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1

Sex chromosomes and their abnormalities  

E-print Network

to the age of the mother #12;Jacobs syndrome XYY Apparently normal phenotype with possibly increased height is indicated in such patients #12;Sex chromosome anuploidies #12;Klinefelter Syndrome XXY Underdeveloped 2 Barr bodies 1/1000 female births #12;Turner Syndrome XO Missing X chromosome Sexually

Dellaire, Graham

2

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

Lecture 6 Chromosomal Abnormalities #12;Chromosomal abnormalities Numeric Polyploidy- abnormal # of chromosome sets Aneuploidy- abnormal chromosome number Structural Deletion syndromes Duplications Ring chromosomes Centromeric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) Insertion Inversion Paracentric Pericentric

Dellaire, Graham

3

Parental Decisions of Prenatally Detected Sex Chromosome Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the widespread use of amniocentesis, the prenatal recognition of sex chromosome abnormality (SCA) has become increasingly common. Recent lit- erature provided an insight into the understanding of the natural history and prog- nosis for individuals with SCA. Our study was designed to review the parental decision on pregnancy with SCA. Over the last 10 yr, we diagnosed 38

Jung-Yeol Han; Moon-Young Kim; Jae-Hyug Yang; Kyu-Hong Choi; Young-Mi Kim; Jin-Mee Kim; Hyun-Mee Ryu; Samsung Cheil

4

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

5

Sex Chromosome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

2005-04-14

6

Analysis of sex chromosome abnormalities using X and Y chromosome DNA tiling path arrays  

PubMed Central

Background: Array comparative genomic hybridisation is a powerful tool for the detection of copy number changes in the genome. Methods: A human X and Y chromosome tiling path array was developed for the analysis of sex chromosome aberrations. Results: Normal X and Y chromosome profiles were established by analysis with DNA from normal fertile males and females. Detection of infertile males with known Y deletions confirmed the competence of the array to detect AZFa, AZFb and AZFc deletions and to distinguish between different AZFc lesions. Examples of terminal and interstitial deletions of Xp (previously characterised through cytogenetic and microsatellite analysis) have been assessed using the arrays, thus both confirming and refining the established deletion breakpoints. Breakpoints in iso?Yq, iso?Yp and X–Y translocation chromosomes and X–Y interchanges in XX males are also amenable to analysis. Discussion: The resolution of the tiling path clone set used allows breakpoints to be placed within 100–200?kb, permitting more precise genotype/phenotype correlations. These data indicate that the combined X and Y tiling path arrays provide an effective tool for the investigation and diagnosis of sex chromosome copy number aberrations and rearrangements. PMID:17327287

Karcanias, A C; Ichimura, K; Mitchell, M J; Sargent, C A; Affara, N A

2007-01-01

7

Prenatal Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Abnormalities: The 8Year Experience of a Single Medical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the indications for prenatal karyotyping of sex chromosomal abnormalities (SCAs) during pregnancy. Methods: All singleton pregnancies interrupted in our institute because of SCAs (1998–2005) were categorized into subgroups of 45,XO (Turner syndrome), 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), 47,XXX and 47,XYY. The indications for prenatal diagnostic testing were recorded. Results: There were 67 SCAs pregnancies: 33% Turner syndrome, 28% Klinefelter

Zvi Vaknin; Orit Reish; Ido Ben-Ami; Eli Heyman; Arie Herman; Ron Maymon

2008-01-01

8

Chromosome Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... division. There are two kinds of cell division. Mitosis results in two cells that are duplicates of ... half the number of chromosomes as normal cells. Mitosis - cell division resulting in cells that have the ...

9

Decision to abort after a prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome abnormality: a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

We performed a systematic review of factors affecting parental decisions to continue or terminate a pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosome abnormality, as reported in published studies from 1987 to May 2011. Based on the Matrix Method for systematic reviews, 19 studies were found in five electronic databases, meeting specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Abstracted data were organized in a matrix. Alongside the search for factors influencing parental decisions, each study was judged on its methodological quality and assigned a methodological quality score. Decisions either to terminate or to continue a sex chromosome abnormality-affected pregnancy shared five similar factors: specific type of sex chromosome abnormality, gestational week at diagnosis, parents' age, providers' genetic expertise, and number of children/desire for (more) children. Factors unique to termination decisions included parents' fear/anxiety and directive counseling. Factors uniquely associated with continuation decisions were parents' socioeconomic status and ethnicity. The studies' average methodological quality score was 10.6 (SD = 1.67; range, 8-14). Findings from this review can be useful in adapting and modifying guidelines for genetic counseling after prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosome abnormality. Moreover, improving the quality of future studies on this topic may allow clearer understanding of the most influential factors affecting parental decisions. PMID:22237429

Jeon, Kwon Chan; Chen, Lei-Shih; Goodson, Patricia

2012-01-01

10

Diversity of sex chromosome abnormalities in a cohort of 95 Indonesian patients with monosomy X  

PubMed Central

Background Monosomy × or 45,X is a cytogenetic characteristic for Turner syndrome. This chromosome anomaly is encountered in around 50% of cases, but wide variations of other anomalies have been found. This report is to describe the cytogenetic characteristics of 45,X individuals. To the best of our knowledge, there were no large series of 45,X cases has been reported from Indonesia. Results Ninety five cases with 45,X cell line found, of which 60 were detected by karyotyping, 4 by FISH for sex chromosomes, and 31 by both karyotyping and FISH. Using karyotyping 37 out of 91 cases(40.6%) were identified as 45,X individuals, while cases who underwent FISH only 4 out of 35 cases (11.4%) showed 45,X result, resulting in total of 39 45,X cases (41.1%), and the rest 56 (58.9%) cases are mosaic. Among these cases, 21 out of 95 (22.1%) have Y or part of Y as the second or third sex chromosome in their additional cell lines. Result discrepancies revealed in 22 out of 31 cases who underwent both FISH and karyotyping, of which 7 showed normal 46,XX or 46,XY karyotypes, but by FISH, additional monosomy × cell line was found. Most of the cases were referred at the age of puberty (8-13 years old) or after that (14-18 years old), 31 and 21 cases respectively, and there were 14 cases were sent in adulthood. Conclusion Wide variations of sex chromosome aberrations have been detected using the combination of conventional cytogenetic and FISH, including detection of low level of mosaicism and Y-chromosome fragments. Result discrepancies using both techniques were found in 22/31 cases, and in order to obtain a more details of sex chromosome constitution of individuals with 45,X cell line both FISH and karyotyping should be carried out simultaneously. PMID:21992692

2011-01-01

11

Abnormalities of human sex determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cytogenetic and molecular studies in patients with abnormalities of sex determination have been the key to the isolation and investigation of candidates for the primary testis determining factor (TDF). A gene, SRY, isolated from the sex determining region of the Y chromosome within 5 kilobases of the pairing segment boundary, has been characterized recently which fulfils the expectations of

M. A. Ferguson-Smith

1992-01-01

12

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

13

A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm. It is possible that the Y chromosomal abnormality

Aisling Mulligan; Michael Gill; Michael Fitzgerald

2008-01-01

14

A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

2008-01-01

15

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants  

E-print Network

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants Ray Ming,1 Abdelhafid Bendahmane,2,3 and Susanne S. Renner4 1 chromosomes, suppression of recombination Abstract Sex chromosomes in land plants can evolve as a consequence chromosomes in hepatics, mosses, and gymnosperms are morphologically heteromor- phic. In angiosperms

Renner, Susanne

16

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

17

Chromosome abnormalities in Indonesian patients with short stature  

PubMed Central

Background Short stature is associated with several disorders including wide variations of chromosomal disorders and single gene disorders. The objective of this report is to present the cytogenetic findings in Indonesian patients with short stature. Methods G-banding and interphase/metaphase FISH were performed on short stature patients with and without other clinical features who were referred by clinicians all over Indonesia to our laboratory during the year 2003–2009. Results The results of chromosomal analysis of ninety seven patients (mean age: 10.7 years old) were collected. The group of patients with other clinical features showed sex chromosome abnormalities in 45% (18/40) and autosomal abnormalities in 10% (4/40), whereas those with short stature only, 42.1% (24/57) had sex chromosome abnormalities and 1.75% (1/57) had autosomal abnormalities. The autosomal chromosomal abnormalities involved mostly subtelomeric regions. Results discrepancies between karyotype and FISH were found in 10 patients, including detection of low-level monosomy X mosaicism in 6 patients with normal karyotype, and detection of mosaic aneuploidy chromosome 18 in 1 patient with 45,XX,rob(13;14)(q10;q10). Statistical analysis showed no significant association between the groups and the type of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusion Chromosome abnormalities account for about 50% of the short stature patients. Wide variations of both sex and autosomal chromosomes abnormalities were detected in the study. Since three out of five patients had autosomal structural abnormalities involving the subtelomeric regions, thus in the future, subtelomeric FISH or even a more sensitive method such as genomic/SNP microarray is needed to confirm deletions of subtelomeric regions of chromosome 9, 11 and 18. Low-level mosaicism in normal karyotype patients indicates interphase FISH need to be routinely carried out in short stature patients as an adjunct to karyotyping. PMID:22863325

2012-01-01

18

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

19

Reconstructing the Evolution of Vertebrate Sex Chromosomes  

E-print Network

Sex chromosomes and their evolution have captivated researchers since their discovery. For more than 100 years, the dominant model of sex chromosome evolution has held that differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the X and ...

Bellott, Daniel W.

20

Gonadal sex chromosome complement in individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders  

SciTech Connect

Gonadal abnormalities are characteristically seen in patients with sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Morphologically these abnormalities can be variable and are hypothesized to be dependent on the sex chromosomal consititution of the gonad (independent of the chromosomal complement of other tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes). In this study, the gonadal sex chromosome complement was evaluated for potential mosaicism and correlated with the histopathology from 5 patients with known sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders. FISH techniques using X and Y chromosome specific probes were performed on nuclei extracted from paraffin embedded tissue. Gonadal tissue obtained from case 1 (a true hemaphroditic newborn) consisted of ovotestes and epididymis (left side) and ovary with fallopian tube (right side). Cytogenetic and FISH studies performed on blood, ovotestes and ovary revealed an XX complement. Cytogenetic analysis of blood from case 2, a 4-year-old with suspected Turner syndrome revealed 45,X/46,X,del(Y)(q11.21). FISH analysis of the resected gonads (histologically = immature testes) confirmed an X/XY mosaic complement. Histologically, the gonadal tissue was testicular. Severe autolysis prohibited successful analysis in the 2 remaining cases. In summary, molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gonadal tissue from individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders did not reveal tissue-specific anomalies which could account for differences observed pathologically.

Bridge, J.A.; Sanger, W.G.; Seemayer, T. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

21

Sex chromosome aneuploidy and aging.  

PubMed

Loss of an X chromosome in females and of the Y chromosome in males are phenomena associated with aging. X chromosome loss occurs in and may be limited to PHA stimulated peripheral lymphocytes. In males, the loss of the Y is most evident in bone marrow cells, but also occurs to a lesser extent in PHA stimulated peripheral lymphocytes. X chromosome loss is associated with premature centromere division leading to anaphase lag and elimination in micronuclei. The mechanism of Y chromosome loss has not been elucidated. No pathological consequence of either X or Y chromosome loss has been convincingly demonstrated. With the advent of FISH technology, measurement of sex chromosome aneuploidy may prove to be a convenient assay for cellular senecence and aging. PMID:7565866

Stone, J F; Sandberg, A A

1995-10-01

22

The role of chromosome abnormalities in reproductive failure  

E-print Network

pregnancies is given. Data on the parental origin of sex chromosome abnormalities and certain autosomal cellules en culture. Cependant, les récents développements des sondes dADN ont permis de déterminer l wastage that is present at all stages of pregnancy. The fecundity of man has been estimated to be around

Boyer, Edmond

23

Maternal age-specific rates of numerical chromosome abnormalities with special reference to trisomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of maternal age on the incidence of chromosomally normal spontaneous abortion and different categories of chromosome abnormality among all clinically recognized human pregnancies was evaluated. The results provide no evidence for a significant association of age with sex chromosome monosomy or polyploidy, but clearly demonstrate an effect of age on the frequency of trisomy and chromosomally normal spontaneous

T. Hassold; D. Chiu

1985-01-01

24

Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.  

PubMed Central

At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

Howard, R O

1977-01-01

25

Chromosome abnormalities in patients with syndactyly.  

PubMed

Chromosome studies on 105 patients with syndactyly included two trisomy-21 mongols, a chromatin-positive boy with 47, XXY, a chromatin-negative short girl with 45,X0 and a boy with a familial D/D translocation. Chromosome patterns were normal in the other cases which included three patients with acrocephalosyndactyly and one patient with oro-facial-digital syndrome.The incidence of chromosome abnormalies was greater than expected since syndactyly of the fingers is uncommon in the chromosome disorders.THIS INCIDENCE MAY BE RELATED TO THE INCREASED MATERNAL AGE (MEAN: 29.4 years) of the syndactyly group compared to maternal age (mean: 26.64 years) of the control group although, paradoxically, four mothers of the five patients with chromosome abnormalities were young. PMID:4310631

Conen, P E; Hampole, M K; Thomson, H G

1969-11-15

26

Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ICSI treatment. PMID:24696767

Mierla, Dana; Jardan, Dumitru; Stoian, Veronica

2014-01-01

27

Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A. [John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

28

Genetic conflict and sex chromosome evolution  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal sex determination systems create the opportunity for the evolution of selfish genetic elements that increase the transmission of one sex chromosome at the expense of its homolog. Because such selfish elements on sex chromosomes can reduce fertility and distort the sex ratio of progeny, unlinked suppressors are expected to evolve, bringing different regions of the genome into conflict over the meiotic transmission of the sex chromosomes. Here we argue that recurrent genetic conflict over sex chromosome transmission is an important evolutionary force that has shaped a wide range of seemingly disparate phenomena including the epigenetic regulation of genes expressed in the germline, the distribution of genes in the genome, and the evolution of hybrid sterility between species. PMID:19931208

Meiklejohn, Colin D; Tao, Yun

2009-01-01

29

Extreme heterochiasmy and nascent sex chromosomes in European tree frogs  

E-print Network

Extreme heterochiasmy and nascent sex chromosomes in European tree frogs Laura Berset arborea, a species with nascent sex chromosomes and male heterogamety. Twenty microsatellites were in females). This opposes classical models of sex chromosome evolution, which envision an initially small

Alvarez, Nadir

30

Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

1978-01-01

31

Sequence of the chicken sex chromosomes  

E-print Network

In birds, as in mammals, the chromosome complement determines sex. Male birds are designated ZZ, female ZW. Mammals have the opposite system; males are XY and females XX. Both the avian ZW and mammalian XY pair are believed ...

Bellott, Daniel Winston

2010-01-01

32

The Sex Chromosomes in Evolution and in Medicine  

PubMed Central

The recent emergence of human cytogenetics has a firm foundation in studies on other forms of life. Historical highlights are Mendel's studies on the garden pea (published in 1865 but lost in an obscure journal until 1900); formulation of cytogenic postulates by Sutton and Boveri (1902-1903); Bridges' discovery of chromosome abnormalities in Drosophila (1916), followed by numerous similar studies in plants; and demonstration of the chromosomal basis of the syndromes of Down, Klinefelter and Turner in man (1959). The sex chromosomes (XX and XY) evolved from a pair of undifferentiated autosomes of a premammalian ancestor, the X chromosome changing less than the Y as they evolved. Eleven numerical abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are known in man, and knowledge of their effects on development is accumulating. The abnormal complexes range in size from the XO error of Turner's syndrome to the XXXXY error of a variant of Klinefelter's syndrome. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4224254

Barr, Murray L.

1966-01-01

33

Sex chromosome inactivation: the importance of pairing.  

PubMed

In mammals, the process of making sperm is marked by inactivation of sex chromosomes. Why and how does this happen? The answer apparently lies in whether a chromosome finds a pairing partner. Similar mechanisms in mold and worms reveal a surprising and recurrent theme throughout evolution. PMID:15823524

Lee, Jeannie T

2005-04-12

34

Assessment of numerical chromosomal abnormalities of the sperms before and after radiotherapy in seminoma patient  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess numerical sex chromosomal abnormalities of the sperms before and after radiotherapy in seminoma patients and to evaluate their reproduction risks. Methods: Three color Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on sperms harvested from one seminoma patient before and after radiotherapy and before surgery. The numerical sex chromosomal abnormalities were compared. Results: The ratio of 18-X and 18-Y sperm cells among the counted 40944 ones was close to 1:1 at three time points. The incidence of chromosome aneuploidy and diploid rate (18, X, Y) significantly increased after radiotherapy when compared with that before surgery and before radiotherapy. However, no significance was observed in the aneuploid and diploid rate between pre-operation group and pre-radiotherapy (post-operation) group except for the 18-YY karyotype (0.095% vs 0.026%, p<0.05). Conclusion: Our study shows increased incidence of numerical sex chromosomal abnormalities and high risk for reproductive and genetic diseases in patients treated with radiotherapy. Three colored FISH test is recommended to evaluate the rate of numerical chromosomal abnormalities; PGD and prenatal diagnosis are advised to improve the likelihood of a successful pregnancy. PMID:24753766

Le, Wei; Huang, Shengsong; Gui, Yaping; Luo, Huarong; Wu, Denglong; Feng, Huailiang; Zhang, Jinfu

2014-01-01

35

Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

In therian mammals (placentals and marsupials), sex is determined by an XX female: XY male system, in which a gene (SRY) on the Y affects male determination. There is no equivalent in other amniotes, although some taxa (notably birds and snakes) have differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZW female: ZZ male system with no homology with mammal sex chromosomes, in which dosage of a Z-borne gene (possibly DMRT1) affects male determination. As the most basal mammal group, the egg-laying monotremes are ideal for determining how the therian XY system evolved. The platypus has an extraordinary sex chromosome complex, in which five X and five Y chromosomes pair in a translocation chain of alternating X and Y chromosomes. We used physical mapping to identify genes on the pairing regions between adjacent X and Y chromosomes. Most significantly, comparative mapping shows that, contrary to earlier reports, there is no homology between the platypus and therian X chromosomes. Orthologs of genes in the conserved region of the human X (including SOX3, the gene from which SRY evolved) all map to platypus chromosome 6, which therefore represents the ancestral autosome from which the therian X and Y pair derived. Rather, the platypus X chromosomes have substantial homology with the bird Z chromosome (including DMRT1) and to segments syntenic with this region in the human genome. Thus, platypus sex chromosomes have strong homology with bird, but not to therian sex chromosomes, implying that the therian X and Y chromosomes (and the SRY gene) evolved from an autosomal pair after the divergence of monotremes only 166 million years ago. Therefore, the therian X and Y are more than 145 million years younger than previously thought. PMID:18463302

Veyrunes, Frédéric; Waters, Paul D; Miethke, Pat; Rens, Willem; McMillan, Daniel; Alsop, Amber E; Grützner, Frank; Deakin, Janine E; Whittington, Camilla M; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Kremitzki, Colin L; Graves, Tina; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Warren, Wes; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

2008-06-01

36

Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in the Stickleback Fishes (Gasterosteidae)  

E-print Network

Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in the Stickleback Fishes (Gasterosteidae) Joseph A. Ross1,2¤ , James R, United States of America Abstract Diverse sex-chromosome systems are found in vertebrates, particularly been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex

Shapiro, Mike

37

Female Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation in Chicken  

PubMed Central

During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, ?H2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of ?H2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses ?H2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis. PMID:19461881

Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Grootegoed, J. Anton; Baarends, Willy M.

2009-01-01

38

Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

2008-01-01

39

autosomal segments to the sex chromosomes.  

E-print Network

avian Z and platypus Xs merely coincidental, or could potentially reflect a common ancestral genetic of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes. Genome Res. 18, 965­973. 3. Fridolfsson, A analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution. Nature 453, 175­183. 10. Gru¨ tzner, F

Schafer, William R.

40

Chromosomal Gene Movements Reflect the Recent Origin and Biology of Therian Sex Chromosomes  

E-print Network

Chromosomal Gene Movements Reflect the Recent Origin and Biology of Therian Sex Chromosomes Lukasz, IFR 140, Universite´ Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France Mammalian sex chromosomes stem from during, but also after, male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Thus, sexually antagonistic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

Plant sex chromosomes: molecular structure and function.  

