caution and after a baseline sample, (2) non-clonal aberrations should be recorded, and (3) -(X or Y) appears to have pathogenetic significance in the myeloid disorders. Multi-institutional studies are needed to define (1) the incidence of leukemia in pts with constitutional sex chromosome anomalies and (2) the incidence and significance of sex chromosome aberrations as the primary (sole) cytogenetic aberration in leukemia.

Slovak, M.L. [City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

184

Genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in a subdioecious plant with a proto-sex chromosome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sexual dimorphism is thought to arise once sexually antagonistic genes accumulate on sex chromosomes early in their evolution. Yet because the earliest stages of sex chromosome evolution are elusive, we lack empirical evidence supporting this theory. In this study, we shed first light on the genetic...

185

Effects of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies on Brain Development: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variation in the number of sex chromosomes is a relatively common genetic condition, affecting as many as 1/400 individuals. The sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are associated with characteristic behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, although the degree to which specific individuals are affected can fall within a wide range. Understanding the…

Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.

2009-01-01

186

The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

The bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae: Reptilia) is an agamid lizard endemic to Australia. Like crocodilians and many turtles, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common in agamid lizards, although many species have genotypic sex determination (GSD). P. vitticeps is reported to have GSD, but no detectable sex chromosomes. Here we used molecular cytogenetic and differential banding techniques to reveal sex chromosomes in this species. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), GTG- and C-banding identified a highly heterochromatic microchromosome specific to females, demonstrating female heterogamety (ZZ/ZW) in this species. We isolated the P. vitticeps W chromosome by microdissection, re-amplified the DNA and used it to paint the W. No unpaired bivalents were detected in male synaptonemal complexes at meiotic pachytene, confirming male homogamety. We conclude that P. vitticeps has differentiated previously unidentifable W and Z micro-sex chromosomes, the first to be demonstrated in an agamid lizard. Our finding implies that heterochromatinization of the heterogametic chromosome occurred during sex chromosome differentiation in this species, as is the case in some lizards and many snakes, as well as in birds and mammals. Many GSD reptiles with cryptic sex chromosomes may also prove to have micro-sex chromosomes. Reptile microchromosomes, long dismissed as non-functional minutiae and often omitted from karyotypes, therefore deserve closer scrutiny with new and more sensitive techniques. PMID:16331408

Ezaz, Tariq; Quinn, Alexander E; Miura, Ikuo; Sarre, Stephen D; Georges, Arthur; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

2005-01-01

187

Mammalian sex--Origin and evolution of the Y chromosome and SRY.  

PubMed

Sex determination in vertebrates is accomplished through a highly conserved genetic pathway. But surprisingly, the downstream events may be activated by a variety of triggers, including sex determining genes and environmental cues. Amongst species with genetic sex determination, the sex determining gene is anything but conserved, and the chromosomes that bear this master switch subscribe to special rules of evolution and function. In mammals, with a few notable exceptions, female are homogametic (XX) and males have a single X and a small, heterochromatic and gene poor Y that bears a male dominant sex determining gene SRY. The bird sex chromosome system is the converse in that females are the heterogametic sex (ZW) and males the homogametic sex (ZZ). There is no SRY in birds, and the dosage-sensitive Z-borne DMRT1 gene is a credible candidate sex determining gene. Different sex determining switches seem therefore to have evolved independently in different lineages, although the complex sex chromosomes of the platypus offer us tantalizing clues that the mammal XY system may have evolved directly from an ancient reptile ZW system. In this review we will discuss the organization and evolution of the sex chromosomes across a broad range of mammals, and speculate on how the Y chromosome, and SRY, evolved. PMID:17400006

Waters, Paul D; Wallis, Mary C; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

2007-06-01

188

Chromosome abnormalities in Down's syndrome patients with acute leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome and cytologic studies were performed on three Down's syndrome (DS) patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). All three patients had an aneuploid clone in their leukemic cells: 50,XX, +6, +19, +21, +22, 48,XX, +8, +21, and 47,XY, +8, -21, +dic(21;21)(p13;p11). Every patient appeared to have acute undifferentiated leukemia when the blast cells were examined with Wright-Giemsa stain; cytochemistry studies, however, showed that the leukemic blasts were in an early stage of myeloid differentation. The two patients with +8 had a preleukemic phase; the blast cells of the patient with an extra no. 19 and no. 22 could not be differentiated morphologically from those of the two patients with an extra no. 8. Our findings and a review of data on 40 other patients suggest that most DS children with ANLL have hyperdiploidy, which is usually related to gains of C, F, and/or G chromosomes.

Kaneko, Y. (Univ. of Chicago, IL); Rowley, J.D.; Variakojis, D; Chilcote, R.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Patel, D.

1981-09-01

189

Chromosome Abnormalities in Malignant Lymphoma in Patients from Kurashiki: Histological and ImmunophenotypicCorrelations1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal chromosomal abnormalities were found in tumor tissue of 43 (84%) of 51 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-cell, 32; T-cell, 15) from an adult T-cell leukemia\\/I) mphoma-nonendemicarea in western mainland Japan. Four tumors were tetraploid, and the other 39 had a chromosome number in the diploid range. Trisomies 3, 5, 7, 18, and \\\\. monosomy 13, and loss of an

Hiroshi Konishi; Masaharu Sakurai; Hatsue Nakao; Nobuo Maseki; Yasuhiko Kaneko; Yoshio Yagiri; Kenji Notohara

190

[Lived experience of women with fetal chromosomal abnormality receiving termination at second trimester].  

PubMed

Fetal chromosomal examination helps screen fetal chromosomal abnormalities prenatally. Diagnosis of such anomalies allows pregnancy termination, but causes tremendous trauma during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of women suffering from fetal chromosomal abnormalities who are urgently required to terminate their pregnancy. The qualitative field study was conducted at a medical center in Taipei. The researcher, a primary nurse, conducted interviews with five women face to face or over the phone to collect the data. The period of care lasted for two weeks, beginning with confirmed diagnosis of fetal chromosomal abnormalities, followed by the subjects' decision on pregnancy termination, and ending up with their discharge from the hospital. The study is presented in narrative form and the data analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology. Three categories of lived experience emerged from the data: (1) recurring nightmares, (2) the torment from making the decision of pregnancy termination, and (3) frustration or sadness afterwards. The results illustrated that the lived experience of the women suffering from fetal chromosomal abnormalities and receiving termination was a continuous process. We suggest that medical staff concern themselves with the issue and provide humanistic caring for patients during the various different phases. PMID:18098106

Hsu, Chin-Mei; Su, Tsann-Juu; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Hwang, Jiann-Lonng

2007-12-01

191

The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes Tariq Ezaz1*, Alexander E. Quinn2  

E-print Network

The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes Tariq Ezaz1*, Alexander E. Quinn, heterochromatinization, microchromosomes, sex chromosomes Abstract The bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae

Canberra, University of

192

The number of x chromosomes causes sex differences in adiposity in mice.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism in body weight, fat distribution, and metabolic disease has been attributed largely to differential effects of male and female gonadal hormones. Here, we report that the number of X chromosomes within cells also contributes to these sex differences. We employed a unique mouse model, known as the "four core genotypes," to distinguish between effects of gonadal sex (testes or ovaries) and sex chromosomes (XX or XY). With this model, we produced gonadal male and female mice carrying XX or XY sex chromosome complements. Mice were gonadectomized to remove the acute effects of gonadal hormones and to uncover effects of sex chromosome complement on obesity. Mice with XX sex chromosomes (relative to XY), regardless of their type of gonad, had up to 2-fold increased adiposity and greater food intake during daylight hours, when mice are normally inactive. Mice with two X chromosomes also had accelerated weight gain on a high fat diet and developed fatty liver and elevated lipid and insulin levels. Further genetic studies with mice carrying XO and XXY chromosome complements revealed that the differences between XX and XY mice are attributable to dosage of the X chromosome, rather than effects of the Y chromosome. A subset of genes that escape X chromosome inactivation exhibited higher expression levels in adipose tissue and liver of XX compared to XY mice, and may contribute to the sex differences in obesity. Overall, our study is the first to identify sex chromosome complement, a factor distinguishing all male and female cells, as a cause of sex differences in obesity and metabolism. PMID:22589744

Chen, Xuqi; McClusky, Rebecca; Chen, Jenny; Beaven, Simon W; Tontonoz, Peter; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen

2012-01-01

193

Multiple Sex-Associated Regions and a Putative Sex Chromosome in Zebrafish Revealed by RAD Mapping and Population Genomics  

PubMed Central

Within vertebrates, major sex determining genes can differ among taxa and even within species. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified. Furthermore, environmental factors can influence zebrafish sex determination. Although progress has been made in understanding zebrafish gonad differentiation (e.g. the influence of germ cells on gonad fate), the primary genetic basis of zebrafish sex determination remains poorly understood. To identify genetic loci associated with sex, we analyzed F2 offspring of reciprocal crosses between Oregon *AB and Nadia (NA) wild-type zebrafish stocks. Genome-wide linkage analysis, using more than 5,000 sequence-based polymorphic restriction site associated (RAD-tag) markers and population genomic analysis of more than 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in our *ABxNA crosses revealed a sex-associated locus on the end of the long arm of chr-4 for both cross families, and an additional locus in the middle of chr-3 in one cross family. Additional sequencing showed that two SNPs in dmrt1 previously suggested to be functional candidates for sex determination in a cross of ABxIndia wild-type zebrafish, are not associated with sex in our AB fish. Our data show that sex determination in zebrafish is polygenic and that different genes may influence sex determination in different strains or that different genes become more important under different environmental conditions. The association of the end of chr-4 with sex is remarkable because, unique in the karyotype, this chromosome arm shares features with known sex chromosomes: it is highly heterochromatic, repetitive, late replicating, and has reduced recombination. Our results reveal that chr-4 has functional and structural properties expected of a sex chromosome. PMID:22792396

Anderson, Jennifer L.; Rodríguez Marí, Adriana; Braasch, Ingo; Amores, Angel; Hohenlohe, Paul; Batzel, Peter; Postlethwait, John H.

2012-01-01

194

Ring chromosome 5 associated with severe growth retardation as the sole major physical abnormality  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on a case of ring chromosome 5 in a 36-month-old girl with severe growth retardation, clinodactyly, mild psychological abnormalities, and normal facial appearance. Endocrine tests showed partial growth hormone deficiency. Cytogenetic investigation failed to demonstrate any apparent microscopic deletion of either the short or long arm of chromosome 5 as a consequence of ring formation. In 12% of cells examined, the ring was either absent or present in multiple copies. Only 3 previous cases of ring chromosome 5 have been reported in association with short stature of prenatal onset and minor anomalies, without mental retardation. 12 refs., 3 figs.

Migliori, M.V.; Pettinari, A. [Ospedale Salesi, Ancona (Italy); Cherubini, V.; Bartolotta, E.; Pecora, R. [Ospedale S. Lucia, Recanati (Italy)

1994-01-01

195

The ZW sex chromosomes of Gekko hokouensis (Gekkonidae, Squamata) represent highly conserved homology with those of avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of the gecko lizard Gekko hokouensis (Gekkonidae, Squamata) on Okinawajima Island and a few other islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, have the morphologically\\u000a differentiated sex chromosomes, the acrocentric Z chromosome and the subtelocentric W chromosome, although the continental\\u000a representative of this species reportedly shows no sex chromosome heteromorphism. To investigate the origin of sex chromosomes\\u000a and the process

Aya Kawai; Junko Ishijima; Chizuko Nishida; Ayumi Kosaka; Hidetoshi Ota; Sei-ichi Kohno; Yoichi Matsuda

2009-01-01

196

The origin and evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.  

PubMed

In mammals, birds, snakes and many lizards and fish, sex is determined genetically (either male XY heterogamy or female ZW heterogamy), whereas in alligators, and in many reptiles and turtles, the temperature at which eggs are incubated determines sex. Evidently, different sex-determining systems (and sex chromosome pairs) have evolved independently in different vertebrate lineages. Homology shared by Xs and Ys (and Zs and Ws) within species demonstrates that differentiated sex chromosomes were once homologous, and that the sex-specific non-recombining Y (or W) was progressively degraded. Consequently, genes are left in single copy in the heterogametic sex, which results in an imbalance of the dosage of genes on the sex chromosomes between the sexes, and also relative to the autosomes. Dosage compensation has evolved in diverse species to compensate for these dose differences, with the stringency of compensation apparently differing greatly between lineages, perhaps reflecting the concentration of genes on the original autosome pair that required dosage compensation. We discuss the organization and evolution of amniote sex chromosomes, and hypothesize that dosage insensitivity might predispose an autosome to evolving function as a sex chromosome. PMID:22086077

Livernois, A M; Graves, J A M; Waters, P D

2012-01-01

197

Genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in a subdioecious plant with a proto-sex chromosome.  

PubMed

The rise of sexual dimorphism is thought to coincide with the evolution of sex chromosomes. Yet because sex chromosomes in many species are ancient, we lack empirical evidence of the earliest stages of this transition. We use QTL analysis to examine the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in subdioecious octoploid Fragaria virginiana. We demonstrate that the region housing the male-function locus controls the majority of quantitative variation in proportion fruit set, confirming the existence of a proto-sex chromosome, and houses major QTL for eight additional sexually dimorphic traits, consistent with theory and data from animals and plants with more advanced sex chromosomes. We also detected autosomal QTL, demonstrating contributions to phenotypic variation in sexually dimorphic traits outside the sex-determining region. Moreover, for proportion seed set we found significant epistatic interactions between autosomal QTL and the male-function locus, indicating sex-limited QTL. We identified linked QTL reflecting trade-offs between male and female traits expected from theory and positive integration of male traits. These findings indicate the potential for the evolution of greater sexual dimorphism. Involvement of linkage groups homeologous to the proto-sex chromosome in these correlations reflects the polyploid origin of F. virginiana and raises the possibility that chromosomes in this homeologous group were predisposed to become the sex chromosome. PMID:21062281

Spigler, Rachel B; Lewers, Kim S; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2011-04-01

198

Sex chromosome evolution in cotton stainers of the genus Dysdercus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae).  

PubMed

The neo-X and neo-Y sex chromosomes of Dysdercus albofasciatus represent a unique model for the study of early stages of sex chromosome evolution since they retained the ability to pair and recombine, in contrast to sex chromosomes in most Heteroptera. Here we examined structure, molecular differentiation, and meiotic behaviour of the D. albofasciatus neo-sex chromosomes. Two related species with the ancestral X0 system, D. chaquensis and D. ruficollis, were used for a comparison. In D. albofasciatus, 2 nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were identified on the neo-X chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with an rDNA probe, whereas a single NOR was found on an autosomal pair in the other 2 species. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) differentiated a part of the original X in the neo-X chromosome but not the neo-Y chromosome. The same segment of the neo-X chromosome was identified by Zoo-FISH with a chromosome painting probe derived from the X chromosome of D. ruficollis, indicating that this part is conserved between the species. Immunostaining against the cohesin subunit SMC3 revealed that only terminal regions of the D. albofasciatus neo-Xneo-Y bivalent pair and form a synaptonemal complex, which is in keeping with the occurrence of terminal chiasmata, whereas the interstitial region forms a large loop indicating the absence of homology. These results support the hypothesis that the neo-X chromosome evolved by insertion of the original X chromosome into 1 NOR-bearing autosome in an ancestor carrying the X0 system. As a consequence, the homologue of this NOR-autosome became the neo-Y chromosome. A subsequent inversion followed by transposition of the NOR located on the neo-Y onto the neo-X chromosome resulted in the present neo-sex chromosome system in D. albofasciatus. PMID:19864893

Bressa, M J; Papeschi, A G; Vítková, M; Kubícková, S; Fuková, I; Pigozzi, M I; Marec, F

2009-01-01

199

Elimination of Y chromosome-bearing spermatids during spermiogenesis in an autosomal sex-ratio mutant of Drosophila simulans.  

PubMed

Sex ratio distortion, which is commonly abbreviated as sex-ratio, has been studied in many Drosophila species, but the mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we report on the sex-ratio mutant of D. simulans named excess of females (exf). The third chromosomal recessive mutation results in a sex ratio of approximately 0.2 or less (males/total). Cytological observation demonstrated that meiosis appeared to be completed normally, but that most Y chromosome-bearing nuclei failed to elongate during spermiogenesis, as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using sex chromosome-specific probes. These aberrant nuclei contained membranous inclusions as revealed by electron microscopic analysis. Most of the aberrant exf spermatids failed to individualize and mature, suggesting that a later stage of spermiogenesis is involved in prevention of production of sperm with abnormal morphology. On the one hand, in exf seminal vesicles, sperm nuclei with a length of 5-8.5 ?m were occasionally observed, in addition to those with wild-type sperm dimensions, that is, a length of approximately 10 ?m. Thus, spermatids with less severe nuclear defects can escape elimination and be released into the seminal vesicles as mature sperm. Furthermore, we constructed His2AvD-GFP and ProtamineB-eGFP transgenic lines in D. simulans, and examined the processes involved in replacement of chromatin proteins over a time course, according to nuclear morphology. We found that both normal and abnormal sperm heads demonstrated equal chromatin replacement during late spermiogenesis. Our results suggest that exf belongs to a unique class of meiotic drive systems in that (1) intranuclear membranous inclusions cause failure of nuclear shaping of Y-bearing spermatids without affecting the histone-protamine transition, and (2) a portion of the aberrant spermatids differentiate into mature sperm; these are transferred to and stored by females. PMID:23832303

Yasuno, Yusaku; Inoue, Yoshihiro H; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

2013-01-01

200

Abnormal chromosome complement resulting from a familial inversion of chromosome 2.  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that pericentric inversions of chromosome 2 increase the risk for spontaneous abortion but do not increase the risk for unbalanced recombinant offspring. We report our experience of a familial pericentric inversion of chromosome 2 resulting in two unbalanced recombinant offspring. Both subjects have 46,XX,rec(2),dup q,inv(2)(p25q35). Images PMID:2479747

Richter, S; Lockwood, B; Lockwood, D; Allanson, J

1989-01-01

201

Fatness QTL on chicken chromosome 5 and interaction with sex  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fatness in male chickens were previously identified on chromosome 5 (GGA5) in a three-generation design derived from two experimental chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat weight. A new design, established from the same pure lines, produced 407 F2 progenies (males and females) from 4 F1-sire families. Body weight and abdominal fat were measured on the F2 at 9 wk of age. In each sire family, selective genotyping was carried out for 48 extreme individuals for abdominal fat using seven microsatellite markers from GGA5. QTL analyses confirmed the presence of QTL for fatness on GGA5 and identified a QTL by sex interaction. By crossing one F1 sire heterozygous at the QTL with lean line dams, three recombinant backcross 1 (BC1) males were produced and their QTL genotypes were assessed in backcross 2 (BC2) progenies. These results confirmed the QTL by sex interaction identified in the F2 generation and they allow mapping of the female QTL to less than 8 Mb at the distal part of the GGA5. They also indicate that fat QTL alleles were segregating in both fat and lean lines. PMID:16635451

Abasht, Behnam; Pitel, Frédérique; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Le Roy, Pascale; Demeure, Olivier; Vignoles, Florence; Simon, Jean; Cogburn, Larry; Aggrey, Sammy; Vignal, Alain; Douaire, Madeleine

2006-01-01

202

Quantitative fluorescent-PCR detection of sex chromosome aneuploidies and AZF deletions/duplications.  

PubMed

The most common genetic causes of spermatogenic failure are sex chromosomal abnormalities (most frequently Klinefelter's syndrome) and deletions of the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions (AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc) of the Y chromosome. Several studies have proposed that partial AZFc deletions/duplications may be a risk factor for spermatogenic impairment. We describe a multiplex quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) method that allows simultaneous detection of these genetic causes and risk factors of male infertility. The 11-plex QF-PCR permitted the amplification of the amelogenin gene, four polymorphic X-specific short tandem repeat (STR) markers (XHPRT, DXS6803, DXS981, and exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene), nonpolymorphic Y-specific marker (SRY gene), polymorphic Y-specific STR marker (DYS448), and coamplification of DAZ/DAZL, MYPT2Y/MYPT2, and two CDY2/CDY1 fragments that allow for determination of the DAZ, MYPT2Y, and CDY gene copy number. A total of 357 DNA samples from infertile/subfertile men (n = 205) and fertile controls (n = 152) was studied. We detected 14 infertile males with sex chromosome aneuploidy (10 with Klinefelter's syndrome, 2 XX, and 2 XYY males). All previously detected AZF deletions, that is, AZFc (n8), AZFb (n1), AZFb + c (n1), gr/gr (n11), gr/gr with b2/b4 duplication (n3), and b2/b3 (n5), gave a specific pattern with the 11-plex QF-PCR. In addition, 32 DNA samples showed a pattern consistent with presence of gr/gr or b2/b4 and 4 with b2/b3 duplication. We conclude that multiplex QF-PCR is a rapid, simple, reliable, and inexpensive method that can be used as a first-step genetic analysis in infertile/subfertile patients. PMID:19072570

Plaseski, Toso; Noveski, Predrag; Trivodalieva, Svetlana; Efremov, Georgi D; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

2008-12-01

203

Sex chromosome complement influences operant responding for a palatable food in mice.  

PubMed

The procurement and consumption of palatable, calorie-dense foods is influenced by the nutritional and hedonic value of foods. Although many factors can influence the control over behavior by foods rich in sugar and fat, emerging evidence indicates that biological sex may play a particularly crucial role in the types of foods individuals seek out, as well as the level of motivation individuals will exert to obtain those foods. However, a systematic investigation of food-seeking and consumption that disentangles the effects of the major sex-biasing factors, including sex chromosome complement and organizational and activational effects of sex hormones, has yet to be conducted. Using the four core genotypes mouse model system, we separated and quantified the effects of sex chromosome complement and gonadal sex on consumption of and motivation to obtain a highly palatable solution [sweetened condensed milk (SCM)]. Gonadectomized mice with an XY sex chromosome complement, compared with those with two X chromosomes, independent of gonadal sex, appeared to be more sensitive to the reward value of the SCM solution and were more motivated to expend effort to obtain it, as evidenced by their dramatically greater expended effort in an instrumental task with progressively larger response-to-reward ratios. Gonadal sex independently affected free consumption of the solution but not motivation to obtain it. These data indicate that gonadal and chromosomal sex effects independently influence reward-related behaviors, contributing to sexually dimorphic patterns of behavior related to the pursuit and consumption of rewards. PMID:24861924

Seu, E; Groman, S M; Arnold, A P; Jentsch, J D

2014-07-01

204

Chromosome 1 abnormalities in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with novel therapies.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration in the bone marrow, serum and/or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chromosome 1 abnormalities in a group of elderly patients (>65 years) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 trial and treated with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone or bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide followed by bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance. We also evaluated the link between chromosome 1 abnormalities and other clinical, genetic and immunophenotypic features by a multivariate logistic regression model. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on immunomagnetically purified plasma cells and bone marrow multiparameter flow cytometry were employed. A multivariate Cox model showed that chromosome 1 abnormalities, age >75 years and a CD19(+)/CD117(-) immunophenotype of bone marrow plasma cells were independent risk factors for overall survival in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Moreover, a detrimental effect of thalidomide, even when administered in association with bortezomib, was observed in patients with abnormal chromosome 1 as well as in those with 17p deletion, while the benefit of adding thalidomide to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was noted in patients carrying an aggressive CD19(+)/CD117(-) bone marrow plasma cell immunophenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltri-als.gov as #NCT01063179. PMID:25015938

Caltagirone, Simona; Ruggeri, Marina; Aschero, Simona; Gilestro, Milena; Oddolo, Daniela; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Musolino, Caterina; Baldini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Petrucci, Maria T; Gaidano, Gianluca; Passera, Roberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Omedč, Paola

2014-10-01

205

Triploidy and other chromosomal abnormalities in a selected line of chickens  

E-print Network

embryos out of 20 embryos karyotyped at 3 days of incubation. To karyotype embryos, eggs were incubated hours of incubation, the eggs were opened and classified as either: 1) normal embryos, #12;2) slowTriploidy and other chromosomal abnormalities in a selected line of chickens MH Thorne, RK Collins

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Artificial neural networks for non-invasive chromosomal abnormality screening of fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of different neural network structures have been constructed, trained and tested to a large data base of pregnant women characteristics, aiming at generating a classifier-predictor for the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses, namely the Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and the Turner syndrome.

C. K. Neocleous; K. H. Nicolaides; K. C. Neokleous; C. N. Schizas

2010-01-01

207

Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: causes and consequences.  

PubMed

In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, both of which lead to higher female mortality. Differential gender mortality has been a documented problem for decades and led to reports in the early 1990s of 100 million "missing women" across the developing world. Since that time, improved health care and conditions for women have resulted in reductions in female mortality, but these advances have now been offset by a huge increase in the use of sex-selective abortion, which became available in the mid-1980s. Largely as a result of this practice, there are now an estimated 80 million missing females in India and China alone. The large cohorts of "surplus" males now reaching adulthood are predominantly of low socioeconomic class, and concerns have been expressed that their lack of marriageability, and consequent marginalization in society, may lead to antisocial behavior and violence, threatening societal stability and security. Measures to reduce sex selection must include strict enforcement of existing legislation, the ensuring of equal rights for women, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of gender imbalance. PMID:16938885

Hesketh, Therese; Xing, Zhu Wei

2006-09-01

208

Congenital monoblastic leukemia cutis. A case report with chromosomal abnormality: del (10p).  

PubMed

Congenital monoblastic leukemia cutis is a rare disorder. We report an infant who developed infiltrative skin lesions by 2 weeks of age, which, when biopsied at 4 1/2 months of age revealed a monoblastic infiltrate. Blasts in the peripheral blood were not seen until 1 week before her death at 8 months of age. Chromosomal analyses of her bone marrow showed an abnormal clone of cells with a 46,XX,del(10)(p12) karyotype. Although chromosome 10 is rarely involved in hematologic malignancies, abnormalities of this chromosome within the region 10p11-10p13 have now been shown in four of 10 reported cases of congenital monoblastic leukemia. PMID:3461718

Seo, I S; McGuire, W A; Heerema, N A; Mirkin, L D; Weetman, R M

1986-01-01

209

Genetic mapping of sex determination in a wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, reveals earliest form of sex chromosome.  

PubMed

The evolution of separate sexes (dioecy) from hermaphroditism is one of the major evolutionary transitions in plants, and this transition can be accompanied by the development of sex chromosomes. Studies in species with intermediate sexual systems are providing unprecedented insight into the initial stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here, we describe the genetic mechanism of sex determination in the octoploid, subdioecious wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana Mill., based on a whole-genome simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic map and on mapping sex determination as two qualitative traits, male and female function. The resultant total map length is 2373 cM and includes 212 markers on 42 linkage groups (mean marker spacing: 14 cM). We estimated that approximately 70 and 90% of the total F. virginiana genetic map resides within 10 and 20 cM of a marker on this map, respectively. Both sex expression traits mapped to the same linkage group, separated by approximately 6 cM, along with two SSR markers. Together, our phenotypic and genetic mapping results support a model of gender determination in subdioecious F. virginiana with at least two linked loci (or gene regions) with major effects. Reconstruction of parental genotypes at these loci reveals that both female and hermaphrodite heterogamety exist in this species. Evidence of recombination between the sex-determining loci, an important hallmark of incipient sex chromosomes, suggest that F. virginiana is an example of the youngest sex chromosome in plants and thus a novel model system for the study of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:18797475

Spigler, R B; Lewers, K S; Main, D S; Ashman, T-L

2008-12-01

210

Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour  

PubMed Central

Wilms tumour has been reported in association with over 50 different clinical conditions and several abnormal constitutional karyotypes. Conclusive evidence of an increased risk of Wilms tumour exists for only a minority of these conditions, including WT1 associated syndromes, familial Wilms tumour, and certain overgrowth conditions such as Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome. In many reported conditions the rare co?occurrence of Wilms tumour is probably due to chance. However, for several conditions the available evidence cannot either confirm or exclude an increased risk, usually because of the rarity of the syndrome. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that an increased risk of Wilms tumour occurs only in a subset of individuals for some syndromes. The complex clinical and molecular heterogeneity of disorders associated with Wilms tumour, together with the apparent absence of functional links between most of the known predisposition genes, suggests that abrogation of a variety of pathways can promote Wilms tumorigenesis. PMID:16690728

Scott, R H; Stiller, C A; Walker, L; Rahman, N

2006-01-01

211

Evidence for Different Origins of Sex Chromosomes in Closely Related Oryzias Fishes: Substitution of the Master Sex-Determining Gene  

PubMed Central

The medaka Oryzias latipes and its two sister species, O. curvinotus and O. luzonensis, possess an XX–XY sex-determination system. The medaka sex-determining gene DMY has been identified on the orthologous Y chromosome [O. latipes linkage group 1 (LG1)] of O. curvinotus. However, DMY has not been discovered in other Oryzias species. These results and molecular phylogeny suggest that DMY was generated recently [?10 million years ago (MYA)] by gene duplication of DMRT1 in a common ancestor of O. latipes and O. curvinotus. We identified seven sex-linked markers from O. luzonensis (sister species of O. curvinotus) and constructed a sex-linkage map. Surprisingly, all seven sex-linked markers were located on an autosomal linkage group (LG12) of O. latipes. As suggested by the phylogenetic tree, the sex chromosomes of O. luzonensis should be “younger” than those of O. latipes. In the lineage leading to O. luzonensis after separation from O. curvinotus ?5 MYA, a novel sex-determining gene may have arisen and substituted for DMY. Oryzias species should provide a useful model for evolution of the master sex-determining gene and differentiation of sex chromosomes from autosomes. PMID:17947439

Tanaka, Keita; Takehana, Yusuke; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

2007-01-01

212

Evidence for different origins of sex chromosomes in closely related Oryzias fishes: substitution of the master sex-determining gene.  

PubMed

The medaka Oryzias latipes and its two sister species, O. curvinotus and O. luzonensis, possess an XX-XY sex-determination system. The medaka sex-determining gene DMY has been identified on the orthologous Y chromosome [O. latipes linkage group 1 (LG1)] of O. curvinotus. However, DMY has not been discovered in other Oryzias species. These results and molecular phylogeny suggest that DMY was generated recently [approximately 10 million years ago (MYA)] by gene duplication of DMRT1 in a common ancestor of O. latipes and O. curvinotus. We identified seven sex-linked markers from O. luzonensis (sister species of O. curvinotus) and constructed a sex-linkage map. Surprisingly, all seven sex-linked markers were located on an autosomal linkage group (LG12) of O. latipes. As suggested by the phylogenetic tree, the sex chromosomes of O. luzonensis should be "younger" than those of O. latipes. In the lineage leading to O. luzonensis after separation from O. curvinotus approximately 5 MYA, a novel sex-determining gene may have arisen and substituted for DMY. Oryzias species should provide a useful model for evolution of the master sex-determining gene and differentiation of sex chromosomes from autosomes. PMID:17947439

Tanaka, Keita; Takehana, Yusuke; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

2007-12-01

213

Parental decisions following prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities: implications for genetic counseling practice in Japan.  

PubMed

Parental decision-making to terminate or continue a pregnancy was studied after prenatal diagnosis of a chromosome aneuploidy among a sample of patients around the city of Nagoya, Japan. A total of 1,051 amniocentesis cases at 15-18 weeks of gestation were analyzed. Of these, 60 cases of chromosomal anomalies with aneuploidies were diagnosed by conventional cytogenetic analysis. Of the 45 diagnoses of autosomal chromosome aneuploidies, pregnancy was terminated in 93.3 % of the cases. Of the 15 cases diagnosed with sex chromosome aneuploidy, pregnancy was terminated in 46.7 %. Differences in parental decisions with respect to maternal age, gestational week at diagnosis, number of pregnancies per individual and existing number of children were not significant in patients diagnosed either with autosomal or sex chromosome aneuploidy. The findings indicate that when diagnosed with a chromosome aneuploidy in which a severe prognosis was expected, most couples decided to terminate the pregnancy in Japan. Implications of these findings for expanding the profession of genetic counseling are discussed and research recommendations are provided. PMID:25082303

Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Kumagai, Kyoko; Goto, Shinobu; Nakamura, Akira; Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

2015-02-01

214

Chromosome abnormalities in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: a karyotype review committee report.  

PubMed

Karyotypes of 107 cases with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (58 male, 49 female; 81 acute or lymphoma type, 26 chronic or smoldering type) were reviewed by a panel of cytogeneticists and were correlated with the subtypes of the disease. Clonal chromosome abnormalities were found in 103 (96%) cases, of which four had hypotetraploidy. Of 184 numerical abnormalities in the remaining 99 cases with near- or pseudodiploidy, trisomies for chromosomes 3 (21% of cases), 7 (10%), and 21 (9%), monosomy for X chromosome (38%) in the female, and loss of a Y chromosome (17%) in the male were more frequent than expected (P less than 0.01). Of 373 structural abnormalities in all the 103 aneuploid cases, translocations involving 14q32 (28%) or 14q11 (14%) and deletion of 6q (23%) were most frequent, followed by deletion of 10p (9%), 3q (8%), 5q, 9q, and 13q (7% each), and 1p and 7p (6% each). The proportion of cases with aneuploid clones (with greater than or less than 46 chromosomes), the average numbers per case of both numerical and structural abnormalities, and marker chromosomes were larger in the aggressive acute or lymphoma type than in the nonaggressive chronic or smoldering type (P less than 0.01). The combination of rearrangement in 14q32 and monosomy X (seven cases) or deletion of 10p (six cases), and that of trisomy 3 and deletion in 6q21 (six cases), occurred only in the acute or lymphoma type and may be associated with the aggressiveness in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. PMID:1540956

Kamada, N; Sakurai, M; Miyamoto, K; Sanada, I; Sadamori, N; Fukuhara, S; Abe, S; Shiraishi, Y; Abe, T; Kaneko, Y

1992-03-15

215

The effect of heterochromatin on synapsis of the sex chromosomes of Peromyscus (Rodentia, Cricetidae).  

PubMed

The pairing behavior of the sex chromosomes in male and female individuals representing seven species of Peromyscus was analyzed by electron microscopy of silver-stained zygotene and pachytene configurations. Six species possess submetacentric or metacentric X chromosomes with heterochromatic short arms. Sex-chromosome pairing in these species is initiated during early pachynema at an interstitial position on the X and Y axes. Homologous synapsis then progresses in a unidirectional fashion towards the telomeres of the X short arm and the corresponding arm of the heterochromatic Y chromosome. The distinctive pattern of synaptic initiation allowed a late-synapsing bivalent in fetal oocytes to be tentatively identified as that of the X chromosomes. In contrast to the other species, Peromyscus megalops possesses an acrocentric X chromosome and a very small Y chromosome. Sex-chromosome pairing in this species is initiated at the proximal telomeric region during late zygonema, and then proceeds interstitially towards the distal end of the Y chromosome. These observations suggest that the presence of X short-arm heterochromatin and corresponding Y heterochromatin interferes with late-zygotene alignment of the pairing initiation sites, thereby delaying XY synaptic initiation until early pachynema. The pairing initiation sites are conserved in the vicinity of the X and Y centromeres in Peromyscus, and consequently the addition of heterochromatin during sex-chromosome evolution essentially displaces these sites to an interstitial position. PMID:2004557

Hale, D W; Hedin, M C; Smith, S A; Sudman, P D; Greenbaum, I F

1991-01-01

216

A Unique Sex Chromosome System in the Knifefish Gymnotus bahianus with Inferences About Chromosomal Evolution of Gymnotidae.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic studies in Neotropical electric knifefish of genus Gymnotus have shown a remarkable interspecific variability, including distinct sex chromosome systems. In this study, we present the first chromosomal data in Gymnotus bahianus from Contas River basin, northeastern South America. Based on extensive analyses, the modal diploid values were 2n = 36 (30m/sm + 6st) for females and 2n = 37 (32m/sm + 5st) for males. Therefore, a novel XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system is described for the genus. Single nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) interspersed to GC-rich sites were detected on a subtelocentric pair (7th) for both sexes and confirmed by ?uorescent in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA probes. Heterochromatin was detected at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes and interspersed to NORs on pair 7 and 5S rDNA cistrons on pair 9. The highly differentiated karyotype of Gymnoytus bahianus, with low diploid numbers and a unique XX/XY1Y2 system, reinforces the independent origin of sex chromosomes in Gymnotiformes and seems to reflect the particular evolutionary history of this species in a small and isolated drainage system. Moreover, in spite of morphological similarities, the present results indicate a remarkable chromosomal divergence in relation to closely related species such as G. sylvius and G. carapo. PMID:25596613

Almeida, Josivanda S; Migues, Vitor H; Diniz, Débora; Affonso, Paulo Roberto A M

2015-01-01

217

[Morphological studies in the theory of the chromosomal determination of sex: 1880-1912].  

PubMed

This article analyses morphological research on sex determination from the late nineteenth-century to the discovery of sex chromosomes and the theory of sex determination by chromosomes. It describes the links between Morphology and Zoology through their development in Germany and North America, as main producer countries. Cytological research, carried ou on a wide spectrum of zoological species, led to an understanding of important problems regarding the number, appearance and behaviour of chromosomes, supporting determinist hypotheses against those defending the importance of environmental or cytoplasmic factors in the control of development. PMID:14626283

Delgado Echeverria, Isabel

2003-01-01

218

Caenorhabditis elegans Histone Methyltransferase MET-2 Shields the Male X Chromosome from Checkpoint Machinery and Mediates Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation  

PubMed Central

Meiosis is a specialized form of cellular division that results in the precise halving of the genome to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. Checkpoints function during meiosis to detect errors and subsequently to activate a signaling cascade that prevents the formation of aneuploid gametes. Indeed, asynapsis of a homologous chromosome pair elicits a checkpoint response that can in turn trigger germline apoptosis. In a heterogametic germ line, however, sex chromosomes proceed through meiosis with unsynapsed regions and are not recognized by checkpoint machinery. We conducted a directed RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify regulatory factors that prevent recognition of heteromorphic sex chromosomes as unpaired and uncovered a role for the SET domain histone H3 lysine 9 histone methyltransferase (HMTase) MET-2 and two additional HMTases in shielding the male X from checkpoint machinery. We found that MET-2 also mediates the transcriptional silencing program of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) but not meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), suggesting that these processes are distinct. Further, MSCI and checkpoint shielding can be uncoupled, as double-strand breaks targeted to an unpaired, transcriptionally silenced extra-chromosomal array induce checkpoint activation in germ lines depleted for met-2. In summary, our data uncover a mechanism by which repressive chromatin architecture enables checkpoint proteins to distinguish between the partnerless male X chromosome and asynapsed chromosomes thereby shielding the lone X from inappropriate activation of an apoptotic program. PMID:21909284

Checchi, Paula M.; Engebrecht, JoAnne

2011-01-01

219

C-banded karyotypes of two Silene species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Silene latifolia (white campion) and Silene dioica (red campion) were studied and no substantial differences between the conventional karyotypes of these two species were detected. The classification of chromosomes into three distinct groups proposed for S. latifolia by Ciupercescu and colleagues was considered and discussed. Additionally, a new small satellite on the shorter arm of homobrachial chromosome 5 was found. Giemsa C-banded chromosomes of the two analysed species show many fixed and polymorphic heterochromatic bands, mainly distally and centromerically located. Our C-banding studies provided an opportunity to better characterize the sex chromosomes and some autosome types, and to detect differences between the two Silene karyotypes. It was shown that S. latifolia possesses a larger amount of polymorphic heterochromatin, especially of the centromeric type. The two Silene sex chromosomes are easily distinguishable not only by length or DNA amount differences but also by their Giemsa C-banding patterns. All Y chromosomes invariably show only one distally located band, and no other fixed or polymorphic bands on this chromosome were observed in either species. The X chromosomes possess two terminally located fixed bands, and some S. latifolia X chromosomes also have an extra-centric segment of variable length. The heterochromatin amount and distribution revealed by our Giemsa C-banding studies provide a clue to the problem of sex chromosome and karyotype evolution in these two closely related dioecious Silene species. PMID:11962621

Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2002-04-01

220

Cryptic recombination in the ever-young sex chromosomes of Hylid frogs.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes are expected to evolve suppressed recombination, which leads to degeneration of the Y and heteromorphism between the X and Y. Some sex chromosomes remain homomorphic, however, and the factors that prevent degeneration of the Y in these cases are not well understood. The homomorphic sex chromosomes of the European tree frogs (Hyla spp.) present an interesting paradox. Recombination in males has never been observed in crossing experiments, but molecular data are suggestive of occasional recombination between the X and Y. The hypothesis that these sex chromosomes recombine has not been tested statistically, however, nor has the X-Y recombination rate been estimated. Here, we use approximate Bayesian computation coupled with coalescent simulations of sex chromosomes to quantify X-Y recombination rate from existent data. We find that microsatellite data from H. arborea, H. intermedia and H. molleri support a recombination rate between X and Y that is significantly different from zero. We estimate that rate to be approximately 10(5) times smaller than that between X chromosomes. Our findings support the notion that very low recombination rate may be sufficient to maintain homomorphism in sex chromosomes. PMID:22901240

Guerrero, R F; Kirkpatrick, M; Perrin, N

2012-10-01

221

Clinical and molecular cytogenetic studies in ring chromosome 5: report of a child with congenital abnormalities.  

PubMed

We report here a child with a ring chromosome 5 (r(5)) associated with facial dysmorphology and multiple congenital abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones was performed to determine the breakpoints involved in the r(5). The 5p deletion extended from 5p13.2-3 to 5pter and measured 34.61 Mb (range: 33.7-35.52 Mb) while the 5q deletion extended from 5q35.3 to 5qter and measured 2.44 Mb (range: 2.31-2.57 Mb). The patient presented signs such as microcephaly, hypertelorism, micrognathia and epicanthal folds, partially recalling those of a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and the "cri-du-chat" syndrome. The most striking phenotypic features were the congenital heart abnormalities which have been frequently reported in deletions of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 5 and in rings leading to a 5q35-5qter deletion. However, the NKX2-5 gene, which has been related to congenital heart defects, was not deleted in our patient, nor presumably to some other patients with 5q35.3-5qter deletion. We propose that VEGFR3, deleted in our patient, could be a candidate gene for the congenital heart abnormalities observed. PMID:22193390

Basinko, Audrey; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Scarselli, Gloria; Priolo, Manuela; Timpani, Giuseppina; De Braekeleer, Marc

2012-02-01

222

Sex chromosome system ZZ/ZW in Apareiodon hasemani Eigenmann, 1916 (Characiformes, Parodontidae) and a derived chromosomal region  

PubMed Central

Parodontidae fish show few morphological characteristics for the identification of their representatives and chromosomal analyses have provided reliable features for determining the interrelationships in this family. In this study, the chromosomes of Apareiodon hasemani from the Săo Francisco River basin, Brazil, were analyzed and showed a karyotype with 2n = 54 meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The study revealed active NORs located on pair 11 and additional 18S rDNA sites on pairs 7 and 22. The 5S rDNA locus was found in pair 14. It showed a pericentric inversion regarding the ancestral condition. The satellite DNA pPh2004 was absent in the chromosomes of A. hasemani, a shared condition with most members of Apareiodon. The WAp probe was able to detect the amplification region of the W chromosome, corroborating the common origin of the system within Parodontidae. These chromosomal data corroborate an origin for the ZW system of Parodontidae and aid in the understanding of the differentiation of sex chromosome systems in Neotropical fishes. PMID:23271937

Bellafronte, Elisangela; Schemberger, Michelle Orane; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Filho, Orlando Moreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

2012-01-01

223

Sex chromosome system ZZ/ZW in Apareiodon hasemani Eigenmann, 1916 (Characiformes, Parodontidae) and a derived chromosomal region.  

PubMed

Parodontidae fish show few morphological characteristics for the identification of their representatives and chromosomal analyses have provided reliable features for determining the interrelationships in this family. In this study, the chromosomes of Apareiodon hasemani from the Săo Francisco River basin, Brazil, were analyzed and showed a karyotype with 2n = 54 meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The study revealed active NORs located on pair 11 and additional 18S rDNA sites on pairs 7 and 22. The 5S rDNA locus was found in pair 14. It showed a pericentric inversion regarding the ancestral condition. The satellite DNA pPh2004 was absent in the chromosomes of A. hasemani, a shared condition with most members of Apareiodon. The WAp probe was able to detect the amplification region of the W chromosome, corroborating the common origin of the system within Parodontidae. These chromosomal data corroborate an origin for the ZW system of Parodontidae and aid in the understanding of the differentiation of sex chromosome systems in Neotropical fishes. PMID:23271937

Bellafronte, Elisangela; Schemberger, Michelle Orane; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Filho, Orlando Moreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

2012-12-01

224

Incidence of chromosome aberrations among 11 148 newborn children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome analysis has been made of 11 148 children; 29 had sex chromosome abnormalities (2.60 per 1000) and 64 autosomal abnormalities (5.74 per 1000). The total incidence of major chromosome abnormalities was 8.34 per 1000.

Johannes Nielsen; Ingelise Sillesen

1975-01-01

225

Multiple Chromosome Abnormalities Following Bone Marrow Transplant for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old female was diagnosed in the chronic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and was confirmed to be Philadelphia chromosome positive by a bone marrow cytogenetic study. No additional cytogenetic abnormalities were found. The patient's cell counts were initially well controlled with hydrox-yurea. She then received an unrelated 6 of 6 HLA matched allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) from a male donor. The patient underwent myeloablative therapy with thiotepa and five fractions of total body radiation prior to the transplant. About four weeks after transplantation, the patient developed biopsy-proven graft-versus-host disease of the skin and GI tract. A blood sample was drawn at that time for cytogenetic analysis. Among 34 analyzed cells, 22 were normal male donor cells. The remaining 12 cells did not have the t(9;22), but had numerous structural abnormalities. While many cells were missing an X chromosome, other abnormalities, including deletions, rearrangements, dicentrics, acentric fragments, rings and marker chromosomes were non-clonal. No clinical evidence of progression from CML chronic phase was found, suggesting that the non-clonal abnor-malities were therapy related. PMID:15340178

Wang, Xi; Ahmed, Ifti; Ericson, Solveig; Wenger, Sharon

2004-01-01

226

How did the platypus get its sex chromosome chain? A comparison of meiotic multiples and sex chromosomes in plants and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duck-billed platypus is an extraordinary mammal. Its chromosome complement is no less extraordinary, for it includes a\\u000a system in which ten sex chromosomes form an extensive meiotic chain in males. Such meiotic multiples are unprecedented in\\u000a vertebrates but occur sporadically in plant and invertebrate species. In this paper, we review the evolution and formation\\u000a of meiotic multiples in plants

Frank Gruetzner; Terry Ashley; David M. Rowell; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

2006-01-01

227

Accumulation of Y-specific satellite DNAs during the evolution of Rumex acetosa sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the molecular structure of young heteromorphic sex chromosomes of plants has shed light on the evolutionary forces\\u000a that control the differentiation of the X and Y during the earlier stages of their evolution. We have used the model plant\\u000a Rumex acetosa, a dioecious species with multiple sex chromosomes, 2n = 12 + XX female and 2n = 12 + XY1Y2 male, to analyse the significance

Beatrice Mariotti; Susana Manzano; Eduard Kejnovský; Boris Vyskot; Manuel Jamilena

2009-01-01

228

Small but mighty: the evolutionary dynamics of W and Y sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Although sex chromosomes have been the focus of a great deal of scientific scrutiny, most interest has centred on understanding the evolution and relative importance of X and Z chromosomes. By contrast, the sex-limited W and Y chromosomes have received far less attention, both because of their generally degenerate nature and the difficulty in studying non-recombining and often highly heterochromatic genomic regions. However, recent theory and empirical evidence suggest that the W and Y chromosomes play a far more important role in sex-specific fitness traits than would be expected based on their size alone, and this importance may explain the persistence of some Y and W chromosomes in the face of powerful degradative forces. In addition to their role in fertility and fecundity, the sex-limited nature of these genomic regions results in unique evolutionary forces acting on Y and W chromosomes, implicating them as potentially major contributors to sexual selection and speciation. Recent empirical studies have borne out these predictions and revealed that some W and Y chromosomes play a vital role in key sex-specific evolutionary processes. PMID:22038285

2012-01-01

229

Comparative Genetic Mapping Points to Different Sex Chromosomes in Sibling Species of Wild Strawberry (Fragaria)  

PubMed Central

Separate sexes have evolved repeatedly from hermaphroditic ancestors in flowering plants, and thus select taxa can provide unparalleled insight into the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes that are thought to be shared by plants and animals alike. Here we ask whether two octoploid sibling species of wild strawberry—one almost exclusively dioecious (males and females), Fragaria chiloensis, and one subdioecious (males, females, and hermaphrodites), F. virginiana—share the same sex-determining chromosome. We created a genetic map of the sex chromosome and its homeologs in F. chiloensis and assessed macrosynteny between it and published maps of the proto-sex chromosome of F. virginiana and the homeologous autosome of hermaphroditic diploid species. Segregation of male and female function in our F. chiloensis mapping population confirmed that linkage and dominance relations are similar to those in F. virginiana. However, identification of the molecular markers most tightly linked to the sex-determining locus in the two octoploid species shows that, in both, this region maps to homeologues of chromosome 6 in diploid congeners, but is located at opposite ends of their respective chromosomes. PMID:20923978

Goldberg, Margot T.; Spigler, Rachel B.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2010-01-01

230

Comparative genetic mapping points to different sex chromosomes in sibling species of wild strawberry (Fragaria).  

PubMed

Separate sexes have evolved repeatedly from hermaphroditic ancestors in flowering plants, and thus select taxa can provide unparalleled insight into the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes that are thought to be shared by plants and animals alike. Here we ask whether two octoploid sibling species of wild strawberry--one almost exclusively dioecious (males and females), Fragaria chiloensis, and one subdioecious (males, females, and hermaphrodites), F. virginiana--share the same sex-determining chromosome. We created a genetic map of the sex chromosome and its homeologs in F. chiloensis and assessed macrosynteny between it and published maps of the proto-sex chromosome of F. virginiana and the homeologous autosome of hermaphroditic diploid species. Segregation of male and female function in our F. chiloensis mapping population confirmed that linkage and dominance relations are similar to those in F. virginiana. However, identification of the molecular markers most tightly linked to the sex-determining locus in the two octoploid species shows that, in both, this region maps to homeologues of chromosome 6 in diploid congeners, but is located at opposite ends of their respective chromosomes. PMID:20923978

Goldberg, Margot T; Spigler, Rachel B; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2010-12-01

231

Pseudoautosomal DNA sequences in the pairing region of the human sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DNA probe from a human Y chromosome-derived cosmid detects a single-copy genomic DNA fragment which can appear in different allelic forms shared by both sex chromosomes. Variants at this DNA locus show an autosomal pattern of inheritance, undergo recombination with sexual phenotype and can therefore be described as `pseudoautosomal'. Another probe from the same cosmid detects a sequence repeated

Marie-Christine Simmler; François Rouyer; Gilles Vergnaud; Minna Nyström-Lahti; Kim Yen Ngo; Albert de La Chapelle; Jean Weissenbach

1985-01-01

232

Identification of Cryptic Sex Chromosomes and Isolation of X-and Y-Borne Genes  

E-print Network

chromosomes. We have adapted cell culture and molecular cytogenetic techniques to study the sex chromosomes. Introduction In our laboratory, we have adapted cell culture and molecular cytology techniques to study, lizards, alligators, and turtles; e.g., ref. 3). We culture blood or establish fibroblast cultures

Canberra, University of

233

Limb malformations and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in frogs.  

PubMed Central

Declines in amphibian populations, and amphibians with gross malformations, have prompted concern regarding the biological status of many anuran species. A survey of bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, and green frogs, Rana clamitans, conducted in central and southern New Hampshire showed malformed frogs at 81% of the sites sampled (13 of 16 sites). Brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the synthesis of androgens and estradiol, hormones essential to reproductive processes, were measured from limb-malformed and normal (no limb malformation) frogs. Normal frogs had significantly higher concentrations (nearly 3-fold) of in vitro produced androgens and of brain GnRH than malformed frogs. Because most malformations are thought to occur during development, we propose that environmental factors or endocrine-disrupting chemicals that may cause developmental abnormalities also act during early development to ultimately cause abnormally reduced GnRH and androgen production in adult frogs. The consequences of reduced GnRH and androgens on anuran reproductive behavior and population dynamics are unknown but certainly may be profound and warrant further research. PMID:11102301

Sower, S A; Reed, K L; Babbitt, K J

2000-01-01

234

An XYY sex-chromosome constitution in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenotypically normal male mouse, investigated because it was sterile, was found to possess 41 chromosomes. A karyotypic analysis indicated the extra element was one of the smallest chromosomes, almost certainly the Y. X-Y bivalents, Y-Y bivalents and XYY univalents were seen in meiotic metaphase I cells, and it was therefore concluded that the extra chromosome was indeed the Y.

B. M. Cattanach; C. E. Pollard

1969-01-01

235

Overview of Epidemiology, Genetics, Birth Defects, and Chromosome Abnormalities Associated With CDH  

PubMed Central

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations. PMID:17436298

Pober, Barbara R.

2010-01-01

236

[Apropos of a case of Dandy-Walker syndrome associated with chromosome abnormalities].  

PubMed

A case of Dandy-Walker syndrome associated with chromosome abnormalities (46,XX,-21, +der(13)t(13;21)(q22;q11), diagnosed during pregnancy is reported. This is a pathology characterized by malformations of the central nervous system, mainly of the cerebellum. Due to several aspects and different prognosis between classic Dandy-Walker and its variants, many clinical and therapeutic problems may raise. PMID:10352541

Patacchiola, F; Carta, G; Iovenitti, P; Bonitatibus, A; Mascaretti, G; Caserta, D; Moscarini, M

1999-03-01

237

Scientists find that chromosomal abnormalities are associated with aging and cancer  

Cancer.gov

Two new studies have found that large structural abnormalities in chromosomes, some of which have been associated with increased risk of cancer, can be detected in a small fraction of people without a prior history of cancer. These studies were conducted by two consortia, one led by scientists at the National Cancer Institute, and one by Gene Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) which is sponsored by the National Human Genome Research Institute.

238

Chromosome aberrations in spermatogonia and sperm abnormalities in Curacron-treated mice.  

PubMed

Curacron is an organophosphorus pesticide widely used in cotton fields. In order to assay its mutagenic potential in mammalian germ cells chromosomal aberrations in spermatogonial cells and sperm abnormalities were examined in mice after Curacron treatment. For studying chromosomal aberrations mice were treated both acutely (single treatment) and subacutely (for 5 consecutive days) with 3 dose levels of Curacron, 12, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Curacron was found to produce a significant increase in structural chromosomal aberrations after acute and subacute treatments. This increase was dose-dependent. A dose-dependent inhibition in mitotic activity in spermatogonia was also found. For studying sperm abnormalities mice were treated for 5 consecutive days with 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg. Morphological sperm abnormalities increased significantly after treatment with Curacron. The increase was dose-dependent. An inhibition of 40.2% in sperm count and of 74.5% in sperm motility occurred after treatment with 60 mg/kg Curacron. These results show that Curacron has a damaging effect on spermatogonial cells as well as on sperm morphology. PMID:2704385

el Nahas, S M; de Hondt, H A; Abdou, H E

1989-04-01

239

Independent evolution of transcriptional inactivation on sex chromosomes in birds and mammals.  

PubMed

X chromosome inactivation in eutherian mammals has been thought to be tightly controlled, as expected from a mechanism that compensates for the different dosage of X-borne genes in XX females and XY males. However, many X genes escape inactivation in humans, inactivation of the X in marsupials is partial, and the unrelated sex chromosomes of monotreme mammals have incomplete and gene-specific inactivation of X-linked genes. The bird ZW sex chromosome system represents a third independently evolved amniote sex chromosome system with dosage compensation, albeit partial and gene-specific, via an unknown mechanism (i.e. upregulation of the single Z in females, down regulation of one or both Zs in males, or a combination). We used RNA-fluorescent in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH) to demonstrate, on individual fibroblast cells, inactivation of 11 genes on the chicken Z and 28 genes on the X chromosomes of platypus. Each gene displayed a reproducible frequency of 1Z/1X-active and 2Z/2X-active cells in the homogametic sex. Our results indicate that the probability of inactivation is controlled on a gene-by-gene basis (or small domains) on the chicken Z and platypus X chromosomes. This regulatory mechanism must have been exapted independently to the non-homologous sex chromosomes in birds and mammals in response to an over-expressed Z or X in the homogametic sex, highlighting the universal importance that (at least partial) silencing plays in the evolution on amniote dosage compensation and, therefore, the differentiation of sex chromosomes. PMID:23874231

Livernois, Alexandra M; Waters, Shafagh A; Deakin, Janine E; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Waters, Paul D

2013-01-01

240

Independent Evolution of Transcriptional Inactivation on Sex Chromosomes in Birds and Mammals  

PubMed Central

X chromosome inactivation in eutherian mammals has been thought to be tightly controlled, as expected from a mechanism that compensates for the different dosage of X-borne genes in XX females and XY males. However, many X genes escape inactivation in humans, inactivation of the X in marsupials is partial, and the unrelated sex chromosomes of monotreme mammals have incomplete and gene-specific inactivation of X-linked genes. The bird ZW sex chromosome system represents a third independently evolved amniote sex chromosome system with dosage compensation, albeit partial and gene-specific, via an unknown mechanism (i.e. upregulation of the single Z in females, down regulation of one or both Zs in males, or a combination). We used RNA-fluorescent in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH) to demonstrate, on individual fibroblast cells, inactivation of 11 genes on the chicken Z and 28 genes on the X chromosomes of platypus. Each gene displayed a reproducible frequency of 1Z/1X-active and 2Z/2X-active cells in the homogametic sex. Our results indicate that the probability of inactivation is controlled on a gene-by-gene basis (or small domains) on the chicken Z and platypus X chromosomes. This regulatory mechanism must have been exapted independently to the non-homologous sex chromosomes in birds and mammals in response to an over-expressed Z or X in the homogametic sex, highlighting the universal importance that (at least partial) silencing plays in the evolution on amniote dosage compensation and, therefore, the differentiation of sex chromosomes. PMID:23874231

Livernois, Alexandra M.; Waters, Shafagh A.; Deakin, Janine E.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.; Waters, Paul D.

2013-01-01

241

Distinct chromosome 3 abnormalities in persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis.  