PubMed

Recent molecular and genomic studies carried out in a number of model dioecious plant species, including Asparagus officinalis, Carica papaya, Silene latifolia, Rumex acetosa and Marchantia polymorpha, have shed light on the molecular structure of both homomorphic and heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and also on the gene functions they have maintained since their evolution from a pair of autosomes. The molecular structure of sex chromosomes in species from different plant families represents the evolutionary pathway followed by sex chromosomes during their evolution. The degree of Y chromosome degeneration that accompanies the suppression of recombination between the Xs and Ys differs among species. The primitive Ys of A. officinalis and C. papaya have only diverged from their homomorphic Xs in a short male-specific and non-recombining region (MSY), while the heteromorphic Ys of S. latifolia, R. acetosa and M. polymorpha have diverged from their respective Xs. As in the Y chromosomes of mammals and Drosophila, the accumulation of repetitive DNA, including both transposable elements and satellite DNA, has played an important role in the divergence and size enlargement of plant Ys, and consequently in reducing gene density. Nevertheless, the degeneration process in plants does not appear to have reached the Y-linked genes. Although a low gene density has been found in the sequenced Y chromosome of M. polymorpha, most of its genes are essential and are expressed in the vegetative and reproductive organs in both male and females. Similarly, most of the Y-linked genes that have been isolated and characterized up to now in S. latifolia are housekeeping genes that have X-linked homologues, and are therefore expressed in both males and females. Only one of them seems to be degenerate with respect to its homologous region in the X. Sequence analysis of larger regions in the homomorphic X and Y chromosomes of papaya and asparagus, and also in the heteromorphic sex chromosomes of S. latifolia and R. acetosa, will reveal the degenerative changes that the Y-linked gene functions have experienced during sex chromosome evolution. PMID:18504355

Jamilena, M; Mariotti, B; Manzano, S

2008-01-01

42

Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.  

PubMed

In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity. PMID:22355370

de Vries, Marieke; Vosters, Sanne; Merkx, Gerard; D'Hauwers, Kathleen; Wansink, Derick G; Ramos, Liliana; de Boer, Peter

2012-01-01

43

Chromosome abnormalities and Yq microdeletions in infertile italian couples referred for assisted reproductive technique.  

PubMed

This study analyses the prevalence of karyotype aberrations and Yq microdeletions in infertile couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Before undergoing ICSI, each partner of 470 infertile couples was screened for karyotype aberrations by QFQ-banding technique on peripheral blood lymphocytes; male partners were also screened for Yq microdeletions. In 2.55% of the couples karyotype aberrations were found including numerical and structural alterations of autosomes and sex chromosomes. The female group had a high prevalence of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism (1.28%) and 5 cases of structural autosomal abnormalities (1.06%). The male group had 7 structural abnormalities of the autosomes (1.49%), 2 supernumerary marker chromosomes (0.42%), one case of low level gonosomal mosaicism (0.21%), and 2 cases of Y chromosome inversion (0.42%). Eight cases of Yq microdeletions (1.70%) were also found. Screening for genetic factors, chromosomal abnormalities and Yq microdeletions is indicated for couples undergoing assisted reproductive techniques due to the higher prevalence of these factors in infertile couples compared to the population as a whole although different chromosome aberrations have been reported elsewhere. PMID:18391546

Marchina, E; Imperadori, L; Speziani, M; Omodei, U; Tombesi, S; Barlati, S

2007-01-01

44

Meiosis and sex chromosome aneuploidy: how meiotic errors cause aneuploidy; how aneuploidy causes meiotic errors.  

PubMed

As a group, sex chromosome aneuploidies - the 47,XXY, 47,XYY, 47,XXX and 45,X conditions - constitute the most common class of chromosome abnormality in human live-births. Considerable attention has been given to the somatic abnormalities associated with these conditions, but less is known about their meiotic phenotypes; that is, how does sex chromosome imbalance influence the meiotic process. This has become more important with the advent of assisted reproductive technologies, because individuals previously thought to be infertile can now become biological parents. Indeed, there are several recent reports of successful pregnancies involving 47,XXY fathers, and suggestions that cryopreservation of ovarian tissue might impart fertility to at least some Turner syndrome individuals. Thus, the possible consequences of sex chromosome aneuploidy on meiotic chromosome segregation need to be explored. PMID:16647844

Hall, Heather; Hunt, Patricia; Hassold, Terry

2006-06-01

45

Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for  

E-print Network

Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex chromosome evolution Beatriz Vicoso, Vera B. Kaiser, and Doris Bachtrog1 Department of Integrative Biology York, NY, and approved March 8, 2013 (received for review October 1, 2012) Sex chromosomes originate

Nachman, Michael

46

LSD in Mice: Abnormalities in Meiotic Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meiotic chromosomes of six mice injected with high doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) and of six controls were studied. Several breaks, gaps, and unidentifiable fragments were found in the treated but, with a few exceptions, not in the control animals. Secondary constrictions were more numerous in the treated than in the untreated mice. Possible consequences are discussed.

N. E. Skakkebaek; J. Philip; O. J. Rafaelsen

1968-01-01

47

Comparative analysis of sex chromosomes in Leporinus species (Teleostei, Characiformes) using chromosome painting  

E-print Network

Abstract Background The Leporinus genus, belonging to the Anostomidae family, is an interesting model for studies of sex chromosome evolution in fish, particularly because of the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes only in some species...

Parise-Maltempi, Patrícia P; da Silva, Edson L; Rens, Willem; Dearden, Frances; O’Brien, Patricia CM; Trifonov, Vladimir; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A

2013-07-03

48

The role of chromosomal rearrangements in the evolution of Silene latifolia sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silene latifolia is a model plant for studies of the early steps of sex chromosome evolution. In comparison to mammalian sex chromosomes that\\u000a evolved 300 mya, sex chromosomes of S. latifolia appeared approximately 20 mya. Here, we combine results from physical mapping of sex-linked genes using polymerase chain\\u000a reaction on microdissected arms of the S. latifolia X chromosome, and fluorescence in situ

Roman Hobza; Eduard Kejnovsky; Boris Vyskot; Alex Widmer

2007-01-01

49

Evidence of a neo-sex chromosome in birds  

PubMed Central

Neo-sex chromosomes often originate from sex chromosome–autosome fusions and constitute an important basis for the study of gene degeneration and expression in a sex chromosomal context. Neo-sex chromosomes are known from many animal and plant lineages, but have not been reported in birds, a group in which genome organization seems particularly stable. Following indications of sex linkage and unexpected sex-biased gene expression in warblers (Sylvioidea; Passeriformes), we have conducted an extensive marker analysis targeting 31 orthologues of loci on zebra finch chromosome 4a in five species, representative of independent branches of Passerida. We identified a region of sex linkage covering approximately the first half (10?Mb) of chromosome 4a, and associated to both Z and W chromosomes, in three Sylvioidea passerine species. Linkage analysis in an extended pedigree of one species additionally confirmed the association between this part of chromosome 4a and the Z chromosome. Markers located between 10 and 21?Mb of chromosome 4a showed no signs of sex linkage, suggesting that only half of the chromosome was involved in this transition. No sex linkage was observed in non-Sylvioidea passerines, indicating that the neo-sex chromosome arose at the base of the Sylvioidea branch of the avian phylogeny, at 47.4–37.6 millions years ago (MYA), substantially later than the ancestral sex chromosomes (150 MYA). We hypothesize that the gene content of chromosome 4a might be relevant in its transition to a sex chromosome, based on the presence of genes (for example, the androgen receptor) that could offer a selective advantage when associated to Z-linked sex determination loci. PMID:21897438

Pala, I; Naurin, S; Stervander, M; Hasselquist, D; Bensch, S; Hansson, B

2012-01-01

50

Monotreme sex chromosomes--implications for the evolution of amniote sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, a highly conserved pathway of genetic events controls male and female development, to the extent that many genes involved in human sex determination are also involved in fish sex determination. Surprisingly, the master switch to this pathway, which intuitively could be considered the most critical step, is inconsistent between vertebrate taxa. Interspersed in the vertebrate tree there are species that determine sex by environmental cues such as the temperature at which eggs are incubated, and then there are genetic sex-determination systems, with male heterogametic species (XY systems) and female heterogametic species (ZW systems), some of which have heteromorphic, and others homomorphic, sex chromosomes. This plasticity of sex-determining switches in vertebrates has made tracking the events of sex chromosome evolution in amniotes a daunting task, but comparative gene mapping is beginning to reveal some striking similarities across even distant taxa. In particular, the recent completion of the platypus genome sequence has completely changed our understanding of when the therian mammal X and Y chromosomes first arose (they are up to 150 million years younger than previously thought) and has also revealed the unexpected insight that sex determination of the amniote ancestor might have been controlled by a bird-like ZW system. PMID:19874718

Waters, Paul D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

2009-01-01

51

Anolis sex chromosomes are derived from a single ancestral pair.  

PubMed

To explain the frequency and distribution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in the lizard genus Anolis, we compared the relative roles of sex chromosome conservation versus turnover of sex-determining mechanisms. We used model-based comparative methods to reconstruct karyotype evolution and the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes onto a newly generated Anolis phylogeny. We found that heteromorphic sex chromosomes evolved multiple times in the genus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of repetitive DNA showed variable rates of Y chromosome degeneration among Anolis species and identified previously undetected, homomorphic sex chromosomes in two species. We confirmed homology of sex chromosomes in the genus by performing FISH of an X-linked bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and quantitative PCR of X-linked genes in multiple Anolis species sampled across the phylogeny. Taken together, these results are consistent with long-term conservation of sex chromosomes in the group. Our results pave the way to address additional questions related to Anolis sex chromosome evolution and describe a conceptual framework that can be used to evaluate the origins and evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in other clades. PMID:24279795

Gamble, Tony; Geneva, Anthony J; Glor, Richard E; Zarkower, David

2014-04-01

52

Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13  

SciTech Connect

A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

53

Sex chromosome microsatellite markers from an Australian marsupial  

E-print Network

Sex chromosome microsatellite markers from an Australian marsupial: development, application and the bibliography, I certify that I am the sole author of the thesis submitted today entitled ­ Sex chromosome in a model marsupial 22 Thesis scope and aims 27 2 Y chromosome microsatellite markers identified from

Canberra, University of

54

Sex Chromosome Complement Affects Nociception and Analgesia in Newborn Mice  

E-print Network

Sex Chromosome Complement Affects Nociception and Analgesia in Newborn Mice Laura Gioiosa, Xuqi, whereas males are often more sensitive to analgesia induced by -agonists. Sex differences are found even the contribution of the direct action of sex chromosome genes in hotplate and tail withdrawal tests. We used the 4

Sandini, Giulio

55

NIH scientists visualize how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells  

Cancer.gov

For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to another chromosome. A chromosome translocation is visualized with images within circles indicating chromosome breaks.

56

Clinical implications of chromosomal abnormalities in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

The adverse prognostic role of cytogenetic abnormalities has recently been established in plasma cell dyscrasias. Modern techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization have revealed a higher incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) compared to conventional cytogenetics. Hypodiploidy and chromosome 13 abnormalities are found in more than 50% of myeloma patients, representing well known factors with adverse prognosis. Rearrangements involving the switch regions of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene at 14q32 with various partner genes represent the most common structural abnormalities, having an incidence of 70% in MM. Structural abnormalities of chromosomes 17 and 8 involving the p53 and c-myc genes are considered to be less frequent events, but carry a poor prognosis. New therapeutic approaches such as non-myeloablative allotransplantation and modern therapeutic agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib) and their combinations give promise for an improved therapeutic management of patients with MM. The detection of t(4;14), t(14;16), deletion of chromosome 13 on metaphase analysis, or deletion of p53 by FISH will define high-risk prognostic groups that are not generally controlled with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), and should therefore be treated with more investigational therapies. Alternatively, eligible patients who do not have these poor risk factors are more likely to benefit from a high-dose, melphalan-based, regimen followed by ASCT. PMID:16753864

Terpos, Evangelos; Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, Vangelis; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios

2006-05-01

57

Conserved sex chromosomes across adaptively radiated Anolis lizards.  

PubMed

Vertebrates possess diverse sex-determining systems, which differ in evolutionary stability among particular groups. It has been suggested that poikilotherms possess more frequent turnovers of sex chromosomes than homoiotherms, whose effective thermoregulation can prevent the emergence of the sex reversals induced by environmental temperature. Squamate reptiles used to be regarded as a group with an extensive variability in sex determination; however, we document how the rather old radiation of lizards from the genus Anolis, known for exceptional ecomorphological variability, was connected with stability in sex chromosomes. We found that 18 tested species, representing most of the phylogenetic diversity of the genus, share the gene content of their X chromosomes. Furthermore, we discovered homologous sex chromosomes in species of two genera (Sceloporus and Petrosaurus) from the family Phrynosomatidae, serving here as an outgroup to Anolis. We can conclude that the origin of sex chromosomes within iguanas largely predates the Anolis radiation and that the sex chromosomes of iguanas remained conserved for a significant part of their evolutionary history. Next to therian mammals and birds, Anolis lizards therefore represent another adaptively radiated amniote clade with conserved sex chromosomes. We argue that the evolutionary stability of sex-determining systems may reflect an advanced stage of differentiation of sex chromosomes rather than thermoregulation strategy. PMID:24433436

Rovatsos, Michail; Altmanová, Marie; Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

2014-07-01

58

The unique sex chromosome system in platypus and echidna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A striking example of the power of chromosome painting has been the resolution of the male platypus karyotype and the pairing\\u000a relationships of the chain of ten sex chromosomes. We have extended our analysis to the nine sex chromosomes of the male echidna.\\u000a Cross-species painting with platypus shows that the first five chromosomes in the chain are identical in both,

M. A. Ferguson-Smith; W. Rens

2010-01-01

59

Detection of sex chromosomal aneuploidies X-X, Y-Y, and X-Y in human sperm using two-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Sex chromosome aneuploidy is the most common numerical chromosomal abnormality in humans at birth and a substantial portion of these abnormalities involve paternal chromosomes. An efficient method is presented for using air-dried smears of human semen to detect the number of X and Y chromosomes in sperm chromatin using two-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization. Air-dried semen smears were pre-treated with dithiothreitol and 3,4-diiodosalicylate salt to decondense the sperm chromatin and then were hybridized with repetitive sequence DNA probes that had been generated by PCR and differentially labeled. Hybridizations with X and Y specific probes showed the expected ratio of 50%X:50%Y bearing sperm. Sperm carrying extra fluorescence domains representing disomy for the X or Y chromosomes occurred at frequencies of {approximately} 4 per 10,000 sperm each. Cells carrying both X and Y fluorescence domains occurred at a frequency of {approximately} 6/10,000. Thus, the overall frequency of sperm that carried an extra sex chromosome was 1.4/1,000. The frequencies of sperm carrying sex chromosome aneuploidies determined by hybridization did not differ statistically from those reported from the same laboratory using the human-sperm/hamster-egg cytogenetic technique. Multi-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization to sperm is a promising method for assessing sex-ratio alterations in human semen and for determining the fraction of sperm carrying sex or other chromosome aneuploidies which may be transmissible to offspring. 44 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Wyrobek, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Robbins, W.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pinkel, D.; Weier, H.U. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Mehraein, Y. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Philipps Universitat, Marburg (Germany)

1994-10-15

60

Sex Chromosome-Specific Regulation in the Drosophila Male Germline But Little Evidence for Chromosomal  

E-print Network

Sex Chromosome-Specific Regulation in the Drosophila Male Germline But Little Evidence for Chromosomal Dosage Compensation or Meiotic Inactivation Colin D. Meiklejohn*, Emily L. Landeen, Jodi M. Cook, United States of America Abstract The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW

Dean, Matthew D.

61

Long-term sex reversal by oestradiol in amniotes with heteromorphic sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Oestradiol application during embryonic development reverses the sex of male embryos and results in normal female differentiation in reptiles lacking heteromorphic sex chromosomes, but fails to do so in birds and mammals with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. It is not clear whether the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in amniotes is accompanied by insensitivity to oestradiol, or if the association between oestradiol insensitivity and heteromorphic sex chromosomes can be attributable to phylogenetic constraints in these taxa. Turtles provide an ideal system to examine the potential relationship between oestradiol insensitivity and sex chromosome heteromorphy, since there are species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that are closely related to species lacking heteromorphic sex chromosomes. We investigated this relationship by examining the long-term effects of oestradiol-17? application on sex determination in Staurotypus triporcatus and Staurotypus salvinii, two turtle species with male heterogamety. After raising the turtles in the lab for 3 years, we found follicular and Müllerian duct morphology in oestradiol-treated turtles that was identical to that of untreated females. The lasting sex reversal suggests that the evolutionary transition between systems lacking heteromorphic sex chromosomes and those with heteromorphic sex chromosomes is not constrained by a fundamental mechanistic difference. PMID:17148408

Freedberg, Steven; Bowden, Rachel M; Ewert, Michael A; Sengelaub, Dale R; Nelson, Craig E

2006-01-01

62

Identification of sex chromosomes in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the male trout there is a difference in the quinacrine banding and C-banding patterns between the two homologs of the second largest chromosome pair. This chromosome is the only large submetacentric in the karyotype, making it easy to identify and suggesting that the sex chromosomes have become differentiated since the time of tetraploidization. In males one homolog has a

R. B. Phillips; P. E. Ihssen

1985-01-01

63

Sex chromosome dosage compensation: definitely not for everyone.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes often entail gene dose differences between the sexes, which if not compensated for, lead to differences between males and females in the expression of sex-linked genes. Recent work has shown that different organisms respond to sex chromosome dose in a variety of ways, ranging from complete sex chromosome dosage compensation in some species to active compensation of only a minority genes in other organisms. Although we still do not understand the implications of the diversity in sex chromosome dosage compensation, its realization has created exciting new opportunities to study the evolution, mechanism, and consequences of gene regulation. However, confusion remains as to what sorts of genes are likely to be dosage compensated, how dosage compensation evolves, and why complete dosage compensation appears to be limited to male heterogametic species. In this review, I survey the status of dosage compensation to answer these questions and identify current controversies in this fast-moving field. PMID:23953923

Mank, Judith E

2013-12-01

64

Chromosome evolution in fish: sex chromosome variability in Eigenmannia virescens (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae).  

PubMed

New data are presented on the sex chromosomes of the fish species Eigenmannia virescens (Gymnotiformes, Sternopygidae). A new finding, involving the occurrence of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes, is described in specimens sampled from the Săo Francisco and Amazon river basins in Brazil. All individuals had a chromosome number of 2n = 38. The homologs of the sex chromosome pair from the Săo Francisco river basin sample differed only in their morphology, while those from the Amazonian sample differed both in morphology and heterochromatin pattern. A possible model for the evolution of the sex chromosomes in E. virescens is proposed, including data from populations from the Paraná (Brazil) river basin, in which male heterogamety has already been described. The occurrence of different sex chromosome systems in species and populations of the neotropical freshwater fish fauna is discussed. PMID:12900560

de Almeida-Toledo, L F; Daniel-Silva, M F Z; Moysés, C B; Fonteles, S B A; Lopes, C E; Akama, A; Foresti, F

2002-01-01

65

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

66

The genetics of sex chromosomes: evolution and implications for hybrid incompatibility.  

PubMed

Heteromorphic sex chromosomes, where one sex has two different types of sex chromosomes, face very different evolutionary consequences than do autosomes. Two important features of sex chromosomes arise from being present in only one copy in one of the sexes: dosage compensation and the meiotic silencing of sex chromosomes. Other differences arise because sex chromosomes spend unequal amounts of time in each sex. Thus, the impact of evolutionary processes (mutation, selection, genetic drift, and meiotic drive) differs substantially between each sex chromosome, and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. Sex chromosomes also play a disproportionate role in Haldane's rule and other important patterns related to hybrid incompatibility, and thus speciation. We review the consequences of sex chromosomes on hybrid incompatibility. A theme running through this review is that epigenetic processes, notably those related to chromatin, may be more important to the evolution of sex chromosomes and the evolution of hybrid incompatibility than previously recognized. PMID:23025408

Johnson, Norman A; Lachance, Joseph

2012-05-01

67

Ever-Young Sex Chromosomes in European Tree Frogs  

PubMed Central

Non-recombining sex chromosomes are expected to undergo evolutionary decay, ending up genetically degenerated, as has happened in birds and mammals. Why are then sex chromosomes so often homomorphic in cold-blooded vertebrates? One possible explanation is a high rate of turnover events, replacing master sex-determining genes by new ones on other chromosomes. An alternative is that X-Y similarity is maintained by occasional recombination events, occurring in sex-reversed XY females. Based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, we estimated the divergence times between European tree frogs (Hyla arborea, H. intermedia, and H. molleri) to the upper Miocene, about 5.4–7.1 million years ago. Sibship analyses of microsatellite polymorphisms revealed that all three species have the same pair of sex chromosomes, with complete absence of X-Y recombination in males. Despite this, sequences of sex-linked loci show no divergence between the X and Y chromosomes. In the phylogeny, the X and Y alleles cluster according to species, not in groups of gametologs. We conclude that sex-chromosome homomorphy in these tree frogs does not result from a recent turnover but is maintained over evolutionary timescales by occasional X-Y recombination. Seemingly young sex chromosomes may thus carry old-established sex-determining genes, a result at odds with the view that sex chromosomes necessarily decay until they are replaced. This raises intriguing perspectives regarding the evolutionary dynamics of sexually antagonistic genes and the mechanisms that control X-Y recombination. PMID:21629756

Lindtke, Dorothea; Sermier, Roberto; Betto-Colliard, Caroline; Dufresnes, Christophe; Bonjour, Emmanuel; Dumas, Zoe; Luquet, Emilien; Maddalena, Tiziano; Sousa, Helena Clavero; Martinez-Solano, Inigo; Perrin, Nicolas

2011-01-01

68

Diagnosis of four chromosome abnormalities of unknown origin by chromosome microdissection and subsequent reverse and forward painting  

SciTech Connect

A molecular cytogenetic method consisting of chromosome microdissection and subsequent reverse/forward chromosome painting is a powerful tool to identify chromosome abnormalities of unknown origin. We present 4 cases of chromosome structural abnormalities whose origins were ascertained by this method. In one MCA/MR patient with an add(5q)chromosome, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using probes generated from a microdissected additional segment of the add(5q) chromosome and then from a distal region of normal chromosome 5, confirmed that the patient had a tandem duplication for a 5q35-qter segment. Similarly, we ascertained that an additional segment of an add(3p) chromosome in another MCA/MR patient had been derived from a 7q32-qter segment. In a woman with a history of successive spontaneous abortions and with a minute marker chromosome, painting using microdissected probes from the whole marker chromosome revealed that it was i(15)(p10) or psu dic(15;15)(q11;q11). Likewise, a marker observed in a fetus was a ring chromosome derived from the paracentromeric region of chromosome 19. We emphasize the value of the microdissection-based chromosome painting method in the identification of unknown chromosomes, especially for marker chromosomes. The method may contribute to a collection of data among patients with similar or identical chromosome abnormalities, which may lead to a better clinical syndrome delineation. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Coelho, K.E.F.A. de; Egashira, M.; Kato, R. [Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

1996-06-14

69

Evolution of the sex chromosomes in salmonid fishes.  