PubMed

Persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (PPBL) is a rare entity of unknown etiology characterized by a polyclonal expansion of B-lymphocytes with typical bilobulated forms, elevated serum IgM, and an additional isochromosome for the long arm of chromosome 3 as the sole change. In the present study, we investigated four cases of PPBL by means of conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH. In all patients, the polyclonality of the lymphoproliferation was demonstrated by immunophenotypic studies, and PCR analysis failed to demonstrate clonal IGH rearrangements in three evaluated cases. In two patients, in addition to +i(3)(q10), banding techniques identified unrelated clones with trisomy 3. FISH studies using a chromosome 3 long arm-specific probe provided evidence that all cases had both +i(3)(q10) and +3. To determine more precisely the distribution of the chromosomal abnormalities within the peripheral lymphocyte population, we investigated two of these cases using a technique of simultaneous fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics (FICTION). We demonstrated that both abnormalities were randomly distributed among the B-lymphocytes, independently of the kappa or lambda light chain isotype and the nuclear aspect. These data lead us to conclude that trisomy 3 represents, in addition to +i(3)(q10), another recurrent cytogenetic change in PPBL, suggesting that this lymphoproliferative disorder is associated with an increased frequency of chromosome 3 instability. PMID:10502320

Callet-Bauchu, E; Gazzo, S; Poncet, C; Pagčs, J; Morel, D; Alliot, C; Coiffier, B; Coeur, P; Salles, G; Felman, P

1999-11-01

242

Gain of an isochromosome 5p: a new recurrent chromosome abnormality in acute monoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) close associations are known between cytomorphology and cytogenetics such as in AML M3/M3v showing a t(15;17) and in AML M4eo associated with inv(16)/t(16;16). In AML M5 a heterogenous cytogenetic pattern is observed. We describe the gain of an isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 5 together with the gain of chromosome 8 as the sole abnormalities in two cases of acute monoblastic leukemia. In a third case of acute monoblastic leukemia we also observed the gain of an isochromosome 5p together with trisomy 8. This patient showed in addition an unbalanced translocation between the long arm of chromosome 1 and the short arm of chromosome 14 leading to a trisomy 1q. So far only two cases of AML with i(5)(p10) have been published. In no other hematological malignancy has an isochromosome 5p been reported up to now. As an isochromosome 5p can be misinterpreted as a deletion 5q, which occurs frequently in AML, fluorescence in situ hybridization with loci specific probes is a helpful method to detect this rare abnormality. PMID:11408074

Schoch, C; Bursch, S; Kern, W; Schnittger, S; Hiddemann, W; Haferlach, T

2001-05-01

243

Male only progeny in Anastrepha suspensa by RNAi-induced sex reversion of chromosomal females  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Tephritidae sex determination is established by orthologs to the Drosophila melanogaster transformer and transformer-2 genes. In contrast, primary signals for sex determination are different in these species corresponding to the number of X chromosomes (XSE) in Drosophilidae species and to the pr...

244

IDENTIFICATION OF SEX CHROMOSOME MOLECULAR MARKERS USING RAPDS AND FLUORESCENT IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION IN RAINBOW TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this work is to identify molecular markers associated with the sex chromosomes in rainbow trout to study the mode of sex determination mechanisms in this species. Using the RAPD assay and bulked segregant analysis, two markers were identified that generated polymorphi...

245

Multi-institutional study on the correlation between chromosomal abnormalities and epilepsy.  

PubMed

While there is an abundance of literature describing the association of chromosome aberrations with epilepsy, only a few refer to the detailed features of epilepsy. It is important to investigate the associations between specific chromosome abnormalities and features of epilepsy to identify genes involved in epilepsy and treat them more effectively. We investigated the correlation between specific chromosome aberrations and epilepsy by sending questionnaires to the members of Kyoto Multi-institutional Study Group of Pediatric Neurology. Seventy-six patients were collected from 10 institutions. Chromosome abnormalities included: Down syndrome (n = 19); Angelman syndrome (n = 8); Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 4); 4p- syndrome (n = 3); 1q- syndrome (n = 2); 5p- syndrome (n = 2); Miller-Dieker syndrome (n = 2); 18q- syndrome; (n = 2); Klinefelter syndrome; (n = 2); and 32 other individual chromosomal aberrations. Overall, the severity of mental retardation correlated with the severity of epilepsy. We could abstract characteristic features of epilepsy in some syndromes. In Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes, febrile seizures occurred frequently, the onset of epilepsy was in early childhood and seizure phenotype was multiple. Paroxysmal discharge of the occipital region and diffuse high voltage slow wave on electroencephalography were characteristic in Angelman syndrome. In Down syndrome, West syndrome and focal epilepsy were common and the prognosis of epilepsy in West syndrome with Down syndrome was good. In 4p- syndrome, febrile seizures were often seen, and unilateral or generalized clonic or tonic-clonic status epilepticus were characteristic. For the other chromosomal aberrations investigated here, the patient numbers were too small to abstract common features of epilepsy. PMID:15668053

Kumada, Tomohiro; Ito, Masatoshi; Miyajima, Tomoko; Fujii, Tatsuya; Okuno, Takehiko; Go, Toshin; Hattori, Haruo; Yoshioka, Mieko; Kobayashi, Kenichiro; Kanazawa, Osamu; Tohyama, Jun; Akasaka, Noriyuki; Kamimura, Takanori; Sasagawa, Mutsuo; Amagane, Hideki; Mutoh, Kozo; Yamori, Yuriko; Kanda, Toyoko; Yoshida, Naoko; Hirota, Haruyo; Tanaka, Rieko; Hamada, Yasushi

2005-03-01

246

The chromosome 11 region from strain 129 provides protection from sex reversal in XYPOS mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

C57BL\\/6J (B6) mice containing the Mus domesticus poschiavinus Y chromosome, YPOS, develop ovarian tissue, whereas testicular tissue develops in DBA\\/2J or 129S1\\/SvImJ (129) mice containing the YPOS chromosome. To identify genes involved in sex determination, we used a congenic strain approach to determine which chromosomal regions from 129Sl\\/SvImJ provide protection against sex reversal in XYPOS mice of the C57BL\\/6J.129-YPOS strain.

Ganka Nikolova; Janet S. Sinsheimer; Eva M. Eicher; Eric Vilain

2008-01-01

247

Sex chromosome complement affects nociception in tests of acute and chronic exposure to morphine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the role of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones in sex differences in several different paradigms measuring nociception and opioid analgesia using “four core genotypes” C57BL\\/6J mice. The genotypes include XX and XY gonadal males, and XX and XY gonadal females. Adult mice were gonadectomized and tested 3–4 weeks later, so that differences between sexes (mice with testes vs.

Laura Gioiosa; Xuqi Chen; Rebecca Watkins; Nicole Klanfer; Camron D. Bryant; Christopher J. Evans; Arthur P. Arnold

2008-01-01

248

Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of the Dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY Chromosome Sex Determination System  

PubMed Central

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71), 5S rDNA (pCT4.2), a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1) and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants). The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution. PMID:24465491

Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Alexandrov, Oleg S.; Razumova, Olga V.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Karlov, Gennady I.

2014-01-01

249

Shared Forces of Sex Chromosome Evolution in Haploid-Mating and Diploid-Mating Organisms  

PubMed Central

It is usually posited that the most important factors contributing to sex chromosome evolution in diploids are the suppression of meiotic recombination and the asymmetry that results from one chromosome (the Y) being permanently heterozygous and the other (the X) being homozygous in half of the individuals involved in mating. To distinguish between the roles of these two factors, it would be valuable to compare sex chromosomes in diploid-mating organisms and organisms where mating compatibility is determined in the haploid stage. In this latter group, no such asymmetry occurs because the sex chromosomes are equally heterozygous. Here we show in the fungus Microbotryum violaceum that the chromosomes carrying the mating-type locus, and thus determining haploid-mating compatibility, are rich in transposable elements, dimorphic in size, and carry unequal densities of functional genes. Through analysis of available complete genomes, we also show that M. violaceum is, remarkably, more similar to humans and mice than to yeast, nematodes, or fruit flies with regard to the differential accumulation of transposable elements in the chromosomes determining mating compatibility vs. the autosomes. We conclude that restricted recombination, rather than asymmetrical sheltering, hemizygosity, or dosage compensation, is sufficient to account for the common sex chromosome characteristics. PMID:15454533

Hood, Michael E.; Antonovics, Janis; Koskella, Britt

2004-01-01

250

Dosage Compensation Regulatory Proteins and the Evolution of Sex Chromosomes in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the four male-specific lethal (msl) genes are required to achieve dosage compensation of the male X chromosome. The MSL proteins are thought to interact with cis-acting sites that confer dosage compensation to nearby genes, as they are detected at hundreds of discrete sites along the length of the polytene X chromosome in males but not in females. The histone H4 acetylated isoform, H4Ac16, colocalizes with the MSL proteins at a majority of sites on the D. melanogaster X chromosome. Using polytene chromosome immunostaining of other species from the genus Drosophila, we found that X chromosome association of MSL proteins and H4Ac16 is conserved despite differences in the sex chromosome karyotype between species. Our results support a model in which cis-acting regulatory sites for dosage compensation evolve on a neo-X chromosome arm in response to the degeneration of its former homologue. PMID:8889531

Bone, J. R.; Kuroda, M. I.

1996-01-01

251

Mode of initial presentation and chromosomal abnormalities in Irish patients with Turner syndrome: a single-centre experience.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Age at diagnosis of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) is an important indicator of successful management. We determined the age, initial clinical presentation, and chromosomal abnormalities in patients with TS. Methods: This was a retrospective evaluation of the clinical and laboratory records of patients with TS. Results: Sixty-five patients with TS were identified; 40 (62%) were diagnosed after age 5 years. The main presenting features were short stature, delayed puberty, dysmorphic features, and neonatal lymphoedema. Chromosomal analysis of this cohort showed that 31 patients demonstrated mosaicism, while a 45,X karyotype was observed in 19. The remaining patients had variable abnormalities including deletion, translocation, isochromosome, and ring chromosome. Y-chromosome material was found in four cases. Conclusions: Most patients with TS were diagnosed after age 5 years, had a varied clinical presentation, and had a wide range of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25381945

Mohamed, Sarar; Roche, Edna F; Hoey, Hilary M C V

2014-11-01

252

A novel method for sex determination by detecting the number of X chromosomes.  

PubMed

A novel method for sex determination, based on the detection of the number of X chromosomes, was established. Current methods, based on the detection of the Y chromosome, can directly identify an unknown sample as male, but female gender is determined indirectly, by not detecting the Y chromosome. Thus, a direct determination of female gender is important because the quality (e.g., fragmentation and amelogenin-Y null allele) of the Y chromosome DNA may lead to a false result. Thus, we developed a novel sex determination method by analyzing the number of X chromosomes using a copy number variation (CNV) detection technique (the comparative Ct method). In this study, we designed a primer set using the amelogenin-X gene without the CNV region as the target to determine the X chromosome copy number, to exclude the influence of the CNV region from the comparative Ct value. The number of X chromosomes was determined statistically using the CopyCaller software with real-time PCR. All DNA samples from participants (20 males, 20 females) were evaluated correctly using this method with 1-ng template DNA. A minimum of 0.2-ng template DNA was found to be necessary for accurate sex determination with this method. When using ultraviolet-irradiated template DNA, as mock forensic samples, the sex of the samples could not be determined by short tandem repeat (STR) analysis but was correctly determined using our method. Thus, we successfully developed a method of sex determination based on the number of X chromosomes. Our novel method will be useful in forensic practice for sex determination. PMID:25160992

Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Shojo, Hideki; Ohmori, Takeshi; Hara, Masaaki; Takada, Aya; Adachi, Noboru; Saito, Kazuyuki

2015-01-01

253

Evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNA in semaprochilodus (characiformes, prochilodontidae): a fish model for sex chromosome differentiation.  

PubMed

Distribution of 6 microsatellites and 5 transposable elements on the chromosomes of Semaprochilodus taeniurus and S. insignis, commonly referred to as Jaraqui, was performed using their physical mapping with fluorescence in situ hybridization. In this study, we aim to understand the evolutionary dynamics in genomes of S. taeniurus and S. insignis by comparing the position, abundance and contribution of the repetitive sequences in the origins and differentiation of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in S. taeniurus. Results revealed that distribution patterns of repetitive DNAs along the chromosomes varied considerably. Hybridization signals were observed on several autosomes in both species; however, in S. taeniurus genome, the repetitive sequences were more abundant. In addition, large clusters of known repetitive sequences were detected in sex chromosomes of S. taeniurus. This observation is notable because the accumulation of repetitive DNAs could reflect the degradation of genetic activities and the differentiation of protosex chromosomes, evolving into the heteromorphic ZW pair observed in S. taeniurus. PMID:24296872

Terencio, M L; Schneider, C H; Gross, M C; Vicari, M R; Farias, I P; Passos, K B; Feldberg, E

2013-01-01

254

Facts and artifacts in studies of gene expression in aneuploids and sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

Studies of gene expression in aneuploids have often made the assumption that measurements of RNA abundance from the varied chromosome will establish whether there is a dosage effect or compensation. Typical procedures of RNA isolation and use of equal amounts of RNA for quantitative estimates will not measure the total transcriptome size nor the absolute expression levels per cell. Use of internal endogenous standards or averages from unvaried chromosomes for normalizations makes the assumption that there are no global modulations across the genome. However, studies that use controls to test these assumptions reveal that there are in fact often modulations on all chromosomes. The same caveats apply to gene expression studies of sex chromosomes, which also involve changes in dosage of a small portion of the genome. Here, we describe some of the pitfalls of studies of aneuploidy and sex chromosome gene expression and review methods that have been used to avoid them. PMID:25069760

Birchler, James A

2014-10-01

255

A sex-chromosome mutation in Silene latifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silene latifolia is dioecious, yet rare hermaphrodites have been found, and such natural mutants can provide valuable insight into genetic\\u000a mechanisms. Here, we describe a hermaphrodite-inducing mutation that is almost certainly localized to the gynoecium-suppression\\u000a region of the Y chromosome in S. latifolia. The mutant Y chromosome was passed through the megaspore, and the presence of two X chromosomes was

Paige M. MillerRichard; Richard V. Kesseli

256

Reduced representation genome sequencing suggests low diversity on the sex chromosomes of tonkean macaque monkeys.  

PubMed

In species with separate sexes, social systems can differ in the relative variances of male versus female reproductive success. Papionin monkeys (macaques, mangabeys, mandrills, drills, baboons, and geladas) exhibit hallmarks of a high variance in male reproductive success, including a female-biased adult sex ratio and prominent sexual dimorphism. To explore the potential genomic consequences of such sex differences, we used a reduced representation genome sequencing approach to quantifying polymorphism at sites on autosomes and sex chromosomes of the tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana), a species endemic to the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. The ratio of nucleotide diversity of the X chromosome to that of the autosomes was less than the value (0.75) expected with a 1:1 sex ratio and no sex differences in the variance in reproductive success. However, the significance of this difference was dependent on which outgroup was used to standardize diversity levels. Using a new model that includes the effects of varying population size, sex differences in mutation rate between the autosomes and X chromosome, and GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) or selection on GC content, we found that the maximum-likelihood estimate of the ratio of effective population size of the X chromosome to that of the autosomes was 0.68, which did not differ significantly from 0.75. We also found evidence for 1) a higher level of purifying selection on genic than nongenic regions, 2) gBGC or natural selection favoring increased GC content, 3) a dynamic demography characterized by population growth and contraction, 4) a higher mutation rate in males than females, and 5) a very low polymorphism level on the Y chromosome. These findings shed light on the population genomic consequences of sex differences in the variance in reproductive success, which appear to be modest in the tonkean macaque; they also suggest the occurrence of hitchhiking on the Y chromosome. PMID:24987106

Evans, Ben J; Zeng, Kai; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Charlesworth, Brian; Melnick, Don J

2014-09-01

257

Repetitive DNA chromosomal organization in the cricket Cycloptiloides americanus: a case of the unusual X1X 20 sex chromosome system in Orthoptera.  

PubMed

A common placement for most sex chromosomes that is involved in their evolutionary histories is the accumulation of distinct classes of repetitive DNAs. Here, with the aim of understanding the poorly studied repetitive DNA organization in crickets and its possible role in sex chromosome differentiation, we characterized the chromosomes of the cricket species Cycloptiloides americanus, a species with the remarkable presence of the unusual sex chromosome system X1X20?/X1X1X2X2?. For these proposes, we used C-banding and mapping through the fluorescence in situ hybridization of some repetitive DNAs. The C-banding and distribution of highly and moderately repetitive DNAs (C 0t-1 DNA) varied depending of the chromosome. The greater accumulation of repetitive DNAs in the X2 chromosome was evidenced. The microsatellites were spread along entire chromosomes, but (AG)10 and (TAA)10 were less enriched, mainly in the centromeric areas. Among the multigene families, the 18S rDNA was spread throughout almost all of the chromosomes, except for pair 5 and X2, while the U2 snDNA was placed exclusively in the largest chromosome. Finally, the 5S rDNA was exclusively located in the short arms of the sex chromosomes. The obtained data reinforce the importance of chromosomal dissociation and inversion as a primary evolutionary mechanism to generate neo-sex chromosomes in the species studied, followed by the repetitive DNAs accumulation. Moreover the exclusive placement of 5S rDNA in the sex chromosomes suggests the involvement of this sequence in sex chromosome recognition throughout meiosis and, consequently, their maintenance, in addition to their avoiding degeneration. PMID:25373534

Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

2014-11-01

258

Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:24327996

Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

259

Structural rearrangements of chromosome 13 as additional abnormalities in Burkitt lymphoma and type 3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

We report three cases of chromosome 13 rearrangements as additional abnormalities in two patients with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and one with type 3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Involvement of chromosome 13 has been reported most often as 13q+, without identification of the supplementary chromosomal material; in our three cases with 13q+, we identified two duplications: dup(13)(q13q22) and dup(13)(q21q22). PMID:1606568

Barin, C; Valtat, C; Briault, S; Bremond, J L; Petit, A; Lejars, O; Linassier, C; Gaschard, P; Moraine, C

1992-06-01

260

Inflammatory Cytokines in Maternal Circulation and Placenta of Chromosomally Abnormal First Trimester Miscarriages  

PubMed Central

The impact of abnormal placental karyotype on the inflammatory response within the villous tissue and peripheral circulation of women with miscarriage was evaluated. Villous (n = 38) and venous blood samples (n = 26) were obtained from women with missed miscarriage. Tissue chromosome analysis indicated 23 abnormal and 15 normal karyotypes. Concentration of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, and interleukin (IL)-10 were measured using flowcytometric bead array in fresh villous homogenate, cultured villous extracts, culture medium, maternal whole blood, and plasma. Plasma TNF?/IL-10 ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in miscarriages with abnormal karyotype. In the abnormal karyotype group, there were significantly higher levels of TNF? (P < 0.01), IL-10 (P < 0.01), TNF-R1 (P < 0.001), and TNF-R2 (P < 0.001) in the villous extracts and culture-conditioned medium compared to normal karyotype group. In miscarriage with abnormal karyotype, there is an exacerbated placental inflammatory response, in contrast to miscarriage of normal karyotype where maternal systemic response is increased. PMID:21977049

Calleja-Agius, Jean; Jauniaux, Eric; Muttukrishna, Shanthi

2012-01-01

261

Detection of sex chromosome aneuploidy in dog spermatozoa by triple color fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

With the development of a direct visualization of sex chromosome in a single sperm by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, the frequency of aberration (aneuploidy) in spermatozoa in several mammals has been investigated. However, there is no report in the incidence of X-Y aneuploidy in the sperm population of dogs. Therefore, in this study, the aneuploidy in dog spermatozoa was examined by multicolor FISH using specific molecular probes for canine sex chromosomes and autosome. Semen from eight male Labrador retrievers was used as specimen. For decondensation of sperm nuclei, the specimen was treated with 1 M NaOH for 4 minutes at room temperature. Probes for chromosomes X, Y, and 1, labeled with SpectrumGreen, Cy3 and Cy5, respectively, were hybridized with decondensed spermatozoa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization signals in sperm heads were clearly detected in each specimen, regardless of the sperm donor. The FISH signal of at least one of the three probes was detected in all sperm heads examined. There was no significant difference between the theoretical ratio (50:50) and the observed ratio of X and Y chromosomes in spermatozoa of all the eight dogs. Mean percentage of sex chromosome aneuploidy was 0.127% (ranged between 0% and 0.316%). This percentage of canine sex chromosome aneuploidy was lower than the one reported in cattle, horses, river buffalo, and goats sperm, but higher than that observed in mice and sheep. PMID:24962971

Komaki, Haruna; Oi, Maya; Suzuki, Hiroshi

2014-09-01

262

Evolutionary history of Silene latifolia sex chromosomes revealed by genetic mapping of four genes.  

PubMed

The sex chromosomes of dioecious white campion, Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae), are of relatively recent origin (10-20 million years), providing a unique opportunity to trace the origin and evolution of sex chromosomes in this genus by comparing closely related Silene species with and without sex chromosomes. Here I demonstrate that four genes that are X-linked in S. latifolia are also linked in nondioecious S. vulgaris, which is consistent with Ohno's (1967) hypothesis that sex chromosomes evolve from a single pair of autosomes. I also report a genetic map for four S. latifolia X-linked genes, SlX1, DD44X, SlX4, and a new X-linked gene SlssX, which encodes spermidine synthase. The order of the genes on the S. latifolia X chromosome and divergence between the homologous X- and Y-linked copies of these genes supports the "evolutionary strata" model, with at least three consecutive expansions of the nonrecombining region on the Y chromosome (NRY) in this plant species. PMID:15834147

Filatov, Dmitry A

2005-06-01

263

Prenatal diagnosis of chromosome 15 abnormalities in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region by traditional and molecular cytogenetics  

SciTech Connect

With improvements in culturing and banding techniques, amniotic fluid studies now achieve a level of resolution at which the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) region may be questioned. Chromosome 15 heteromorphisms, detected with Q- and R-banding and used in conjunction with PWS/AS region-specific probes, can confirm a chromosome deletion and establish origin to predict the clinical outcome. We report four de novo cases of an abnormal-appearing chromosome 15 in amniotic fluid samples referred for advanced maternal age or a history of a previous chromosomally abnormal child. The chromosomes were characterized using G-, Q-, and R-banding, as well as isotopic and fluorescent in situ hybridization of DNA probes specific for the proximal chromosome 15 long arm. In two cases, one chromosome 15 homolog showed a consistent deletion of the ONCOR PWS/AS region A and B. In the other two cases, one of which involved an inversion with one breakpoint in the PWS/AS region, all of the proximal chromosome 15 long arm DNA probes used in the in situ hybridization were present on both homologs. Clinical follow-up was not available on these samples, as in all cases the parents chose to terminate the pregnancies. These cases demonstrate the ability to prenatally diagnose chromosome 15 abnormalities associated with PWS/AS. In addition, they highlight the need for a better understanding of this region for accurate prenatal diagnosis. 41 refs., 5 figs.

Toth-Fejel, S.; Magenis, R.E.; Leff, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

1995-02-13

264

Chromatin structural changes around satellite repeats on the female sex chromosome in Schistosoma mansoni and their possible role in sex chromosome emergence  

PubMed Central

Background In the leuphotrochozoan parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni, male individuals are homogametic (ZZ) whereas females are heterogametic (ZW). To elucidate the mechanisms that led to the emergence of sex chromosomes, we compared the genomic sequence and the chromatin structure of male and female individuals. As for many eukaryotes, the lower estimate for the repeat content is 40%, with an unknown proportion of domesticated repeats. We used massive sequencing to de novo assemble all repeats, and identify unambiguously Z-specific, W-specific and pseudoautosomal regions of the S. mansoni sex chromosomes. Results We show that 70 to 90% of S. mansoni W and Z are pseudoautosomal. No female-specific gene could be identified. Instead, the W-specific region is composed almost entirely of 36 satellite repeat families, of which 33 were previously unknown. Transcription and chromatin status of female-specific repeats are stage-specific: for those repeats that are transcribed, transcription is restricted to the larval stages lacking sexual dimorphism. In contrast, in the sexually dimorphic adult stage of the life cycle, no transcription occurs. In addition, the euchromatic character of histone modifications around the W-specific repeats decreases during the life cycle. Recombination repression occurs in this region even if homologous sequences are present on both the Z and W chromosomes. Conclusion Our study provides for the first time evidence for the hypothesis that, at least in organisms with a ZW type of sex chromosomes, repeat-induced chromatin structure changes could indeed be the initial event in sex chromosome emergence. PMID:22377319

2012-01-01

265

Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.  

PubMed Central

Geographical subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), differ considerably in sex chromosome constitution owing to sex chromosome fusions with autosomes, which leads to variation in chromosome numbers. We cloned S. cynthia orthologues of 16 Bombyx mori genes and mapped them to chromosome spreads of S. cynthia subspecies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the origin of S. cynthia neo-sex chromosomes. FISH mapping revealed that the Z chromosome and chromosome 12 of B. mori correspond to the Z chromosome and an autosome (A1) of S. c. ricini (Vietnam population, 2n=27, Z0 in female moths), respectively. B. mori chromosome 11 corresponds partly to another autosome (A2) and partly to a chromosome carrying nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of this subspecies. The NOR chromosome of S. c. ricini is also partly homologous to B. mori chromosome 24. Furthermore, our results revealed that two A1 homologues each fused with the W and Z chromosomes in a common ancestor of both Japanese subspecies S. c. walkeri (Sapporo population, 2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z) and S. cynthia subsp. indet. (Nagano population, 2n=25, neo-WZ1Z2). One homologue, corresponding to the A2 autosome in S. c. ricini and S. c. walkeri, fused with the W chromosome in S. cynthia subsp. indet. Consequently, the other homologue became a Z2 chromosome. These results clearly showed a step-by-step evolution of the neo-sex chromosomes by repeated autosome–sex chromosome fusions. We suggest that the rearrangements of sex chromosomes may facilitate divergence of S. cynthia subspecies towards speciation. PMID:20668432

Yoshido, A; Sahara, K; Marec, F; Matsuda, Y

2011-01-01

266

Extending long-range phasing and haplotype library imputation methods to impute genotypes on sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

AlphaImpute is a flexible and accurate genotype imputation tool that was originally designed for the imputation of genotypes on autosomal chromosomes. In some species, sex chromosomes comprise a large portion of the genome. For example, chromosome Z represents approximately 8% of the chicken genome and therefore is likely to be important in determining genetic variation in a population. When breeding programs make selection decisions based on genomic information, chromosomes that are not represented on the genotyping platform will not be subject to selection. Therefore imputation algorithms should be able to impute genotypes for all chromosomes. The objective of this research was to extend AlphaImpute so that it could impute genotypes on sex chromosomes. The accuracy of imputation was assessed using different genotyping strategies in a real commercial chicken population. The correlation between true and imputed genotypes was high in all the scenarios and was 0.96 for the most favourable scenario. Overall, the accuracy of imputation of the sex chromosome was slightly lower than that of autosomes for all scenarios considered. PMID:23617460

Hickey, John M; Kranis, Andreas

2013-01-01

267

Complex chromosomal abnormalities in a patient with HTLV-1 positive T-cell leukemia  

SciTech Connect

HTLV-1 positive adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is associated with numerous chromosomal abnormalities. The chromosomal rearrangements can be extremely complex and additional material is often present, making precise identification by routine cytogenetic techniques difficult. We report a case of ATL that was established of bone marrow cells by both QFQ and GTG banding techniques revealed a highly complex 49,XX,der(2)t(2;?)(q37;?),+5,+2mar karyotype in the dividing cells. The identical cytogenetic findings were also seen in unstimulated peripheral blood collected one week later. Using the FISH-technique, we applied spectrum green-labeled No. 1- and No. 7-specific WCP, spectrum orange-labeled No. 2- and No. 5-specific WCP (GIBCO/BRL, Gaithersburg, MD) and biotin-labeled No. 18-specific WCP (Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD) to metaphase chromosomes. The large marker chromosome was identified as an extra 1q arm, the material attached to the distal 2q was additional 7q. The presence of three No. 5 chromosomes was verified and the small marker was determined to be an extra partial 5p in Robertsonian translocation with an additional partial 18q arm. The karyotype was revised to 49,XX,+1q,der(2)t(2;7)(q37;q22),+5,+t(5;18)(p14{r_arrow}p11::q11{r_arrow}q12). Identification of the numerous chromosomal anomalies associated with the disease by molecular techniques shall lead to a better understanding of this deadly cancer.

Hyde, P.; Macera, M.J.; Gogineni, S.K. [Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

268

DNA replication in the sex chromosomes of the pronghorn and the Rocky Mountain goat.  

PubMed

The X chromosomes of the male pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is larger than the "original" type and carries a large segment of late-labelling chromatin. The Y chromosome has a late-labelling segment that appears to duplicate synchronously with that of the X. Both chromosomes have segments that label throughout the period of observation; that the X is about 4.7% of the haploid complement and approaches "original" proportions. The X chromosomes of the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) appear to be of the "original" type, without marked late-labelling regions, and the Y chromosomes is small. The structure and origin of extra-large sex chromosomes are discussed. PMID:862436

Dain, A

1977-01-01

269

Diversity and abundance of the abnormal chromosome 10 meiotic drive complex in Zea mays.  