PubMed

Most of the information on sex chromosomes in salmonid fishes is for species in the 3 genera of the subfamily Salmoninae found in North America: Salvelinus, Salmo and Oncorhynchus. All of the species are male heterogametic with XY sex determination. Morphologically distinguishable sex chromosomes are found only in Salvelinus namaycush,S. fontinalis and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Sex chromosomes have been identified in the other species using a combination of chromosome mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes containing sex-linked markers. Although all species share conserved linkage groups, the major sex-determining locus (SD) is found at the telomere of a different linkage group in almost every species, suggesting that the SD often transposes to a new location at the time of speciation. In a couple of species, intraspecific variation has been found in the chromosomal location of the SD. Recently, sdY has been identified as the major sex-determining gene in rainbow trout, and it maps to the sex linkage group in all of these species. BACs containing sdY have been isolated and sequenced in O.mykiss, and the genetic markers adjacent to sdY are not sex-linked in the other Oncorhynchus species, suggesting that the transposed region is very small. Possible explanations for the frequent occurrence of transposition of the SD are discussed. PMID:24107355

Phillips, R B

2013-01-01

70

An XX/XY heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the Australian chelid turtle Emydura macquarii: A new piece in the puzzle of sex chromosome  

E-print Network

An XX/XY heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the Australian chelid turtle Emydura macquarii: A new piece in the puzzle of sex chromosome evolution in turtles Pedro Alonzo Martinez1 *, Tariq Ezaz2, Emydura, evolution, G-banding, sex chromosomes, sex determination, speciation, turtles Abstract

Canberra, University of

71

Sex Determination: Primitive Y Chromosomes in Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent analyses of the chromosomal regions that determine male development in sticklebacks and medaka have revealed several features associated with incipient Y chromosome evolution, including suppressed crossing over and the accumulation of repetitive DNA.

Brian Charlesworth

2004-01-01

72

Evolution of Genomic Structures on Mammalian Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Throughout mammalian evolution, recombination between the two sex chromosomes was suppressed in a stepwise manner. It is thought that the suppression of recombination led to an accumulation of deleterious mutations and frequent genomic rearrangements on the Y chromosome. In this article, we review three evolutionary aspects related to genomic rearrangements and structures, such as inverted repeats (IRs) and palindromes (PDs), on the mammalian sex chromosomes. First, we describe the stepwise manner in which recombination between the X and Y chromosomes was suppressed in placental mammals and discuss a genomic rearrangement that might have led to the formation of present pseudoautosomal boundaries (PAB). Second, we describe ectopic gene conversion between the X and Y chromosomes, and propose possible molecular causes. Third, we focus on the evolutionary mode and timing of PD formation on the X and Y chromosomes. The sequence of the chimpanzee Y chromosome was recently published by two groups. Both groups suggest that rapid evolution of genomic structure occurred on the Y chromosome. Our re-analysis of the sequences confirmed the species-specific mode of human and chimpanzee Y chromosomal evolution. Finally, we present a general outlook regarding the rapid evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:23024603

Katsura, Yukako; Iwase, Mineyo; Satta, Yoko

2012-01-01

73

In vitro leukocyte sex chromosome replication patterns of bovine chimeras  

E-print Network

labeled with tri- ti. ated thymidine and autoradiographs analyzed from 196 XX and 173 XY cells from 6 multiple birth sets, 3 single birth controls, and a non-exchange heterosexual twin set. Cells were classified according to proportion of labeled... chromosomes, and sex chromo- somes scored for intensity of labeling. Replicative patterns were compared for sex chromosomes of cells of chimeric and control origins, The Y of XY cells and the late X of XX cells followed typical replicative patterns...

Bowling, George Michael

2012-06-07

74

Prospective studies on children with sex chromosome aneuploidy  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Growth and Development from Early to Midadolescence of Children with X and Y Chromosome Aneuploidy: The Toronto Study; Sex Chromomal Aneuploidy: Perspective and Longitudinal Studies; Psychologic Study of XYY and XXY Men; and Cellular and Molecular Studies in Human Chromosomal Diseases.

Ratcliffe, S.G.; Paul, N.

1986-01-01

75

FResHU F3 Green Symposia Series #6 Acquisition of neo-sex chromosomes and sex-determining system  

E-print Network

FResHU F3 Green Symposia Series #6 Acquisition of neo-sex chromosomes and sex-determining system Sex chromosome turnover contributed to speciation in three-spine sticklebacks Early evolution from autosomes to sex chromosomes in eutherian mammal - a case of Tokduaia muenninki - The molecular mechanism

Ishii, Hitoshi

76

Sex chromosomes: platypus genome suggests a recent origin for the human X.  

PubMed

The unusual sex chromosomes of platypus are not homologous to the human X and Y chromosomes, implying that the sex chromosomes of placental mammals evolved after the monotreme and placental mammal lineages split about 165 million years ago. PMID:18606124

Ellegren, Hans

2008-07-01

77

Sex chromosome complement regulates expression of mood-related genes  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on major depressive and anxiety disorders suggest dysfunctions in brain corticolimbic circuits, including altered gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and modulatory (serotonin and dopamine) neurotransmission. Interestingly, sexual dimorphisms in GABA, serotonin, and dopamine systems are also reported. Understanding the mechanisms behind these sexual dimorphisms may help unravel the biological bases of the heightened female vulnerability to mood disorders. Here, we investigate the contribution of sex-related factors (sex chromosome complement, developmental gonadal sex, or adult circulating hormones) to frontal cortex expression of selected GABA-, serotonin-, and dopamine-related genes. Methods As gonadal sex is determined by sex chromosome complement, the role of sex chromosomes cannot be investigated individually in humans. Therefore, we used the Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mouse model, in which sex chromosome complement and gonadal sex are artificially decoupled, to examine the expression of 13 GABA-related genes, 6 serotonin- and dopamine-related genes, and 8 associated signal transduction genes under chronic stress conditions. Results were analyzed by three-way ANOVA (sex chromosome complement?×?gonadal sex?×?circulating testosterone). A global perspective of gene expression changes was provided by heatmap representation and gene co-expression networks to identify patterns of transcriptional activities related to each main factor. Results We show that under chronic stress conditions, sex chromosome complement influenced GABA/serotonin/dopamine-related gene expression in the frontal cortex, with XY mice consistently having lower gene expression compared to XX mice. Gonadal sex and circulating testosterone exhibited less pronounced, more complex, and variable control over gene expression. Across factors, male conditions were associated with a tightly co-expressed set of signal transduction genes. Conclusions Under chronic stress conditions, sex-related factors differentially influence expression of genes linked to mood regulation in the frontal cortex. The main factor influencing expression of GABA-, serotonin-, and dopamine-related genes was sex chromosome complement, with an unexpected pro-disease effect in XY mice relative to XX mice. This effect was partially opposed by gonadal sex and circulating testosterone, although all three factors influenced signal transduction pathways in males. Since GABA, serotonin, and dopamine changes are also observed in other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, these findings have broader implications for the understanding of sexual dimorphism in adult psychopathology. PMID:24199867

2013-01-01

78

The Sex Chromosomes of Frogs: Variability and Tolerance Offer Clues to Genome Evolution and Function  

PubMed Central

Frog sex chromosomes offer an ideal system for advancing our understanding of genome evolution and function because of the variety of sex determination systems in the group, the diversity of sex chromosome maturation states, the ease of experimental manipulation during early development. After briefly reviewing sex chromosome biology generally, we focus on what is known about frog sex determination, sex chromosome evolution, and recent, genomics-facilitated advances in the field. In closing we highlight gaps in our current knowledge of frog sex chromosomes, and suggest priorities for future research that can advance broad knowledge of gene dose and sex chromosome evolution. PMID:25031658

Malcom, Jacob W.; Kudra, Randal S.; Malone, John H.

2014-01-01

79

Nascent ZW Sex Chromosomes in Thecadactylus rapicauda (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae).  

PubMed

The chromosomes of the turnip-tailed gecko Thecadactylus rapicauda from the Falcón State in northern Venezuela were examined by means of conventional staining, a variety of banding techniques and in situ hybridization with an 18S + 28S rDNA probe. In female specimens, C-banding analyses detected a cryptic W sex chromosome-associated interstitial heterochromatic segment which is absent in the Z sex chromosome. These ZW sex chromosomes are considered to be in a nascent stage of morphological differentiation and are absent in T. rapicauda collected in Guatemala. The amount, location and fluorochrome affinities of constitutive heterochromatin, the position of the nucleolus organizer region, and the genome sizes of female and male individuals were determined. The previously published cytogenetic data on T. rapicauda are discussed. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25247775

Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus; Haaf, Thomas; Mijares-Urrutia, Abraham

2014-01-01

80

Cross-species chromosome painting tracks the independent origin of multiple sex chromosomes in two cofamiliar Erythrinidae fishes  

PubMed Central

Background The Erythrinidae fish family is characterized by a large variation with respect to diploid chromosome numbers and sex-determining systems among its species, including two multiple X1X2Y sex systems in Hoplias malabaricus and Erythrinus erythrinus. At first, the occurrence of a same sex chromosome system within a family suggests that the sex chromosomes are correlated and originated from ancestral XY chromosomes that were either homomorphic or at an early stage of differentiation. To identify the origin and evolution of these X1X2Y sex chromosomes, we performed reciprocal cross-species FISH experiments with two sex-chromosome-specific probes designed from microdissected X1 and Y chromosomes of H. malabaricus and E. erythrinus, respectively. Results Our results yield valuable information regarding the origin and evolution of these sex chromosome systems. Our data indicate that these sex chromosomes evolved independently in these two closed related Erythrinidae species. Different autosomes were first converted into a poorly differentiated XY sex pair in each species, and additional chromosomal rearrangements produced both X1X2Y sex systems that are currently present. Conclusions Our data provide new insights into the origin and evolution of sex chromosomes, which increases our knowledge about fish sex chromosome evolution. PMID:21718509

2011-01-01

81

Multiple and independent cessation of recombination between avian sex chromosomes.  

PubMed Central

Birds are characterized by female heterogamety; females carry the Z and W sex chromosomes, while males have two copies of the Z chromosome. We suggest here that full differentiation of the Z and W sex chromosomes of birds did not take place until after the split of major contemporary lineages, in the late Cretaceous. The ATP synthase alpha-subunit gene is now present in one copy each on the nonrecombining part of the W chromosome (ATP5A1W) and on the Z chromosome (ATP5A1Z). This gene seems to have evolved on several independent occasions, in different lineages, from a state of free recombination into two sex-specific and nonrecombining variants. ATP5A1W and ATP5A1Z are thus more similar within orders, relative to what W (or Z) are between orders. Moreover, this cessation of recombination apparently took place at different times in different lineages (estimated at 13, 40, and 65 million years ago in Ciconiiformes, Galliformes, and Anseriformes, respectively). We argue that these observations are the result of recent and traceable steps in the process where sex chromosomes gradually cease to recombine and become differentiated. Our data demonstrate that this process, once initiated, may occur independently in parallel in sister lineages. PMID:11333240

Ellegren, H; Carmichael, A

2001-01-01

82

Male breast cancer, age and sex chromosome aneuploidy  

PubMed Central

Background: In cultured, dividing transformed T lymphocytes and in dividing bone marrow cells from normal men and those with a haematological malignancy, sex chromosome aneuploidy has been found to increase in prevalence and degree with age. This has rarely been investigated in non-dividing uncultured blood samples. The loss and gain of the X chromosome in dividing transformed lymphocytes in women with age is much more frequent than that of the Y chromosome in males. However, paradoxically X chromosome aneuploidy is rarely seen in the dividing cells of bone marrow of females. Methods: In blood samples from 565 men with breast cancer and 54 control men from the England and Wales general population, 80 cell nuclei per sample were scored for presence of X and Y chromosomes using fluorescent centromeric probes. Results: Sex chromosome aneuploidy, largely Y chromosome loss, was present in 63% of cases and 57% of controls, with the prevalence and degree of aneuploidy increasingly sharply and highly significantly with age. At ages 65–80 years, 71% of cases and 85% of controls showed aneuploidy and 15% and 25%, respectively, had ?10% of cells aneuploid. Allowing for age, aneuploidy was less prevalent (P=0.03) in cases than controls. Conclusion: Sex chromosome aneuploidy in non-dividing nuclei of peripheral blood cells is frequent in adult men, the prevalence and degree increasing sharply with age. The possible relation of sex chromosome aneuploidy to breast cancer risk in men, and to cancer risk generally, needs further investigation, ideally in cohort studies. PMID:23299533

Jacobs, P A; Maloney, V; Cooke, R; Crolla, J A; Ashworth, A; Swerdlow, A J

2013-01-01

83

In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two centuries after the duck-billed platypus was discovered, monotreme chromosome systems remain deeply puzzling. Karyotypes of males, or of both sexes, were claimed to contain several unpaired chromosomes (including the X chromosome) that form a multi-chromosomal chain at meiosis. Such meiotic chains exist in plants and insects but are rare in vertebrates. How the platypus chromosome system works to determine

Frank Grützner; Willem Rens; Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush; Nisrine El-Mogharbel; Patricia C. M. O'Brien; Russell C. Jones; Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

2004-01-01

84

Genome structure and primitive sex chromosome revealed in Populus  

SciTech Connect

We constructed a comprehensive genetic map for Populus and ordered 332 Mb of sequence scaffolds along the 19 haploid chromosomes in order to compare chromosomal regions among diverse members of the genus. These efforts lead us to conclude that chromosome XIX in Populus is evolving into a sex chromosome. Consistent segregation distortion in favor of the sub-genera Tacamahaca alleles provided evidence of divergent selection among species, particularly at the proximal end of chromosome XIX. A large microsatellite marker (SSR) cluster was detected in the distorted region even though the genome-wide distribute SSR sites was uniform across the physical map. The differences between the genetic map and physical sequence data suggested recombination suppression was occurring in the distorted region. A gender-determination locus and an overabundance of NBS-LRR genes were also co-located to the distorted region and were put forth as the cause for divergent selection and recombination suppression. This hypothesis was verified by using fine-scale mapping of an integrated scaffold in the vicinity of the gender-determination locus. As such it appears that chromosome XIX in Populus is in the process of evolving from an autosome into a sex chromosome and that NBS-LRR genes may play important role in the chromosomal diversification process in Populus.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Blaudez, D [UMR, France

2008-01-01

85

The evolution of sex chromosomes in the genus Rumex (Polygonaceae): Identification of a new species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

The structural features and evolutionary state of the sex chromosomes of the XX/XY species of Rumex are unknown. Here, we report a study of the meiotic behaviour of the XY bivalent in Rumex acetosella and R. suffruticosus, a new species which we describe cytogenetically for the first time in this paper, and also that of the XY(1)Y(2) trivalent of R. acetosa by both conventional cytogenetic techniques and analysis of synaptonemal complex formation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with satellite DNA and rDNA sequences as probes was used to analyse the degree of cytogenetic differentiation between the X and Y chromosomes in order to depict their evolutionary stage in the three species. Contrasting with the advanced state of genetic differentiation between the X and the Y chromosomes in R. acetosa, we have found that R. acetosella and R. suffruticosus represent an early stage of genetic differentiation between sex chromosomes. Our findings further demonstrate the usefulness of the genus Rumex as a model for analysing the evolution of sex chromosomes in plants, since within this genus it is now possible to study the different levels of genetic differentiation between the sex chromosomes and to analyse their evolutionary history from their origin. PMID:17899410

Cuńado, Nieves; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; de la Herrán, Roberto; Ruiz Rejón, Carmelo; Ruiz Rejón, Manuel; Santos, Juan Luis; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

2007-01-01

86

Neo-sex chromosomes and adaptive potential in tortricid pests  

PubMed Central

Changes in genome architecture often have a significant effect on ecological specialization and speciation. This effect may be further enhanced by involvement of sex chromosomes playing a disproportionate role in reproductive isolation. We have physically mapped the Z chromosome of the major pome fruit pest, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), and show that it arose by fusion between an ancestral Z chromosome and an autosome corresponding to chromosome 15 in the Bombyx mori reference genome. We further show that the fusion originated in a common ancestor of the main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae, comprising almost 700 pest species worldwide. The Z–autosome fusion brought two major genes conferring insecticide resistance and clusters of genes involved in detoxification of plant secondary metabolites under sex-linked inheritance. We suggest that this fusion significantly increased the adaptive potential of tortricid moths and thus contributed to their radiation and subsequent speciation. PMID:23569222

Nguyen, Petr; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Šíchová, Jindra; K?ta, Václav; Dalíková, Martina; ?apková Frydrychová, Radmila; Neven, Lisa G.; Sahara, Ken; Marec, František

2013-01-01

87

Neo-sex chromosomes and adaptive potential in tortricid pests.  

PubMed

Changes in genome architecture often have a significant effect on ecological specialization and speciation. This effect may be further enhanced by involvement of sex chromosomes playing a disproportionate role in reproductive isolation. We have physically mapped the Z chromosome of the major pome fruit pest, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), and show that it arose by fusion between an ancestral Z chromosome and an autosome corresponding to chromosome 15 in the Bombyx mori reference genome. We further show that the fusion originated in a common ancestor of the main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae, comprising almost 700 pest species worldwide. The Z-autosome fusion brought two major genes conferring insecticide resistance and clusters of genes involved in detoxification of plant secondary metabolites under sex-linked inheritance. We suggest that this fusion significantly increased the adaptive potential of tortricid moths and thus contributed to their radiation and subsequent speciation. PMID:23569222

Nguyen, Petr; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Šíchová, Jindra; K?ta, Václav; Dalíková, Martina; ?apková Frydrychová, Radmila; Neven, Lisa G; Sahara, Ken; Marec, František

2013-04-23

88

A role for a neo-sex chromosome in stickleback speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual antagonism, or conflict between the sexes, has been proposed as a driving force in both sex-chromosome turnover and speciation. Although closely related species often have different sex-chromosome systems, it is unknown whether sex-chromosome turnover contributes to the evolution of reproductive isolation between species. Here we show that a newly evolved sex chromosome contains genes that contribute to speciation in

Jun Kitano; Joseph A. Ross; Seiichi Mori; Manabu Kume; Felicity C. Jones; Yingguang F. Chan; Devin M. Absher; Jane Grimwood; Jeremy Schmutz; Richard M. Myers; David M. Kingsley; Catherine L. Peichel

2009-01-01

89

Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution  

PubMed Central

Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Yh). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Yh chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution. PMID:22869747

Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E.; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Perez, Rafael; Feltus, F. Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J.; Chen, Cuixia; Man Wai, Ching; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2012-01-01

90

MDC1 directs chromosome-wide silencing of the sex chromosomes in male germ cells  

PubMed Central

Chromosome-wide inactivation is an epigenetic signature of sex chromosomes. The mechanism by which the chromosome-wide domain is recognized and gene silencing is induced remains unclear. Here we identify an essential mechanism underlying the recognition of the chromosome-wide domain in the male germline. We show that mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), a binding partner of phosphorylated histone H2AX (?H2AX), defines the chromosome-wide domain, initiates meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), and leads to XY body formation. Importantly, MSCI consists of two genetically separable steps. The first step is the MDC1-independent recognition of the unsynapsed axis by DNA damage response (DDR) factors such as ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), TOPBP1, and ?H2AX. The second step is the MDC1-dependent chromosome-wide spreading of DDR factors to the entire chromatin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, in somatic cells, MDC1-dependent amplification of the ?H2AX signal occurs following replicative stress and is associated with transcriptional silencing. We propose that a common DDR pathway underlies both MSCI and the response of somatic cells to replicative stress. These results establish that the DDR pathway centered on MDC1 triggers epigenetic silencing of sex chromosomes in germ cells. PMID:21536735

Ichijima, Yosuke; Ichijima, Misako; Lou, Zhenkun; Nussenzweig, Andre; Camerini-Otero, R. Daniel; Chen, Junjie; Andreassen, Paul R.; Namekawa, Satoshi H.