PubMed

Maize Abnormal chromosome 10 (Ab10) contains a classic meiotic drive system that exploits the asymmetry of meiosis to preferentially transmit itself and other chromosomes containing specialized heterochromatic regions called knobs. The structure and diversity of the Ab10 meiotic drive haplotype is poorly understood. We developed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from an Ab10 line and used the data to develop sequence-based markers, focusing on the proximal portion of the haplotype that shows partial homology to normal chromosome 10. These molecular and additional cytological data demonstrate that two previously identified Ab10 variants (Ab10-I and Ab10-II) share a common origin. Dominant PCR markers were used with fluorescence in situ hybridization to assay 160 diverse teosinte and maize landrace populations from across the Americas, resulting in the identification of a previously unknown but prevalent form of Ab10 (Ab10-III). We find that Ab10 occurs in at least 75% of teosinte populations at a mean frequency of 15%. Ab10 was also found in 13% of the maize landraces, but does not appear to be fixed in any wild or cultivated population. Quantitative analyses suggest that the abundance and distribution of Ab10 is governed by a complex combination of intrinsic fitness effects as well as extrinsic environmental variability. PMID:23443059

Kanizay, L B; Pyhäjärvi, T; Lowry, E G; Hufford, M B; Peterson, D G; Ross-Ibarra, J; Dawe, R K

2013-06-01

270

Pathology Case Study: Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor of the CNS, Ring Chromosome 22 Abnormality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 4-year-old girl with a constitutional ring chromosome 22 abnormality has been suffering from occasional episodes of morning emesis. Visitors are given both the microscopic description and imaging studies, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Rubio, Ana

2008-12-30

271

Whole-genome sequence of a flatfish provides insights into ZW sex chromosome evolution and adaptation to a benthic lifestyle.  

PubMed

Genetic sex determination by W and Z chromosomes has developed independently in different groups of organisms. To better understand the evolution of sex chromosomes and the plasticity of sex-determination mechanisms, we sequenced the whole genomes of a male (ZZ) and a female (ZW) half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). In addition to insights into adaptation to a benthic lifestyle, we find that the sex chromosomes of these fish are derived from the same ancestral vertebrate protochromosome as the avian W and Z chromosomes. Notably, the same gene on the Z chromosome, dmrt1, which is the male-determining gene in birds, showed convergent evolution of features that are compatible with a similar function in tongue sole. Comparison of the relatively young tongue sole sex chromosomes with those of mammals and birds identified events that occurred during the early phase of sex-chromosome evolution. Pertinent to the current debate about heterogametic sex-chromosome decay, we find that massive gene loss occurred in the wake of sex-chromosome 'birth'. PMID:24487278

Chen, Songlin; Zhang, Guojie; Shao, Changwei; Huang, Quanfei; Liu, Geng; Zhang, Pei; Song, Wentao; An, Na; Chalopin, Domitille; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Hong, Yunhan; Li, Qiye; Sha, Zhenxia; Zhou, Heling; Xie, Mingshu; Yu, Qiulin; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Hui; Wang, Na; Wu, Kui; Yang, Changgeng; Zhou, Qian; Liao, Xiaolin; Yang, Linfeng; Hu, Qiaomu; Zhang, Jilin; Meng, Liang; Jin, Lijun; Tian, Yongsheng; Lian, Jinmin; Yang, Jingfeng; Miao, Guidong; Liu, Shanshan; Liang, Zhuo; Yan, Fang; Li, Yangzhen; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Ying; Du, Min; Zhao, Yongwei; Schartl, Manfred; Tang, Qisheng; Wang, Jun

2014-03-01

272

Differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Apareiodon ibitiensis (Teleostei, Parodontidae): cytotaxonomy and biogeography.  

PubMed

Conventional and molecular chromosomal analyses were carried out on three populations of Apareiodon ibitiensis sampled from the hydrographic basins of the Săo Francisco River and Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The results reveal a conserved diploid number (2n = 54 chromosomes), a karyotype formula consisting of 50 m-sm + 4st and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system that has not been previously identified for the species. C-banding analysis with propidium iodide staining revealed centromeric and terminal bands located in the chromosomes of the specimens from the three populations and allowed the identification of heteromorphism of heterochromatin regions in the Z and W chromosomes. The number of 18S sites located through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) varied between the populations of the Săo Francisco and Upper Paraná Rivers. The location of 5S rDNA sites proved comparable in one pair of metacentric chromosomes. Thus, the present study proposes a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system for A. ibitiensis among the Parodontidae, and a hypothesis is presented regarding possible W chromosome differentiation stages in this species through DNA accumulation, showing geographical variations for this characteristic, possibly as a consequence of geographical reproductive isolation. PMID:20738689

Bellafronte, E; Vicari, M R; Artoni, R F; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

2009-12-01

273

THE EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS OF SEXUALLY ANTAGONISTIC MUTATIONS IN PSEUDOAUTOSOMAL REGIONS OF SEX CHROMOSOMES  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes can evolve gene contents that differ from the rest of the genome, as well as larger sex differences in gene expression compared with autosomes. This probably occurs because fully sex-linked beneficial mutations substitute at different rates from autosomal ones, especially when fitness effects are sexually antagonistic (SA). The evolutionary properties of genes located in the recombining pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of a sex chromosome have not previously been modeled in detail. Such PAR genes differ from classical sex-linked genes by having two alleles at a locus in both sexes; in contrast to autosomal genes, however, variants can become associated with gender. The evolutionary fates of PAR genes may therefore differ from those of either autosomal or fully sex-linked genes. Here, we model their evolutionary dynamics by deriving expressions for the selective advantages of PAR gene mutations under different conditions. We show that, unless selection is very strong, the probability of invasion of a population by an SA mutation is usually similar to that of an autosomal mutation, unless there is close linkage to the sex-determining region. Most PAR genes should thus evolve similarly to autosomal rather than sex-linked genes, unless recombination is very rare in the PAR. PMID:24476564

Charlesworth, Brian; Jordan, Crispin Y; Charlesworth, Deborah; Glemin, S

2014-01-01

274

Sex-specific SCAR markers in the dioecious plant Rumex nivalis (Polygonaceae) and implications for the evolution of sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

We developed SCAR primers based on isolated and sequenced male-specific fragments as identified in an AFLP analysis of the dioecious plant Rumex nivalis. PCR amplification using these primers on females and males resulted in fragments exclusively present in males. Co-amplification of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 together with the male-specific fragment was applied as an internal control for successful PCR reactions to avoid false-negative sex scoring. With a length of about 164 bp, the AFLP fragment was of a similar size as the tandemly arranged, repetitive sequences of 180 bp located on the Y chromosomes of Rumex acetosa. The genetic distances between the Y-chromosomal sequences of R. nivalis and R. acetosa, both members of the section Acetosa, were substantial. We found intra-individual divergence among cloned sequences of the male-specific fragment in R. nivalis. The patterns of interspecific and intra-individual sequence variation found are in accordance with proposed modes of the evolution of sex chromosomes. Y chromosomes possibly arose only once in the genus Rumex and consist mainly of heterochromatic DNA. Due to the almost complete absence of selection on them, Y chromosomes are likely to accumulate large numbers of mutations. PMID:13679980

Stehlik, I; Blattner, F R

2004-01-01

275

The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds. PMID:25177264

Maekawa, Fumihiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Kawashima, Takaharu; Nohara, Keiko; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

2014-01-01

276

DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes including sex chromosomes, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The millions of bases, which make up the human genome are organized into structures called chromosomes. These are arranged into 22 matching pairs plus 1 pair of sex chromosomes consisting of 2 X's in women and an X and a Y in men. So humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell, known collectively as a karyotype. This set of chromosomes has a Y, so it must belong to a male.

2008-10-06

277

Microarray-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization Using Sex-Matched Reference DNA Provides Greater Sensitivity for Detection of Sex Chromosome Imbalances than Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization with Sex-Mismatched Reference DNA  

PubMed Central

In array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) experiments, the measurement of DNA copy number of sex chromosomal regions depends on the sex of the patient and the reference DNAs used. We evaluated the ability of bacterial artificial chromosomes/P1-derived artificial and oligonucleotide array-CGH analyses to detect constitutional sex chromosome imbalances using sex-mismatched reference DNAs. Twenty-two samples with imbalances involving either the X or Y chromosome, including deletions, duplications, triplications, derivative or isodicentric chromosomes, and aneuploidy, were analyzed. Although concordant results were obtained for approximately one-half of the samples when using sex-mismatched and sex-matched reference DNAs, array-CGH analyses with sex-mismatched reference DNAs did not detect genomic imbalances that were detected using sex-matched reference DNAs in 6 of 22 patients. Small duplications and deletions of the X chromosome were most difficult to detect in female and male patients, respectively, when sex-mismatched reference DNAs were used. Sex-matched reference DNAs in array-CGH analyses provides optimal sensitivity and enables an automated statistical evaluation for the detection of sex chromosome imbalances when compared with an experimental design using sex-mismatched reference DNAs. Using sex-mismatched reference DNAs in array-CGH analyses may generate false-negative, false-positive, and ambiguous results for sex chromosome-specific probes, thus masking potential pathogenic genomic imbalances. Therefore, to optimize both detection of clinically relevant sex chromosome imbalances and ensure proper experimental performance, we suggest that alternative internal controls be developed and used instead of using sex-mismatched reference DNAs. PMID:19324990

Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Shaw, Chad A.; Ou, Zhishuo; Pursley, Amber N.; Patel, Ankita; Bi, Weimin; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lupski, James R.; Chinault, A. Craig; Beaudet, Arthur L.

2009-01-01

278

Identification of prognostic relevant chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using microarray-based genomic profiling  

PubMed Central

Background Characteristic genomic abnormalities in patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have been shown to provide important prognostic information. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), currently used in clinical diagnostics of CLL, are targeted tests aimed at specific genomic loci. Microarray-based genomic profiling is a new high-resolution tool that enables genome-wide analyses. The aim of this study was to compare two recently launched genomic microarray platforms, i.e., the CytoScan HD Array (Affymetrix) and the HumanOmniExpress Array (Illumina), with FISH and MLPA to ascertain whether these latter tests can be replaced by either one of the microarray platforms in a clinical diagnostic setting. Result Microarray-based genomic profiling and FISH were performed in all 28 CLL patients. For an unbiased comparison of the performance of both microarray platforms 9 patients were evaluated on both platforms, resulting in the identification of exactly identical genomic aberrations. To evaluate the detection limit of the microarray platforms we included 7 patients in which the genomic abnormalities were present in a relatively low percentage of the cells (range 5-28%) as previously determined by FISH. We found that both microarray platforms allowed the detection of copy number abnormalities present in as few as 16% of the cells. In addition, we found that microarray-based genomic profiling allowed the identification of genomic abnormalities that could not be detected by FISH and/or MLPA, including a focal TP53 loss and copy neutral losses of heterozygosity of chromosome 17p. Conclusion From our results we conclude that although the microarray platforms exhibit a somewhat lower limit of detection compared to FISH, they still allow the detection of copy number abnormalities present in as few as 16% of the cells. By applying similar interpretation criteria, the results obtained from both platforms were comparable. In addition, we conclude that both microarray platforms allow the identification of additional potential prognostic relevant abnormalities such as focal TP53 deletions and copy neutral losses of heterozygosity of chromosome 17p, which would have remained undetected by FISH or MLPA. The prognostic relevance of these novel genomic alterations requires further evaluation in prospective clinical trials. PMID:24401281

2014-01-01

279

Evidence that sex chromosome asynapsis, rather than excess Y gene dosage, is responsible for the meiotic impairment of XYY mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is extensive evidence for the existence of a meiotic checkpoint that acts to eliminate spermatocytes that fail to achieve full sex chromosome synapsis at the pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase. XYY mice are nearly always sterile, with clear signs of meiotic impairment, and sex chromosome asynapsis has been proposed to underlie this impairment. However, a study of

T. A. Rodriguez; P. S. Burgoyne

2000-01-01

280

Autosomal location of genes from the conserved mammalian X in the platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus ): implications for mammalian sex chromosome evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ancient autosomal pair. Mapping of human X- and Y-borne genes in distantly related mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates has proved valuable to help deduce the evolution of this unique part of the genome. The platypus, a monotreme mammal distantly related to eutherians and marsupials, has an extraordinary sex chromosome system comprising five X and five

Paul D. Waters; Margaret L. Delbridge; Janine E. Deakin; Nisrine El-Mogharbel; Patrick J. Kirby; Denise R. Carvalho-Silva; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

2005-01-01

281

Sex ratio in normal and disomic sperm: evidence that the extra chromosome 21 preferentially segregates with the Y chromosome.  

PubMed Central

In humans, deviations from a 1:1 male:female ratio have been identified in both chromosomally normal and trisomic live births: among normal newborns there is a slight excess of males, among trisomy 18 live borns a large excess of females, and among trisomy 21 live borns an excess of males. These differences could arise from differential production of or fertilization by Y- or X-bearing sperm or from selection against male or female conceptions. To examine the proportion of Y- and X-bearing sperm in normal sperm and in sperm disomic for chromosomes 18 or 21, we used three-color FISH (to the X and Y and either chromosome 18 or chromosome 21) to analyze >300,000 sperm from 24 men. In apparently normal sperm, the sex ratio was nearly 1:1 (148,074 Y-bearing to 148,657 X-bearing sperm), and the value was not affected by the age of the donor. Certain of the donors, however, had significant excesses of Y- or X-bearing sperm. In disomy 18 sperm, there were virtually identical numbers of Y- and X-bearing sperm; thus, the excess of females in trisomy 18 presumably is due to selection against male trisomic conceptions. In contrast, we observed 69 Y-bearing and 44 X-bearing sperm disomic for chromosome 21. This is consistent with previous molecular studies, which have identified an excess of males among paternally derived cases of trisomy 21, and suggests that some of the excess of males among Down syndrome individuals is attributable to a nondisjunctional mechanism in which the extra chromosome 21 preferentially segregates with the Y chromosome. PMID:8900240

Griffin, D. K.; Abruzzo, M. A.; Millie, E. A.; Feingold, E.; Hassold, T. J.

1996-01-01

282

Sex ratio in normal and disomic sperm: Evidence that the extra chromosome 21 preferentially segregates with the Y chromosome  

SciTech Connect

In humans, deviations from a 1:1 male:female ratio have been identified in both chromosomally normal and trisomic live births: among normal newborns there is a slight excess of males, among trisomy 18 live borns a large excess of females, and among trisomy 21 live borns an excess of males. These differences could arise from differential production of or fertilization by Y- or X-bearing sperm or from selection against male or female conceptions. To examine the proportion of Y- and X- bearing sperm in normal sperm and in sperm disomic for chromosomes 18 or 21, we used three-color FISH (to the X and Y and either chromosome 18 or chromosome 21) to analyze > 300,000 sperm from 24 men. In apparently normal sperm, the sex ratio was nearly 1:1 (148,074 Y-bearing to 148,657 X-bearing sperm), and the value was not affected by the age of the donor. Certain of the donors, however, had significant excesses of Y- or X-bearing sperm. In disomy 18 sperm, there were virtually identical numbers of Y- and X-bearing sperm; thus, the excess of females in trisomy 18 presumably is due to selection against male trisomic conceptions. In contrast, we observed 69 Y-bearing and 44 X-bearing sperm disomic for chromosome 21. This is consistent with previous molecular studies, which have identified an excess of males among paternally derived cases of trisomy 21, and suggests that some of the excess of males among Down syndrome individuals is attributable to a nondisjunctional mechanism in which the extra chromosome 21 preferentially segregates with the Y chromosome. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

Griffin, D.K.; Millie, E.A.; Hassold, T.J. [Case Western Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)]|[Univ. Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01

283

High Incidence of Sperm Sex Chromosomes Aneuploidies in Two Patients with Klinefelter's Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have investigated the arrangement of sex chro- mosomes in sperm from two severe oligozoospermic patients, appar- ently affected by the classic form of Klinefelter's syndrome (KS). Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization has been used to recog- nize chromosomes X, Y, and 8 in sperm from patients and 10 fertile men with normal 46,XY karyotype. In patients

C. FORESTA; C. GALEAZZI; A. BETTELLA; M. STELLA; C. SCANDELLARI

2010-01-01

284

Genomic identification and characterization of the pseudoautosomal region in highly differentiated avian sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

The molecular characteristics of the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of sex chromosomes remain elusive. Despite significant genome-sequencing efforts, the PAR of highly differentiated avian sex chromosomes remains to be identified. Here we use linkage analysis together with whole-genome re-sequencing to uncover the 630-kb PAR of an ecological model species, the collared flycatcher. The PAR contains 22 protein-coding genes and is GC rich. The genetic length is 64?cM in female meiosis, consistent with an obligate crossing-over event. Recombination is concentrated to a hotspot region, with an extreme rate of >700?cM/Mb in a 67-kb segment. We find no signatures of sexual antagonism and propose that sexual antagonism may have limited influence on PAR sequences when sex chromosomes are nearly fully differentiated and when a recombination hotspot region is located close to the PAR boundary. Our results demonstrate that a very small PAR suffices to ensure homologous recombination and proper segregation of sex chromosomes during meiosis. PMID:25378102

Smeds, Linnéa; Kawakami, Takeshi; Burri, Reto; Bolivar, Paulina; Husby, Arild; Qvarnström, Anna; Uebbing, Severin; Ellegren, Hans

2014-01-01

285

Accumulation of Y-specific satellite DNAs during the evolution of Rumex acetosa sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

The study of the molecular structure of young heteromorphic sex chromosomes of plants has shed light on the evolutionary forces that control the differentiation of the X and Y during the earlier stages of their evolution. We have used the model plant Rumex acetosa, a dioecious species with multiple sex chromosomes, 2n = 12 + XX female and 2n = 12 + XY(1)Y(2) male, to analyse the significance of repetitive DNA accumulation during the differentiation of the Y. A bulk segregant analysis (BSA) approach allowed us to identify and isolate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the sex chromosomes. From a total of 86 RAPD markers in the parents, 6 markers were found to be linked to the Ys and 1 to the X. Two of the Y-linked markers represent two AT-rich satellite DNAs (satDNAs), named RAYSII and RAYSIII, that share about 80% homology, as well as with RAYSI, another satDNA of R. acetosa. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation demonstrated that RAYSII is specific for Y(1), whilst RAYSIII is located in different clusters along Y(1) and Y(2). The two satDNAs were only detected in the genome of the dioecious species with XX/XY(1)Y(2) multiple sex chromosome systems in the subgenus Acetosa, but were absent from other dioecious species with an XX/XY system of the subgenera Acetosa or Acetosella, as well as in gynodioecious or hermaphrodite species of the subgenera Acetosa, Rumex and Platypodium. Phylogenetic analysis with different cloned monomers of RAYSII and RAYSIII from both R. acetosa and R. papillaris indicate that these two satDNAs are completely separated from each other, and from RAYSI, in both species. The three Y-specific satDNAs, however, evolved from an ancestral satDNA with repeating units of 120 bp, through intermediate satDNAs of 360 bp. The data therefore support the idea that Y-chromosome differentiation and heterochromatinisation in the Rumex species having a multiple sex chromosome system have occurred by different amplification events from a common ancestral satDNA. Since dioecious species with multiple XX/XY(1)Y(2) sex chromosome systems of the section Acetosa appear to have evolved from dioecious species with an XX/XY system, the amplification of tandemly repetitive elements in the Ys of the section Acetosa is a recent evolutionary process that has contributed to an increase in the size and differentiation of the already non-recombining Y chromosomes. PMID:19085011

Mariotti, Beatrice; Manzano, Susana; Kejnovský, Eduard; Vyskot, Boris; Jamilena, Manuel

2009-03-01

286

H2AX Is Required for Chromatin Remodeling and Inactivation of Sex Chromosomes in Male Mouse Meiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes condense to form a macrochromatin body, termed the sex, or XY, body, within which X- and Y-linked genes are transcriptionally repressed. The molecular basis and biological function of both sex body formation and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) are unknown. A phosphorylated form of H2AX, a histone H2A variant

Oscar Fernandez-Capetillo; Shantha K. Mahadevaiah; Arkady Celeste; Peter J. Romanienko; R. Daniel Camerini-Otero; William M. Bonner; Katia Manova; Paul Burgoyne; André Nussenzweig

2003-01-01

287

Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line test in pregnancies with a priori low risk for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to explore the utility of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in groups of pregnancies with a priori low risk for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities, usually not considered an indication for testing, in order to assess whether CMA improves the detection rate of prenatal chromosomal aberrations. A total of 3000 prenatal samples were processed in parallel using both whole-genome CMA and conventional karyotyping. The indications for prenatal testing included: advanced maternal age, maternal serum screening test abnormality, abnormal ultrasound findings, known abnormal fetal karyotype, parental anxiety, family history of a genetic condition and cell culture failure. The use of CMA resulted in an increased detection rate regardless of the indication for analysis. This was evident in high risk groups (abnormal ultrasound findings and abnormal fetal karyotype), in which the percentage of detection was 5.8% (7/120), and also in low risk groups, such as advanced maternal age (6/1118, 0.5%), and parental anxiety (11/1674, 0.7%). A total of 24 (0.8%) fetal conditions would have remained undiagnosed if only a standard karyotype had been performed. Importantly, 17 (0.6%) of such findings would have otherwise been overlooked if CMA was offered only to high risk pregnancies.The results of this study suggest that more widespread CMA testing of fetuses would result in a higher detection of clinically relevant chromosome abnormalities, even in low risk pregnancies. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the introduction of CMA as a first-line diagnostic test for all pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing, regardless of risk factors. PMID:23211699

Fiorentino, Francesco; Napoletano, Stefania; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Sessa, Mariateresa; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Gordon, Anthony; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Baldi, Marina

2013-07-01

288

Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line test in pregnancies with a priori low risk for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we aimed to explore the utility of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in groups of pregnancies with a priori low risk for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities, usually not considered an indication for testing, in order to assess whether CMA improves the detection rate of prenatal chromosomal aberrations. A total of 3000 prenatal samples were processed in parallel using both whole-genome CMA and conventional karyotyping. The indications for prenatal testing included: advanced maternal age, maternal serum screening test abnormality, abnormal ultrasound findings, known abnormal fetal karyotype, parental anxiety, family history of a genetic condition and cell culture failure. The use of CMA resulted in an increased detection rate regardless of the indication for analysis. This was evident in high risk groups (abnormal ultrasound findings and abnormal fetal karyotype), in which the percentage of detection was 5.8% (7/120), and also in low risk groups, such as advanced maternal age (6/1118, 0.5%), and parental anxiety (11/1674, 0.7%). A total of 24 (0.8%) fetal conditions would have remained undiagnosed if only a standard karyotype had been performed. Importantly, 17 (0.6%) of such findings would have otherwise been overlooked if CMA was offered only to high risk pregnancies.The results of this study suggest that more widespread CMA testing of fetuses would result in a higher detection of clinically relevant chromosome abnormalities, even in low risk pregnancies. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the introduction of CMA as a first-line diagnostic test for all pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing, regardless of risk factors. PMID:23211699

Fiorentino, Francesco; Napoletano, Stefania; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Sessa, Mariateresa; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Gordon, Anthony; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Baldi, Marina

2013-01-01

289

Association between venous leg ulcers and sex chromosome anomalies in men.  

PubMed

We report here two cases of men, aged 46 and 23 years, with refractory chronic venous leg ulcers in association with sex chromosome aberrations: one with a 47,XXY/48,XXXY karyotype (Klinefelter syndrome) and the other with a 47,XYY karyotype (Jacob syndrome). In both patients, the occurrence of leg ulcers was the reason for seeking medical care; their medical history was other-wise unremarkable. Chromosomal analyses were performed due to the unusually young age for development of venous leg ulcers. The pathophysiology behind the occurrence of venous leg ulcers in patients with numerical aberrations of the sex chromosomes is incompletely understood. Involvement of elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in the pathogenesis of venous leg ulcers has been reported in patients with Klinefelter syndrome. Notably, our patient with 47,XXY/48,XXXY presented with androgen deficiency but normal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity. PMID:21057745

Gattringer, Cornelia; Scheurecker, Christine; Höpfl, Reinhard; Müller, Hansgeorg

2010-11-01

290

The Amylase gene cluster on the evolving sex chromosomes of Drosophila miranda.  

PubMed Central

On the basis of chromosomal homology, the Amylase gene cluster in Drosophila miranda must be located on the secondary sex chromosome pair, neo-X (X2) and neo-Y, but is autosomally inherited in all other Drosophila species. Genetic evidence indicates no active amylase on the neo-Y chromosome and the X2-chromosomal locus already shows dosage compensation. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that the Amy gene cluster has been lost already from the evolving neo-Y chromosome. This finding shows that a relatively new neo-Y chromosome can start to lose genes and hence gradually lose homology with the neo-X. The X2-chromosomal Amy1 is intact and Amy2 contains a complete coding sequence, but has a deletion in the 3'-flanking region. Amy3 is structurally eroded and hampered by missing regulatory motifs. Functional analysis of the X2-chromosomal Amy1 and Amy2 regions from D. miranda in transgenic D. melanogaster flies reveals ectopic AMY1 expression. AMY1 shows the same electrophoretic mobility as the single amylase band in D. miranda, while ectopic AMY2 expression is characterized by a different mobility. Therefore, only the Amy1 gene of the resident Amy cluster remains functional and hence Amy1 is the dosage compensated gene. PMID:9872956

Steinemann, S; Steinemann, M

1999-01-01

291

Genome structure and emerging evidence of an incipient sex chromosome in Populus  

SciTech Connect

The genus Populus consists of dioecious woody species with largely unknown genetic mechanisms for gender determination. We have discovered genetic and genomic features in the peritelomeric region of chromosome XIX that suggest this region of the Populus genome is in the process of developing characteristics of a sex chromosome. We have identified a gender-associated locus that consistently maps to this region. Furthermore, comparison of genetic maps across multiple Populus families reveals consistently distorted segregation within this region. We have intensively characterized this region using an F1 interspecific cross involving the female genotype that was used for genome sequencing. This region shows suppressed recombination and high divergence between the alternate haplotypes, as revealed by dense map-based genome assembly using microsatellite markers. The suppressed recombination, distorted segregation, and haplotype divergence were observed only for the maternal parent in this cross. Furthermore, the progeny of this cross showed a strongly male-biased sex ratio, in agreement with Haldane's rule that postulates that the heterogametic sex is more likely to be absent, rare, or sterile in interspecific crosses. Together, these results support the role of chromosome XIX in sex determination and suggest that sex determination in Populus occurs through a ZW system in which the female is the heterogametic gender.

Yin, Tongming [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Sewell, Mitchell [ORNL; Woolbright, Dr. Scott [North Arizona University; Allan, Dr. Gery [North Arizona University; Kelleher, Colin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Douglas, Carl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Wang, Prof. Mingxiu [Nanjing Forestry University, China; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

2008-01-01

292

Sex-chromosome differentiation parallels postglacial range expansion in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea).  

PubMed

Occasional XY recombination is a proposed explanation for the sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs. Numerous laboratory crosses, however, failed to detect any event of male recombination, and a detailed survey of NW-European Hyla arborea populations identified male-specific alleles at sex-linked loci, pointing to the absence of XY recombination in their recent history. Here, we address this paradox in a phylogeographic framework by genotyping sex-linked microsatellite markers in populations and sibships from the entire species range. Contrasting with postglacial populations of NW Europe, which display complete absence of XY recombination and strong sex-chromosome differentiation, refugial populations of the southern Balkans and Adriatic coast show limited XY recombination and large overlaps in allele frequencies. Geographically and historically intermediate populations of the Pannonian Basin show intermediate patterns of XY differentiation. Even in populations where X and Y occasionally recombine, the genetic diversity of Y haplotypes is reduced below the levels expected from the fourfold drop in copy numbers. This study is the first in which X and Y haplotypes could be phased over the distribution range in a species with homomorphic sex chromosomes; it shows that XY-recombination patterns may differ strikingly between conspecific populations, and that recombination arrest may evolve rapidly (<5000 generations). PMID:25209463

Dufresnes, Christophe; Bertholet, Youna; Wassef, Jérôme; Ghali, Karim; Savary, Romain; Pasteur, Baptiste; Brelsford, Alan; Rozenblut-Ko?cisty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Stöck, Matthias; Perrin, Nicolas

2014-12-01

293

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis increases the implantation rate in human in vitro fertilization by avoiding the transfer of chromosomally abnormal embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To verify the percentage of chromosomally abnormal preimplantation embryos in patients with a poor prognosis and possibly to increase the chance of implantation by selecting chromosomally normal embryos.Design: A prospective, randomized, controlled study.Setting: In vitro fertilization program at the Reproductive Medicine Unit of the Societá Italiana Studi Medicina della Riproduzione, Bologna, Italy.Patient(s): In a total of 28 stimulated cycles,

Luca Gianaroli; M. Cristina Magli; Anna Pia Ferraretti; Agnese Fiorentino; John Garrisi; Santiago Munné

1997-01-01

294

Cloning and characterization of dispersed repetitive DNA derived from microdissected sex chromosomes of Rumex acetosa.  