2011-01-01

91

A case of subfertile cow with structural abnormalities of the X-chromosome  

E-print Network

Note A case of subfertile cow with structural abnormalities of the X-chromosome H. HANADA S years old Japanese Black, cow, which had been slaughtered due to subfertility. Structural chromosome deletions affected more specifically the X-chromosome. The frequency was significantly higher than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

Sex Steroids and Sex Chromosomes at Odds? Alfred Jost's proposal in the 1940s (1) that testes are crucial  

E-print Network

Sex Steroids and Sex Chromosomes at Odds? Alfred Jost's proposal in the 1940s (1) that testes of sexual differentiation into `Sex chromosomal genes determine the differentiation of the go- nads doctrine may not be as generally applicable as first thought. Several sex differences, for example in bird

de Vries, Geert J.

93

INVESTIGATION Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation Is Disrupted  

E-print Network

of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes

Dean, Matthew D.

94

THE CONTRIBUTION OF FEMALE MEIOTIC DRIVE TO THE EVOLUTION OF NEO-SEX CHROMOSOMES  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY1Y2 sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X1X2Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY1Y2 sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X1X2Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes. PMID:23025609

Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun

2012-01-01

95

Structural brain imaging abnormalities associated with schizophrenia and partial trisomy of chromosome 5  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Chromosomal abnormalities occurring in association with mental illness provide a unique opportunity to study the interaction of genetic abnormalities and the brain in mental illness. Four individuals from a family in which schizophrenia was found to cosegregate with a partial trisomy of chromosome 5 were studied with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Temporal lobe atrophy was found in the two trisomic males and in the asymptomatic balanced translocation female. In addition, a large cavum septum pellucidum and a cavum vergae were found in the older trisomic individual. Scans from the normal male were free of abnormalities. These results suggest that molecular studies of the translocation breakpoints in this chromosomal abnormality may be of interest, and encourage further studies of brain structure in other chromosomal abnormalities associated with psychosis. PMID:1615118

HONER, WILLIAM G.; BASSETT, ANNE S.; MacEWAN, G. WILLIAM; HURWITZ, TREVOR; LI, DAVID K.B.; HILAL, SADEK; PROHOVNIK, ISAK

2011-01-01

96

Sex-biased chromatin and regulatory cross-talk between sex chromosomes, autosomes, and mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Several autoimmune and neurological diseases exhibit a sex bias, but discerning the causes and mechanisms of these biases has been challenging. Sex differences begin to manifest themselves in early embryonic development, and gonadal differentiation further bifurcates the male and female phenotypes. Even at this early stage, however, there is evidence that males and females respond to environmental stimuli differently, and the divergent phenotypic responses may have consequences later in life. The effect of prenatal nutrient restriction illustrates this point, as adult women exposed to prenatal restrictions exhibited increased risk factors of cardiovascular disease, while men exposed to the same condition did not. Recent research has examined the roles of sex-specific genes, hormones, chromosomes, and the interactions among them in mediating sex-biased phenotypes. Such research has identified testosterone, for example, as a possible protective agent against autoimmune disorders and an XX chromosome complement as a susceptibility factor in murine models of lupus and multiple sclerosis. Sex-biased chromatin is an additional and likely important component. Research suggesting a role for X and Y chromosome heterochromatin in regulating epigenetic states of autosomes has highlighted unorthodox mechanisms of gene regulation. The crosstalk between the Y chromosomes and autosomes may be further mediated by the mitochondria. The organelles have solely maternal transmission and exert differential effects on males and females. Altogether, research supports the notion that the interaction between sex-biased elements might exert novel regulatory functions in the genome and contribute to sex-specific susceptibilities to autoimmune and neurological diseases. PMID:24422881

2014-01-01

97

Acute promyelocytic leukaemia with a PML-RARA insertional translocation and a chromosome 21 abnormality in XYY syndrome: Case report.  

PubMed

The concomitant presence of the XYY syndrome with haematological malignancies is rare. This report presents a case of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) with the promyelocytic leukaemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARA) gene insertional translocation and a chromosome 21 abnormality in a 29-year-old XYY male patient. Karyotype analysis revealed an abnormal karyotype of 47,XYY [14]/46,XYY,-21[16]. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the existence of a PML-RARA fusion gene. The patient was treated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy. Laboratory results revealed that the coagulopathy improved and the patient achieved complete remission, based on bone-marrow morphology. The patient then received sequential monthly therapy using arsenic trioxide, followed by ATRA, followed by chemotherapy; he has survived disease-free for 36 months. Our findings suggest that the additional chromosomal abnormalities involving the sex chromosomes and chromosome 21 did not affect the prognosis of APL, and that the sequential treatment strategy had a good clinical effect without being associated with severe side-effects. PMID:25223426

He, Yi; Li, Xudong; Wang, Dongning; Zhang, Erhong; Hu, Yuan; Wang, Wenwen; Huang, Renwei; Xiao, Ruozhi

2014-12-01

98

Sequencing the mouse y chromosome reveals convergent gene acquisition and amplification on both sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

We sequenced the MSY (male-specific region of the Y chromosome) of the C57BL/6J strain of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus. In contrast to theories that Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and gene poor, the mouse MSY is 99.9% euchromatic and contains about 700 protein-coding genes. Only 2% of the MSY derives from the ancestral autosomes that gave rise to the mammalian sex chromosomes. Instead, all but 45 of the MSY's genes belong to three acquired, massively amplified gene families that have no homologs on primate MSYs but do have acquired, amplified homologs on the mouse X chromosome. The complete mouse MSY sequence brings to light dramatic forces in sex chromosome evolution: lineage-specific convergent acquisition and amplification of X-Y gene families, possibly fueled by antagonism between acquired X-Y homologs. The mouse MSY sequence presents opportunities for experimental studies of a sex-specific chromosome in its entirety, in a genetically tractable model organism. PMID:25417157

Soh, Y Q Shirleen; Alföldi, Jessica; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Brown, Laura G; Graves, Tina; Minx, Patrick J; Fulton, Robert S; Kremitzki, Colin; Koutseva, Natalia; Mueller, Jacob L; Rozen, Steve; Hughes, Jennifer F; Owens, Elaine; Womack, James E; Murphy, William J; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C

2014-11-01

99

Introduction Sex is determined in many organisms by an X-chromosome  

E-print Network

6519 Introduction Sex is determined in many organisms by an X-chromosome counting mechanism that distinguishes one X chromosome from two (e.g. XO male/XX female in nematodes) or by the presence of a specific sex chromosome, such as the Y chromosome (e.g. XY male/XX female in mammals) (Meller and Kuroda, 2002

Meyer, Barbara

100

Identification of Cryptic Sex Chromosomes and Isolation of X-and Y-Borne Genes  

E-print Network

15 Identification of Cryptic Sex Chromosomes and Isolation of X- and Y-Borne Genes Paul D. Waters chromosomes. We have adapted cell culture and molecular cytogenetic techniques to study the sex chromosomes of many exotic mammals, birds, and reptiles. Here we describe differential chromosome banding and staining

Canberra, University of

101

Dosage compensation, the origin and the afterlife of sex chromosomes Jan Larsson1  

E-print Network

Dosage compensation, the origin and the afterlife of sex chromosomes Jan Larsson1 * & Victoria H@biology.biosci.wayne.edu *Correspondence Key words: dosage compensation, Drosophila, msl, Pof, sex chromosomes Abstract Over the past 100. A fascinating aspect of evolution is the differentiation of sex chromosomes. Organisms with highly

Meller, Victoria

102

Chromosomal abnormalities in an anholocyclic biotype of Myzus persicae (sulzer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Le karyotype normal deMyzus persicae (Sulzer) provenant de diverses sources fut de 2n=12. Une forme anholocyclique verte de cette espčce possčde un karyotype de 2n=13 ou 2n=14, avec 1 ou 2 autosomes non appariés. Une comparaison des dimensions relatives des chromosomes des karyotypes normaux et anormaux suggčre que ces derniers dérivent des chromosomes par fragmentation.

R. L. Blackman

1971-01-01

103

Sexually Antagonistic “Zygotic Drive” of the Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Genomic conflict is perplexing because it causes the fitness of a species to decline rather than improve. Many diverse forms of genomic conflict have been identified, but this extant tally may be incomplete. Here, we show that the unusual characteristics of the sex chromosomes can, in principle, lead to a previously unappreciated form of sexual genomic conflict. The phenomenon occurs because there is selection in the heterogametic sex for sex-linked mutations that harm the sex of offspring that does not carry them, whenever there is competition among siblings. This harmful phenotype can be expressed as an antagonistic green-beard effect that is mediated by epigenetic parental effects, parental investment, and/or interactions among siblings. We call this form of genomic conflict sexually antagonistic “zygotic drive”, because it is functionally equivalent to meiotic drive, except that it operates during the zygotic and postzygotic stages of the life cycle rather than the meiotic and gametic stages. A combination of mathematical modeling and a survey of empirical studies is used to show that sexually antagonistic zygotic drive is feasible, likely to be widespread in nature, and that it can promote a genetic “arms race” between the homo- and heteromorphic sex chromosomes. This new category of genomic conflict has the potential to strongly influence other fundamental evolutionary processes, such as speciation and the degeneration of the Y and W sex chromosomes. It also fosters a new genetic hypothesis for the evolution of enigmatic fitness-reducing traits like the high frequency of spontaneous abortion, sterility, and homosexuality observed in humans. PMID:19096519

Rice, William R.; Gavrilets, Sergey; Friberg, Urban

2008-01-01

104

Evolutionary strata on the chicken Z chromosome: implications for sex chromosome evolution.  

PubMed Central

The human X chromosome exhibits four "evolutionary strata," interpreted to represent distinct steps in the process whereby recombination became arrested between the proto X and proto Y. To test if this is a general feature of sex chromosome evolution, we studied the Z-W sex chromosomes of birds, which have female rather than male heterogamety and evolved from a different autosome pair than the mammalian X and Y. Here we analyze all five known gametologous Z-W gene pairs to investigate the "strata" hypothesis in birds. Comparisons of the rates of synonymous substitution and intronic divergence between Z and W gametologs reveal the presence of at least two evolutionary strata spread over the p and q arms of the chicken Z chromosome. A phylogenetic analysis of intronic sequence data from different avian lineages indicates that Z-W recombination ceased in the oldest stratum (on Zq; CHD1Z, HINTZ, and SPINZ) 102-170 million years ago (MYA), before the split of the Neoaves and Eoaves. However, recombination continued in the second stratum (on Zp; UBAP2Z and ATP5A1Z) until after the divergence of extant avian orders, with Z and W diverging 58-85 MYA. Our data suggest that progressive and stepwise cessation of recombination is a general feature behind sex chromosome evolution. PMID:15166161

Handley, Lori-Jayne Lawson; Ceplitis, Helene; Ellegren, Hans

2004-01-01

105

[Nuchal translucency and ductus venosus as ultrasound markers of chromosomal abnormalities].  

PubMed

Chromosomal abnormalities are frequent pathologies. We must find new methods for early prenatal diagnosis. Therefore we propose to assess the effectiveness of nuchal translucency thickness and abnormal Doppler of ductus venosus as ultrasound markers of aneuploidies. We evaluated 228 high risk pregnancies between 11 and 14 weeks. Later amniocentesis or newborn evaluation by a genetist was made. 28 patients were lost at follow up; the definitive sample was 200 pregnancies. Nuchal translucency thickness was increased in 5 fetuses, of these 4 presented abnormal Doppler of ductus venosus. Chromosomal anomalies were confirmed in 3 of these fetuses, for an incidence of 1.5%. Nuchal translucency thickness increased had: 100% sensitivity and 98.98% specificity. Abnormal Doppler of ductus venosus had: 100% sensitivity and 99.49% specificity. Nuchal translucency thickness and Doppler of ductus venosus are excellent markers of chromosomal abnormalities PMID:19245170

Díaz, Victor; Guevara, Ramón; Brito, Julio

2008-12-01

106

Neo-sex chromosomes in the black muntjac recapitulate incipient evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The regular mammalian X and Y chromosomes diverged from each other at least 166 to 148 million years ago, leaving few traces of their early evolution, including degeneration of the Y chromosome and evolution of dosage compensation. RESULTS: We studied the intriguing case of black muntjac, in which a recent X-autosome fusion and a subsequent large autosomal inversion within

Qi Zhou; Jun Wang; Ling Huang; Wen-hui Nie; Jin-huan Wang; Yan Liu; Xiang-yi Zhao; Feng-tang Yang; Wen Wang

2008-01-01

107

Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation, Evolutionary Strata, and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation  

PubMed Central

Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females). Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae), but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae) and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae). Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases). This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution), but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex chromosomes evolution. PMID:24015111

Zektser, Yulia; Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

2013-01-01

108

Chromosomal abnormalities in mentally retarded children in the Konya region--Turkey.  

PubMed

Etiology of mental retardation is diverse. 120 Students from 11 special training, education, and rehabilitation subclasses were investigated cytogenetically for determining the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to mild mental retardation. 23 of the 120 children (19%) had chromosomal abnormalities: thirteen cases a classical trisomy 21 (the male:female ratio was 9:4), three a balanced autosomal reciprocal translocation, one a pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, and six fragile-X syndrome (The male:female ratio was 5:1). PMID:10756429

Cora, T; Demirel, S; Acar, A

2000-01-01

109

Scientists find that chromosomal abnormalities are associated with aging and cancer  

Cancer.gov

Two new studies have found that large structural abnormalities in chromosomes, some of which have been associated with increased risk of cancer, can be detected in a small fraction of people without a prior history of cancer. The studies found that these alterations in chromosomes appear to increase with age, particularly after the age of 50, and may be associated with an increased risk for cancer. Mosaicism, the type of structural abnormality in chromosomes that is described in these studies, results from a DNA alteration that is present in some of the body's cells but not in others. A person with mosaicism has a mixture of normal and mutated cells.

110

Chromosomal Distribution of Cytonuclear Genes in a Dioecious Plant with Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

The coordination between nuclear and organellar genes is essential to many aspects of eukaryotic life, including basic metabolism, energy production, and ultimately, organismal fitness. Although nuclear genes are biparentally inherited, mitochondrial and chloroplast genes are almost exclusively maternally inherited, and this asymmetry may lead to a bias in the chromosomal distribution of nuclear genes whose products act in the mitochondria or chloroplasts. In particular, because X-linked genes have a higher probability of cotransmission with organellar genes (2/3) compared with autosomal genes (1/2), selection for coadaptation has been predicted to lead to an overrepresentation of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes on the X chromosome relative to autosomes. In contrast, the occurrence of sexually antagonistic organellar mutations might lead to selection for movement of cytonuclear genes from the X chromosome to autosomes to reduce male mutation load. Recent broad-scale comparative studies of N-mt distributions in animals have found evidence for these hypotheses in some species, but not others. Here, we use transcriptome sequences to conduct the first study of the chromosomal distribution of cytonuclear interacting genes in a plant species with sex chromosomes (Rumex hastatulus; Polygonaceae). We found no evidence of under- or overrepresentation of either N-mt or N-cp genes on the X chromosome, and thus no support for either the coadaptation or the sexual-conflict hypothesis. We discuss how our results from a species with recently evolved sex chromosomes fit into an emerging picture of the evolutionary forces governing the chromosomal distribution of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes. PMID:25193309

Hough, Josh; Ĺgren, J. Arvid; Barrett, Spencer C.H.; Wright, Stephen I.

2014-01-01

111

Chromosomal distribution of cytonuclear genes in a dioecious plant with sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

The coordination between nuclear and organellar genes is essential to many aspects of eukaryotic life, including basic metabolism, energy production, and ultimately, organismal fitness. Although nuclear genes are biparentally inherited, mitochondrial and chloroplast genes are almost exclusively maternally inherited, and this asymmetry may lead to a bias in the chromosomal distribution of nuclear genes whose products act in the mitochondria or chloroplasts. In particular, because X-linked genes have a higher probability of cotransmission with organellar genes (2/3) compared with autosomal genes (1/2), selection for coadaptation has been predicted to lead to an overrepresentation of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes on the X chromosome relative to autosomes. In contrast, the occurrence of sexually antagonistic organellar mutations might lead to selection for movement of cytonuclear genes from the X chromosome to autosomes to reduce male mutation load. Recent broad-scale comparative studies of N-mt distributions in animals have found evidence for these hypotheses in some species, but not others. Here, we use transcriptome sequences to conduct the first study of the chromosomal distribution of cytonuclear interacting genes in a plant species with sex chromosomes (Rumex hastatulus; Polygonaceae). We found no evidence of under- or overrepresentation of either N-mt or N-cp genes on the X chromosome, and thus no support for either the coadaptation or the sexual-conflict hypothesis. We discuss how our results from a species with recently evolved sex chromosomes fit into an emerging picture of the evolutionary forces governing the chromosomal distribution of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes. PMID:25193309

Hough, Josh; Ĺgren, J Arvid; Barrett, Spencer C H; Wright, Stephen I

2014-09-01

112

Extinct and Extant Reptiles: A Model System for the Study of Sex Chromosome Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The evolution and functional dynamics of sex chromosomes are focuses of current biological research. Although common organismal\\u000a morphologies and functions of males and females are found among amniotes, underlying sex chromosome organizations and sex-determining\\u000a mechanisms are widely variable. This chapter investigates the role that reptiles play in the study of sex chromosome evolution.\\u000a Reptile studies have described the coevolution of

Daniel E. Janes

113

Tracking the evolution of sex chromosome systems in Melanoplinae grasshoppers through chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNA sequences  

PubMed Central

Background The accumulation of repetitive DNA during sex chromosome differentiation is a common feature of many eukaryotes and becomes more evident after recombination has been restricted or abolished. The accumulated repetitive sequences include multigene families, microsatellites, satellite DNAs and mobile elements, all of which are important for the structural remodeling of heterochromatin. In grasshoppers, derived sex chromosome systems, such as neo-XY?/XX? and neo-X1X2Y?/X1X1X2X2?, are frequently observed in the Melanoplinae subfamily. However, no studies concerning the evolution of sex chromosomes in Melanoplinae have addressed the role of the repetitive DNA sequences. To further investigate the evolution of sex chromosomes in grasshoppers, we used classical cytogenetic and FISH analyses to examine the repetitive DNA sequences in six phylogenetically related Melanoplinae species with X0?/XX?, neo-XY?/XX? and neo-X1X2Y?/X1X1X2X2? sex chromosome systems. Results Our data indicate a non-spreading of heterochromatic blocks and pool of repetitive DNAs (C0t-1 DNA) in the sex chromosomes; however, the spreading of multigene families among the neo-sex chromosomes of Eurotettix and Dichromatos was remarkable, particularly for 5S rDNA. In autosomes, FISH mapping of multigene families revealed distinct patterns of chromosomal organization at the intra- and intergenomic levels. Conclusions These results suggest a common origin and subsequent differential accumulation of repetitive DNAs in the sex chromosomes of Dichromatos and an independent origin of the sex chromosomes of the neo-XY and neo-X1X2Y systems. Our data indicate a possible role for repetitive DNAs in the diversification of sex chromosome systems in grasshoppers. PMID:23937327

2013-01-01

114

The Importance of Screening and Prenatal Diagnosis in the Identification of the Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background and aims: The obstetric care of a pregnancy, as it is practiced today, includes non-invasive screening approaches as well as invasive procedures for the definitive prenatal diagnosis of fetal disorders correlations between indications for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis and results of the chromosomal analysis made upon fetal cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the correlations between the screening test results and results of chromosomal analysis on fetal cells. Methods: Amniotic fluid samples from 1159 pregnant women were studied with the rapid FISH method and the cytogenetic analysis (karyotype). The results from both methods were compared. Results: The indications to perform prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis for numerical chromosomal abnormalities were: abnormal results of double or triple test, advanced maternal age, fetal abnormality detected through ultrasound examination, and positive family history for chromosomal anomalies. In our study we identified 30 cases with abnormal numeric chromosomes (18 cases of trisomy 21, 4 cases of trisomy 18, 3 cases of trisomy X, 1 case of monosomy, 2 cases of trisomy XYY, 1 case of trisomy XXY and 1 case of triploidy). Conclusions: This report confirms the importance of screening and the cytogenetic diagnosis in the identification of the numerical chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:22368694

NEAGOS, Daniela; CRETU, Ruxandra; SFETEA, Roxana Corina; BOHILTEA, Laurentiu Camil

2011-01-01

115

Possible causes of chromosome instability: comparison of chromosomal abnormalities in cancer cell lines with mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHK2 and BUB1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of epithelial cancers show the chromosome-instability phenotype, in which they have many chromosome abnormalities. This is thought to be the result of mutations that disrupt chromosome maintenance, but the causative mutations are not known. We identified cell lines known to have mutations that might cause chromosome instability, and examined their karyotypes. Two cell lines, the breast cancer

M. Grigorova; J. M. Staines; H. Ozdag; C. Caldas; P. A. W. Edwards

2004-01-01

116

Laser isolation of plant sex chromosomes: studies on the DNA composition of the X and Y sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia.  