PubMed

Rumex acetosa is characterized by a multiple chromosome system (2n = 12 + XX for females, and 2n = 12 + XY1Y2 for males), in which sex is determined by the ratio between the number of X chromosomes and autosome sets. For a better understanding of the molecular structure and evolution of plant sex chromosomes, we have generated a sex chromosome specific library of R. acetosa by microdissection. The screening of this library has allowed us to identify 5 repetitive DNA families that have been characterized in detail. One of these families, DOP-20, has shown no homology with other sequences in databases. Nevertheless, the putative proteins encoded by the other 4 families, DOP-8, DOP-47, DOP-60, and DOP-61, show homology with proteins from different plant retroelements, including poly proteins from Ty3-gypsy- and Ty1-copia-like long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements, and reverse transcriptase from non-LTR retro elements. Results indicate that sequences from these 5 families are dispersed throughout the genome of both males and females, but no appreciable accumulation or differentiation of these types of sequences have been found in the Y chromosomes. These repetitive DNA sequences are more conserved in the genome of other dioecious species such as Rumex papillaris, Rumex intermedius, Rumex thyrsoides, Rumex hastatulus, and Rumex suffruticosus, than in the polygamous, gynodioecious, or hermaphrodite species Rumex induratus, Rumex lunaria, Rumex con glom er atus, Rumex crispus, and Rumex bucephalo phorus, which supports a single origin of dioecious species in this genus. The implication of these transposable elements in the origin and evolution of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes of R. acetosa is discussed. PMID:16498461

Mariotti, Beatrice; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Lozano, Rafael; Parker, John S; de la Herrán, Roberto; Rejón, Carmelo Ruiz; Rejón, Manuel Ruiz; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel; Jamilena, Manuel

2006-02-01

295

Geographic variation in sex-chromosome differentiation in the common frog (Rana temporaria).  

PubMed

In sharp contrast with birds and mammals, sex-determination systems in ectothermic vertebrates are often highly dynamic and sometimes multifactorial. Both environmental and genetic effects have been documented in common frogs (Rana temporaria). One genetic linkage group, mapping to the largest pair of chromosomes and harbouring the candidate sex-determining gene Dmrt1, associates with sex in several populations throughout Europe, but association varies both within and among populations. Here, we show that sex association at this linkage group differs among populations along a 1500-km transect across Sweden. Genetic differentiation between sexes is strongest (FST  = 0.152) in a northern-boreal population, where male-specific alleles and heterozygote excesses (FIS  = -0.418 in males, +0.025 in females) testify to a male-heterogametic system and lack of X-Y recombination. In the southernmost population (nemoral climate), in contrast, sexes share the same alleles at the same frequencies (FST  = 0.007 between sexes), suggesting unrestricted recombination. Other populations show intermediate levels of sex differentiation, with males falling in two categories: some cluster with females, while others display male-specific Y haplotypes. This polymorphism may result from differences between populations in the patterns of X-Y recombination, co-option of an alternative sex-chromosome pair, or a mixed sex-determination system where maleness is controlled either by genes or by environment depending on populations or families. We propose approaches to test among these alternative models, to disentangle the effects of climate and phylogeography on the latitudinal trend, and to sort out how this polymorphism relates to the 'sexual races' described in common frogs in the 1930s. PMID:24935195

Rodrigues, Nicolas; Merilä, Juha; Patrelle, Cécile; Perrin, Nicolas

2014-07-01

296

Correlations of chromosome abnormalities with histologic and immunologic characteristics in 49 patients from Akita, Japan with non-hodgkin lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed the chromosomes of 49 non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients from an area of Japan that is nonendemic for adult T -cell leukemia\\/lymphoma. Clonal chromosome abnormalities were found in the majority (88%) of the specimens examined. The most characteristic structural abnormalities were: t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(3;22)(q27;q11), t(11;14)(q13;q32), idic(18)(p11.2), and the combination del(1)(p13) and del(i)(q11). The t(14;18) were found in four of five

Keiko Hashimoto; Ikuo Miura; Akihiko Chyubachi; Masahiro Saito; Akira B. Miura

1995-01-01

297

Fetal nuchal translucency scan and early prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities by rapid aneuploidy screening: observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate an approach for the analysis of samples obtained in screening for trisomy 21 that retains the advantages of quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (qf-PCR) over full karyotyping and maximises the detection of clinically significant abnormalities. Design Observational study. Setting Tertiary referral centre. Subjects 17 446 pregnancies, from which chorionic villous samples had been taken after assessment of risk for trisomy 21 by measurement of fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness at 11 to 13+6 weeks of gestation. Interventions Analysis of chorionic villous samples by full karyotyping and by qf-PCR for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y. Main outcome measure Detection of clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities. Results The fetal karyotype was normal in 15 548 (89.1%) cases and abnormal in 1898 (10.9%) cases, including 1722 with a likely clinically significant adverse outcome. Karyotyping all cases would lead to the diagnosis of all clinically significant abnormalities, and a policy of relying entirely on qf-PCR would lead to the diagnosis of 97.9% of abnormalities. An alternative strategy whereby qf-PCR is the main method of analysis and full karyotyping is reserved for those cases with a minimum fetal NT thickness of 4 mm would require full karyotyping in 10.1% of the cases, would identify 99.0% of the significant abnormalities, and would cost 60% less than full karyotyping for all. Conclusions In the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities after first trimester screening for trisomy 21, a policy of qf-PCR for all samples and karyotyping only if the fetal NT thickness is increased would reduce the economic costs, provide rapid delivery of results, and identify 99% of the clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:16476673

Chitty, Lyn S; Kagan, Karl O; Molina, Francisca S; Waters, Jonathan J; Nicolaides, Kypros H

2006-01-01

298

Cytological evidence for population-specific sex chromosome heteromorphism in Palaearctic green toads (Amphibia, Anura).  

PubMed

A chromosome study was carried out on a number of European and Central Asiatic diploid green toad populations by means of standard and various other chromosome banding and staining methods (Ag-NOR-, Q-, CMA3-, late replicating [LR] banding pattern, C-and sequential C-banding + CMA3 + DAPI). This study revealed the remarkable karyological uniformity of specimens from all populations, with the only exception being specimens from a Moldavian population, where one chromosome pair was heteromorphic. Though similar in shape, size and with an identical heterochromatin distribution,the difference in the heteromorphic pair was due to a large inverted segment on its long arms. This heteromorphism was restricted to females, suggesting a female heterogametic sex chromosome system of ZZ/ZW type at a very early step of differentiation. PMID:17762149

Odierna, G; Aprea, G; Capriglione, T; Castellano, S; Balletto, E

2007-06-01

299

A pseudoautosomal random amplified polymorphic DNA marker for the sex chromosomes of Silene dioica.  

PubMed

The segregation pattern of an 810-bp random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band in the F1 and backcross generations of a Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. family provides evidence that this molecular marker is located in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. The marker was found through a combination of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and RAPD techniques. Recombination rates between this pseudoautosomal marker and the differentiating portion of the Y chromosome are 15% in both generations. Alternative explanations involving nondisjunction or autosomal inheritance are presented and discussed. Chromosome counts provide evidence against the nondisjunction hypothesis, and probability calculations argue against the possibility of autosomal inheritance. This constitutes the first report of a pseudoautosomal DNA marker for plant sex chromosomes. PMID:9691057

Di Stilio, V S; Kesseli, R V; Mulcahy, D L

1998-08-01

300

Dosage Effects of X and Y Chromosomes on Language and Social Functioning in Children with Supernumerary Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies: Implications for Idiopathic Language Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies (X/Y-aneuploidies), the presence of extra X and/or Y chromosomes, are associated with heightened rates of language impairments and social difficulties. However, no single study has examined different language domains and social functioning in the same sample of children with tri-, tetra-, and…

Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L.; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I.; Lopez, Katherine C.; Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Clasen, Liv S.; Giedd, Jay N.

2012-01-01

301

Sequence and gene content of a large fragment of a lizard sex chromosome and evaluation of candidate sex differentiating gene R-spondin 1  

PubMed Central

Background Scant genomic information from non-avian reptile sex chromosomes is available, and for only a few lizards, several snakes and one turtle species, and it represents only a small fraction of the total sex chromosome sequences in these species. Results We report a 352 kb of contiguous sequence from the sex chromosome of a squamate reptile, Pogona vitticeps, with a ZZ/ZW sex microchromosome system. This contig contains five protein coding genes (oprd1, rcc1, znf91, znf131, znf180), and major families of repetitive sequences with a high number of copies of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons, including the CR1 and Bov-B LINEs. The two genes, oprd1 and rcc1 are part of a homologous syntenic block, which is conserved among amniotes. While oprd1 and rcc1 have no known function in sex determination or differentiation in amniotes, this homologous syntenic block in mammals and chicken also contains R-spondin 1 (rspo1), the ovarian differentiating gene in mammals. In order to explore the probability that rspo1 is sex determining in dragon lizards, genomic BAC and cDNA clones were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Their location on an autosomal microchromosome pair, not on the ZW sex microchromosomes, eliminates rspo1 as a candidate sex determining gene in P. vitticeps. Conclusion Our study has characterized the largest contiguous stretch of physically mapped sex chromosome sequence (352 kb) from a ZZ/ZW lizard species. Although this region represents only a small fraction of the sex chromosomes of P. vitticeps, it has revealed several features typically associated with sex chromosomes including the accumulation of large blocks of repetitive sequences. PMID:24344927

2013-01-01

302

Down syndrome-associated haematopoiesis abnormalities created by chromosome transfer and genome editing technologies  

PubMed Central

Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at a high risk of developing transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). A GATA1 mutation leading to the production of N-terminally truncated GATA1 (GATA1s) in early megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors is linked to the onset of TAM and cooperated with the effect of trisomy 21 (Ts21). To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the progression to TAM in DS patients, we generated human pluripotent stem cells harbouring Ts21 and/or GATA1s by combining microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and genome editing technologies. In vitro haematopoietic differentiation assays showed that the GATA1s mutation blocked erythropoiesis irrespective of an extra chromosome 21, while Ts21 and the GATA1s mutation independently perturbed megakaryopoiesis and the combination of Ts21 and the GATA1s mutation synergistically contributed to an aberrant accumulation of skewed megakaryocytes. Thus, the DS model cells generated by these two technologies are useful in assessing how GATA1s mutation is involved in the onset of TAM in patients with DS. PMID:25159877

Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Yakura, Yuwna; Abe, Satoshi; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Kajitani, Naoyo; Kazuki, Kanako; Takehara, Shoko; Honma, Kazuhisa; Suemori, Hirofumi; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Toki, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Oshimura, Mitsuo

2014-01-01

303

Selection of the most common chromosome abnormalities in oocytes prior to ICSI.  

PubMed

So far, all preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) protocols in use produce results after the eggs have been fertilized. However, these approaches are not acceptable for patients with moral objections to the generation and discard of supernumerary zygotes or embryos. In these circumstances, only those oocytes to be replaced may be inseminated. The purpose of this study was to develop a PGD protocol to diagnose first polar bodies (PBs) prior to Intracytoplasmatic Sperm Injection (ICSI) in order to inseminate only those oocytes found to be chromosomally normal. PB biopsy was performed 1 hour after ovum pick up, and after fixation, the PBs were analysed by FISH and the eggs inseminated by ICSI no later than 7 hours after retrieval. One third (33.3%) of the PBs were aneuploid. Fifty-four normal and 12 non-resolved oocytes were injected by ICSI, of which 65% became 2-PN zygotes. Embryo transfer on day 2 was possible in all 10 patients (average maternal age 35.2+/-3.2, range 29-39 years), of which 6 became pregnant with 8 fetuses (28.6% or 8/28 transferred embryos). The results indicate that PB analysis of some common chromosome abnormalities is feasible within time limits imposed by ICSI insemination (6 hours or less). PMID:10913958

Munné, S; Sepulveda, S; Balmaceda, J; Fernandez, E; Fabres, C; Mackenna, A; Lopez, T; Crosby, J A; Zegers-Hochschild, F

2000-07-01

304

The Sex Chromosome Trisomy mouse model of XXY and XYY: metabolism and motor performance  

PubMed Central

Background Klinefelter syndrome (KS), caused by XXY karyotype, is characterized by low testosterone, infertility, cognitive deficits, and increased prevalence of health problems including obesity and diabetes. It has been difficult to separate direct genetic effects from hormonal effects in human studies or in mouse models of KS because low testosterone levels are confounded with sex chromosome complement. Methods In this study, we present the Sex Chromosome Trisomy (SCT) mouse model that produces XXY, XYY, XY, and XX mice in the same litters, each genotype with either testes or ovaries. The independence of sex chromosome complement and gonadal type allows for improved recognition of sex chromosome effects that are not dependent on levels of gonadal hormones. All mice were gonadectomized and treated with testosterone for 3 weeks. Body weight, body composition, and motor function were measured. Results Before hormonal manipulation, XXY mice of both sexes had significantly greater body weight and relative fat mass compared to XY mice. After gonadectomy and testosterone replacement, XXY mice (both sexes) still had significantly greater body weight and relative fat mass, but less relative lean mass compared to XY mice. Liver, gonadal fat pad, and inguinal fat pad weights were also higher in XXY mice, independent of gonadal sex. In several of these measures, XX mice also differed from XY mice, and gonadal males and females differed significantly on almost every metabolic measure. The sex chromosome effects (except for testis size) were also seen in gonadally female mice before and after ovariectomy and testosterone treatment, indicating that they do not reflect group differences in levels of testicular secretions. XYY mice were similar to XY mice on body weight and metabolic variables but performed worse on motor tasks compared to other groups. Conclusions We find that the new SCT mouse model for XXY and XYY recapitulates features found in humans with these aneuploidies. We illustrate that this model has significant promise for unveiling the role of genetic effects compared to hormonal effects in these syndromes, because many phenotypes are different in XXY vs. XY gonadal female mice which have never been exposed to testicular secretions. PMID:23926958

2013-01-01

305

Aberrant subclavian artery origin in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormality.  

PubMed

We determined the relationship between aortic arch anatomy in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis and chromosomal or genetic abnormality, by performing analysis of 257 consecutive patients undergoing surgical repair from January, 2003 to March, 2011. Chromosomal or genetic abnormality was identified in 49 of the 257 (19%) patients. These included trisomy 21 (n = 14); chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (n = 16); other chromosomal abnormalities (n = 9); CHARGE (n = 2); Pierre Robin (n = 2); and Kabuki, Alagille, Holt-Oram, Kaufman McKusick, Goldenhar, and PHACE (n = 1 each). Aortic anatomy was classified as left arch with normal branching, right arch with mirror image branching, left arch with aberrant right subclavian artery, or right arch with aberrant left subclavian artery. Associated syndromes occurred in 33 of 203 (16%) patients with left arch and normal branching (odds ratio 1); three of 36 (8%) patients with right arch and mirror image branching (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.1-1.6); seven of eight (88%) patients with left arch and aberrant right subclavian artery (odds ratio 36, 95% confidence interval 4-302); and six of 10 (60%) patients with right arch and aberrant left subclavian artery (odds ratio 8, 95% confidence interval 2-26). Syndromes were present in 13 of 18 (72%) patients with either right or left aberrant subclavian artery (odds ratio 15, 95% confidence interval 4-45). Syndromes in patients with an aberrant subclavian artery included trisomy 21 (n = 4); chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (n = 5); and Holt-Oram, PHACE, CHARGE, and chromosome 18p deletion (n = 1 each). Aberrant right or left subclavian artery in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis is associated with an increased incidence of chromosomal or genetic abnormality, whereas right aortic arch with mirror image branching is not. The assessment of aortic arch anatomy at prenatal diagnosis can assist counselling. PMID:23732114

Oswal, Nilesh; Christov, Georgi; Sridharan, Shankar; Khambadkone, Sachin; Bull, Catherine; Sullivan, Ian

2014-06-01

306

Natural variation of the Y chromosome suppresses sex ratio distortion and modulates testis-specific gene expression in Drosophila simulans.  

PubMed

X-linked sex-ratio distorters that disrupt spermatogenesis can cause a deficiency in functional Y-bearing sperm and a female-biased sex ratio. Y-linked modifiers that restore a normal sex ratio might be abundant and favored when a X-linked distorter is present. Here we investigated natural variation of Y-linked suppressors of sex-ratio in the Winters systems and the ability of these chromosomes to modulate gene expression in Drosophila simulans. Seventy-eight Y chromosomes of worldwide origin were assayed for their resistance to the X-linked sex-ratio distorter gene Dox. Y chromosome diversity caused males to sire ?63% to ?98% female progeny. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed hundreds of genes differentially expressed between isogenic males with sensitive (high sex ratio) and resistant (low sex ratio) Y chromosomes from the same population. Although the expression of about 75% of all testis-specific genes remained unchanged across Y chromosomes, a subset of post-meiotic genes was upregulated by resistant Y chromosomes. Conversely, a set of accessory gland-specific genes and mitochondrial genes were downregulated in males with resistant Y chromosomes. The D. simulans Y chromosome also modulated gene expression in XXY females in which the Y-linked protein-coding genes are not transcribed. The data suggest that the Y chromosome might exert its regulatory functions through epigenetic mechanisms that do not require the expression of protein-coding genes. The gene network that modulates sex ratio distortion by the Y chromosome is poorly understood, other than that it might include interactions with mitochondria and enriched for genes expressed in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:23591516

Branco, A T; Tao, Y; Hartl, D L; Lemos, B

2013-07-01

307

Biased Transmission of Sex Chromosomes in the Aphid Myzus persicae Is Not Associated with Reproductive Mode  

PubMed Central

Commonly, a single aphid species exhibits a wide range of reproductive strategies including cyclical parthenogenesis and obligate parthenogenesis. Sex determination in aphids is chromosomal; females have two X chromosomes, while males have one. X chromosome elimination at male production is generally random, resulting in equal representation of both X chromosomes in sons. However, two studies have demonstrated deviations from randomness in some lineages. One hypothesis to account for such deviations is that recessive deleterious mutations accumulate during bouts of asexual reproduction and affect male viability, resulting in overrepresentation of males with the least deleterious of the two maternal X chromosomes. This hypothesis results in a testable prediction: X chromosome transmission bias will increase with time spent in the asexual phase and should therefore be most extreme in the least sexual aphid life cycle class. Here we test this prediction in Myzus persicae. We used multiple heterozygous X-linked microsatellite markers to screen 1085 males from 95 lines of known life cycle. We found significant deviations from equal representation of X chromosomes in 15 lines; however, these lines included representatives of all life cycles. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that deviations from randomness are attributable to mutation accumulation. PMID:25548924

Wilson, Alex C. C.; Delgado, Ryan N.; Vorburger, Christoph

2014-01-01

308

Establishment of a 10-Plex Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosome aneuploidies occur commonly in the general population, with an incidence of 1 in 400 newborns. However, no tests specifically targeting sex chromosomes have been carried out in prenatal diagnosis or newborn screening, resulting in late recognition of these diseases. In this study, a rapid diagnostic method for sex chromosome aneuploidies was established using Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR (QF-PCR). Ten markers were included in one multiplex QF-PCR assay, including two sex determination genes (AMXY and SRY), five X-linked short tandem repeats (STRs; DXS1053, DXS981, DXS6809, DXS1187, and DXS8377), one X/Y-common STR (X22), and two autosomal STRs (D13S305 and D21S11). Retrospective tests of 70 cases with known cytogenetic results indicated that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could well determine sex chromosome copy numbers by both allelic peak numbers and a sex chromosome dosage calculation with the autosomal STRs as internal controls. Prospective comparison with cytogenetic karyotyping on 534 cases confirmed that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could be well employed for sex chromosome aneuploidy diagnosis in at least the Chinese Han population. This is the first QF-PCR test for the diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies in the Chinese population. This test is superior to previous designs by including up to 8 sex-linked markers covering different parts of sex chromosomes as well as employing internal controls for copy number dosage calculation in a single PCR reaction. Due to simple technique and data analysis, as well as easy implementation within routine clinical services, this method is of great clinical application value and could be widely applied. PMID:25207978

Xie, Xingmei; Liang, Qiaoyi

2014-01-01

309

Characterization of a complex chromosomal rearrangement using chromosome, FISH, and microarray assays in a girl with multiple congenital abnormalities and developmental delay  

PubMed Central

Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are balanced or unbalanced structural rearrangements involving three or more cytogenetic breakpoints on two or more chromosomal pairs. The phenotypic anomalies in such cases are attributed to gene disruption, superimposed cryptic imbalances in the genome, and/or position effects. We report a 14-year-old girl who presented with multiple congenital anomalies and developmental delay. Chromosome and FISH analysis indicated a highly complex chromosomal rearrangement involving three chromosomes (3, 7 and 12), seven breakpoints as a result of one inversion, two insertions, and two translocations forming three derivative chromosomes. Additionally, chromosomal microarray study (CMA) revealed two submicroscopic deletions at 3p12.3 (467 kb) and 12q13.12 (442 kb). We postulate that microdeletion within the ROBO1 gene at 3p12.3 may have played a role in the patient’s developmental delay, since it has potential activity-dependent role in neurons. Additionally, factors other than genomic deletions such as loss of function or position effects may also contribute to the abnormal phenotype in our patient. PMID:25478007

2014-01-01

310

Sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae) revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization of subtelomeric repeat  

PubMed Central

Abstract Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zucc (Japanese hop) is a dioecious species of the family Cannabaceae. The chromosome number is 2n = 16 = 14 + XX for females and 2n = 17 = 14 + XY1Y2 for male. To date, no fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) markers have been established for the identification of Humulus japonicus sex chromosomes. In this paper, we report a method for the mitotic and meiotic sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus by FISH for HJSR, a high copy subtelomeric repeat. The signal is present in the subtelomeric region of one arm of the X chromosome. We demonstrate that males have two Y chromosomes that differ in FISH signal with the HJSR probe. Indeed, the HJSR probe hybridizes to a subtelomeric region on both arms of chromosome Y1 but not of chromosome Y2. The orientation and position of pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) were also determined. PMID:24260665

Alexandrov, Oleg S.; Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Yakovin, Nikolay A.; Karlov, Gennady I.

2012-01-01

311

RNF8 regulates active epigenetic modifications and escape gene activation from inactive sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes are uniquely subject to chromosome-wide silencing during male meiosis, and silencing persists into post-meiotic spermatids. Against this background, a select set of sex chromosome-linked genes escapes silencing and is activated in post-meiotic spermatids. Here, we identify a novel mechanism that regulates escape gene activation in an environment of chromosome-wide silencing in murine germ cells. We show that RNF8-dependent ubiquitination of histone H2A during meiosis establishes active epigenetic modifications, including dimethylation of H3K4 on the sex chromosomes. RNF8-dependent active epigenetic memory, defined by dimethylation of H3K4, persists throughout meiotic division. Various active epigenetic modifications are subsequently established on the sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids. These RNF8-dependent modifications include trimethylation of H3K4, histone lysine crotonylation (Kcr), and incorporation of the histone variant H2AFZ. RNF8-dependent epigenetic programming regulates escape gene activation from inactive sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids. Kcr accumulates at transcriptional start sites of sex-linked genes activated in an RNF8-dependent manner, and a chromatin conformational change is associated with RNF8-dependent epigenetic programming. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this RNF8-dependent pathway is distinct from that which recognizes DNA double-strand breaks. Our results establish a novel connection between a DNA damage response factor (RNF8) and epigenetic programming, specifically in establishing active epigenetic modifications and gene activation. PMID:23249736

Sin, Ho-Su; Barski, Artem; Zhang, Fan; Kartashov, Andrey V.; Nussenzweig, Andre; Chen, Junjie; Andreassen, Paul R.; Namekawa, Satoshi H.

2012-01-01

312

A major locus on mouse chromosome 18 controls XX sex reversal in Odd Sex (Ods) mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported a dominant mouse mutant, Odd sex (Ods), in which XX Ods\\/ţ mice on the FVB\\/N background show complete sex reversal, associated with expression of Sox9 in the fetal gonads. Remarkably, when crossed to the A\\/J strain ? 95% of the (AXFVB) F1 XX Ods\\/ţ mice developed as fully fertile, phenotypic females, the remainder developing as males

Yangjun Qin; Christophe Poirier; Cavatina Truong; Armin Schumacher; Alexander I. Agoulnik; Colin E. Bishop

2003-01-01

313

Sequential Cross-Species Chromosome Painting among River Buffalo, Cattle, Sheep and Goat: A Useful Tool for Chromosome Abnormalities Diagnosis within the Family Bovidae  

PubMed Central

The main goal of this study was to develop a comparative multi-colour Zoo-FISH on domestic ruminants metaphases using a combination of whole chromosome and sub-chromosomal painting probes obtained from the river buffalo species (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50,XY). A total of 13 DNA probes were obtained through chromosome microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, labelled with two fluorochromes and sequentially hybridized on river buffalo, cattle (Bos taurus, 2n?=?60,XY), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n?=?54,XY) and goat (Capra hircus, 2n?=?60,XY) metaphases. The same set of paintings were then hybridized on bovine secondary oocytes to test their potential use for aneuploidy detection during in vitro maturation. FISH showed excellent specificity on metaphases and interphase nuclei of all the investigated species. Eight pairs of chromosomes were simultaneously identified in buffalo, whereas the same set of probes covered 13 out 30 chromosome pairs in the bovine and goat karyotypes and 40% of the sheep karyotype (11 out of 27 chromosome pairs). This result allowed development of the first comparative M-FISH karyotype within the domestic ruminants. The molecular resolution of complex karyotypes by FISH is particularly useful for the small chromosomes, whose similarity in the banding patterns makes their identification very difficult. The M-FISH karyotype also represents a practical tool for structural and numerical chromosome abnormalities diagnosis. In this regard, the successful hybridization on bovine secondary oocytes confirmed the potential use of this set of probes for the simultaneous identification on the same germ cell of 12 chromosome aneuploidies. This is a fundamental result for monitoring the reproductive health of the domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:25330006

Pauciullo, Alfredo; Perucatti, Angela; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Genualdo, Viviana; Di Berardino, Dino; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

2014-01-01

314

DNA analysis of sex chromosomal aberration: curious mutation found in Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clear evidence that curious fashion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance was reported in sex chromosomal aberration. Human mtDNA is located outside the nucleus of the cell producing energy for the cell. In the recent years, mtDNA is being used in forensic DNA identification because each cell has many copies of mitochondria, and is easy to be amplified by PCR.

K. Honda; T. Nakamura; E. Tanaka; K. Yamazaki; Z. Tun; S. Misawa

2004-01-01

315

Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of the multiple sex chromosome system of Rumex acetosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repeated sequence of 180 bp in tandem array has been isolated from the dioecious plant species Rumex acetosa which has a multiple sex chromosome system, XX?\\/XY1Y2?. There are two or three thin C-bands on the X while the Ys are almost entirely heteropycnotic and DAPI-positive but contain no C-band material. The Ys thus represent massive blocks of facultative heterochromatin.

C Ruiz Rejón; M Jamilena; M Garrido Ramos; J S Parker; M Ruiz Rejón

1994-01-01

316

Identification of the Sex-Determining Region of the Ceratitis capitata Y Chromosome by Deletion Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the medfly Ceratitis capitata, the Y chromosome is responsible for determining the male sex. We have mapped the region containing the relevant factor through the analysis of Y-autosome translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization with two different probes. One probe, the clone pY114, contains repetitive, Y-specific DNA sequences from C. capitata, while the second clone, pDh2-H8, consists of ribosomal

Ute Willhoeft; Gerald Franz

317

SNP-based non-invasive prenatal testing detects sex chromosome aneuploidies with high accuracy  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a single nucleotide polymorphism- and informatics-based non-invasive prenatal test that detects sex chromosome aneuploidies early in pregnancy. Methods Fifteen aneuploid samples, including thirteen 45,X, two 47,XXY, and one 47,XYY, along with 185 euploid controls, were analyzed. Cell-free DNA was isolated from maternal plasma, amplified in a single multiplex PCR assay that targeted 19,488 polymorphic loci covering chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, and sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed using a Bayesian-based maximum likelihood statistical method to determine copy number of interrogated chromosomes, calculating sample-specific accuracies. Results Of the samples that passed a stringent quality control metric (93%), the algorithm correctly identified copy number at all five chromosomes in all 187 samples, for 934/935 correct calls as early as 9.4 weeks of gestation. We detected 45,X with 91.7% sensitivity (CI: 61.5-99.8%) and 100% specificity (CI: 97.9-100%), and 47,XXY and 47,XYY. The average calculated accuracy was 99.78%. Conclusion This method non-invasively detected 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XYY fetuses from cfDNA isolated from maternal plasma with high calculated accuracies, and thus offers a non-invasive method with the potential to function as a routine screen allowing for early prenatal detection of rarely diagnosed yet commonly occurring sex aneuploidies. PMID:23712453

Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Banjevic, Milena; Ryan, Allison; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Zimmermann, Bernhard; Hill, Matthew; Hall, Megan P.; Westemeyer, Margaret; Saucier, Jennifer; Demko, Zachary; Rabinowitz, Matthew

2013-01-01

318

Mapping the Stability of Human Brain Asymmetry across Five Sex-Chromosome Aneuploidies.  