PubMed

X and Y sex chromosomes from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia (white campion) were isolated from mitotic metaphase chromosome preparations on polyester membranes. Autosomes were ablated using an argon ion laser microbeam and isolated sex chromosomes were then recovered on excised fragments of polyester membrane. Sex chromosome associated DNA sequences were amplified using the degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and pools of DOP-PCR products were used to investigate the genomic organization of the S. latifolia sex chromosomes. The chromosomal locations of cloned sex chromosome repeat sequences were analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and data complementary to laser ablation studies were obtained by genomic in situ hybridization. In combination, these studies demonstrate that the X and Y sex chromosomes of S. latifolia are of very similar DNA composition and also that they share a significant repetitive DNA content with the autosomes. The evolution of sex chromosomes in Silene is discussed and compared with that in another dioecious species, Rumex acetosa. PMID:9352647

Scutt, C P; Kamisugi, Y; Sakai, F; Gilmartin, P M

1997-10-01

117

Growth and differentiation of circulating hemopoietic stem cells with atomic bomb irradiation-induced chromosome abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

The effects of atomic bomb irradiation on hemopoietic stem cells were studied cytogenetically using single colonies derived from hemopoietic progenitor cells. The subjects studied were 21 healthy atomic bomb survivors (10 males and 11 females) in the high dose exposure group (100+ rad) with a known high incidence (10% or more) of radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities in their peripheral blood lymphocytes (stimulated with phytohemagglutinin), and 11 nonexposed healthy controls (5 males and 6 females). Colony formation by circulating granulocyte-macrophage (GM-CFC) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells was made by the methylcellulose method using peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chromosome specimens were prepared from single colonies by our micromethod. The total number of colonies analyzed in the exposed group was 131 for GM-CFC and 75 for BFU-E. Chromosome abnormalities were observed in 15 (11.5%) and 9 (12.0%) colonies, respectively. In the control group, the total number of colonies analyzed was 61 for GM-CFC and 41 for BFU-E. None of these colonies showed chromosome abnormalities. The difference in incidence of chromosome abnormalities was highly significant by an exact test; p = 0.003 for GM-CFC and 0.017 for BFU-E. The karyotypes of chromosome abnormalities obtained from the colonies in the exposed group were mostly translocations, but deletion and marker chromosomes were also observed. In two individuals, such karyotypic abnormalities as observed in the peripheral lymphocytes were also seen in the myeloid progenitor cells. This finding suggests that atomic bomb irradiation produced a chromosome aberration on multipotent hemopoietic stem cells common to myeloid and lymphoid lineages.

Amenomori, T.; Honda, T.; Otake, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Ichimaru, M.

1988-11-01

118

In multiple myeloma, bone-marrow lymphocytes harboring the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous plasma cells predict poor survival.  

PubMed

Chromosomal abnormalities in plasma cells (PCs) from multiple myeloma (MM) provide a clonal signature to identify malignant cells. BM-lymphocytes from MM aspirates, defined by stringent criteria, were screened for the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous PCs, including translocations, deletions, and amplifications. For 200 MM patients, we evaluated BM mononuclear cells to identify lymphocytes and autologous PCs on the same slide, followed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization to characterize their chromosomal abnormalities. Of all patients having a given chromosomal abnormality(s) in PCs, 45% showed that same abnormality(s) in 2-37% (median = 5%) of BM-lymphocytes. Most translocations, amplifications, and deletions found in MM PCs were also detected in lymphocytes, above the healthy-donor "cut-off." In patients having chromosomally abnormal CD20(-) PCs, chromosomally abnormal lymphocytes were found among CD20+ cells confirming them as B cells. Exceptions were amplification of 1q21 or p53 deletion, which characterize PCs but were undetectable in BM-lymphocytes, suggesting that processes leading to these abnormalities may be exclusive to PCs. For a set of 75 patients whose BM-lymphocytes and PCs were analyzed by all six probe sets, 58% of those with abnormal PC also had abnormal BM-lymphocytes harboring from one to five different abnormalities. Confirming the clinical significance of chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes, MM patients having abnormalities in both lymphocytes and PC had significantly worse survival than those with abnormalities only in PC (HR = 2.68). The presence of at least one chromosomal abnormality in BM-lymphocytes appears to have greater clinical significance than particular abnormalities. Chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes correlate with poor outcome and by extrapolation with more aggressive disease. PMID:22495885

Debes Marun, Carina S; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

2012-06-01

119

In multiple myeloma, bone-marrow lymphocytes harboring the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous plasma cells predict poor survival  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal abnormalities in plasma cells (PCs) from multiple myeloma (MM) provide a clonal signature to identify malignant cells. BM-lymphocytes from MM aspirates, defined by stringent criteria, were screened for the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous PCs, including translocations, deletions, and amplifications. For 200 MM patients, we evaluated BM mononuclear cells to identify lymphocytes and autologous PCs on the same slide, followed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization to characterize their chromosomal abnormalities. Of all patients having a given chromosomal abnormality(s) in PCs, 45% showed that same abnormality(s) in 2–37% (median = 5%) of BM-lymphocytes. Most translocations, amplifications, and deletions found in MM PCs were also detected in lymphocytes, above the healthy-donor “cut-off.” In patients having chromosomally abnormal CD20? PCs, chromosomally abnormal lymphocytes were found among CD20+ cells confirming them as B cells. Exceptions were amplification of 1q21 or p53 deletion, which characterize PCs but were undetectable in BM-lymphocytes, suggesting that processes leading to these abnormalities may be exclusive to PCs. For a set of 75 patients whose BM-lymphocytes and PCs were analyzed by all six probe sets, 58% of those with abnormal PC also had abnormal BM-lymphocytes harboring from one to five different abnormalities. Confirming the clinical significance of chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes, MM patients having abnormalities in both lymphocytes and PC had significantly worse survival than those with abnormalities only in PC (HR = 2.68). The presence of at least one chromosomal abnormality in BM-lymphocytes appears to have greater clinical significance than particular abnormalities. Chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes correlate with poor outcome and by extrapolation with more aggressive disease. PMID:22495885

Marun, Carina S Debes; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

2012-01-01

120

Fluorescent in situ hybridization for sex chromosome determination before and after fertilization in mice  

PubMed Central

In mice, the relative numbers of male and female pups per litter not only can vary but can probably change over the course of pregnancy in response to numerous environmental and physiological factors. As such, a technique is required to determine gender at several developmental stages. Here we describe a robust and accurate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure for determining chromosomal sex that can be applied with minimal modification to sperm, pre-and post-implantation conceptuses and recovered dead post-natal pups. Sperm was prepared for FISH analysis y using a modified microwave decondensation–denaturation technique. Preimplantation conceptuses (0.5 dpc) were cultured to the morula stage before sexing. They were then acid-treated to remove the zona pellucida. Tissue homogenates from postimplantational conceptuses (8.5 dpc) and stillborn pups were fixed to pre-etched slides. Specimens were hybridized with identical, commercially available DNA probes for the X (FITC) and Y (Cy3) chromosomes. Sperm ratios met the expected value of 0.5 when determined by using XY FISH. Preimplantation conceptuses pre-treated with pepsin yielded distinct fluorescence of X and Y chromosomes in morulae, whereas microwave decondensation resulted in loss of conceptuses from the slide. Both 4.0 and 8.5 dpc conceptuses displayed mean sex ratios of 0.5. Post-natal FISH analysis allowed gender identification of pups that could not be sexed due to developmental abnormalities or partial cannibalism. FISH analysis of sperm and of multiple conceptuses or post-natal tissue provided a cost-effective, accurate alternative to PCR-based sex determination. PMID:17215034

Whyte, J.J.; Roberts, R.M.; Rosenfeld, C.S.

2007-01-01

121

Genomic Characterization of Prenatally Detected Chromosomal Structural Abnormalities Using Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S.; Florio, Joanne R.; Rossi, Michael R.; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J.

2013-01-01

122

The role of the sex chromosomes in mammalian germ cell differentiation  

E-print Network

The role of the sex chromosomes in mammalian germ cell differentiation P. S. BURGOYNE Department and their sex-chromosomal make-up. It is concluded that germ cells in an ovary require two functional X chromosomes for optimal development. The effects of X-dosage deficiency are most severe in species where

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Sex chromosome inactivation in germ cells: emerging roles of DNA damage response pathways  

E-print Network

REVIEW Sex chromosome inactivation in germ cells: emerging roles of DNA damage response pathways chromosome inactivation in male germ cells is a paradigm of epigenetic programming during sexual reproduction. Recent progress has revealed the underlying mechanisms of sex chromosome inactivation in male meiosis

Dean, Matthew D.

124

Cloning and characterization of dispersed repetitive DNA derived from microdissected sex chromosomes of Rumex acetosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Rumex acetosa is characterized by a multiple chromosome system (2n = 12 + XX for females, and 2n =1 2 + XY1Y2 for males), in which sex is determined by the ratio between the number of X chromosomes and autosome sets. For a better understanding of the molecular structure and evolution of plant sex chromosomes, we have generated a

Beatrice Mariotti; Rafael Navajas-pérez; Rafael Lozano; John S. Parker; Roberto De La Herrán; Carmelo Ruiz Rejón; Manuel Ruiz Rejón; Manuel Garrido-ramos; Manuel Jamilena

125

MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

Rosen, M.; And Others

1971-01-01

126

Recent gene-capture on the UV sex chromosomes of the moss Ceratodon purpureus.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes evolve from ordinary autosomes through the expansion and subsequent degeneration of a region of suppressed recombination that is inherited through one sex. Here we investigate the relative timing of these processes in the UV sex chromosomes of the moss Ceratodon purpureus using molecular population genetic analyses of eight newly discovered sex-linked loci. In this system, recombination is suppressed on both the female-transmitted (U) sex chromosome and the male-transmitted (V) chromosome. Genes on both chromosomes therefore should show the deleterious effects of suppressed recombination and sex-limited transmission, while purifying selection should maintain homologs of genes essential for both sexes on both sex chromosomes. Based on analyses of eight sex-linked loci, we show that the nonrecombining portions of the U and V chromosomes expanded in at least two events (~0.6-1.3 MYA and ~2.8-3.5 MYA), after the divergence of C. purpureus from its dioecious sister species, Trichodon cylindricus and Cheilothela chloropus. Both U- and V-linked copies showed reduced nucleotide diversity and limited population structure, compared to autosomal loci, suggesting that the sex chromosomes experienced more recent selective sweeps that the autosomes. Collectively these results highlight the dynamic nature of gene composition and molecular evolution on nonrecombining portions of the U and V sex chromosomes. PMID:24094335

McDaniel, Stuart F; Neubig, Kurt M; Payton, Adam C; Quatrano, Ralph S; Cove, David J

2013-10-01

127

Recent gene-capture on the UV sex chromosomes of the moss Ceratodon purpureus  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes evolve from ordinary autosomes through the expansion and subsequent degeneration of a region of suppressed recombination that is inherited through one sex. Here we investigate the relative timing of these processes in the UV sex chromosomes of the moss Ceratodon purpureus using molecular population genetic analyses of eight newly discovered sex-linked loci. In this system recombination is suppressed on both the female-transmitted (U) sex chromosome and the male-transmitted (V) chromosome. Genes on both chromosomes therefore should show the deleterious effects of suppressed recombination and sex-limited transmission, while purifying selection should maintain homologs of genes essential for both sexes on both sex chromosomes. Based on analyses of eight sex-linked loci, we show that the non-recombining portions of the U and V-chromosomes expanded in at least two events (~0.6 – 1.3 MYA and ~2.8 – 3.5 MYA), after the divergence of C. purpureus from its dioecious sister species, Trichodon cylindricus and Cheilothela chloropus. Both U and V-linked copies showed reduced nucleotide diversity and limited population structure, compared to autosomal loci, suggesting that the sex chromosomes experienced more recent selective sweeps that the autosomes. Collectively these results highlight the dynamic nature of gene composition and molecular evolution on non-recombining portions of the U and V sex chromosomes. PMID:24094335

McDaniel, Stuart F.; Neubig, Kurt M.; Payton, Adam C.; Quatrano, Ralph S.; Cove, David J.

2013-01-01

128

Rapid De Novo Evolution of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation in Silene latifolia, a Plant with Young Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ?10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S. latifolia XY chromosomes have gradually stopped recombining and the Y chromosome is undergoing degeneration as in animal sex chromosomes. However, this work has been limited by the paucity of sex-linked genes available. Here, we used 35 Gb of RNA-seq data from multiple males (XY) and females (XX) of an S. latifolia inbred line to detect sex-linked SNPs and identified more than 1,700 sex-linked contigs (with X-linked and Y-linked alleles). Analyses using known sex-linked and autosomal genes, together with simulations indicate that these newly identified sex-linked contigs are reliable. Using read numbers, we then estimated expression levels of X-linked and Y-linked alleles in males and found an overall trend of reduced expression of Y-linked alleles, consistent with a widespread ongoing degeneration of the S. latifolia Y chromosome. By comparing expression intensities of X-linked alleles in males and females, we found that X-linked allele expression increases as Y-linked allele expression decreases in males, which makes expression of sex-linked contigs similar in both sexes. This phenomenon is known as dosage compensation and has so far only been observed in evolutionary old animal sex chromosome systems. Our results suggest that dosage compensation has evolved in plants and that it can quickly evolve de novo after the origin of sex chromosomes. PMID:22529744

Deschamps, Clothilde; Mousset, Sylvain; Widmer, Alex; Marais, Gabriel A. B.

2012-01-01

129

Systematic review of accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by microarray technology.  

PubMed

The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by chromosome microarray technology and karyotyping were compared. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE database with the keywords "chromosome" and "karyotype" and "genetic testing" and "prenatal diagnosis" and "oligonucleotide array sequence". The studies obtained were filtered by using the QUADAS tool, and studies conforming to the quality standard were fully analyzed. There was one paper conforming to the QUADAS standards including 4406 gravidas with adaptability syndromes of prenatal diagnosis including elderly parturient women, abnormal structure by type-B ultrasound, and other abnormalities. Microarray technology yielded successful diagnoses in 4340 cases (98.8%), and there was no need for tissue culture in 87.9% of the samples. All aneuploids and non-parallel translocations in 4282 cases of non-chimera identified by karyotyping could be detected using microarray analysis technology, whereas parallel translocations and fetal triploids could not be detected by microarray analysis technology. In the samples with normal karyotyping results, type-B ultrasound showed that 6% of chromosomal deficiencies or chromosome duplications could be detected by microarray technology, and the same abnormal chromosomes were detected in 1.7% of elderly parturient women and samples with positive serology screening results. In the prenatal diagnosis test, compared with karyotyping, microarray technology could identify the extra cell genetic information with clinical significance, aneuploids, and non-parallel translocations; however, its disadvantage is that it could not identify parallel translocations and triploids. PMID:25366803

Xu, H B; Yang, H; Liu, G; Chen, H

2014-01-01

130

Regulation of sex chromosome constitution of somatic and germ cells in the wood lemming  

E-print Network

Regulation of sex chromosome constitution of somatic and germ cells in the wood lemming A. GROPP K displays certain peculiar features. (a) The sex ratio shows a prevalence of females, and some females produce only female offspring. (b) A conside- rable proportion of the females has XY sex chromosomes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Molecular Cytogenetic Search for Cryptic Sex Chromosomes in Painted Turtles Chrysemys picta.  

PubMed

Sex determination is triggered by factors ranging from genotypic (GSD) to environmental (ESD), or both GSD + EE (GSD susceptible to environmental effects), and its evolution remains enigmatic. The presence/absence of sex chromosomes purportedly separates species at the ESD end of the continuum from the rest (GSD and GSD + EE) because the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes and autosomes differ. However, studies suggest that turtles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) are cryptically GSD and possess sex chromosomes. Here, we test this hypothesis in painted turtles Chrysemys picta (TSD), using comparative-genome-hybridization (CGH), a technique known to detect morphologically indistinguishable sex chromosomes in other turtles and reptiles. Our results show no evidence for the existence of sex chromosomes in painted turtles. While it remains plausible that cryptic sex chromosomes may exist in TSD turtles that are characterized by minor genetic differences that cannot be detected at the resolution of CGH, previous attempts have failed to identify sex-specific markers. Genomic sequencing should prove useful in providing conclusive evidence in this regard. If such efforts uncover sex chromosomes in TSD turtles, it may reveal the existence of a fundamental constraint for the evolution of a full spectrum of sex determination (from pure GSD to pure TSD) that is predicted theoretically. Finding sex chromosomes in ESD organisms would question whether pure ESD mechanisms exist at all in nature, or whether those systems currently considered pure ESD simply await the characterization of an underlying GSD architecture. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25170556

Valenzuela, Nicole; Badenhorst, Daleen; Montiel, Eugenia E; Literman, Robert

2014-01-01

132

No prognostic effect of additional chromosomal abnormalities in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 11q23 abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterized the additional chromosomal abnormalities (ACA) associated with 11q23 rearrangements in 450 infants and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and examined the impact of these ACA on survival. Overall, 213 (47%) cases had ACA but the incidence varied according to patient age and 11q23 subgroup. Infants and patients with t(4;11)(q21;q23) had the lowest incidence of ACA (50\\/182

A V Moorman; S C Raimondi; C-H Pui; A Baruchel; A Biondi; A J Carroll; E Forestier; P S Gaynon; J Harbott; D O Harms; N Heerema; R Pieters; M Schrappe; L B Silverman; E Vilmer; C J Harrison

2005-01-01

133

Gonadal- and sex-chromosome-dependent sex differences in the circadian system.  

PubMed

Compelling reasons to study the role of sex in the circadian system include the higher rates of sleep disorders in women than in men and evidence that sex steroids modulate circadian control of locomotor activity. To address the issue of sex differences in the circadian system, we examined daily and circadian rhythms in wheel-running activity, electrical activity within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and PER2::LUC-driven bioluminescence of gonadally-intact adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. We observed greater precision of activity onset in 12-hour light, 12-hour dark cycle for male mice, longer activity duration in 24 hours of constant darkness for female mice, and phase-delayed PER2::LUC bioluminescence rhythm in female pituitary and liver. Next, in order to investigate whether sex differences in behavior are sex chromosome or gonadal sex dependent, we used the 4 core genotypes (FCG) mouse model, in which sex chromosome complement is independent of gonadal phenotype. Gonadal males had more androgen receptor expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and behaviorally reduced photic phase shift response compared with gonadal female FCG mice. Removal of circulating gonadal hormones in adults, to test activational vs organizational effects of sex revealed that XX animals have longer activity duration than XY animals regardless of gonadal phenotype. Additionally, we observed that the activational effects of gonadal hormones were more important for regulating activity levels in gonadal male mice than in gonadal female FCG mice. Taken together, sex differences in the circadian rhythms of activity, neuronal physiology, and gene expression were subtle but provide important clues for understanding the pathophysiology of the circadian system. PMID:23439698

Kuljis, Dika A; Loh, Dawn H; Truong, Danny; Vosko, Andrew M; Ong, Margaret L; McClusky, Rebecca; Arnold, Arthur P; Colwell, Christopher S

2013-04-01

134

Gonadal- and Sex-Chromosome-Dependent Sex Differences in the Circadian System  

PubMed Central

Compelling reasons to study the role of sex in the circadian system include the higher rates of sleep disorders in women than in men and evidence that sex steroids modulate circadian control of locomotor activity. To address the issue of sex differences in the circadian system, we examined daily and circadian rhythms in wheel-running activity, electrical activity within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and PER2::LUC-driven bioluminescence of gonadally-intact adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. We observed greater precision of activity onset in 12-hour light, 12-hour dark cycle for male mice, longer activity duration in 24 hours of constant darkness for female mice, and phase-delayed PER2::LUC bioluminescence rhythm in female pituitary and liver. Next, in order to investigate whether sex differences in behavior are sex chromosome or gonadal sex dependent, we used the 4 core genotypes (FCG) mouse model, in which sex chromosome complement is independent of gonadal phenotype. Gonadal males had more androgen receptor expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and behaviorally reduced photic phase shift response compared with gonadal female FCG mice. Removal of circulating gonadal hormones in adults, to test activational vs organizational effects of sex revealed that XX animals have longer activity duration than XY animals regardless of gonadal phenotype. Additionally, we observed that the activational effects of gonadal hormones were more important for regulating activity levels in gonadal male mice than in gonadal female FCG mice. Taken together, sex differences in the circadian rhythms of activity, neuronal physiology, and gene expression were subtle but provide important clues for understanding the pathophysiology of the circadian system. PMID:23439698

Kuljis, Dika A.; Truong, Danny; Vosko, Andrew M.; Ong, Margaret L.; McClusky, Rebecca; Arnold, Arthur P.; Colwell, Christopher S.