PubMed

The human brain displays stereotyped and early emerging patterns of cortical asymmetry in health. It is unclear if these asymmetries are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation or fundamental features of the brain that can survive severe developmental perturbations. To address this question, we mapped cortical thickness (CT) asymmetry in a group of genetically defined disorders known to impact CT development. Participants included 137 youth with one of five sex-chromosome aneuploidies [SCAs; XXX (n = 28), XXY (n = 58), XYY (n = 26), XXYY (n = 20), and XXXXY (n = 5)], and 169 age-matched typically developing controls (80 female). In controls, we replicated previously reported rightward inferior frontal and leftward lateral parietal CT asymmetry. These opposing frontoparietal CT asymmetries were broadly preserved in all five SCA groups. However, we also detected foci of shifting CT asymmetry with aneuploidy, which fell almost exclusively within regions of significant CT asymmetry in controls. Specifically, X-chromosome aneuploidy accentuated normative rightward inferior frontal asymmetries, while Y-chromosome aneuploidy reversed normative rightward medial prefrontal and lateral temporal asymmetries. These findings indicate that (1) the stereotyped normative pattern of opposing frontoparietal CT asymmetry arises from developmental mechanisms that can withstand gross chromosomal aneuploidy and (2) X and Y chromosomes can exert focal, nonoverlapping and directionally opposed influences on CT asymmetry within cortical regions of significant asymmetry in health. Our study attests to the resilience of developmental mechanisms that support the global patterning of CT asymmetry in humans, and motivates future research into the molecular bases and functional consequences of sex chromosome dosage effects on CT asymmetry. PMID:25568109

Lin, Amy; Clasen, Liv; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L; Lalonde, Francois; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin

2015-01-01

319

Structural chromosomal abnormalities detected during CVS analysis and their role in the prenatal ascertainment of cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements.  

PubMed

Mosaic structural chromosomal abnormalities observed along the trophoblast-mesenchyme-fetal axis, although rare, pose a difficult problem for their prognostic interpretation in prenatal diagnosis. Additional issues are raised by the presence of mosaic imbalances of the same chromosome showing different sizes in the different tissues, that is, deletions and duplications in the cytotrophoblast and mesenchyme of chorionic villi (CV). Some of these cytogenetic rearrangements originate from the post-zygotic breakage of a dicentric chromosome or of the product of its first anaphasic breakage. Selection of the most viable cell line may result in confined placental mosaicism of the most severe imbalance, favoring the presence of the cell lines with the mildest duplications or deletions in the fetal tissues. We document three cases of ambiguous results in CV analysis due to the presence of different cell lines involving structural rearrangements of the same chromosome which were represented differently in the trophoblast and the mesenchyme. Observation by conventional karyotype of a grossly rearranged chromosome in one of the CV preparations (direct or culture) was crucial to call attention to the involved chromosomal region in other tissues (villi or amniotic fluid), allowing the prenatal diagnosis through molecular cytogenetic methods of subtelomeric rearrangements [del(7)(q36qter); del(11)(q25qter); del(20)(p13pter)]. This would have surely been undiagnosed with the routine banding technique. In conclusion, the possibility to diagnose complex abnormalities leading to cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements, together with a better knowledge of the initial/intermediate products leading to the final abnormal cryptic deletion should be added to the advantages of the CV sampling technique. PMID:23922197

Pittalis, Maria Carla; Mattarozzi, Angela; Menozzi, Cristina; Malacarne, Michela; Baccolini, Ilaria; Farina, Antonio; Pompilii, Eva; Magini, Pamela; Percesepe, Antonio

2013-10-01

320

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Rumex papillaris, a dioecious plant with an XX/XY(1)Y (2) sex chromosome system.  

PubMed

Rumex papillaris Boiss, & Reut., an Iberian endemic, belongs to the section Acetosa of the genus Rumex whose main representative is R. acetosa L., a species intensively studied in relation to sex-chromosome evolution. Here, we characterize cytogenetically the chromosomal complement of R. papillaris in an effort to enhance future comparative genomic approaches and to better our understanding of sex chromosome structure in plants. Rumex papillaris, as is common in this group, is a dioecious species characterized by the presence of a multiple sex chromosome system (with females 2n = 12 + XX and males 2n = 12 + XY(1)Y(2)). Except for the X chromosome both Y chromosomes are the longest in the karyotype and appear heterochromatic due to the accumulation of at least two satellite DNA families, RAE180 and RAYSI. Each chromosome of pair VI has an additional major heterochromatin block at the distal region of the short arm. These supernumerary heterochromatic blocks are occupied by RAE730 satellite DNA family. The Y-related RAE180 family is also present in an additional minor autosomal locus. Our comparative study of the chromosomal organization of the different satellite-DNA sequences in XX/XY and XX/XY(1)Y(2) Rumex species demonstrates that of active mechanisms of heterochromatin amplification occurred and were accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements giving rise to the multiple XX/XY(1)Y(2) chromosome systems observed in Rumex. Additionally, Y(1) and Y(2) chromosomes have undergone further rearrangements leading to differential patterns of Y-heterochromatin distribution between Rumex species with multiple sex chromosome systems. PMID:18373205

Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Schwarzacher, Trude; Rejón, Manuel Ruiz; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

2009-01-01

321

Placental contribution to the origins of sexual dimorphism in health and diseases: sex chromosomes and epigenetics.  

PubMed

Sex differences occur in most non-communicable diseases, including metabolic diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric and neurological disorders and cancer. In many cases, the susceptibility to these diseases begins early in development. The observed differences between the sexes may result from genetic and hormonal differences and from differences in responses to and interactions with environmental factors, including infection, diet, drugs and stress. The placenta plays a key role in fetal growth and development and, as such, affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts, in part for the developmental origin of health and disease (DOHaD). There is accumulating evidence to demonstrate the sex-specific relationships between diverse environmental influences on placental functions and the risk of disease later in life. As one of the few tissues easily collectable in humans, this organ may therefore be seen as an ideal system for studying how male and female placenta sense nutritional and other stresses, such as endocrine disruptors. Sex-specific regulatory pathways controlling sexually dimorphic characteristics in the various organs and the consequences of lifelong differences in sex hormone expression largely account for such responses. However, sex-specific changes in epigenetic marks are generated early after fertilization, thus before adrenal and gonad differentiation in the absence of sex hormones and in response to environmental conditions. Given the abundance of X-linked genes involved in placentogenesis, and the early unequal gene expression by the sex chromosomes between males and females, the role of X- and Y-chromosome-linked genes, and especially those involved in the peculiar placenta-specific epigenetics processes, giving rise to the unusual placenta epigenetic landscapes deserve particular attention. However, even with recent developments in this field, we still know little about the mechanisms underlying the early sex-specific epigenetic marks resulting in sex-biased gene expression of pathways and networks. As a critical messenger between the maternal environment and the fetus, the placenta may play a key role not only in buffering environmental effects transmitted by the mother but also in expressing and modulating effects due to preconceptional exposure of both the mother and the father to stressful conditions. PMID:23514128

Gabory, Anne; Roseboom, Tessa J; Moore, Tom; Moore, Lorna G; Junien, Claudine

2013-01-01

322

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for detection of chromosomal abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Current strategies for detecting chromosome abnormalities in MDS/AML include FISH or traditional cytogenetics. MLPA detects abnormalities in multiple loci simultaneously, with higher resolution and throughput. Peripheral blood from 50 healthy subjects was used to establish probe-specific reference ranges, increasing MLPA sensitivity and specificity. MLPA was then performed on 110 FISH-tested blood or bone marrow samples from suspected leukemia patients. Our novel MLPA analysis system combined maximum stringency with sensitive detection of low-frequency abnormalities. Accuracy/specificity of MLPA were excellent compared to FISH. Our MLPA analysis/interpretation method provides a clinically robust, high-throughput, high-resolution option for detection of abnormalities associated with MDS/AML. PMID:21764131

Donahue, Amber C; Abdool, Adam K; Gaur, Renu; Wohlgemuth, Jay G; Yeh, Chen-Hsiung

2011-11-01

323

Deletion Analysis of the Selfish B Chromosome, Paternal Sex Ratio (Psr), in the Parasitic Wasp Nasonia Vitripennis  

PubMed Central

Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR) is a ``selfish'' B chromosome in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. It is transmitted via sperm, but causes supercondensation and destruction of the paternal chromosomes in early fertilized eggs. Because this wasp has haplodiploid sex determination, the effect of PSR is to convert diploid (female) eggs into haploid (male) eggs that carry PSR. Characterizing its genetic structure is a first step toward understanding mechanisms of PSR action. The chromosome is largely heterochromatic and contains several tandemly repeated DNA sequences that are not present on the autosomes. A deletion analysis of PSR was performed to investigate organization of repeats and location of functional domains causing paternal chromosome destruction. Deletion profiles using probes to PSR-specific repetitive DNA indicate that most repeats are organized in blocks on the chromosome. This study shows that the functional domains of PSR can be deleted, resulting in nonfunctional PSR chromosomes that are transmitted to daughters. A functional domain may be linked with the psr22 repeat, but function may also depend on abundance of PSR-specific repeats on the chromosome. It is hypothesized that the repeats act as a ``sink'' for a product required for proper paternal chromosome processing. Almost all deletion chromosomes remained either functional of nonfunctional in subsequent generations following their creation. One chromosome was exceptional in that it reverted from nonfunctionality to functionality in one lineage. Transmission rates of nonfunctional deletion chromosomes were high through haploid males, but low through diploid females. PMID:8454206

Beukeboom, L. W.; Werren, J. H.

1993-01-01

324

Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice. PMID:21829300

Guruprasad, K. P.; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

2010-01-01

325

XX/XO, a rare sex chromosome system in Potamotrygon freshwater stingray from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

Potamotrygonidae is a representative family of South American freshwater elasmobranchs. Cytogenetic studies were performed in a Potamotrygon species from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil, here named as Potamotrygon sp. C. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were analyzed using conventional staining techniques, C-banding, and detection of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) with Silver nitrate (Ag-NOR). The diploid number was distinct between sexes, with males having 2n = 67 chromosomes, karyotype formula 19m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and fundamental number (FN) = 104, and females having 2n = 68 chromosomes, karyotype formula 20m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and FN = 106. A large chromosome, corresponding to pair number two in the female karyotype, was missing in the male complement. Male meiotic cells had 33 bivalents plus a large univalent chromosome in metaphase I, and n = 33 and n = 34 chromosomes in metaphase II. These characteristics are consistent with a sex chromosome system of the XX/XO type. Several Ag-NOR sites were identified in both male and female karyotypes. Positive C-banding was located only in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. This sex chromosome system, which rarely occurs in fish, is now being described for the first time among the freshwater rays of the Amazon basin. PMID:24068425

de Souza Valentim, Francisco Carlos; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana

2013-09-01

326

Diversity in the origins of sex chromosomes in anurans inferred from comparative mapping of sexual differentiation genes for three species of the Raninae and Xenopodinae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibians employ genetic sex determination systems with male and female heterogamety. The ancestral state of sex determination\\u000a in amphibians has been suggested to be female heterogamety; however, the origins of the sex chromosomes and the sex-determining\\u000a genes are still unknown. In Xenopus laevis, chromosome 3 with a candidate for the sex- (ovary-) determining gene (DM-W) was recently identified as the

Yoshinobu Uno; Chizuko Nishida; Shin Yoshimoto; Michihiko Ito; Yuki Oshima; Satoshi Yokoyama; Masahisa Nakamura; Yoichi Matsuda

2008-01-01

327

Abnormalities in spontaneous abortions detected by G-banding and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) at a national reference laboratory  

PubMed Central

Background Cytogenetic evaluation of products of conception (POC) for chromosomal abnormalities is central to determining the cause of pregnancy loss. We compared the test success rates in various specimen types and the frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities detected by G-banding analysis with those found by Oligo-SNP chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). We evaluated the benefit of CMA testing in cases of failed culture growth. Methods Conventional cytogenetic results of 5457 consecutive POC specimens were reviewed and categorized as placental villi, fetal parts, and unspecified POC tissue. The CMA was performed on 268 cases. Of those, 32 cases had concurrent G-banding results. The remaining 236 cases included 107 cases with culture failure and 129 cases evaluated by CMA alone. Results The overall POC culture success rate was 75%, with the lowest for fetal parts (37.4%) and the highest for placental villi (81%). The abnormality rate was 58% for placental villi, but only 25% for fetal parts. Of the abnormalities detected, the most common were aneuploidies, including trisomy 16, triploidy, monosomy X, trisomy 22, trisomy 21 and trisomy 15, while the least encountered aneuploidies were trisomy 1, trisomy 19 and monosomies (except monosomy 21). Overall, POC specimens studied by CMA were successful in 89.6% of cases and yielded a 44.6% abnormality rate. Conclusions Placental villi yielded higher rates of culture success and a higher percentage of abnormal karyotypes than did other specimen types. The Oligo-SNP CMA method has demonstrated a viable alternative to the G-banding method in view of its advantages in detection of submicroscopic genomic aberrations, shorter turnaround time due to elimination of time required for culture and a higher test success rate. PMID:24914406

2014-01-01

328

Getting a Full Dose? Reconsidering Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Dosage compensation—equalizing gene expression levels in response to differences in gene dose or copy number—is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa), it is expected that dosage compensation will evolve to correct for sex-specific differences in gene dose. Although this is observed in some organisms, recent genome-wide expression studies in other taxa have revealed striking exceptions. In particular, reports that both birds and the silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) lack dosage compensation have spurred speculation that this is the rule for all female-heterogametic taxa. Here, we revisit the issue of dosage compensation in silkworm by replicating and extending the previous analysis. Contrary to previous reports, our efforts reveal a pattern typically associated with dosage compensated taxa: the global male:female expression ratio does not differ between the Z and autosomes. We believe the previous report of unequal male:female ratios on the Z reflects artifacts of microarray normalization in conjunction with not testing a major assumption that the male:female global expression ratio was unbiased for autosomal loci. However, we also find that the global Z chromosome expression is significantly reduced relative to autosomes, a pattern not expected in dosage compensated taxa. This combination of male:female parity with an overall reduction in expression for sex-linked loci is not consistent with the prevailing evolutionary theory of sex chromosome evolution and dosage compensation. PMID:21508430

Walters, James R.; Hardcastle, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

329

X and Y chromosome behavior in brain tumors: Pieces in a puzzle  

SciTech Connect

Sex chromosome behavior in selected somatic cells is baffling. We serendipitously encountered this sex chromosome shuffle while studying malignant gliomas. Tumor specimens from 3/10 (30%) females and 15/27 (56%) males had sex chromosome abnormalities. Specimens from females showed X loss in 2 cases and possible X gain in 1 case. In 2 cases with autosomal abnormalities, only XX cells were found, suggesting that sex chromosome changes are independent of autosomal changes. Specimens from males showed Y rearrangements in 3 cases, Y loss in 15 cases, XX in 3 cases and autosomal abnormalities in 9 cases. The Y rearrangements may provide a route to Y loss whereas the advent of XX clones in male tumors bespeaks X isodisomy, a mechanism for adding an extra active X. The autosomal changes were rearrangements against a pseudo-diploid background in 5 cases and near-triploidy/tetraploidy in 4 cases. The cases with autosomal changes tended not to have sex chromosome abnormalities (p<0.01) and, the converse, cases with sex chromosome anomalies were without autosomal abnormalities (p<0.05). The process of sex chromosome changes appears independent of the process of autosomal changes. The conventional interpretation: the sex chromosome changes in brain tumors are in non-malignant cells. An unconventional interpretation: sex chromosome changes represent an alternative avenue to malignancy.

Hecht, B.K. [Hecht Associates, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Chatel, M; Gioanni, J. [Univ. of Nice (France)] [and others

1994-09-01

330

Detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in unexplained mental retardation: A general strategy using hypervariable subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here the author describes and analyzes a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, [approximately]50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomers should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. 73 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilkie, A.O.M.

1993-09-01

331

Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme's performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong

2010-07-01

332

Microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes at different stages of heteromorphism and heterochromatinization in two lizard species (Squamata: Eublepharidae: Coleonyx elegans and Lacertidae: Eremias velox)  

PubMed Central

Background The accumulation of repetitive sequences such as microsatellites during the differentiation of sex chromosomes has not been studied in most squamate reptiles (lizards, amphisbaenians and snakes), a group which has a large diversity of sex determining systems. It is known that the Bkm repeats containing tandem arrays of GATA tetranucleotides are highly accumulated on the degenerated W chromosomes in advanced snakes. Similar, potentially homologous, repetitive sequences were found on sex chromosomes in other vertebrates. Using FISH with probes containing all possible mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide sequences and GATA, we studied the genome distribution of microsatellite repeats on sex chromosomes in two lizard species (the gecko Coleonyx elegans and the lacertid Eremias velox) with independently evolved sex chromosomes. The gecko possesses heteromorphic euchromatic sex chromosomes, while sex chromosomes in the lacertid are homomorphic and the W chromosome is highly heterochromatic. Our aim was to test whether microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes corresponds to the stage of their heteromorphism or heterochromatinization. Moreover, because the lizards lie phylogenetically between snakes and other vertebrates with the Bkm-related repeats on sex chromosomes, the knowledge of their repetitive sequence is informative for the determination of conserved versus convergently evolved repetitive sequences across vertebrate lineages. Results Heteromorphic sex chromosomes of C. elegans do not show any sign of microsatellite accumulation. On the other hand, in E. velox, certain microsatellite sequences are extensively accumulated over the whole length or parts of the W chromosome, while others, including GATA, are absent on this heterochromatinized sex chromosome. Conclusion The accumulation of microsatellite repeats corresponds to the stage of heterochromatinization of sex chromosomes rather than to their heteromorphism. The lack of GATA repeats on the sex chromosomes of both lizards suggests that the Bkm-related repeats on sex chromosomes in snakes and other vertebrates evolved convergently. The comparison of microsatellite sequences accumulated on sex chromosomes in E. velox and in other eukaryotic organisms suggests that historical contingency, not characteristics of particular sequences, plays a major role in the determination of which microsatellite sequence is accumulated on the sex chromosomes in a particular lineage. PMID:22013909

2011-01-01

333

Cytogenetic studies in Eigenmannia virescens (Sternopygidae, Gymnotiformes) and new inferences on the origin of sex chromosomes in the Eigenmannia genus  

PubMed Central

Background Cytogenetic studies were carried out on samples of Eigenmannia virescens (Sternopygidae, Gymnotiformes) obtained from four river systems of the Eastern Amazon region (Para, Brazil). Results All four populations had 2n = 38, with ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes (Z, acrocentric; W, submetacentric). Constitutive heterochromatin (CH) was found at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes. The W chromosome had a heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the short arm; this CH was positive for DAPI staining, indicating that it is rich in A-T base pairs. The nucleolar organizer region (NOR) was localized to the short arm of chromosome pair 15; this result was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with human 45S rDNA, and CMA3 staining indicated that the region is G-C rich. FISH with telomeric probes did not show any evidence of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITS). Conclusion Previous studies have shown that the species Eigenmannia sp. 2 and E. virescens have differentiated sex chromosomes, and diverse sex chromosome systems have been described for E. virescens specimens obtained from different Brazilian rivers. A comparative analysis of the present data and prior reports suggests that the sex chromosomes of Eigenmannia may have arisen independently in the different populations. PMID:19930594

2009-01-01

334

Distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in species of triatomines with fragmentation of sex chromosomes X.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic analyses of triatomines are considered to be important taxonomic tools. Thus, we analyzed the pattern of constitutive heterochromatin in 7 species of triatomine with fragmentation of the sex chromosome X, focusing on the cytotaxonomy of these triatomines. The species analyzed included Triatoma vitticeps, Triatoma melanocephala, Triatoma tibiamaculata, Triatoma protracta, Meccus pallidipennis, Panstrongylus megistus, and Panstrongylus lignarius. The seminiferous tubules of the adult males were subjected to C-banding. P. megistus and P. lignarius showed differences in chromosome number and disposition of constitutive heterochromatin, as only P. lignarius showed C-blocks in autosomes. C-banding can differentiate these species, since one of the sex chromosome (X) is heterochromatic in T. vitticeps. T. protracta showed C-blocks in both ends of all autosomes, T. tibiamaculata showed terminal C-dots in some autosomal pairs and M. pallidipennis did not show constitutive heterochromatin in autosomes. Thus, we confirmed the heterochromatic pattern of 7 species of insects and emphasized the importance of cytogenetic techniques for C-banding for taxonomy studies of the triatomines, which are important vectors of Chagas disease. PMID:25501239

Guerra, A L; Alevi, K C C; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

2014-01-01

335

Partial trisomy of chromosome 13 as a single cytogenetic abnormality in an Italian case of nasal NK/T lymphoma.  

PubMed

Extranodal NK/T lymphoma, nasal type, is an uncommon neoplasm that occurs with a higher prevalence among Asian populations and Native American populations of Central and Southern America. In Western countries, this tumor is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Cytogenetic analyses have been performed only in a limited number of cases, mainly because of technical problems related to extensive necrosis and the scarcity of clinical samples, and these have shown complex karyotypes with no specific chromosomal translocations. Here, we report the cytogenetic characterization of a clinically aggressive nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma occurring in a 40-year-old Italian male patient, in which the sole chromosome abnormality was a partial trisomy of chromosome 13. PMID:22559981

Uccella, Silvia; Bernasconi, Barbara; Ricotti, Isabella; Proserpio, Ilaria; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Capella, Carlo; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia

2012-04-01

336

Analysis of a novel gene, Sdgc, reveals sex chromosome-dependent differences of medaka germ cells prior to gonad formation.  

PubMed

In vertebrates that have been examined to date, the sexual identity of germ cells is determined by the sex of gonadal somatic cells. In the teleost fish medaka, a sex-determination gene on the Y chromosome, DMY/dmrt1bY, is expressed in gonadal somatic cells and regulates the sexual identity of germ cells. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which sex chromosomes cell-autonomously confer sexually different characters upon germ cells prior to gonad formation in a genetically sex-determined species. We have identified a novel gene, Sdgc (sex chromosome-dependent differential expression in germ cells), whose transcripts are highly enriched in early XY germ cells. Chimeric analysis revealed that sexually different expression of Sdgc is controlled in a germ cell-autonomous manner by the number of Y chromosomes. Unexpectedly, DMY/dmrt1bY was expressed in germ cells prior to gonad formation, but knockdown and overexpression of DMY/dmrt1bY did not affect Sdgc expression. We also found that XX and XY germ cells isolated before the onset of DMY/dmrt1bY expression in gonadal somatic cells behaved differently in vitro and were affected by Sdgc. Sdgc maps close to the sex-determination locus, and recombination around the two loci appears to be repressed. Our results provide important insights into the acquisition and plasticity of sexual differences at the cellular level even prior to the developmental stage of sex determination. PMID:25078651

Nishimura, Toshiya; Herpin, Amaury; Kimura, Tetsuaki; Hara, Ikuyo; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Saito, Taro L; Yoshimura, Jun; Morishita, Shinichi; Tsukahara, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Satoru; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Schartl, Manfred; Tanaka, Minoru

2014-09-01

337

Expansion of the pseudo-autosomal region and ongoing recombination suppression in the Silene latifolia sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves. The former question has been intensively studied in a diversity of organisms, but the latter has been studied largely theoretically. To obtain empirical data, we used codominant genic markers in genetic mapping of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, together with comparative mapping of S. latifolia sex-linked genes in S. vulgaris (a related hermaphrodite species without sex chromosomes). We mapped 29 S. latifolia fully sex-linked genes (including 21 newly discovered from transcriptome sequencing), plus 6 genes in a recombining pseudo-autosomal region (PAR) whose genetic map length is ?25 cM in both male and female meiosis, suggesting that the PAR may contain many genes. Our comparative mapping shows that most fully sex-linked genes in S. latifolia are located on a single S. vulgaris linkage group and were probably inherited from a single autosome of an ancestor. However, unexpectedly, our maps suggest that the S. latifolia PAR region expanded through translocation events. Some genes in these regions still recombine in S. latifolia, but some genes from both addition events are now fully sex-linked. Recombination suppression is therefore still ongoing in S. latifolia, and multiple recombination suppression events have occurred in a timescale of few million years, much shorter than the timescale of formation of the most recent evolutionary strata of mammal and bird sex chromosomes. PMID:23733786

Bergero, Roberta; Qiu, Suo; Forrest, Alan; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Deborah

2013-07-01

338

Evidence that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is essential for male fertility.  

PubMed

The mammalian X and Y chromosomes share little homology and are largely unsynapsed during normal meiosis. This asynapsis triggers inactivation of X- and Y-linked genes, or meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Whether MSCI is essential for male meiosis is unclear. Pachytene arrest and apoptosis is observed in mouse mutants in which MSCI fails, e.g., Brca1(-/-), H2afx(-/-), Sycp1(-/-), and Msh5(-/-). However, these also harbor defects in synapsis and/or recombination and as such may activate a putative pachytene checkpoint. Here we present evidence that MSCI failure is sufficient to cause pachytene arrest. XYY males exhibit Y-Y synapsis and Y chromosomal escape from MSCI without accompanying synapsis/recombination defects. We find that XYY males, like synapsis/recombination mutants, display pachytene arrest and that this can be circumvented by preventing Y-Y synapsis and associated Y gene expression. Pachytene expression of individual Y genes inserted as transgenes on autosomes shows that expression of the Zfy 1/2 paralogs in XY males is sufficient to phenocopy the pachytene arrest phenotype; insertion of Zfy 1/2 on the X chromosome where they are subject to MSCI prevents this response. Our findings show that MSCI is essential for male meiosis and, as such, provide insight into the differential severity of meiotic mutations' effects on male and female meiosis. PMID:21093264

Royo, Hélčne; Polikiewicz, Grzegorz; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Prosser, Haydn; Mitchell, Mike; Bradley, Allan; de Rooij, Dirk G; Burgoyne, Paul S; Turner, James M A

2010-12-01

339

Use of laser microdissection for the construction of Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae) sex chromosome-specific DNA library and cytogenetics analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dioecy is relatively rare among plant species, and distinguishable sex chromosomes have been reported in few dioecious species. The multiple sex chromosome system (XX/XY1Y2) of Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zuccarini, 1846 differs from that of other members of the family Cannabaceae, in which the XX/XY chromosome system is present. Sex chromosomes of Humulus japonicus were isolated from meiotic chromosome spreads of males by laser microdissection with the P.A.L.M. MicroLaser system. The chromosomal DNA was directly amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR). Fast fluorescence in situ hybridization (FAST-FISH) using a labeled, chromosome-specific DOP-PCR product as a probe showed preferential hybridization to sex chromosomes. In addition, the DOP-PCR product was used to construct a short-insert, Humulus japonicus sex chromosomes-specific DNA library. The randomly sequenced clones showed that about 12% of them have significant homology to Humulus lupulus and 88% to Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, 1753 sequences from GenBank database. Forty-four percent of the sequences show homology to plant retroelements. It was concluded that laser microdissection is a useful tool for isolating the DNA of sex chromosomes of Humulus japonicus and for the construction of chromosome-specific DNA libraries for the study of the structure and evolution of sex chromosomes. The results provide the potential for identifying unique or sex chromosome-specific sequence elements in Humulus japonicus and could aid in the identification of sex chromosome-specific repeat and coding regions through chromosome isolation and genome complexity reduction. PMID:25610546

Yakovin, Nickolay A.; Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Razumova, Olga V.; Soloviev, Alexander A.; Karlov, Gennady I.

2014-01-01

340

Delineation of candidate genes responsible for structural brain abnormalities in patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q27.  

PubMed

Patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q present with structural brain abnormalities including agenesis of corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and cerebellar malformations. The 6q27 region harbors genes that are important for the normal development of brain and delineation of a critical deletion region for structural brain abnormalities may lead to a better genotype-phenotype correlation. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven unrelated patients with deletions involving chromosome 6q27. All patients had structural brain abnormalities. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. The smallest region of overlap spans 1.7?Mb and contains DLL1, THBS2, PHF10, and C6orf70 (ERMARD) that are plausible candidates for the causation of structural brain abnormalities. Our study reiterates the importance of 6q27 region in normal development of brain and helps identify putative genes in causation of structural brain anomalies. PMID:24736736

Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Erez, Ayelet; Hunter, Jill V; Holder, J Lloyd; Carlin, Mary E; Bader, Patricia I; Perras, Helene M F; Allanson, Judith E; Newman, Leslie; Simpson, Gayle; Immken, LaDonna; Powell, Erin; Mohanty, Aaron; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Bi, Weimin; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau W

2015-01-01

341

Evolutionary history of novel genes on the tammar wallaby Y chromosome: Implications for sex chromosome evolution.  

PubMed

We report here the isolation and sequencing of 10 Y-specific tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) BAC clones, revealing five hitherto undescribed tammar wallaby Y genes (in addition to the five genes already described) and several pseudogenes. Some genes on the wallaby Y display testis-specific expression, but most have low widespread expression. All have partners on the tammar X, along with homologs on the human X. Nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution ratios for nine of the tammar XY gene pairs indicate that they are each under purifying selection. All 10 were also identified as being on the Y in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii; a distantly related Australian marsupial); however, seven have been lost from the human Y. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the wallaby YX genes, with respective homologs from other vertebrate representatives, revealed that three marsupial Y genes (HCFC1X/Y, MECP2X/Y, and HUWE1X/Y) were members of the ancestral therian pseudoautosomal region (PAR) at the time of the marsupial/eutherian split; three XY pairs (SOX3/SRY, RBMX/Y, and ATRX/Y) were isolated from each other before the marsupial/eutherian split, and the remaining three (RPL10X/Y, PHF6X/Y, and UBA1/UBE1Y) have a more complex evolutionary history. Thus, the small marsupial Y chromosome is surprisingly rich in ancient genes that are retained in at least Australian marsupials and evolved from testis-brain expressed genes on the X. PMID:22128133

Murtagh, Veronica J; O'Meally, Denis; Sankovic, Natasha; Delbridge, Margaret L; Kuroki, Yoko; Boore, Jeffrey L; Toyoda, Atsushi; Jordan, Kristen S; Pask, Andrew J; Renfree, Marilyn B; Fujiyama, Asao; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Waters, Paul D

2012-03-01

342

Evolutionary history of novel genes on the tammar wallaby Y chromosome: Implications for sex chromosome evolution  

PubMed Central

We report here the isolation and sequencing of 10 Y-specific tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) BAC clones, revealing five hitherto undescribed tammar wallaby Y genes (in addition to the five genes already described) and several pseudogenes. Some genes on the wallaby Y display testis-specific expression, but most have low widespread expression. All have partners on the tammar X, along with homologs on the human X. Nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution ratios for nine of the tammar XY gene pairs indicate that they are each under purifying selection. All 10 were also identified as being on the Y in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii; a distantly related Australian marsupial); however, seven have been lost from the human Y. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the wallaby YX genes, with respective homologs from other vertebrate representatives, revealed that three marsupial Y genes (HCFC1X/Y, MECP2X/Y, and HUWE1X/Y) were members of the ancestral therian pseudoautosomal region (PAR) at the time of the marsupial/eutherian split; three XY pairs (SOX3/SRY, RBMX/Y, and ATRX/Y) were isolated from each other before the marsupial/eutherian split, and the remaining three (RPL10X/Y, PHF6X/Y, and UBA1/UBE1Y) have a more complex evolutionary history. Thus, the small marsupial Y chromosome is surprisingly rich in ancient genes that are retained in at least Australian marsupials and evolved from testis–brain expressed genes on the X. PMID:22128133

Murtagh, Veronica J.; O'Meally, Denis; Sankovic, Natasha; Delbridge, Margaret L.; Kuroki, Yoko; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Toyoda, Atsushi; Jordan, Kristen S.; Pask, Andrew J.; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Fujiyama, Asao; Graves, Jennifer A. Marshall; Waters, Paul D.

2012-01-01

343

Multiple Nuclear Gene Phylogenetic Analysis of the Evolution of Dioecy and Sex Chromosomes in the Genus Silene  

PubMed Central

In the plant genus Silene, separate sexes and sex chromosomes are believed to have evolved twice. Silene species that are wholly or largely hermaphroditic are assumed to represent the ancestral state from which dioecy evolved. This assumption is important for choice of outgroup species for inferring the genetic and chromosomal changes involved in the evolution of dioecy, but is mainly based on data from a single locus (ITS). To establish the order of events more clearly, and inform outgroup choice, we therefore carried out (i) multi-nuclear-gene phylogenetic analyses of 14 Silene species (including 7 hermaphrodite or gynodioecious species), representing species from both Silene clades with dioecious members, plus a more distantly related outgroup, and (ii) a BayesTraits character analysis of the evolution of dioecy. We confirm two origins of dioecy within this genus in agreement with recent work on comparing sex chromosomes from both clades with dioecious species. We conclude that sex chromosomes evolved after the origin of Silene and within a clade that includes only S. latifolia and its closest relatives. We estimate that sex chromosomes emerged soon after the split with the ancestor of S. viscosa, the probable closest non-dioecious S. latifolia relative among the species included in our study. PMID:21853022

Marais, Gabriel A. B.; Forrest, Alan; Kamau, Esther; Käfer, Jos; Daubin, Vincent; Charlesworth, Deborah

2011-01-01

344

Cytogenetic analysis of Lagria villosa (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): emphasis on the mechanism of association of the Xy(p) sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

The Xy(p) sex determination mechanism is the system most frequent and ancestral to Coleoptera. Moreover, the presence of argyrophilous material associated with the sex bivalent is described as being responsible for the maintenance and association of these chromosomes. There are no karyotype data available regarding the genus Lagria and no consensus in the literature regarding the argyrophilous material present in the lumen of sex bivalent. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism of sex chromosome bivalent association in Lagria villosa by analyzing the argyrophilous nature of the material present in the Xy(p) lumen. It was also intended to characterize L. villosa cytogenetically. The analysis of meiotic cells showed 2n = 18 = 16+Xy(p) for males and 2n = 18 = 16+XX in females and the meiotic formula was 2n = 8(II)+Xy(p). The C-banding showed blocks of pericentromeric heterochromatin in all chromosomes except in the y(p) chromosome. In these regions, the use of fluorochromes revealed the presence of heterochromatin containing GC rich DNA sequences. The study of synaptonemal complex showed a gradual increase in the electron-density of the axial elements of the sex chromosomes and their association with strongly electron-dense material. The pepsin pretreatment revealed that the material impregnated by silver is protein. PMID:22948411

Goll, L G; Artoni, R F; Vicari, M R; Nogaroto, V; Petitpierre, E; Almeida, M C

2013-01-01

345

Numerical chromosome abnormalities in spermatozoa of fertile and infertile men detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with single-color chromosome-specific probes was used to study the rates of disomy for chromosome 1, 16, X, and Y in sperm of fertile and infertile subjects. Diploidy rates were studied using a two-color cocktail of probes for chromosomes 17 and 18 in the same sperm samples. Two-color methodology was not available at the outset of

Norio Miharu; Robert G. Best; S. Robert Young

1994-01-01

346

Is the rate of insertion and deletion mutation male biased?: Molecular evolutionary analysis of avian and primate sex chromosome sequences.  

PubMed Central

The rate of mutation for nucleotide substitution is generally higher among males than among females, likely owing to the larger number of DNA replications in spermatogenesis than in oogenesis. For insertion and deletion (indel) mutations, data from a few human genetic disease loci indicate that the two sexes may mutate at similar rates, possibly because such mutations arise in connection with meiotic crossing over. To address origin- and sex-specific rates of indel mutation we have conducted the first large-scale molecular evolutionary analysis of indels in noncoding DNA sequences from sex chromosomes. The rates are similar on the X and Y chromosomes of primates but about twice as high on the avian Z chromosome as on the W chromosome. The fact that indels are not uncommon on the nonrecombining Y and W chromosomes excludes meiotic crossing over as the main cause of indel mutation. On the other hand, the similar rates on X and Y indicate that the number of DNA replications (higher for Y than for X) is also not the main factor. Our observations are therefore consistent with a role of both DNA replication and recombination in the generation of short insertion and deletion mutations. A significant excess of deletion compared to insertion events is observed on the avian W chromosome, consistent with gradual DNA loss on a nonrecombining chromosome. PMID:12750337

Sundström, Hannah; Webster, Matthew T; Ellegren, Hans

2003-01-01

347

Diverse stages of sex-chromosome differentiation in tinamid birds: evidence from crossover analysis in Eudromia elegans and Crypturellus tataupa.  

PubMed

All extant birds share the same sex-chromosome system: ZZ males and ZW females with striking differences in the stages of sex-chromosome differentiation between the primitive palaeognathus ratites and the large majority of avian species grouped within neognaths. Evolutionarily close to ratites is the neotropical order Tinamiformes that has been scarcely explored regarding their ZW pair morphology and constitution. Tinamous, when compared to ratites, constitute a large group among Palaeognathae, therefore, exploring the extent of homology between the Z and W chromosomes in this group might reveal key features on the evolution of the avian sex chromosomes. We mapped MLH1 foci that are crossover markers on pachytene bivalents to determine the size and localization of the homologous region shared by the Z and W chromosomes in two tinamous: Eudromia elegans and Crypturellus tataupa. We found that the homologous (pseudoautosomal) region differ significantly in size between these two species. They both have a single recombination event on the long arm of the acrocentric Z and W chromosomes. However, in E. elegans the pseudoautosomal region occupies one-fourth of the W chromosome, while in C. tataupa it is restricted to the tip of the long arm of the W. The W chromosomes in these two species differ in their heterochromatin content: in E. elegans it shows a terminal euchromatic segment and in C. tataupa is completely heterochromatic. These results show that tinamous have ZW pairs with more diversified stages of differentiation compared to ratites. Finally, the idea that the avian proto-sex chromosomes started to diverge from the end of the long arm towards the centromere of an acrocentric pair is discussed. PMID:21567220

Pigozzi, María Inés

2011-06-01

348

Assessment of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm of infertile men using sperm karyotyping and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)  

SciTech Connect

Individuals with male factor infertility resulting from idiopathic oligo-, astheno- or teratozoospermia are frequently offered IVF in an attempt to increase their chances of having a child. A concern remains whether these infertile males have an elevated risk of transmitting chromosomal abnormalities to their offspring. Sperm chromosomal complements from these men were assayed using the human sperm/hamster oocyte fusion system and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm nuclei. For each of 5 infertile patients, 100 sperm karyotypes were analyzed and multicolour FISH analysis was performed on a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each chromosome-specific DNA probe for chromosomes 1 (pUC1.77), 12 (D12Z3), X (XC) and Y (DYZ3). As a group, the infertile patients showed increased frequencies of both numerical ({chi}{sup 2}=17.26, {proportional_to} <0.001) and total abnormalities ({chi}{sup 2}=7.78, {proportional_to} <0.01) relative to control donors when assessed by sperm karyotypes. Analysis of sperm nuclei by FISH indicated a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 1 in three of the five patients as compared to control donors ({chi}{sup 2}>8.35, {proportional_to} <0.005). In addition, the frequency of XY disomy was significantly higher in four of the five patients studied by FISH ({chi}{sup 2}>10.58, {proportional_to}<0.005), suggesting that mis-segregation caused by the failure of the XY bivalent to pair may play a role in idiopathic male infertility.

Moosani, N.; Martin, R.H. [Alberta Children`s Hospital and Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

1994-09-01

349

MECP2 duplications in six patients with complex sex chromosome rearrangements  

PubMed Central

Duplications of the Xq28 chromosome region resulting in functional disomy are associated with a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by infantile hypotonia, severe developmental delay, progressive neurological impairment, absent speech, and proneness to infections. Increased expression of the dosage-sensitive MECP2 gene is considered responsible for the severe neurological impairments observed in affected individuals. Although cytogenetically visible duplications of Xq28 are well documented in the published literature, recent advances using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) led to the detection of an increasing number of microduplications spanning MECP2. In rare cases, duplication results from intrachromosomal rearrangement between the X and Y chromosomes. We report six cases with sex chromosome rearrangements involving duplication of MECP2. Cases 1–4 are unbalanced rearrangements between X and Y, resulting in MECP2 duplication. The additional Xq material was translocated to Yp in three cases (cases 1–3), and to the heterochromatic region of Yq12 in one case (case 4). Cases 5 and 6 were identified by array CGH to have a loss in copy number at Xp and a gain in copy number at Xq28 involving the MECP2 gene. In both cases, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed a recombinant X chromosome containing the duplicated material from Xq28 on Xp, resulting from a maternal pericentric inversion. These cases add to a growing number of MECP2 duplications that have been detected by array CGH, while demonstrating the value of confirmatory chromosome and FISH studies for the localization of the duplicated material and the identification of complex rearrangements. PMID:21119712

Breman, Amy M; Ramocki, Melissa B; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Williams, Misti; Freedenberg, Debra; Patel, Ankita; Bader, Patricia I; Cheung, Sau Wai

2011-01-01

350

Male gametophyte development and two different DNA classes of pollen grains in Rumex acetosa L., a plant with an XX\\/XY 1 Y 2 sex chromosome system and a female-biased sex ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female-biased sex ratio is an interesting phenomenon observed in Rumex acetosa, a dioecious plant with an XX\\/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. Previous authors have suggested that the biased sex ratio in this species is conditioned not only\\u000a postzygotically (sex-differential sporophytic mortality) but also prezygotically, because the sex ratio of seeds is also female-biased,\\u000a although to a lesser extent than the sex

Magdalena B?ocka-Wandas; Elwira Sliwinska; Aleksandra Grabowska-Joachimiak; Krystyna Musial; Andrzej J. Joachimiak

2007-01-01

351

Dosage effects of X and Y chromosomes on language and social functioning in children with supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies: Implications for idiopathic language impairment and autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies (X/Y-aneuploidies), the presence of extra X- and/or Y-chromosomes, are associated with heightened rates of language impairments and social difficulties. However, no single study has examined different language domains and social functioning in the same sample of children with tri-, tetra-, and pentasomy X/Y-aneuploidy. The current research sought to fill this gap in the literature and to examine dosage effects of X- and Y-chromosomes on language and social functioning. Methods Participants included 110 youth with X/Y-aneuploidies (32 female) and 52 with typical development (25 female) matched on age (mean~12 years; range 4–22) and maternal education. Participants completed the Wechsler intelligence scales and parents completed the Children’s Communication Checklist-2 and the Social Responsiveness Scale to assess language skills and autistic traits, respectively. Results Both supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes were related to depressed structural and pragmatic language skills and increased autistic traits. The addition of a Y-chromosome had a disproportionately greater impact on pragmatic language; the addition of one or more X-chromosomes had a disproportionately greater impact on structural language. Conclusions Given that we link extra X-chromosomes with structural language impairments and an extra Y-chromosome with pragmatic language impairments, X/Y-aneuploidies may provide clues to genetic mechanisms contributing to idiopathic language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22827287

Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L.; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I.; Lopez, Katherine C.; Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Clasen, Liv S.; Giedd, Jay N.

2012-01-01

352

Telomere dysfunction triggers extensive DNA fragmentation and evolution of complex chromosome abnormalities in human malignant tumors  

PubMed Central

Although mechanisms for chromosomal instability in tumors have been described in animal and in vitro models, little is known about these processes in man. To explore cytogenetic evolution in human tumors, chromosomal breakpoint profiles were constructed for 102 pancreatic carcinomas and 140 osteosarcomas, two tumor types characterized by extensive genomic instability. Cases with few chromosomal alterations showed a preferential clustering of breakpoints to the terminal bands, whereas tumors with many changes showed primarily interstitial and centromeric breakpoints. The terminal breakpoint frequency was negatively correlated to telomeric TTAGGG repeat length, and fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomeric TTAGGG probes consistently indicated shortened telomeres and >10% of chromosome ends lacking telomeric signals. Because telomeric dysfunction may lead to formation of unstable ring and dicentric chromosomes, mitotic figures were also evaluated. Anaphase bridges were found in all cases, and fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated extensive structural rearrangements of chromosomes, with terminal transferase detection showing fragmented DNA in 5–20% of interphase cells. Less than 2% of cells showed evidence of necrosis or apoptosis, and telomerase was expressed in the majority of cases. Telomeric dysfunction may thus trigger chromosomal fragmentation through persistent bridge-breakage events in pancreatic carcinomas and osteosarcomas, leading to a continuous reorganization of the tumor genome. Telomerase expression is not sufficient for completely stabilizing the chromosome complement but may be crucial for preventing complete genomic deterioration and maintaining cellular survival. PMID:11675499

Gisselsson, David; Jonson, Tord; Petersén, ?sa; Strömbeck, Bodil; Dal Cin, Paola; Höglund, Mattias; Mitelman, Felix; Mertens, Fredrik; Mandahl, Nils

2001-01-01

353

Identification of the Sex-Determining Region of the Ceratitis Capitata Y Chromosome by Deletion Mapping  

PubMed Central

In the medfly Ceratitis capitata, the Y chromosome is responsible for determining the male sex. We have mapped the region containing the relevant factor through the analysis of Y-autosome translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization with two different probes. One probe, the clone pY114, contains repetitive, Y-specific DNA sequences from C. capitata, while the second clone, pDh2-H8, consists of ribosomal DNA sequences from Drosophila hydei. Clone pY114 labeled most of the long arm and pDh2-H8 hybridizes to the short arm and the centromeric region of the long arm. In 12 of the analyzed 19 Y-autosome translocation strains, adjacent-1 segregation products survive to the late pupal or even adult stage and can, therefore, be sexed. This was correlated with the length of the Y fragment still present in these aberrant individuals and allowed us to map the male-determining factor to a region of the long arm representing ~15% of the entire Y chromosome. No additional factors, affecting for example fertility, were detected outside the male-determining region. PMID:8889534

Willhoeft, U.; Franz, G.

1996-01-01

354

Identification of the sex-determining region of the Ceratitis capitata Y chromosome by deletion mapping.  

PubMed

In the medfly Ceratitis capitata, the Y chromosome is responsible for determining the male sex. We have mapped the region containing the relevant factor through the analysis of Y-autosome translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization with two different probes. One probe, the clone pY114, contains repetitive, Y-specific DNA sequences from C. capitata, while the second clone, pDh2-H8, consists of ribosomal DNA sequences from Drosophila hydei. Clone pY114 labeled most of the long arm and pDh2-H8 hybridizes to the short arm and the centromeric region of the long arm. In 12 of the analyzed 19 Y-autosome translocation strains, adjacent-1 segregation products survive to the late pupal or even adult stage and can, therefore, be sexed. This was correlated with the length of the Y fragment still present in these aberrant individuals and allowed us to map the male-determining factor to a region of the long arm representing approximately 15% of the entire Y chromosome. No additional factors, affecting for example fertility, were detected outside the male-determining region. PMID:8889534

Willhoeft, U; Franz, G

1996-10-01

355

Sex chromosome linkage of mate preference and color signal maintains assortative mating between interbreeding finch morphs.  

PubMed

Assortative mating is a key aspect in the speciation process because it is important for both initial divergence and maintenance of distinct species. However, it remains a challenge to explain how assortative mating evolves when diverging populations are undergoing gene flow (e.g., during hybridization). Here I experimentally test how assortative mating is maintained with frequent gene flow between diverged head-color morphs of the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae). Contrary to the predominant view on the development of sexual preferences in birds, cross-fostered offspring did not imprint on the phenotype of their conspecific (red or black morphs) or heterospecific (Bengalese finch) foster parents. Instead, the mating preferences of F(1) and F(2) intermorph-hybrids are consistent with inheritance on the Z chromosomes, which are also the location for genes controlling color expression and the genes causing low fitness of intermorph-hybrids. Genetic associations between color signal and preference loci on the sex chromosomes may prevent recombination from breaking down these associations when the morphs interbreed, helping to maintain assortative mating in the face of gene flow. Although sex linkage of reproductively isolating traits is theoretically expected to promote speciation, social and ecological constraints may enforce frequent interbreeding between the morphs, thus preventing complete reproductive isolation. PMID:19922444

Pryke, Sarah R

2010-05-01

356

Identification of FISH biomarkers to detect chromosome abnormalities associated with prostate adenocarcinoma in tumour and field effect environment  

PubMed Central

Background To reduce sampling error associated with cancer detection in prostate needle biopsies, we explored the possibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the histologically benign prostate tissue from patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate. Methods Tumour specimens from 33 radical prostatectomy (RP) cases, histologically benign tissue from 17 of the 33 RP cases, and 26 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) control cases were evaluated with Locus Specific Identifier (LSI) probes MYC (8q24), LPL (8p21.22), and PTEN (10q23), as well as with centromere enumerator probes CEP8, CEP10, and CEP7. A distribution of FISH signals in the tumour and histologically benign adjacent tissue was compared to that in BPH specimens using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results The combination of MYC gain, CEP8 Abnormal, PTEN loss or chromosome 7 aneusomy was positive in the tumour area of all of the 33 specimens from patients with adenocarcinomas, and in 88% of adjacent histologically benign regions (15 out of 17) but in only 15% (4 out of 26) of the benign prostatic hyperplasia control specimens. Conclusions A panel of FISH markers may allow detection of genomic abnormalities that associate with adenocarcinoma in the field adjacent to and surrounding the tumour, and thus could potentially indicate the presence of cancer in the specimen even if the cancer focus itself was missed by biopsy and histology review. PMID:24568597

2014-01-01

357

Tumors of Bilateral Streak Gonads in Patients with Disorders of Sex Development Containing Y Chromosome Material  

PubMed Central

Abstract The presence of Y chromosome material in patients with disorders of sex development (DSD) has been associated with a high risk of gonadoblastoma. Therefore, gonadectomy is recommended in females with bilateral streak gonads and Y chromosome material. The aim of this study was to present our experience with prophylactic gonadectomy in those patients and evaluate their risk of gonadal tumors. We reviewed the charts of 11 female patients who had bilateral gonadectomy (by laparoscopically in 9 patients, by laparotomy in 2 patients) between 1991 and 2012 at our hospital. Seven patients with Turner syndrome (TS) who carry a Y mosaic karyotype in peripheral blood, 3 patients with Swyer syndrome and one patient with Frasier syndrome were included. All patients had an unambiguous female phenotype. Age at surgery and follow-up ranged from 2 to 23 (mean 11) and 0.5 to 20 (mean 8) yr, respectively. Pathologic examination revealed gonadal tumors in 6 of 11 patients (56%), including 4 with TS, the youngest of which was 2 yr old, one with Swyer syndrome and one with Frasier syndrome. A gonadoblastoma was detected in 8 gonads, and an association of dysgerminoma with gonadoblastoma was detected in 2 gonads. Imaging studies showed no metastasis, and the postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. In our series of DSD patients with bilateral streak gonads and Y chromosome material, the risk of gonadal tumor was high. Considering the early occurrence of gonadoblastoma and its high potential for malignant transformation, early prophylactic gonadectomy is strongly recommended. PMID:25110393

Matsumoto, Fumi; Shimada, Kenji; Ida, Shinobu

2014-01-01

358

Incomplete Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella, Based on De Novo Transcriptome Assembly  

PubMed Central

Males and females experience differences in gene dose for loci in the nonrecombining region of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. If not compensated, this leads to expression imbalances, with the homogametic sex on average exhibiting greater expression due to the doubled gene dose. Many organisms with heteromorphic sex chromosomes display global dosage compensation mechanisms, which equalize gene expression levels between the sexes. However, birds and Schistosoma have been previously shown to lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation mechanisms, and the status in other female heterogametic taxa including Lepidoptera remains unresolved. To further our understanding of dosage compensation in female heterogametic taxa and to resolve its status in the lepidopterans, we assessed the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. As P. interpunctella lacks a complete reference genome, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly combined with orthologous genomic location prediction from the related silkworm genome, Bombyx mori, to compare Z-linked and autosomal gene expression levels for each sex. We demonstrate that P. interpunctella lacks complete Z chromosome dosage compensation, female Z-linked genes having just over half the expression level of males and autosomal genes. This finding suggests that the Lepidoptera and possibly all female heterogametic taxa lack global dosage compensation, although more species will need to be sampled to confirm this assertion. PMID:23034217

Harrison, Peter W.; Mank, Judith E.; Wedell, Nina

2012-01-01

359

Molecular antagonism between X-chromosome and autosome signals determines nematode sex  

PubMed Central

Sex is determined in Caenorhabditis elegans by the ratio of X chromosomes to the sets of autosomes, the X:A signal. A set of genes called X signal elements (XSEs) communicates X-chromosome dose by repressing the masculinizing sex determination switch gene xol-1 (XO lethal) in a dose-dependent manner. xol-1 is active in 1X:2A embryos (males) but repressed in 2X:2A embryos (hermaphrodites). Here we showed that the autosome dose is communicated by a set of autosomal signal elements (ASEs) that act in a cumulative, dose-dependent manner to counter XSEs by stimulating xol-1 transcription. We identified new ASEs and explored the biochemical basis by which ASEs antagonize XSEs to determine sex. Multiple antagonistic molecular interactions carried out on a single promoter explain how different X:A values elicit different sexual fates. XSEs (nuclear receptors and homeodomain proteins) and ASEs (T-box and zinc finger proteins) bind directly to several sites on xol-1 to counteract each other's activities and thereby regulate xol-1 transcription. Disrupting ASE- and XSE-binding sites in vivo recapitulated the misregulation of xol-1 transcription caused by disrupting cognate signal element genes. XSE- and ASE-binding sites are distinct and nonoverlapping, suggesting that direct competition for xol-1 binding is not how XSEs counter ASEs. Instead, XSEs likely antagonize ASEs by recruiting cofactors with reciprocal activities that induce opposite transcriptional states. Most ASE- and XSE-binding sites overlap xol-1's ?1 nucleosome, which carries activating chromatin marks only when xol-1 is turned on. Coactivators and corepressors tethered by proteins similar to ASEs and XSEs are known to deposit and remove such marks. The concept of a sex signal comprising competing XSEs and ASEs arose as a theory for fruit flies a century ago. Ironically, while the recent work of others showed that the fly sex signal does not fit this simple paradigm, our work shows that the worm signal does. PMID:23666922

Farboud, Behnom; Nix, Paola; Jow, Margaret M.; Gladden, John M.; Meyer, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

360

Chromosome  

MedlinePLUS

... genes . It is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist ... come in pairs. Normally, each cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total chromosomes). ...

361

Multiple origins of sex chromosome fusions correlated with chiasma localization in Habronattus jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae).  

PubMed

Entelegyne spiders rarely show fusions yielding neo-Y chromosomes, which M. J. D. White attributed to a constraint in spiders, namely their proximal chiasma localization acting to upset meiotic segregation in males with fusions. Of the 75 taxa of Habronattus and outgroups studied, 47 have X1 X2 0 sex chromosomes in males, 10 have X1 X2 Y, 15 have X1 X2 X3 Y, 2 have X0, and one has both X1 X2 0 and X1 X2 X3 Y. Chromosome numbers and behavior suggest neo-Ys formed by an autosome-X fusion to make X1 X2 Y, with a second fusion to an autosome to make X1 X2 X3 Y. Phylogeny shows at least 8-15 gains (or possibly some losses) of neo-Y (i.e., X-autosome fusions), a remarkable number for such a small clade. In contrast to the many X-autosome fusions, at most one autosome-autosome fusion is indicated. Origins of neo-Y are correlated significantly with distal localization of chiasmata, supporting White's hypothesis that evolution of neo-Y systems is facilitated by looser pairing (distal chiasmata) at meiosis. However, an alternative (or contributing) explanation for the correlation is that X-autosome fusions were selected to permit isolation of male-favored alleles to the neo-Y chromosome, aided by distal chiasmata limiting recombination. This intralocus sexual conflict hypothesis could explain both the many X-autosome fusions, and the stunning complexity of male Habronattus courtship displays. PMID:23888849

Maddison, Wayne P; Leduc-Robert, Genevičve

2013-08-01

362

Msh2 deficiency leads to chromosomal abnormalities, centrosome amplification, and telomere capping defect  

SciTech Connect

Msh2 is a key mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene and mutations or deficiencies in mammalian Msh2 gene result in microsatellite instability (MSI+) and the development of cancer. Here, we report that primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in the murine MMR gene Msh2 (Msh2-/-) showed a significant increase in chromosome aneuploidy, centrosome amplification, and defective mitotic spindle organization and unequal chromosome segregation. Although Msh2-/- mouse tissues or primary MEFs had no apparent change in telomerase activity, telomere length, or recombination at telomeres, Msh2-/- MEFs showed an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA. These data suggest that MSH2 helps to maintain genomic stability through the regulation of the centrosome and normal telomere capping in vivo and that defects in MMR can contribute to oncogenesis through multiple pathways.

Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL

2006-01-01

363

Chromosomal abnormality rates at amniocentesis and in live-born infants.  

PubMed

Regression-smoothed maternal age-specific rates of six different categories of cytogenetic abnormalities in recent large-scale prenatal cytogenetic studies were multiplied by independently derived fetal selection coefficients--factors that adjust for the excess likelihood of spontaneous loss of cytogenetically abnormal fetuses--to obtain estimated maternal age-specific rates of these categories of cytogenetic abnormalities in live-born infants. The derived rates apply to women whose only risk factor is advanced maternal age. The categories analyzed were 47,+21 (Down's syndrome), 47,+18 (Edwards' syndrome), 47,+13 (Patau's syndrome), 47,XXY (Klinefelter's syndrome), 47,XXX, and the group of other clinically significant abnormalities considered collectively. The rate of all clinically significant abnormalities considered together derived in this study was about five per 1,000 at age 35 years, 15 per 1,000 at age 40 years, and 50 per 1,000 at age 45 years. PMID:6220164

Hook, E B; Cross, P K; Schreinemachers, D M

1983-04-15

364

The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the diagnosis of hidden mosaicism: apropos of three cases of sex chromosome anomalies.  

PubMed

FISH has been used as a complement to classical cytogenetics in the detection of mosaicism in sex chromosome anomalies. The aim of this study is to describe three cases in which the final diagnosis could only be achieved by FISH. Case 1 was an 8-year-old 46,XY girl with normal female genitalia referred to our service because of short stature. FISH analysis of lymphocytes with probes for the X and Y centromeres identified a 45,X/46,X,idic(Y) constitution, and established the diagnosis of Turner syndrome. Case 2 was a 21-month-old 46,XY boy with genital ambiguity (penile hypospadias, right testis, and left streak gonad). FISH analysis of lymphocytes and buccal smear identified a 45,X/46,XY karyotype, leading to diagnosis of mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Case 3 was a 47,XYY 19-year-old boy with delayed neuromotor development, learning disabilities, psychological problems, tall stature, small testes, elevated gonadotropins, and azoospermia. FISH analysis of lymphocytes and buccal smear identified a 47,XYY/48,XXYY constitution. Cases 1 and 2 illustrate the phenotypic variability of the 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, and the importance of detection of the 45,X cell line for proper management and follow-up. In case 3, abnormal gonadal function could be explained by the 48,XXYY cell line. The use of FISH in clinical practice is particularly relevant when classical cytogenetic analysis yields normal or uncertain results in patients with features of sex chromosome aneuploidy. PMID:23295296

Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas; Paulo, Juliana De; Santos, Ana Paula; Guaragna-Filho, Guilherme; Andrade, Juliana Gabriel Ribeiro; Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Guerra-Júnior, Gil

2012-11-01

365

Marker chromosomes lacking {alpha}-satellite DNA: A new intriguing class of abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have implicated {alpha}-satellite DNA as an integral part of the centromere and important for the normal segregation of chromosomes. We analyzed four supernumerary marker chromosomes in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could detect neither pancentromeric or chromosome specific {alpha}-satellite DNA. Mosaicism of the markers existed, but each was present in the majority of cells indicating that they segregated normally. FISH with chromosome-specific libraries identified the origins of these markers as chromosomes 13 (1 case) and 15 (3 cases). High resolution analysis, combined with hybridization of a series of cosmid probes, revealed that each marker was a symmetrical duplication of the terminal long arm of the parent chromosome. Telomeric sequences were detected by FISH indicating linear structures. Breakpoint heterogeneity, as defined by cosmid probes, was demonstrated in the three cases involving chromosome 15. No pericentromeric satellite III DNA could be detected on three markers. Studies with anti-centromere antibodies are in progress to assay for centromeric antigens on the markers, as expected at functional centromeric sites. Our results demonstrate that the precise structural identification and heterogeneity of these markers can be easily elucidated using FISH with unique sequence cosmid probes. We conclude from our studies and others in the literature: (1) there is a newly defined class of markers lacking {alpha}-satellite DNA and containing duplications of terminal sequences; (2)neither {alpha}-satellite nor satellite III DNA at levels detectable by FISH is necessary for fidelity in the normal segregation of chromosomes; and (3) these markers were most likely formed by recombination of the long arms during meiosis.