2013-01-01

135

Environmental exposure to pyrethroids and sperm sex chromosome disomy: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The role of environmental pesticide exposures, such as pyrethroids, and their relationship to sperm abnormalities are not well understood. This study investigated whether environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with altered frequency of sperm sex chromosome disomy in adult men. Methods A sample of 75 subjects recruited through a Massachusetts infertility clinic provided urine and semen samples. Individual exposures were measured as urinary concentrations of three pyrethroid metabolites ((3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis- and trans- 3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-1-methylcyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (CDCCA and TDCCA)). Multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes X, Y, and 18 was used to determine XX, YY, XY, 1818, and total sex chromosome disomy in sperm nuclei. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the association between aneuploidy rates and pyrethroid metabolites while adjusting for covariates. Results Between 25-56% of the sample were above the limit of detection (LOD) for the pyrethroid metabolites. All sex chromosome disomies were increased by 7-30% when comparing men with CDCCA and TDCCA levels above the LOD to those below the LOD. For 3PBA, compared to those below the LOD, those above the LOD had YY18 disomy rates 1.28 times higher (95% CI: 1.15, 1.42) whereas a reduced rate was seen for XY18 and total disomy (IRR?=?0.82; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.87; IRR?=?0.93; 95% CI: 0.87-0.97), and no association was seen for XX18 and 1818. Conclusions Our findings suggest that urinary concentrations of CDCCA and TDCCA above the LOD were associated with increased rates of aneuploidy. However the findings for 3BPA were not consistent. This is the first study to examine these relationships, and replication of our findings is needed before the association between pyrethroid metabolites and aneuploidy can be fully defined. PMID:24345058

2013-01-01

136

Chromosome abnormalities in Down's syndrome patients with acute leukemia  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome and cytologic studies were performed on three Down's syndrome (DS) patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). All three patients had an aneuploid clone in their leukemic cells: 50,XX, +6, +19, +21, +22, 48,XX, +8, +21, and 47,XY, +8, -21, +dic(21;21)(p13;p11). Every patient appeared to have acute undifferentiated leukemia when the blast cells were examined with Wright-Giemsa stain; cytochemistry studies, however, showed that the leukemic blasts were in an early stage of myeloid differentation. The two patients with +8 had a preleukemic phase; the blast cells of the patient with an extra no. 19 and no. 22 could not be differentiated morphologically from those of the two patients with an extra no. 8. Our findings and a review of data on 40 other patients suggest that most DS children with ANLL have hyperdiploidy, which is usually related to gains of C, F, and/or G chromosomes.

Kaneko, Y. (Univ. of Chicago, IL); Rowley, J.D.; Variakojis, D; Chilcote, R.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Patel, D.

1981-09-01

137

Alterations and Abnormal Mitosis of Wheat Chromosomes Induced by Wheat-Rye Monosomic Addition Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. ‘Mianyang11’×rye S. cereale L. ‘Kustro’ and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with ‘Mianyang11’ followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in ‘Mianyang11’. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat. PMID:23936213

Fu, Shulan; Yang, Manyu; Fei, Yunyan; Tan, Feiquan; Ren, Zhenglong; Yan, Benju; Zhang, Huaiyu; Tang, Zongxiang

2013-01-01

138

A time stamp comparative analysis of frequent chromosomal abnormalities in Romanian patients.  

PubMed

Chromosome abnormalities represent the leading cause in many human genetic disorders. Gain or loss of genetic material can disrupt the normal expression of genes important in fetal development and result in abnormal phenotypes. Approximately 60% of first-trimester spontaneous abortions exhibit karyotype abnormalities. The majority of these abnormalities consist of numerical chromosomal changes, such as autosomal trisomy, monosomy X and polyploidy. In our current study, 411 cases were analyzed over a period of 5 years, which reflected the incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities in Romania. Down syndrome showed the highest frequency at 79%. At 2.6% structural chromosome abnormality syndromes and Turner syndrome followed suit. Next were the Edwards and Patau syndromes with an incidence of 1.2%. Klinefelter, Cri du chat and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes all had an incidence of 0.7%. Finally, the lowest frequencies were shown by Williams at 0.4% and only one case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with abnormal karyotype. The average maternal age at childbirth was 31.15 years (SD?=?6.96) and the average paternal age was 33.41 years (SD?=?7.17). PMID:23570267

Suciu, Nicolae; Plaiasu, Vasilica

2014-01-01

139

Independent stratum formation on the avian sex chromosomes reveals inter-chromosomal gene conversion and predominance of purifying selection on the w chromosome.  

PubMed

We used a comparative approach spanning three species and 90 million years to study the evolutionary history of the avian sex chromosomes. Using whole transcriptomes, we assembled the largest cross-species dataset of W-linked coding content to date. Our results show that recombination suppression in large portions of the avian sex chromosomes has evolved independently, and that long-term sex chromosome divergence is consistent with repeated and independent inversions spreading progressively to restrict recombination. In contrast, over short-term periods we observe heterogeneous and locus-specific divergence. We also uncover four instances of gene conversion between both highly diverged and recently evolved gametologs, suggesting a complex mosaic of recombination suppression across the sex chromosomes. Lastly, evidence from 16 gametologs reveal that the W chromosome is evolving with a significant contribution of purifying selection, consistent with previous findings that W-linked genes play an important role in encoding sex-specific fitness. PMID:25066800

Wright, Alison E; Harrison, Peter W; Montgomery, Stephen H; Pointer, Marie A; Mank, Judith E

2014-11-01

140

Sex differences in juvenile mouse social behavior are influenced by sex chromosomes and social context  

PubMed Central

Play behavior in juvenile primates, rats, and other species is sexually dimorphic, with males demonstrating more play than females. In mice, sex differences in juvenile play have only been examined in out-bred CD-1 mice. In this strain, contrary to other animals, male mice display less play soliciting than females. Using an established same-sex dyadic interaction test, we examined play in inbred C57BL/6J (B6) 21 day-old mice. When paired with non-siblings, males tended to be more social than females, spending more time exploring the test cage. Females displayed significantly more anogenital sniffing and solicited play more frequently than did males. To determine if the origin of the sex difference was sex chromosome genes or gonadal sex, next we used the four core genotype (FCG) mouse. We found significant interactions between gonadal sex and genotype for several behaviors. Finally, we asked if sibling pairs (as compared to non-siblings) would display qualitative or quantitatively different behavior. In fact, XX females paired with a sibling were more social and less exploratory or investigative, while XY males exhibited less investigative and play soliciting behaviors in tests with siblings. Many neurobehavioral disorders, like autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are sexually dimorphic in incidence and patients interact less than normal with other children. Our results suggest that sex chromosome genes interact with gonadal hormones to shape the development of juvenile social behavior, and that social context can drastically alter sex differences. These data may have relevance for understanding the etiology of sexually dimorphic disorders such as ASD. PMID:21414140

Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.

2011-01-01

141

Sex Chromosome Turnover Contributes to Genomic Divergence between Incipient Stickleback Species  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes turn over rapidly in some taxonomic groups, where closely related species have different sex chromosomes. Although there are many examples of sex chromosome turnover, we know little about the functional roles of sex chromosome turnover in phenotypic diversification and genomic evolution. The sympatric pair of Japanese threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) provides an excellent system to address these questions: the Japan Sea species has a neo-sex chromosome system resulting from a fusion between an ancestral Y chromosome and an autosome, while the sympatric Pacific Ocean species has a simple XY sex chromosome system. Furthermore, previous quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping demonstrated that the Japan Sea neo-X chromosome contributes to phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation between these sympatric species. To investigate the genomic basis for the accumulation of genes important for speciation on the neo-X chromosome, we conducted whole genome sequencing of males and females of both the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean species. No substantial degeneration has yet occurred on the neo-Y chromosome, but the nucleotide sequence of the neo-X and the neo-Y has started to diverge, particularly at regions near the fusion. The neo-sex chromosomes also harbor an excess of genes with sex-biased expression. Furthermore, genes on the neo-X chromosome showed higher non-synonymous substitution rates than autosomal genes in the Japan Sea lineage. Genomic regions of higher sequence divergence between species, genes with divergent expression between species, and QTL for inter-species phenotypic differences were found not only at the regions near the fusion site, but also at other regions along the neo-X chromosome. Neo-sex chromosomes can therefore accumulate substitutions causing species differences even in the absence of substantial neo-Y degeneration. PMID:24625862

Yoshida, Kohta; Makino, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Kawata, Masakado; Kume, Manabu; Mori, Seiichi; Peichel, Catherine L.; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kitano, Jun

2014-01-01

142

LEOPARD syndrome with partly normal skin and sex chromosome mosaicism.  

PubMed

We report on a family with LEOPARD syndrome which was molecularly proven (p.Thr468Met in PTPN11) in a father and his adult son. The father had multiple lentigines dispersed equally over his body; the son was similarly affected except for the left part of thorax, back and left arm, which were completely devoid of lentigines and only showed a few nevi. In addition, the son was found to have a mosaic karyotype, 47,XYY/46,XY, in lymphocytes. Skin biopsies from the pigmented and unpigmented forearm showed that mainly a 47,XYY karyotype was present in the pigmented skin and mainly a 46,XY karyotype in the unpigmented skin. In both fibroblast cultures the PTPN11 mutation was present, and no additional mutation could be detected. We discuss the various possible explanations for this phenotype, which include the possibility of coincidence; revertant mosaicism; silencing of a second PTPN11 mutation; gene(s) located on a sex chromosome influencing the phenotype; and epigenetic influences. We favor that the co-occurrence of a sex chromosome mosaicism and mosaicism for skin symptoms in a single patient with LEOPARD syndrome is coincidence, but that mosaicism for LEOPARD skin symptoms in itself may well be more frequent and needs additional studies. Each of the above-hypothesized mechanisms may then remain possible. PMID:17935252

Writzl, Karin; Hoovers, Jan; Sistermans, Erik A; Hennekam, Raoul C M

2007-11-01

143

Heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes in Physalaemus ephippifer (Steindachner, 1864) (Anura, Leiuperidae).  

PubMed

Heteromorphisms between sex chromosomes are rarely found in anurans and sex chromosome differentiation is considered to be a set of recent recurrent events in the evolutionary history of this group. This paper describes for the first time heteromorphic sex chromosomes Z and W in the leiuperid genus Physalaemus. They were found in P. ephippifer, a species of the P. cuvieri group, and corresponded to the eighth pair of its karyotype. The W chromosome differed from the Z chromosome by the presence of an additional segment in the short arm, composed of a distal NOR and an adjacent terminal DAPI-positive C-band. The identification of this sex chromosome pair may help in future investigations into the sex determining genes in the genus Physalaemus. PMID:20882322

Nascimento, Juliana; Quinderé, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Lima, Janaína Reis Ferreira; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

2010-12-01

144

Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

2013-11-26

145

Method of detecting genetic translocations identified with chromosomal abnormalities  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Tkachuk, Douglas (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

146

No prognostic effect of additional chromosomal abnormalities in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 11q23 abnormalities.  

PubMed

This study characterized the additional chromosomal abnormalities (ACA) associated with 11q23 rearrangements in 450 infants and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and examined the impact of these ACA on survival. Overall, 213 (47%) cases had ACA but the incidence varied according to patient age and 11q23 subgroup. Infants and patients with t(4;11)(q21;q23) had the lowest incidence of ACA (50/182 (27%) and 57/216 (26%) respectively), whereas patients with del(11)(q23) had the highest incidence (66/93 (71%)). Del(11)(q23) abnormalities were heterogeneous and occasionally secondary to t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). Thus, patients with del(11)(q23) comprised a separate biological entity, which was clearly distinct from those with an 11q23 translocation. The most frequent specific ACA were trisomy X (n = 38), abnormal 12p (n = 32), abnormal 9p (n = 28) and del(6q) (n = 19). The presence of ACA did not change the 5 year event-free survival estimates among children (56% (95% Cl 46-65%) vs 62% (54-69%)) or infants (22% (15-29%) vs 18% (9-29%)), nor when the different 11q23 subgroups were analyzed separately. This study has conclusively demonstrated that there is no prognostic effect of secondary chromosomal changes in association with 11q23 abnormalities in childhood ALL. However, characterization of these ACA is important to determine their potential role in initiation of MLL driven leukemogenesis. PMID:15744345

Moorman, A V; Raimondi, S C; Pui, C H; Baruchel, A; Biondi, A; Carroll, A J; Forestier, E; Gaynon, P S; Harbott, J; Harms, D O; Heerema, N; Pieters, R; Schrappe, M; Silverman, L B; Vilmer, E; Harrison, C J

2005-04-01

147

Copyright 2004 by the Genetics Society of America Evolutionary Strata on the Chicken Z Chromosome: Implications for Sex  

E-print Network

: Implications for Sex Chromosome Evolution Lori-Jayne Lawson Handley,1 Helene Ceplitis and Hans Ellegren2 feature of sex chromosome evolution, we studied the Z-W sex chromosomes of birds, which have female rather suggest that progressive and stepwise cessation of recombina- tion is a general feature behind sex

Alvarez, Nadir

148

Sex Chromosomes and Karyotype of the (Nearly) Mythical Creature, the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae)  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha) encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae). If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n?=?36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes). 2n?=?36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n?=?38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates. PMID:25119263

Pokorna, Martina Johnson; Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvil, Lukas

2014-01-01

149

Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour  

PubMed Central

Wilms tumour has been reported in association with over 50 different clinical conditions and several abnormal constitutional karyotypes. Conclusive evidence of an increased risk of Wilms tumour exists for only a minority of these conditions, including WT1 associated syndromes, familial Wilms tumour, and certain overgrowth conditions such as Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome. In many reported conditions the rare co?occurrence of Wilms tumour is probably due to chance. However, for several conditions the available evidence cannot either confirm or exclude an increased risk, usually because of the rarity of the syndrome. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that an increased risk of Wilms tumour occurs only in a subset of individuals for some syndromes. The complex clinical and molecular heterogeneity of disorders associated with Wilms tumour, together with the apparent absence of functional links between most of the known predisposition genes, suggests that abrogation of a variety of pathways can promote Wilms tumorigenesis. PMID:16690728

Scott, R H; Stiller, C A; Walker, L; Rahman, N

2006-01-01

150

A Large Pseudoautosomal Region on the Sex Chromosomes of the Frog Silurana tropicalis  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosome divergence has been documented across phylogenetically diverse species, with amphibians typically having cytologically nondiverged (“homomorphic”) sex chromosomes. With an aim of further characterizing sex chromosome divergence of an amphibian, we used “RAD-tags” and Sanger sequencing to examine sex specificity and heterozygosity in the Western clawed frog Silurana tropicalis (also known as Xenopus tropicalis). Our findings based on approximately 20 million genotype calls and approximately 200 polymerase chain reaction-amplified regions across multiple male and female genomes failed to identify a substantially sized genomic region with genotypic hallmarks of sex chromosome divergence, including in regions known to be tightly linked to the sex-determining region. We also found that expression and molecular evolution of genes linked to the sex-determining region did not differ substantially from genes in other parts of the genome. This suggests that the pseudoautosomal region, where recombination occurs, comprises a large portion of the sex chromosomes of S. tropicalis. These results may in part explain why African clawed frogs have such a high incidence of polyploidization, shed light on why amphibians have a high rate of sex chromosome turnover, and raise questions about why homomorphic sex chromosomes are so prevalent in amphibians. PMID:23666865

Bewick, Adam J.; Chain, Frederic J.J.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Sesay, Abdul; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Owens, Nick D.L.; Seifertova, Eva; Krylov, Vladimir; Macha, Jaroslav; Tlapakova, Tereza; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Zarsky, Vojtech; Evans, Ben J.

2013-01-01

151

A large pseudoautosomal region on the sex chromosomes of the frog Silurana tropicalis.  

PubMed

Sex chromosome divergence has been documented across phylogenetically diverse species, with amphibians typically having cytologically nondiverged ("homomorphic") sex chromosomes. With an aim of further characterizing sex chromosome divergence of an amphibian, we used "RAD-tags" and Sanger sequencing to examine sex specificity and heterozygosity in the Western clawed frog Silurana tropicalis (also known as Xenopus tropicalis). Our findings based on approximately 20 million genotype calls and approximately 200 polymerase chain reaction-amplified regions across multiple male and female genomes failed to identify a substantially sized genomic region with genotypic hallmarks of sex chromosome divergence, including in regions known to be tightly linked to the sex-determining region. We also found that expression and molecular evolution of genes linked to the sex-determining region did not differ substantially from genes in other parts of the genome. This suggests that the pseudoautosomal region, where recombination occurs, comprises a large portion of the sex chromosomes of S. tropicalis. These results may in part explain why African clawed frogs have such a high incidence of polyploidization, shed light on why amphibians have a high rate of sex chromosome turnover, and raise questions about why homomorphic sex chromosomes are so prevalent in amphibians. PMID:23666865

Bewick, Adam J; Chain, Frédéric J J; Zimmerman, Lyle B; Sesay, Abdul; Gilchrist, Michael J; Owens, Nick D L; Seifertova, Eva; Krylov, Vladimir; Macha, Jaroslav; Tlapakova, Tereza; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Zarsky, Vojtech; Evans, Ben J

2013-01-01

152

Chromosome 1 abnormalities in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with novel therapies  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration in the bone marrow, serum and/or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chromosome 1 abnormalities in a group of elderly patients (>65 years) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 trial and treated with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone or bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide followed by bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance. We also evaluated the link between chromosome 1 abnormalities and other clinical, genetic and immunophenotypic features by a multivariate logistic regression model. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on immunomagnetically purified plasma cells and bone marrow multiparameter flow cytometry were employed. A multivariate Cox model showed that chromosome 1 abnormalities, age >75 years and a CD19+/CD117? immunophenotype of bone marrow plasma cells were independent risk factors for overall survival in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Moreover, a detrimental effect of thalidomide, even when administered in association with bortezomib, was observed in patients with abnormal chromosome 1 as well as in those with 17p deletion, while the benefit of adding thalidomide to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was noted in patients carrying an aggressive CD19+/CD117? bone marrow plasma cell immunophenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltri-als.gov as #NCT01063179. PMID:25015938

Caltagirone, Simona; Ruggeri, Marina; Aschero, Simona; Gilestro, Milena; Oddolo, Daniela; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Musolino, Caterina; Baldini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Petrucci, Maria T.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Passera, Roberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Omede, Paola

2014-01-01

153

Chromosome 1 abnormalities in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with novel therapies.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration in the bone marrow, serum and/or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chromosome 1 abnormalities in a group of elderly patients (>65 years) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 trial and treated with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone or bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide followed by bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance. We also evaluated the link between chromosome 1 abnormalities and other clinical, genetic and immunophenotypic features by a multivariate logistic regression model. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on immunomagnetically purified plasma cells and bone marrow multiparameter flow cytometry were employed. A multivariate Cox model showed that chromosome 1 abnormalities, age >75 years and a CD19(+)/CD117(-) immunophenotype of bone marrow plasma cells were independent risk factors for overall survival in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Moreover, a detrimental effect of thalidomide, even when administered in association with bortezomib, was observed in patients with abnormal chromosome 1 as well as in those with 17p deletion, while the benefit of adding thalidomide to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was noted in patients carrying an aggressive CD19(+)/CD117(-) bone marrow plasma cell immunophenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltri-als.gov as #NCT01063179. PMID:25015938

Caltagirone, Simona; Ruggeri, Marina; Aschero, Simona; Gilestro, Milena; Oddolo, Daniela; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Musolino, Caterina; Baldini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Petrucci, Maria T; Gaidano, Gianluca; Passera, Roberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Omedč, Paola

2014-10-01

154

The psychological impact of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities diagnosis announcement.  