Becker, L.A.; Zinn, A.B.; Stallard, J.R. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

366

Range-Wide Sex-Chromosome Sequence Similarity Supports Occasional XY Recombination in European Tree Frogs (Hyla arborea)  

PubMed Central

In contrast with mammals and birds, most poikilothermic vertebrates feature structurally undifferentiated sex chromosomes, which may result either from frequent turnovers, or from occasional events of XY recombination. The latter mechanism was recently suggested to be responsible for sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea). However, no single case of male recombination has been identified in large-scale laboratory crosses, and populations from NW Europe consistently display sex-specific allelic frequencies with male-diagnostic alleles, suggesting the absence of recombination in their recent history. To address this apparent paradox, we extended the phylogeographic scope of investigations, by analyzing the sequences of three sex-linked markers throughout the whole species distribution. Refugial populations (southern Balkans and Adriatic coast) show a mix of X and Y alleles in haplotypic networks, and no more within-individual pairwise nucleotide differences in males than in females, testifying to recurrent XY recombination. In contrast, populations of NW Europe, which originated from a recent postglacial expansion, show a clear pattern of XY differentiation; the X and Y gametologs of the sex-linked gene Med15 present different alleles, likely fixed by drift on the front wave of expansions, and kept differentiated since. Our results support the view that sex-chromosome homomorphy in H. arborea is maintained by occasional or historical events of recombination; whether the frequency of these events indeed differs between populations remains to be clarified. PMID:24892652

Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

2014-01-01

367

Range-wide sex-chromosome sequence similarity supports occasional XY recombination in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea).  

PubMed

In contrast with mammals and birds, most poikilothermic vertebrates feature structurally undifferentiated sex chromosomes, which may result either from frequent turnovers, or from occasional events of XY recombination. The latter mechanism was recently suggested to be responsible for sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea). However, no single case of male recombination has been identified in large-scale laboratory crosses, and populations from NW Europe consistently display sex-specific allelic frequencies with male-diagnostic alleles, suggesting the absence of recombination in their recent history. To address this apparent paradox, we extended the phylogeographic scope of investigations, by analyzing the sequences of three sex-linked markers throughout the whole species distribution. Refugial populations (southern Balkans and Adriatic coast) show a mix of X and Y alleles in haplotypic networks, and no more within-individual pairwise nucleotide differences in males than in females, testifying to recurrent XY recombination. In contrast, populations of NW Europe, which originated from a recent postglacial expansion, show a clear pattern of XY differentiation; the X and Y gametologs of the sex-linked gene Med15 present different alleles, likely fixed by drift on the front wave of expansions, and kept differentiated since. Our results support the view that sex-chromosome homomorphy in H. arborea is maintained by occasional or historical events of recombination; whether the frequency of these events indeed differs between populations remains to be clarified. PMID:24892652

Dufresnes, Christophe; Stöck, Matthias; Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

2014-01-01

368

Separate effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and spatial navigation assessment of the Four Core Genotype mouse model.  

PubMed

Males and females exhibit several differences in brain structure and function. To examine the basis for these sex differences, we investigated the influences of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function in mice. We used the Four Core Genotype (4CG) mice, which can generate both male and female mice with XX or XY sex chromosome complement, allowing the decoupling of sex chromosomes from hormonal milieu. To examine whole brain structure, high-resolution ex vivo MRI was performed, and to assess differences in cognitive function, mice were trained on a radial arm maze. Voxel-wise and volumetric analyses of MRI data uncovered a striking independence of hormonal versus chromosomal influences in 30 sexually dimorphic brain regions. For example, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the parieto-temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex displayed steroid-dependence while the cerebellar cortex, corpus callosum, and olfactory bulbs were influenced by sex chromosomes. Spatial learning and memory demonstrated strict hormone-dependency with no apparent influence of sex chromosomes. Understanding the influences of chromosomes and hormones on brain structure and function is important for understanding sex differences in brain structure and function, an endeavor that has eventual implications for understanding sex biases observed in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25445841

Corre, Christina; Friedel, Miriam; Vousden, Dulcie A; Metcalf, Ariane; Spring, Shoshana; Qiu, Lily R; Lerch, Jason P; Palmert, Mark R

2014-12-01

369

Sensitive and specific detection of mosaic chromosomal abnormalities using the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method  

PubMed Central

Background Mosaic somatic alterations are present in all multi-cellular organisms, but the physiological effects of low-level mosaicism are largely unknown. Most mosaic alterations remain undetectable with current analytical approaches, although the presence of such alterations is increasingly implicated as causative for disease. Results Here, we present the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method for chromosomal abnormality detection in trio-based SNP microarray data. Our software implementation, triPOD, was benchmarked using a simulated dataset, outperformed comparable software for sensitivity of abnormality detection, and displayed substantial improvement in the detection of low-level mosaicism while maintaining comparable specificity. Examples of low-level mosaic abnormalities from a large autism dataset demonstrate the benefits of the increased sensitivity provided by triPOD. The triPOD analyses showed robustness across multiple types of Illumina microarray chips. Two large, clinically-relevant datasets were characterized and compared. Conclusions Our method and software provide a significant advancement in the ability to detect low-level mosaic abnormalities, thereby opening new avenues for research into the implications of mosaicism in pathogenic and non-pathogenic processes. PMID:23724825

2013-01-01

370

Turner syndrome and female sex chromosome aberrations: deduction of the principal factors involved in the development of clinical features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although clinical features in Turner syndrome have been well defined, underlying genetic factors have not been clarified. To deduce the factors leading to the development of clinical features, we took the following four steps: (1) assessment of clinical features in classic 45,X Turner syndrome; (2) review of clinical features in various female sex chromosome aberrations (karyotype-phenotype correlations); (3) assessment of

Tsutomu Ogata; Nobutake Matsuo

1995-01-01

371

Social Deficits in Male Children and Adolescents with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: A Comparison of XXY, XYY, and XXYY Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compare social skills in three groups of males with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Participants included males with XXY (N = 102, M = 10.08 years), XYY (N = 40, M = 9.93 years), and XXYY (N = 32, M = 11.57 years). XXY had lower (better) SRS scores compared to XYY and XXYY. Scores were not…

Cordeiro, Lisa; Tartaglia, Nicole; Roeltgen, David; Ross, Judith

2012-01-01

372

Expression in fibroblast culture of the satellited-X chromosome associated with familial sex-linked mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The satellited-X chromosome previously shown in lymphocyte culture to be associated with certain types of sex-linked mental retardation has, for the first time, been demonstrated in cultured skin fibroblasts and lymphocytes from two affected males and an obligate carrier female. These findings provide a basis for reliable diagnosis of female carriers and for the development of prenatal diagnosis.

P. B. Jacky; F. J. Dill

1980-01-01

373

Neurocognitive Outcomes of Individuals with a Sex Chromosome Trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY--A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). Method: A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. Results: We identified 35…

Leggett, Victoria; Jacobs, Patricia; Nation, Kate; Scerif, Gaia; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

2010-01-01

374

Correlations of chromosome abnormalities with histologic and immunologic characteristics in 49 patients from Akita, Japan with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the chromosomes of 49 non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients from an area of Japan that is nonendemic for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Clonal chromosome abnormalities were found in the majority (88%) of the specimens examined. The most characteristic structural abnormalities were: t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(3;22)(q27;q11), t(11;14)(q13;32), idic(18)(p11.2), and the combination del(1)(p13) and del(1)(q11). The t(14;18) were found in four of five follicular lymphomas and in one diffuse lymphoma. The breaks at 3q27 included seven translocations and an inv(3)(q12q27). A t(3;22) was found in three patients, all B-cell type, two of whom had kappa phenotype and one of whom was negative for the surface Ig. Fifteen of 49 cases had deletion of 6q. The common deleted region was found only in the segment distal to 6q21. These findings indicate the high percentage of t(14;18) in follicular lymphomas, which is unusual in Japan, and the high incidence of 3q27 translocations. PMID:7773961

Hashimoto, K; Miura, I; Chyubachi, A; Saito, M; Miura, A B

1995-05-01

375

Microdeletion of chromosome sub-band 2q37.3 in two patients with abnormal situs viscerum.  

PubMed

We report on two cases of microdeletion of chromosome sub-band 2q37.3 with abnormal situs viscerum. The first patient had dextrocardia, duodenal and jejunal atresia, and an abdominal hernia. The liver was in the left upper quadrant, stomach in the right upper quadrant. In contrast anema the ascending colon was in the left, and descending colon on the right, with an area of atresia in the mid-jejunum. The second patient had malrotation and malposition of large and small bowel, with most of the bowels positioned above the liver and spleen. There was incomplete rotation of the cecum. The right kidney was malrotated and mal-positioned. The finding of 2q37.3 deletion in both patients implies that a locus or loci involved in the development of normal body situs lies within this chromosome region. Molecular cytogenetic evaluation for a possible 2q37.3 deletion should be considered in patients with abnormal situs viscerum. PMID:10360400

Reddy, K S; Flannery, D; Farrer, R J

1999-06-11

376

Testing for the Footprint of Sexually Antagonistic Polymorphisms in the Pseudoautosomal Region of a Plant Sex Chromosome Pair  

PubMed Central

The existence of sexually antagonistic (SA) polymorphism is widely considered the most likely explanation for the evolution of suppressed recombination of sex chromosome pairs. This explanation is largely untested empirically, and no such polymorphisms have been identified, other than in fish, where no evidence directly implicates these genes in events causing loss of recombination. We tested for the presence of loci with SA polymorphism in the plant Silene latifolia, which is dioecious (with separate male and female individuals) and has a pair of highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with XY males. Suppressed recombination between much of the Y and X sex chromosomes evolved in several steps, and the results in Bergero et al. (2013) show that it is still ongoing in the recombining or pseudoautosomal, regions (PARs) of these chromosomes. We used molecular evolutionary approaches to test for the footprints of SA polymorphisms, based on sequence diversity levels in S. latifolia PAR genes identified by genetic mapping. Nucleotide diversity is high for at least four of six PAR genes identified, and our data suggest the existence of polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection in this genome region, since molecular evolutionary (HKA) tests exclude an elevated mutation rate, and other tests also suggest balancing selection. The presence of sexually antagonistic alleles at a locus or loci in the PAR is suggested by the very different X and Y chromosome allele frequencies for at least one PAR gene. PMID:23733787

Qiu, Suo; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah

2013-01-01

377

Association of familial Duane anomaly and urogenital abnormalities with a bisatellited marker derived from chromosome 22.  

PubMed

We report a spectrum of defects that were found in an 18-year-old girl who presented for investigation of primary amenorrhea. The patient was found to have Duane anomaly, left renal agenesis, absent uterus, bilateral sensorineural deafness, and bilateral preauricular skin tags and sinuses. Investigation of her family showed that her brother also had Duane anomaly, right renal agenesis, sensorineural deafness, and preauricular skin tags and that their father had preauricular skin tags. Cytogenetic analysis, including in situ hybridisation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, demonstrated a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome derived from the region of chromosome 22pter-q11 in the affected individuals. Our findings indicate that a gene or genes located in the region of chromosome 22pter-q11 may be associated with the Duane anomaly and the development of the urogenital tract. PMID:8279492

Cullen, P; Rodgers, C S; Callen, D F; Connolly, V M; Eyre, H; Fells, P; Gordon, H; Winter, R M; Thakker, R V

1993-11-01

378

Karyotype, Sex Determination, and Meiotic Chromosome Behavior in Two Pholcid (Araneomorphae, Pholcidae) Spiders: Implications for Karyotype Evolution  

PubMed Central

There are 1,111 species of pholcid spiders, of which less than 2% have published karyotypes. Our aim in this study was to determine the karyotypes and sex determination mechanisms of two species of pholcids: Physocyclus mexicanus (Banks, 1898) and Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763), and to observe sex chromosome behavior during meiosis. We constructed karyotypes for P. mexicanus and H. pluchei using information from both living and fixed cells. We found that P. mexicanus has a chromosome number of 2n?=?15 in males and 2n?=?16 in females with X0-XX sex determination, like other members of the genus Physocyclus. H. pluchei has a chromosome number of 2n?=?28 in males and 2n?=?28 in females with XY-XX sex determination, which is substantially different from its closest relatives. These data contribute to our knowledge of the evolution of this large and geographically ubiquitous family, and are the first evidence of XY-XX sex determination in pholcids. PMID:21931842

Golding, Adriana E.; Paliulis, Leocadia V.

2011-01-01

379

Rapid detection of sex chromosomal aneuploidies by QF-PCR: application in 200 men with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia.  

PubMed

Klinefelter syndrome is the most common genetic cause of severe male factor infertility. Cytogenetic evaluation of metaphase chromosomes generally has a long turnaround time. We describe a reliable molecular genetic method that can be completed in 2 working days to identify the presence of any extra X chromosomes. The quantitative fluorescent (QF) 5-plex PCR includes the amplification of amelogenin, which is present on both sex chromosomes in a biallelic form, a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) on the pseudoautosomal region of X and Y (X22), two polymorphic X-specific STRs (DXS6803, DXS6809), and a Y-specific marker (SY134), in a single tube. The presence of an extra X chromosome is recognized either by a supernumerary peak or an increased peak area based on criteria we have developed. The application of the method on 200 patients resulted in the identification of 14 patients (7%) with Klinefelter syndrome or a variant form (2 SRY-positive 46,XX men), as well as an additional patient with 47,XYY karyotype. The QF-PCR method, along with Y chromosome microdeletion testing, can be used as a first-step genetic analysis in azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients for the rapid identification of sex chromosome aneuploidies. PMID:17627384

Fodor, Flora; Kamory, Eniko; Csokay, Bela; Kopa, Zsolt; Kiss, Attila; Lantos, Istvan; Tisza, Timea

2007-01-01

380

Production of all female progeny: evidence for the presence of the male sex determination factor on the Y chromosome.  

PubMed

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, follows an XX (female) and XY (male) sex determination system. Maternal supply of the protein Transformer (Tra) is required for XX insects to follow the female pathway. The nature and source of the signal that regulates male sex determination in XY beetles are not known. Parental RNAi-aided knockdown in expression of tra masculinizes genetic females (XX) that are fertile. The virgin females mated with these masculinized genetic females produced all female progeny. We present the genetic evidence to show that the factor responsible for male sex determination is present on the Y chromosome. These data also suggest that the Y chromosome in T. castaneum is not required for male fertility. PMID:24577442

Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

2014-05-15

381

Chromosome fragility and the abnormal replication of the FMR1 locus in fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a learning disability seen in individuals who have >200 CGG•CCG repeats in the 5' untranslated region of the X-linked FMR1 gene. Such alleles are associated with a fragile site, FRAXA, a gap or constriction in the chromosome that is coincident with the repeat and is induced by folate stress or thymidylate synthase inhibitors like fluorodeoxyuridine (FdU). The molecular basis of the chromosome fragility is unknown. Previous work has suggested that the stable intrastrand structures formed by the repeat may be responsible, perhaps via their ability to block DNA synthesis. We have examined the replication dynamics of normal and FXS cells with and without FdU. We show here that an intrinsic problem with DNA replication exists in the FMR1 gene of individuals with FXS even in the absence of FdU. Our data suggest a model for chromosome fragility in FXS in which the repeat impairs replication from an origin of replication (ORI) immediately adjacent to the repeat. The fact that the replication problem occurs even in the absence of FdU suggests that this phenomenon may have in vivo consequences, including perhaps accounting for the loss of the X chromosome containing the fragile site that causes Turner syndrome (45, X0) in female carriers of such alleles. Our data on FRAXA may also be germane for the other FdU-inducible fragile sites in humans, that we show here share many common features with FRAXA. PMID:24419320

Yudkin, Dmitry; Hayward, Bruce E; Aladjem, Mirit I; Kumari, Daman; Usdin, Karen

2014-06-01

382

COMMON TYPES OF CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA  

E-print Network

Syndrome Society, there are more than 400,000 individuals with Down syndrome in the United States. Patients with Down syndrome have three copies of their 21 chromosomes instead of the normal two. The major clinical features of Down syndrome patients include low muscle tone, small stature, an upward slant to the eyes

383

Familial X-linked mental retardation with an X chromosome abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

An X-linked pattern of transmission observed in four families with familial mental retardation in several generations was associated with a probable secondary constriction at the distal end of the q arms of the X chromosome. Twenty retarded males and no retarded females were observed. All available live retarded males and most of their normal mothers were found to have the

J Harvey; C Judge; S Wiener

1977-01-01

384

A gradual process of recombination restriction in the evolutionary history of the sex chromosomes in dioecious plants.  

PubMed

To help understand the evolution of suppressed recombination between sex chromosomes, and its consequences for evolution of the sequences of Y-linked genes, we have studied four X-Y gene pairs, including one gene not previously characterized, in plants in a group of closely related dioecious species of Silene which have an X-Y sex-determining system (S. latifolia, S. dioica, and S. diclinis). We used the X-linked copies to build a genetic map of the X chromosomes, with a marker in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) to orient the map. The map covers a large part of the X chromosomes--at least 50 centimorgans. Except for a recent rearrangement in S. dioica, the gene order is the same in the X chromosomes of all three species. Silent site divergence between the DNA sequences of the X and Y copies of the different genes increases with the genes' distances from the PAR, suggesting progressive restriction of recombination between the X and Y chromosomes. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of the four genes, which also revealed that the least-diverged X-Y pair could have ceased recombining independently in the dioecious species after their split. Analysis of amino acid replacements vs. synonymous changes showed that, with one possible exception, the Y-linked copies appear to be functional in all three species, but there are nevertheless some signs of degenerative processes affecting the genes that have been Y-linked for the longest times. Although the X-Y system evolved quite recently in Silene (less than 10 million years ago) compared to mammals (about 320 million years ago), our results suggest that similar processes have been at work in the evolution of sex chromosomes in plants and mammals, and shed some light on the molecular mechanisms suppressing recombination between X and Y chromosomes. PMID:15630476

Nicolas, Michael; Marais, Gabriel; Hykelova, Vladka; Janousek, Bohuslav; Laporte, Valérie; Vyskot, Boris; Mouchiroud, Dominique; Negrutiu, Ioan; Charlesworth, Deborah; Monéger, Françoise

2005-01-01

385

Absence of correlation between Sry polymorphisms and XY sex reversal caused by the M.m. domesticus Y chromosome  

SciTech Connect

Mus musculus domesticus Y chromosomes (Y{sup DOM} Chrs) vary in their ability to induce testes in the strain C57BL/6J. In severe cases, XY females develop (XY{sup DOM} sex reversal). To identify the molecular basis for the sex reversal, a 2.7-kb region of Sry, the testis-determining gene, was sequenced from Y{sup DOM} Chrs linked to normal testis determination, transient sex reversal, and severe sex reversal. Four mutations were identified. However, no correlation exists between these mutations and severity of XY{sup DOM} sex reversal. RT-PCR identified Sry transcripts in XY{sup DOM} sex-reversed fetal gonads at 11 d.p.c., the age when Sry is hypothesized to function. In addition, no correlation exists between XY{sup DOM} sex reversal and copy numbers of pSx1, a Y-repetitive sequence whose deletion is linked to XY sex reversal. We conclude that SRY protein variants, blockade of Sry transcription, and deletion of pSx1 sequences are not the underlying causes of XY{sup DOM} sex reversal. 63 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Carlisle, C.; Nagamine, C.M. [Vanderbilt Univ., School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Vanderbilt Univ., School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Winkinig, H.; Weichenhan, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Zu Luebeck (Germany)] [Medizinische Universitaet Zu Luebeck (Germany)

1996-04-01

386

Mosaic isodicentric chromosome 9 with triplication (9p22-pter) and no deletion in an abnormal infant presenting with clinical features of trisomy 9; a new type of isodicentric chromosome formation  

SciTech Connect

All human isodicentric chromosomes reported thus far have shown partial or complete deletion of either the short or the long arm of the chromosome. We report a patient who had a complete isodicentric chromosome 9, in which the two long and two short arms have no deletion, but have triplication of the band p22 to pterminal. This abnormality was detected at 10% mosaicism in the blood of an infant with multiple congenital anomalies and clinical features of mosaic trisomy 9. The remaining 90% of metaphases showed one normal 9 and one abnormal monocentric 9 with an inversion triplication of the band 9p22 to 9pterminal. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome 9 painting probe (Imagnetics), and all human telomere probe (Oncor) confirmed the nature of these two abnormal 9`s, which were found in two different cell lines. FISH revealed the presence of short arm interstitial telomeric sequences that defined the borders of the extra copy of 9p22-pter. Error of replication, ligation and crossing-over within the 4 sister chromatids of chromosome 9 is the most likely explanation for the formation of this rare type of isodicentric chromosome. Parental blood chromosomes were normal. Skin fibroblast obtained post mortem failed to grow. Therefore, we can not exclude the possibility that a higher than 10% level of mosaicism of the isodicentric 9 could explain the severe clinical presentation of this patient.

Batanian, J.R.; Chen, X.; Grange, D.K. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States)

1994-09-01

387

Asymmetry of cerebral gray and white matter and structural volumes in relation to sex hormones and chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY). Methods: Regional asymmetry in gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV) was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5), by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis. Results: All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward GMV asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected. Conclusion: The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner. PMID:25505869

Savic, Ivanka

2014-01-01

388

Sperm chromosome complements in a 47,XYY man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human sperm chromosomes from a 47,XYY male were examined using the direct method of sperm chromosome analysis with two modifications in the semen processing. A total of 75 sperm complements was karyotyped and all of these contained one sex chromosome. The percentages of X-and Y-bearing sperm were 53% and 47%, respectively. There were 10 sperm with autosomal chromosomal abnormalities. The

Jordi Benet; Renee H. Martin

1988-01-01

389

Meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes investigated by three-colour FISH on 35?142 sperm nuclei from two 47,XYY males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meiotic segregation of sex chromosomes from two fertile 47,XYY men was analysed by a three-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation\\u000a procedure. This method allows the identification of hyperhaploidies (spermatozoa with 24 chromosomes) and diploidies (spermatozoa\\u000a with 46 chromosomes), and their meiotic origin (meiosis I or II). Alpha-satellite probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and\\u000a 1 were observed simultaneously in 35?142 sperm

E. Chevret; S. Rousseaux; M. Monteil; Y. Usson; J. Cozzi; R. Pelletier; B. Sčle

1997-01-01

390

Sex-Biased Gene Expression on the Avian Z Chromosome: Highly Expressed Genes Show Higher Male-Biased Expression  

PubMed Central

Dosage compensation, the process whereby expression of sex-linked genes remains similar between sexes (despite heterogamety) and balanced with autosomal expression, was long believed to be essential. However, recent research has shown that several lineages, including birds, butterflies, monotremes and sticklebacks, lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation mechanisms and do not completely balance the expression of sex-linked and autosomal genes. To obtain further understanding of avian sex-biased gene expression, we studied Z-linked gene expression in the brain of two songbirds of different genera (zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, and common whitethroat, Sylvia communis) using microarray technology. In both species, the male-bias in gene expression was significantly higher for Z than for autosomes, although the ratio of Z-linked to autosomal expression (Z:A) was relatively close to one in both sexes (range: 0.89–1.01). Interestingly, the Z-linked male-bias in gene expression increased with expression level, and genes with low expression showed the lowest degree of sex-bias. These results support the view that the heterogametic females have up-regulated their single Z-linked homologues to a high extent when the W-chromosome degraded and thereby managed to largely balance their Z:A expression with the exception of highly expressed genes. The male-bias in highly expressed genes points towards male-driven selection on Z-linked loci, and this and other possible hypotheses are discussed. PMID:23056488

Naurin, Sara; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan; Hansson, Bengt

2012-01-01

391

Rates of trisomies 21, 18, 13 and other chromosome abnormalities in about 20 000 prenatal studies compared with estimated rates in live births  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were analyzed on the results of 19675 prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses reported to two chromosome registries on women aged 35 or over for whom there was no known cytogenetic risk for a chromosome abnormality except parental age. The expected rates at amniocentesis of 47,+21; 47,+18; 47,+13; XXX; XXY; XYY; and other clinically significant cytogenetic defects by maternal age were obtained

Dina M. Schreinemachers; Philip K. Cross; Ernest B. Hook

1982-01-01

392

Arsenic Exposure, Dermatological Lesions, Hypertension, and Chromosomal Abnormalities among People in a Rural Community of Northwest Iran  

PubMed Central

Chronic exposure to arsenic compounds is one of the major public-health problems in many developing and some developed countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to arsenic on dermatological lesions, hypertension, and chromosomal abnormalities among people in a community in the northwest of Iran. The occurrence of dermatological lesions, hypertension, and chromosomal abnormalities was investigated in two groups: Ghopuz village, including 101 subjects with chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking-water and Mayan village, including 107 subjects with no exposure. Daily/yearly absorbed amounts of arsenic were calculated for all subjects. Cumulative arsenic index for each individual was then estimated on the basis of age, water consumption, and location of residence. Arsenic concentration in drinking-water sources in Ghopuz and Mayan villages was 1031±1103 ?g/L and non-detectable respectively. The mean systolic blood pressure in the exposure group [n=137, 95% confidence interval (CI 132–142)] was significantly higher than that in the control group (n=107, 95% CI 99.9–114). A similar significant difference was observed for diastolic blood pressure (exposed: n=82, 95% CI 79–85 vs non-exposed: n=71, 95% CI 66–75). The incidence of hyperkeratosis was 34 times higher among the exposure group compared to the control subjects [odds ratio (OR)=34, p<0.001)]. A significant difference was also observed in the occurrence of skin-pigmentation between the two groups (OR=2.4, p<0.007). Location and severity of the pigmentations were statistically different between the two groups. Twenty-five percent of the subjects in the exposure group showed chromosomal abnormalities (p=0.05). Arsenic exposure was a serious health problem in the region. More studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects and dose-response relationship of arsenic in the region and similar areas. Wide-ranging monitoring programmes for drinking-water sources should be implemented by public-health authorities. PMID:20214082

Dastgiri, Saeed; Fizi, Mohammad A.H.; Olfati, Nahid; Zolali, Shahin; Pouladi, Nasser; Azarfam, Parvin

2010-01-01

393

Identification of Novel Candidate Gene Loci and Increased Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy among Infants with Conotruncal Heart Defects  

PubMed Central

Congenital heart defects are common malformations, affecting 4–8 per 1,000 total births. Conotruncal defects are an important pathogenetic subset of congenital heart defects, comprising nearly 20 percent of the total. Although both environmental and genetic factors are known to contribute to the occurrence of conotruncal defects, the causes remain unknown for most. To identify novel candidate genes/loci, we used array comparative genomic hybridization to detect chromosomal microdeletions/duplications. From a population base of 974,579 total births born during 1999–2004, we screened 389 California infants born with tetralogy of Fallot or d-transposition of the great arteries. We found that 1.7% (5/288) of males with a conotruncal defect had sex chromosome aneuploidy, a seven-fold increased frequency (relative risk = 7.0; 95% confidence interval 2.9–16.9). We identified eight chromosomal microdeletions/duplications for conotruncal defects. From these duplications and deletions, we found five high priority candidate genes (GATA4, CRKL, BMPR1A, SNAI2 and ZFHX4). This is the initial report that sex chromosome aneuploidy is associated with conotruncal defects among boys. These chromosomal microduplications/deletions provide evidence that GATA4, SNAI2 and CRKL are highly dosage sensitive genes involved in outflow tract development. Genome wide screening for copy number variation can be productive for identifying novel genes/loci contributing to nonsyndromic common malformations. PMID:24127225

Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Iovannisci, David M.; Lin, Bin; Parodi, Christina; Schultz, Kathleen; Shaw, Gary M.; Lammer, Edward J.

2013-01-01

394

Chromosomal abnormalities in women with breast cancer after autologous stem cell transplantation are infrequent and may not predict development of therapy-related leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined prospectively the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with high-risk breast cancer (HRBC) after high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), and correlated the cytogenetic abnormalities with the development of post-transplant myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (MDS\\/AML). From 1990 to 1999, 229 women with HRBC underwent ASCT. Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow (BM