PubMed

This qualitative study aims to describe the psychological impact of the diagnosis announcement of pathogenic Copy Number Variations (pCNVs). We performed semi-structured interviews of 60 parents of 41 affected children and 5 geneticists who announced the diagnoses. The diagnosis of the best characterized microdeletion syndromes, often defined by patronymic names (e.g. Williams syndrome), is generally made on a clinical basis by geneticists and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Chromosomal microarray, on the contrary, can allow the disclosure of rare pCNVs named after cytogenetic formulas, with poorly known clinical consequences: this makes doctors feel less confident with these diagnosis announcements. The disclosure of pCNVs named after cytogenetic formulas does not facilitate the parental mental representation of the disease, leading some parents to call into question the genotype-phenotype correlation or the very notion of a diagnosis. The announcement of inherited pCNVs can increase the feeling of parental guilt; the disclosure of de novo pCNVs can induce a feeling of "breakage" in the mental representation of the parent-child vertical transmission. In conclusion, our study shows that the disclosure of pCNVs has a significant psychological impact: a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis announcement, including a psychological support, should be systematically warranted. PMID:24055527

Houdayer, Françoise; Gargiulo, Marcela; Frischmann, Martine; Labalme, Audrey; Decullier, Evelyne; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Lesca, Gaetan; Till, Marianne; Sanlaville, Damien; Edery, Patrick; Rossi, Massimiliano

2013-11-01

155

Dissociable Effects of Sry and Sex Chromosome Complement on Activity, Feeding and Anxiety-Related Behaviours in Mice  

PubMed Central

Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine ‘four core genotype’ (FCG) model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression) and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry (‘sex chromosome complement’ effects) to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry) exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry); in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes) XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water) consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i) the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii) dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions. PMID:24009762

Kopsida, Eleni; Lynn, Phoebe M.; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S.; Davies, William

2013-01-01

156

Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.  

PubMed

Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG) model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression) and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects) to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry) exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry); in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes) XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water) consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i) the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii) dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions. PMID:24009762

Kopsida, Eleni; Lynn, Phoebe M; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Davies, William

2013-01-01

157

Abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis in the allotetraploid of Carassius auratus red var. (?)?×?Megalobrama amblycephala (?)  

PubMed Central

Background Allopolyploids generally undergo bivalent pairing at meiosis because only homologous chromosomes pair up. On the other hand, several studies have documented abnormal chromosome behavior during mitosis and meiosis in allopolyploids plants leading to the production of gametes with complete paternal or maternal chromosomes. Polyploidy is relatively rare in animals compared with plants; thus, chromosome behavior at meiosis in the allopolyploid animals is poorly understood. Results Tetraploid hybrids (abbreviated as 4nRB) (4n?=?148, RRBB) of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC) (2n?=?100, RR) (?)?×?Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB) (2n?=?48, BB) (?) generated gametes of different size. To test the genetic composition of these gametes, the gynogenetic offspring and backcross progenies of 4nRB were produced, and their genetic composition were examined by chromosome analysis and FISH. Our results suggest that 4nRB can produce several types of gametes with different genetic compositions, including allotetraploid (RRBB), autotriploid (RRR), autodiploid (RR), and haploid (R) gametes. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence of abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis in an allotetraploid fish. PMID:25178799

2014-01-01

158

Assessemnt of nasal bone in first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities in Khuzestan  

PubMed Central

Background: Fetal nasal bone assessment is a non-invasive procedure that helps provide even greater assurance to patients undergoing their first trimester risk assessment for aneuploidies. Absence or presence of this factor is different in some races. Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate nasal bone in the first trimester of pregnancy in the indigenous population of Khuzestan Province, and to monitor its value in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 2314 pregnant women between 17-43 years old who referred for first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. Gestational age was between 11-13w + 6 days. Nuchal translucency (NT), fetal heart rate (FHR), crown rump length (CRL), and maternal age and maternal blood serum factors (Free HCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and nasal bone were assessed. Finally the risk of trisomies was calculated. The statistical tests are based on the relationship between chromosomal abnormality and the presence or absence of the nasal bone. Results: In 114 cases we could not examine the nasal bone. Also, in 20 cases missed abortion happened without knowing the karyotype. 2173 cases were delivered normal baby, and in seven cases chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed. Nasal bone was absent in all three cases with trisomy 21 and six of 2173 cases with normal phenotype (0.3%). With use of the Fisher exact test (p=0.0001), a significant correlation was found between the absence of the nasal bone and the risk of chromosomal abnormality. Conclusion: Inclusion of the nasal bone in first-trimester combined screening for aneuploidies achieves greater detection rate especially in Down syndrome. PMID:25031576

Masihi, Sara; Barati, Mojgan; Mohamadjafari, Razieh; Hashemi, Marzieh

2014-01-01

159

Effects of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies on Brain Development: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variation in the number of sex chromosomes is a relatively common genetic condition, affecting as many as 1/400 individuals. The sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are associated with characteristic behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, although the degree to which specific individuals are affected can fall within a wide range. Understanding the…

Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.

2009-01-01

160

A role for a neo-sex chromosome in stickleback speciation  

E-print Network

ARTICLES A role for a neo-sex chromosome in stickleback speciation Jun Kitano1 {, Joseph A. Ross1 in threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We first identified a neo-sex chromosome system found of male-specific traits important for reproductive isolation between the Japanese species pair. The neo

Chan, Yingguang

161

The prototype of sex chromosomes found in Korean populations of Rana rugosa.  

PubMed

The seventh largest chromosome in Japanese populations of the frog Rana rugosa morphologically evolved as a sex chromosome. The sex chromosome is XX/XY type in one geographic form and ZZ/ZW type in another. In contrast, the seventh chromosomes are still homomorphic between the sexes in the other two geographic forms: they are more subtelocentric in the Kanto form and subtelocentric in the western Japanese form. To identify a prototype of the sex chromosomes, we extended our investigation in this study to the Korean form, which is supposed to be close to the phylogenetic origin of this species. The karyotype, a sex-linked gene sequence, and mechanisms of sex determination and gonadal differentiation were all examined. In addition, phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mitochondrial gene sequences and the results of crossings between the Korean and Japanese forms. As a consequence, the more subtelocentric seventh chromosome, shared by the Korean and Japanese Kanto forms, was concluded to be the prototype of the sex chromosomes. Starting at the prototype, a whole process of morphological sex chromosome evolution was reconstructed. PMID:12900563

Ogata, M; Lee, J-Y; Kim, S; Ohtani, H; Sekiya, K; Igarashi, T; Hasegawa, Y; Ichikawa, Y; Miura, I

2002-01-01

162

Location, location, location! Monotremes provide unique insights into the evolution of sex chromosome silencing in mammals.  

PubMed

Platypus and echidnas are the only living representative of the egg-laying mammals that diverged 166 million years ago from the mammalian lineage. Despite occupying a key spot in mammalian phylogeny, research on monotremes has been limited by access to material and lack of molecular genetic resources. This has changed recently, and the sequencing of the platypus genome has promoted monotremes into a generally accessible tool in comparative genomics. The most extraordinary aspect of the monotreme genome is an amazingly complex sex chromosomes system that shares extensive homology with bird sex chromosomes and no homology with sex chromosomes of other mammals. This raises important questions about dosage compensation of the five pairs of sex chromosomes in females and meiotic silencing in males, and we are only beginning to unravel possible mechanisms and pathways that may be involved. The homology between monotreme and bird sex chromosomes makes comparison between those species worthwhile, also as they provide a well-defined example where the same sex chromosomes changed from female heterogamety (chicken) to male heterogamety (monotremes). We summarize recent research on monotreme and chicken sex chromosomes and discuss possible mechanisms that may contribute to sex chromosome silencing in monotremes. PMID:19196046

Daish, Tasman; Grützner, Frank

2009-02-01

163

vol. 160, supplement the american naturalist december 2002 Sex Chromosomes and Sexual Selection in Poeciliid Fishes  

E-print Network

vol. 160, supplement the american naturalist december 2002 Sex Chromosomes and Sexual Selection can be strongly influenced by linkage of attractive male traits to the Y chromosome and female preferences to the X chromosome in male heterogametic species. Such linkage patterns are predicted by models

164

Different origins of bird and reptile sex chromosomes inferred from comparative mapping of chicken Z-linked genes.  

PubMed

Recent progress of chicken genome projects has revealed that bird ZW and mammalian XY sex chromosomes were derived from different autosomal pairs of the common ancestor; however, the evolutionary relationship between bird and reptilian sex chromosomes is still unclear. The Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) exhibits genetic sex determination, but no distinguishable (heteromorphic) sex chromosomes have been identified. In order to investigate this further, we performed molecular cytogenetic analyses of this species, and thereby identified ZZ/ZW-type micro-sex chromosomes. In addition, we cloned reptile homologues of chicken Z-linked genes from three reptilian species, the Chinese soft-shelled turtle and the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata), which have heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and the Siam crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis), which exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination and lacks sex chromosomes. We then mapped them to chromosomes of each species using FISH. The linkage of the genes has been highly conserved in all species: the chicken Z chromosome corresponded to the turtle chromosome 6q, snake chromosome 2p and crocodile chromosome 3. The order of the genes was identical among the three species. The absence of homology between the bird Z chromosome and the snake and turtle Z sex chromosomes suggests that the origin of the sex chromosomes and the causative genes of sex determination are different between birds and reptiles. PMID:17675849

Kawai, A; Nishida-Umehara, C; Ishijima, J; Tsuda, Y; Ota, H; Matsuda, Y

2007-01-01

165

Uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14 in two cases: An abnormal child and a normal adult  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental disomy (UPD) of a number of different chromosomes has been found in association with abnormal phenotypes. A growing body of evidence for an imprinting effect involving chromosome 14 has been accumulating. We report on a case of paternal UPD of chromosome 14 studied in late gestation due to polyhydramnios and a ventral wall hernia. A prenatal karyotype documented a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation. The baby was born prematurely with hairy forehead, retrognathia, mild puckering of the lips and finger contractures. Hypotonia has persisted since birth and at age one year, a tracheostomy for laryngomalacia and gastrostomy for feeding remain necessary. Absence of maternal VNTR polymorphisms and homozygosity of paternal polymorphisms using chromosome 14 specific probes at D14S22 and D14S13 loci indicated paternal uniparental isodisomy (pUPID). Parental chromosomes were normal. We also report on a case of maternal LTPD in a normal patient with a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation and a history of multiple miscarriages. Five previous reports of chromosome 14 UPD suggest that an adverse developmental effect may be more severe whenever the UPD is paternal in origin. This is the second reported patient with paternal UPD and the fifth reported with maternal UPD, and only few phenotypic similarities are apparent. Examination of these chromosome 14 UPD cases of maternal and paternal origin suggests that there are syndromic imprinting effects. 30 refs., 3 figs.

Papenhausen, P.R.; Mueller, O.T.; Sutcliffe, M.; Diamond, T.M.; Kousseff, B.G. [Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Johnson, V.P. [Univ. of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD (United States)

1995-11-20

166

Clinical and molecular cytogenetic studies in ring chromosome 5: report of a child with congenital abnormalities.  

PubMed

We report here a child with a ring chromosome 5 (r(5)) associated with facial dysmorphology and multiple congenital abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones was performed to determine the breakpoints involved in the r(5). The 5p deletion extended from 5p13.2-3 to 5pter and measured 34.61 Mb (range: 33.7-35.52 Mb) while the 5q deletion extended from 5q35.3 to 5qter and measured 2.44 Mb (range: 2.31-2.57 Mb). The patient presented signs such as microcephaly, hypertelorism, micrognathia and epicanthal folds, partially recalling those of a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and the "cri-du-chat" syndrome. The most striking phenotypic features were the congenital heart abnormalities which have been frequently reported in deletions of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 5 and in rings leading to a 5q35-5qter deletion. However, the NKX2-5 gene, which has been related to congenital heart defects, was not deleted in our patient, nor presumably to some other patients with 5q35.3-5qter deletion. We propose that VEGFR3, deleted in our patient, could be a candidate gene for the congenital heart abnormalities observed. PMID:22193390

Basinko, Audrey; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Scarselli, Gloria; Priolo, Manuela; Timpani, Giuseppina; De Braekeleer, Marc

2012-02-01

167

Additional chromosome abnormalities in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by the t(15;17). The incidence and prognostic significance of additional chromosomal abnormalities in acute promyelocytic leukemia is still a controversial matter. Design and Methods Based on cytogenetic data available for 495 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia enrolled in two consecutive PETHEMA trials (LPA96 and LPA99), we analyzed the incidence, characteristics, and outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia with and without additional chromosomal abnormalities who had been treated with all-trans retinoic acid plus anthracycline monochemotherapy for induction and consolidation. Results Additional chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 140 patients (28%). Trisomy 8 was the most frequent abnormality (36%), followed by abn(7q) (5%). Patients with additional chromosomal abnormalities more frequently had coagulopathy (P=0.03), lower platelet counts (P=0.02), and higher relapse-risk scores (P=0.02) than their counterparts without additional abnormalities. No significant association with FLT3/ITD or other clinicopathological characteristics was demonstrated. Patients with and without additional chromosomal abnormalities had similar complete remission rates (90% and 91%, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that additional chromosomal abnormalities were associated with a lower relapse-free survival in the LPA99 trial (P=0.04), but not in the LPA96 trial. However, neither additional chromosomal abnormalities overall nor any specific abnormality was identified as an independent risk factor for relapse in multivariate analysis. Conclusions The lack of independent prognostic value of additional chromosomal abnormalities in acute promyelocytic leukemia does not support the use of alternative therapeutic strategies when such abnormalities are found. PMID:19903674

Cervera, Jose; Montesinos, Pau; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus M.; Calasanz, Maria J.; Aventin, Anna; Ferro, Maria T.; Luno, Elisa; Sanchez, Javier; Vellenga, Edo; Rayon, Chelo; Milone, Gustavo; de la Serna, Javier; Rivas, Concha; Gonzalez, Jose D.; Tormo, Mar; Amutio, Elena; Gonzalez, Marcos; Brunet, Salut; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A.

2010-01-01

168

Multiple Sex-Associated Regions and a Putative Sex Chromosome in Zebrafish Revealed by RAD Mapping and Population Genomics  

PubMed Central

Within vertebrates, major sex determining genes can differ among taxa and even within species. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified. Furthermore, environmental factors can influence zebrafish sex determination. Although progress has been made in understanding zebrafish gonad differentiation (e.g. the influence of germ cells on gonad fate), the primary genetic basis of zebrafish sex determination remains poorly understood. To identify genetic loci associated with sex, we analyzed F2 offspring of reciprocal crosses between Oregon *AB and Nadia (NA) wild-type zebrafish stocks. Genome-wide linkage analysis, using more than 5,000 sequence-based polymorphic restriction site associated (RAD-tag) markers and population genomic analysis of more than 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in our *ABxNA crosses revealed a sex-associated locus on the end of the long arm of chr-4 for both cross families, and an additional locus in the middle of chr-3 in one cross family. Additional sequencing showed that two SNPs in dmrt1 previously suggested to be functional candidates for sex determination in a cross of ABxIndia wild-type zebrafish, are not associated with sex in our AB fish. Our data show that sex determination in zebrafish is polygenic and that different genes may influence sex determination in different strains or that different genes become more important under different environmental conditions. The association of the end of chr-4 with sex is remarkable because, unique in the karyotype, this chromosome arm shares features with known sex chromosomes: it is highly heterochromatic, repetitive, late replicating, and has reduced recombination. Our results reveal that chr-4 has functional and structural properties expected of a sex chromosome. PMID:22792396

Anderson, Jennifer L.; Rodriguez Mari, Adriana; Braasch, Ingo; Amores, Angel; Hohenlohe, Paul; Batzel, Peter; Postlethwait, John H.

2012-01-01

169

Persistent Mosaicism for 12p Duplication/Triplication Chromosome Structural Abnormality in Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

We present a rare case of mosaicism for a structural abnormality of chromosome 12 in a patient with phenotypic features of Pallister-Killian syndrome. A six-month-old child with dysmorphic features, exotropia, hypotonia, and developmental delay was mosaic for both a normal karyotype and a cell line with 12p duplication/triplication in 25 percent of metaphase cells. Utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified three copies of probes from the end of the short arm of chromosome 12 (TEL(12p13) locus and the subtelomere (12p terminal)) on the structurally abnormal chromosome 12. Genome-wide SNP array analysis revealed that the regions of duplication and triplication were of maternal origin. The abnormal cell line in our patient was present at 25 percent at six months and 19 months of age in both metaphase and interphase cells from peripheral blood, where typically the isochromosome 12p is absent in the newborn. This may suggest that the gene(s) resulting in a growth disadvantage of abnormal cells in peripheral blood of patients with tetrasomy 12p may not have the same influence when present in only three copies. PMID:24151566

Shackelford, Amy L.; Conlin, Laura K.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Wenger, Sharon L.

2013-01-01

170

The origin and evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation  

PubMed Central

In mammals, birds, snakes and many lizards and fish, sex is determined genetically (either male XY heterogamy or female ZW heterogamy), whereas in alligators, and in many reptiles and turtles, the temperature at which eggs are incubated determines sex. Evidently, different sex-determining systems (and sex chromosome pairs) have evolved independently in different vertebrate lineages. Homology shared by Xs and Ys (and Zs and Ws) within species demonstrates that differentiated sex chromosomes were once homologous, and that the sex-specific non-recombining Y (or W) was progressively degraded. Consequently, genes are left in single copy in the heterogametic sex, which results in an imbalance of the dosage of genes on the sex chromosomes between the sexes, and also relative to the autosomes. Dosage compensation has evolved in diverse species to compensate for these dose differences, with the stringency of compensation apparently differing greatly between lineages, perhaps reflecting the concentration of genes on the original autosome pair that required dosage compensation. We discuss the organization and evolution of amniote sex chromosomes, and hypothesize that dosage insensitivity might predispose an autosome to evolving function as a sex chromosome. PMID:22086077

Livernois, A M; Graves, J A M; Waters, P D

2012-01-01

171

Quantitative fluorescent-PCR detection of sex chromosome aneuploidies and AZF deletions/duplications.  

PubMed

The most common genetic causes of spermatogenic failure are sex chromosomal abnormalities (most frequently Klinefelter's syndrome) and deletions of the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions (AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc) of the Y chromosome. Several studies have proposed that partial AZFc deletions/duplications may be a risk factor for spermatogenic impairment. We describe a multiplex quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) method that allows simultaneous detection of these genetic causes and risk factors of male infertility. The 11-plex QF-PCR permitted the amplification of the amelogenin gene, four polymorphic X-specific short tandem repeat (STR) markers (XHPRT, DXS6803, DXS981, and exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene), nonpolymorphic Y-specific marker (SRY gene), polymorphic Y-specific STR marker (DYS448), and coamplification of DAZ/DAZL, MYPT2Y/MYPT2, and two CDY2/CDY1 fragments that allow for determination of the DAZ, MYPT2Y, and CDY gene copy number. A total of 357 DNA samples from infertile/subfertile men (n = 205) and fertile controls (n = 152) was studied. We detected 14 infertile males with sex chromosome aneuploidy (10 with Klinefelter's syndrome, 2 XX, and 2 XYY males). All previously detected AZF deletions, that is, AZFc (n8), AZFb (n1), AZFb + c (n1), gr/gr (n11), gr/gr with b2/b4 duplication (n3), and b2/b3 (n5), gave a specific pattern with the 11-plex QF-PCR. In addition, 32 DNA samples showed a pattern consistent with presence of gr/gr or b2/b4 and 4 with b2/b3 duplication. We conclude that multiplex QF-PCR is a rapid, simple, reliable, and inexpensive method that can be used as a first-step genetic analysis in infertile/subfertile patients. PMID:19072570

Plaseski, Toso; Noveski, Predrag; Trivodalieva, Svetlana; Efremov, Georgi D; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

2008-12-01

172

Sex chromosome organization Cytogenet Genome Res 99:310314 (2002)  

E-print Network

and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo; b Division of Human Genetics, Department of Integrated Genetics X chromosome in Drosophila and downregulation of both X chromosomes in hermaphrodite Caenorhabditis

McQueen, Heather

173

The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes Tariq Ezaz1*, Alexander E. Quinn2  

E-print Network

The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes Tariq Ezaz1*, Alexander E. Quinn, heterochromatinization, microchromosomes, sex chromosomes Abstract The bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae determination (GSD). P. vitticeps is reported to have GSD, but no detectable sex chromosomes. Here we used

Canberra, University of

174

Independent Origins of New Sex-Linked Chromosomes in the melanica and robusta Species Groups of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent translocations of autosomal regions to the sex chromosomes represent important systems for identifying the evolutionary forces affecting convergent patterns of sex-chromosome heteromorphism. Additions to the sex chromosomes have been reported in the melanica and robusta species groups, two sister clades of Drosophila. The close relationship between these two species groups and the similarity of their rearranged karyotypes motivates

Sergio V Flores; Amy L Evans; Bryant F McAllister

2008-01-01

175

Scientists find that chromosomal abnormalities are associated with aging and cancer  

Cancer.gov

Two new studies have found that large structural abnormalities in chromosomes, some of which have been associated with increased risk of cancer, can be detected in a small fraction of people without a prior history of cancer. These studies were conducted by two consortia, one led by scientists at the National Cancer Institute, and one by Gene Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) which is sponsored by the National Human Genome Research Institute.

176

Overview of Epidemiology, Genetics, Birth Defects, and Chromosome Abnormalities Associated With CDH  

PubMed Central

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and well-studied birth defect. The etiology of most cases remains unknown but increasing evidence points to genetic causation. The data supporting genetic etiologies which are detailed below include the association of CDH with recurring chromosome abnormalities, the existence of CDH-multiplex families, and the co-occurrence of CDH with additional congenital malformations. PMID:17436298

Pober, Barbara R.

2010-01-01

177

Sequential gene targeting to make chimeric tumor models with de novo chromosomal abnormalities.  

PubMed

The discovery of chromosomal translocations in leukemia/lymphoma and sarcomas presaged a widespread discovery in epithelial tumors. With the advent of new-generation whole-genome sequencing, many consistent chromosomal abnormalities have been described together with putative driver and passenger mutations. The multiple genetic changes required in mouse models to assess the interrelationship of abnormalities and other mutations are severe limitations. Here, we show that sequential gene targeting of embryonic stem cells can be used to yield progenitor cells to generate chimeric offspring carrying all the genetic changes needed for cell-specific cancer. Illustrating the technology, we show that MLL-ENL fusion is sufficient for lethal leukocytosis and proof of genome integrity comes from germline transmission of the sequentially targeted alleles. This accelerated technology leads to a reduction in mouse numbers (contributing significantly to the 3Rs), allows fluorescence tagging of cancer-initiating cells, and provides a flexible platform for interrogating the interaction of chromosomal abnormalities with mutations. PMID:24419086

Chambers, Jennifer S; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Brend, Tim; Ali, Hanif; Geisler, Nicola J; Khazin, Leah; Cigudosa, Juan C; Dear, T Neil; MacLennan, Kenneth; Rabbitts, Terence H

2014-03-01

178

C-banded karyotypes of two Silene species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Silene latifolia (white campion) and Silene dioica (red campion) were studied and no substantial differences between the conventional karyotypes of these two species were detected. The classification of chromosomes into three distinct groups proposed for S. latifolia by Ciupercescu and colleagues was considered and discussed. Additionally, a new small satellite on the shorter arm of homobrachial chromosome 5 was found. Giemsa C-banded chromosomes of the two analysed species show many fixed and polymorphic heterochromatic bands, mainly distally and centromerically located. Our C-banding studies provided an opportunity to better characterize the sex chromosomes and some autosome types, and to detect differences between the two Silene karyotypes. It was shown that S. latifolia possesses a larger amount of polymorphic heterochromatin, especially of the centromeric type. The two Silene sex chromosomes are easily distinguishable not only by length or DNA amount differences but also by their Giemsa C-banding patterns. All Y chromosomes invariably show only one distally located band, and no other fixed or polymorphic bands on this chromosome were observed in either species. The X chromosomes possess two terminally located fixed bands, and some S. latifolia X chromosomes also have an extra-centric segment of variable length. The heterochromatin amount and distribution revealed by our Giemsa C-banding studies provide a clue to the problem of sex chromosome and karyotype evolution in these two closely related dioecious Silene species. PMID:11962621

Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2002-04-01

179

Placental C4d as a common feature of chromosomally normal and abnormal miscarriages.  

PubMed

Placental C4d deposition is a feature of classical complement pathway activation and has been documented in various obstetrical settings. However, it is unknown whether placental C4d deposition is present in miscarriages and its frequency is different between chromosomally normal and abnormal miscarriages. This study was conducted to assess villous C4d deposition in miscarriages and to determine whether its frequency is different between chromosomally normal and abnormal miscarriages. Tissue samples (N?=?58) of elective abortions (n?=?20), miscarriages with normal chromosomes (n?=?15), trisomy 16 (n?=?13), and trisomy 22 (n?=?10) were analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining for C4d and CD138 was done. Placental C4d deposition was defined as linear C4d immunoreactivity along the syncytiotrophoblast. Placental C4d immunoreactivity was detected in 73.3 % (11/15) and 56.5 % (13/23) of miscarriages with normal chromosomes and trisomy cases, respectively, while it was found in 5 % (1/20) of elective abortions (p?chromosomes and trisomy cases, respectively, but not in elective abortions (p?=?0.07 and 0.01, for each). The frequencies of C4d deposition (46.2 vs. 70.0 %) and chronic deciduitis (38.5 vs. 20.0 %) were not also different between trisomy 16 and trisomy 22 cases. Placental C4d deposition is a prominent feature of miscarriages regardless of their chromosomal status. The overall findings suggest that complement-mediated placental injury is a common pathology of miscarriage with diagnostic values in routine pathology practice. PMID:24671647

Lee, Joong Yeup; Hong, Joon-Seok; Kim, Eun Na; Ahn, Soyeon; Choe, Jin; Hwang, Doyeong; Kim, Ki Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Chong Jai

2014-05-01

180

Sex chromosome system ZZ/ZW in Apareiodon hasemani Eigenmann, 1916 (Characiformes, Parodontidae) and a derived chromosomal region  

PubMed Central

Parodontidae fish show few morphological characteristics for the identification of their representatives and chromosomal analyses have provided reliable features for determining the interrelationships in this family. In this study, the chromosomes of Apareiodon hasemani from the Săo Francisco River basin, Brazil, were analyzed and showed a karyotype with 2n = 54 meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The study revealed active NORs located on pair 11 and additional 18S rDNA sites on pairs 7 and 22. The 5S rDNA locus was found in pair 14. It showed a pericentric inversion regarding the ancestral condition. The satellite DNA pPh2004 was absent in the chromosomes of A. hasemani, a shared condition with most members of Apareiodon. The WAp probe was able to detect the amplification region of the W chromosome, corroborating the common origin of the system within Parodontidae. These chromosomal data corroborate an origin for the ZW system of Parodontidae and aid in the understanding of the differentiation of sex chromosome systems in Neotropical fishes. PMID:23271937

Bellafronte, Elisangela; Schemberger, Michelle Orane; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Filho, Orlando Moreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

2012-01-01

181

Sex chromosome system ZZ/ZW in Apareiodon hasemani Eigenmann, 1916 (Characiformes, Parodontidae) and a derived chromosomal region.  

PubMed

Parodontidae fish show few morphological characteristics for the identification of their representatives and chromosomal analyses have provided reliable features for determining the interrelationships in this family. In this study, the chromosomes of Apareiodon hasemani from the Săo Francisco River basin, Brazil, were analyzed and showed a karyotype with 2n = 54 meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The study revealed active NORs located on pair 11 and additional 18S rDNA sites on pairs 7 and 22. The 5S rDNA locus was found in pair 14. It showed a pericentric inversion regarding the ancestral condition. The satellite DNA pPh2004 was absent in the chromosomes of A. hasemani, a shared condition with most members of Apareiodon. The WAp probe was able to detect the amplification region of the W chromosome, corroborating the common origin of the system within Parodontidae. These chromosomal data corroborate an origin for the ZW system of Parodontidae and aid in the understanding of the differentiation of sex chromosome systems in Neotropical fishes. PMID:23271937

Bellafronte, Elisangela; Schemberger, Michelle Orane; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Filho, Orlando Moreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

2012-12-01

182

Possible causes of chromosome instability: comparison of chromosomal abnormalities in cancer cell lines with mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHK2 and BUB1.  

PubMed

A large proportion of epithelial cancers show the chromosome-instability phenotype, in which they have many chromosome abnormalities. This is thought to be the result of mutations that disrupt chromosome maintenance, but the causative mutations are not known. We identified cell lines known to have mutations that might cause chromosome instability, and examined their karyotypes. Two cell lines, the breast cancer line HCC1937 and the pancreatic cancer line CAPAN-1, that have mutations respectively in BRCA1 and BRCA2, had very abnormal karyotypes, with many structural and numerical chromosome changes and substantial variation between metaphases. However, two colorectal cancer lines with mutations in BUB1, a spindle checkpoint protein involved in chromosome segregation, had rather simple near-tetraploid karyotypes, with minimal loss or gain of chromosomes other than the endoreduplication event, and minimal structural change. Apart from tetraploidy, these karyotypes were typical of colorectal lines considered to be chromosomally stable. Two lines derived from the same tumour, DLD-1 and HCT-15, with bi-allelic mutation of CHK2, had karyotypes that were typical of near-diploid colorectal lines considered chromosomally stable. The karyotypes observed supported the proposed role for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in chromosomal instability, but showed that the tested mutations in BUB1 and CHK2 did not result in karyotypes that would have been predicted if they were sufficient for chromosomal instability. PMID:15162061

Grigorova, M; Staines, J M; Ozdag, H; Caldas, C; Edwards, P A W

2004-01-01

183

Limb malformations and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in frogs.  

PubMed Central

Declines in amphibian populations, and amphibians with gross malformations, have prompted concern regarding the biological status of many anuran species. A survey of bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, and green frogs, Rana clamitans, conducted in central and southern New Hampshire showed malformed frogs at 81% of the sites sampled (13 of 16 sites). Brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the synthesis of androgens and estradiol, hormones essential to reproductive processes, were measured from limb-malformed and normal (no limb malformation) frogs. Normal frogs had significantly higher concentrations (nearly 3-fold) of in vitro produced androgens and of brain GnRH than malformed frogs. Because most malformations are thought to occur during development, we propose that environmental factors or endocrine-disrupting chemicals that may cause developmental abnormalities also act during early development to ultimately cause abnormally reduced GnRH and androgen production in adult frogs. The consequences of reduced GnRH and androgens on anuran reproductive behavior and population dynamics are unknown but certainly may be profound and warrant further research. PMID:11102301

Sower, S A; Reed, K L; Babbitt, K J

2000-01-01

184

Genomic imprinting as a probable explanation for variable intrafamilial phenotypic expression of an unusual chromosome 3 abnormality  

SciTech Connect

We present a 4 generation family in which an abnormal chromosome 3 with dup(3)(q25) segregated from great-grandmother to grandmother to son without phenotypic effect. The son`s 2 daughters have dysmorphic features, mild developmental delays and congenital heart disease. Both girls have the abnormal chr. 3 but are the only family members with the abnormality to have phenotypic effects. An unaffected son of the father has normal chromosomes. FISH with whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 14, 18, and 22 excluded these as the origin of the extra material. Chromosome 3-specific paint revealed a uniform pattern, suggesting that the extra material is from chromosome 3. Comparative genomic hybridization and DNA studies are pending. Possible explanations for the discordance in phenotypes between the 4th generation offspring and the first 3 generations include: an undetected rearrangement in the previous generations that is unbalanced in the two affected individuals; the chromosome abnormality may be a benign variant and unrelated to the phenotype; or, most likely, genomic imprinting. Genomic imprinting is suggested by the observation that a phenotypic effect was only seen after the chromosome was inherited from the father. The mothers in the first two generations appear to have passed the abnormal chr. 3 on without effect. This is an opportunity to delineate a region of the human genome affected by paternal imprinting.

Fryburg, J.S.; Shashi, V.; Kelly, T.E. [Univ. of Virginia Health Science Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

185

Primitive sex chromosomes in poeciliid fishes harbor simple repetitive DNA sequences.  

PubMed

The demonstration of the chromosomal mode of sex determination via genetic experiments as well as the absence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes affirm poeciliid fishes as a unique group among vertebrates that are endowed with the most primitive form of sex chromosomes. In many different taxa the evolutionary process involved in the differentiation of advanced sex chromosomes is outlined through sex specifically organized repetitive sequences. In this investigation hybridization of synthetic probes specific to genomic simple repeat motifs uncovers a sex-specific hybridization pattern in certain viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae. The hybridization pattern together with specific staining of the constitutive heterochromatin by C-banding reveals heterogamety in males (Poecilia reticulata) as well as in females (P. sphenops). In P. velifera, however, C-banding alone fails to unravel the heterogametic status. The female specific W-chromosome can be detected by simple repetitive sequence probes. Therefore, the principal significance of heterochromatization as a means of generating differentiated sex chromosomes is evident. PMID:8436922

Nanda, I; Schartl, M; Epplen, J T; Feichtinger, W; Schmid, M

1993-03-01

186

Non-random structural chromosomal changes in ovarian cancer: i(5p) a novel recurrent abnormality.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer represents the leading cause of death among patients with gynecological cancer. The genetic changes underlying the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer have not been well defined. However, non-random structural chromosomal changes have been identified with common chromosomal breakpoints. We have studied cytogenetically 15 cases of ovarian adenocarcinomas by a direct culture of cancer cells and a G-banding technique investigating the presence of recurrent structural aberrations with common chromosomal breakpoints. Among very complex structural rearrangements found, we could recognize recurrent structural aberrations involving according to frequency chromosomal regions 3p13-14, 11p15, 19q13, 3q21, 11q23, 11q10, 1p13, 1p36, and 17q24-25. Isochromosomes i(5p), i(17q), i(8q) and i(11q) were also observed. Isochromosome i(5p), rarely reported in ovarian cancer was found in seven cases suggesting that it may be a novel recurrent abnormality. Translocations t(1;11), t(3;19), t(3;17), t(7;11) and t(11;17) were also identified. Conventional cytogenetics continues to be valuable detecting the presence of non-random chromosomal breakpoints and facilitating the identification of genes implicated in tumorigenesis. PMID:15927360

Panani, Anna D; Roussos, Charis

2006-04-01

187

How did the platypus get its sex chromosome chain? A comparison of meiotic multiples and sex chromosomes in plants and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duck-billed platypus is an extraordinary mammal. Its chromosome complement is no less extraordinary, for it includes a\\u000a system in which ten sex chromosomes form an extensive meiotic chain in males. Such meiotic multiples are unprecedented in\\u000a vertebrates but occur sporadically in plant and invertebrate species. In this paper, we review the evolution and formation\\u000a of meiotic multiples in plants

Frank Gruetzner; Terry Ashley; David M. Rowell; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

2006-01-01

188

Cytonuclear equilibrium following interspecific introgression in a turtle lacking sex chromosomes  

E-print Network

Cytonuclear equilibrium following interspecific introgression in a turtle lacking sex chromosomes identified a population of false map turtles (Graptemys pseudogeo- graphica) that hybridized historically with the common map turtle (Graptemys geographica), but were subse- quently isolated from interbreeding

Myers, Erin M.

189

Accumulation of Y-specific satellite DNAs during the evolution of Rumex acetosa sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the molecular structure of young heteromorphic sex chromosomes of plants has shed light on the evolutionary forces\\u000a that control the differentiation of the X and Y during the earlier stages of their evolution. We have used the model plant\\u000a Rumex acetosa, a dioecious species with multiple sex chromosomes, 2n = 12 + XX female and 2n = 12 + XY1Y2 male, to analyse the significance

Beatrice Mariotti; Susana Manzano; Eduard Kejnovský; Boris Vyskot; Manuel Jamilena

2009-01-01

190

Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:24327996

Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

191

Plant genetics. A Y-chromosome-encoded small RNA acts as a sex determinant in persimmons.  

PubMed

In plants, multiple lineages have evolved sex chromosomes independently, providing a powerful comparative framework, but few specific determinants controlling the expression of a specific sex have been identified. We investigated sex determinants in the Caucasian persimmon, Diospyros lotus, a dioecious plant with heterogametic males (XY). Male-specific short nucleotide sequences were used to define a male-determining region. A combination of transcriptomics and evolutionary approaches detected a Y-specific sex-determinant candidate, OGI, that displays male-specific conservation among Diospyros species. OGI encodes a small RNA targeting the autosomal MeGI gene, a homeodomain transcription factor regulating anther fertility in a dosage-dependent fashion. This identification of a feminizing gene suppressed by a Y-chromosome-encoded small RNA contributes to our understanding of the evolution of sex chromosome systems in higher plants. PMID:25359977

Akagi, Takashi; Henry, Isabelle M; Tao, Ryutaro; Comai, Luca

2014-10-31

192

Convergent Evolution of Chromosomal Sex-Determining Regions in the Animal and Fungal Kingdoms  

PubMed Central

Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and by mating type (MAT) loci in fungi. Comparative analysis of the MAT locus from a species cluster of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus revealed sequential evolutionary events that fashioned this large, highly unusual region. We hypothesize that MAT evolved via four main steps, beginning with acquisition of genes into two unlinked sex-determining regions, forming independent gene clusters that then fused via chromosomal translocation. A transitional tripolar intermediate state then converted to a bipolar system via gene conversion or recombination between the linked and unlinked sex-determining regions. MAT was subsequently subjected to intra- and interallelic gene conversion and inversions that suppress recombination. These events resemble those that shaped mammalian sex chromosomes, illustrating convergent evolution in sex-determining structures in the animal and fungal kingdoms. PMID:15538538

2004-01-01

193

Inflammatory Cytokines in Maternal Circulation and Placenta of Chromosomally Abnormal First Trimester Miscarriages  

PubMed Central

The impact of abnormal placental karyotype on the inflammatory response within the villous tissue and peripheral circulation of women with miscarriage was evaluated. Villous (n = 38) and venous blood samples (n = 26) were obtained from women with missed miscarriage. Tissue chromosome analysis indicated 23 abnormal and 15 normal karyotypes. Concentration of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, and interleukin (IL)-10 were measured using flowcytometric bead array in fresh villous homogenate, cultured villous extracts, culture medium, maternal whole blood, and plasma. Plasma TNF?/IL-10 ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in miscarriages with abnormal karyotype. In the abnormal karyotype group, there were significantly higher levels of TNF? (P < 0.01), IL-10 (P < 0.01), TNF-R1 (P < 0.001), and TNF-R2 (P < 0.001) in the villous extracts and culture-conditioned medium compared to normal karyotype group. In miscarriage with abnormal karyotype, there is an exacerbated placental inflammatory response, in contrast to miscarriage of normal karyotype where maternal systemic response is increased. PMID:21977049

Calleja-Agius, Jean; Jauniaux, Eric; Muttukrishna, Shanthi

2012-01-01

194

Deciphering neo-sex and B chromosome evolution by the draft genome of Drosophila albomicans  

PubMed Central

Background Drosophila albomicans is a unique model organism for studying both sex chromosome and B chromosome evolution. A pair of its autosomes comprising roughly 40% of the whole genome has fused to the ancient X and Y chromosomes only about 0.12 million years ago, thereby creating the youngest and most gene-rich neo-sex system reported to date. This species also possesses recently derived B chromosomes that show non-Mendelian inheritance and significantly influence fertility. Methods We sequenced male flies with B chromosomes at 124.5-fold genome coverage using next-generation sequencing. To characterize neo-Y specific changes and B chromosome sequences, we also sequenced inbred female flies derived from the same strain but without B's at 28.5-fold. Results We assembled a female genome and placed 53% of the sequence and 85% of the annotated proteins into specific chromosomes, by comparison with the 12 Drosophila genomes. Despite its very recent origin, the non-recombining neo-Y chromosome shows various signs of degeneration, including a significant enrichment of non-functional genes compared to the neo-X, and an excess of tandem duplications relative to other chromosomes. We also characterized a B-chromosome linked scaffold that contains an actively transcribed unit and shows sequence similarity to the subcentromeric regions of both the ancient X and the neo-X chromosome. Conclusions Our results provide novel insights into the very early stages of sex chromosome evolution and B chromosome origination, and suggest an unprecedented connection between the births of these two systems in D. albomicans. PMID:22439699

2012-01-01

195

Postzygotic isolation involves strong mitochondrial and sex-specific effects in Tigriopus californicus, a species lacking heteromorphic sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

Detailed studies of the genetics of speciation have focused on a few model systems, particularly Drosophila. The copepod Tigriopus californicus offers an alternative that differs from standard animal models in that it lacks heteromorphic chromosomes (instead, sex determination is polygenic) and has reduced opportunities for sexual conflict, because females mate only once. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was conducted on reciprocal F2 hybrids between two strongly differentiated populations, using a saturated linkage map spanning all 12 autosomes and the mitochondrion. By comparing sexes, a possible sex ratio distorter was found but no sex chromosomes. Although studies of standard models often find an excess of hybrid male sterility factors, we found no QTL for sterility and multiple QTL for hybrid viability (indicated by non-Mendelian adult ratios) and other characters. Viability problems were found to be stronger in males, but the usual explanations for weaker hybrid males (sex chromosomes, sensitivity of spermatogenesis, sexual selection) cannot fully account for these male viability problems. Instead, higher metabolic rates may amplify deleterious effects in males. Although many studies of standard speciation models find the strongest genetic incompatibilities to be nuclear-nuclear (specifically X chromosome-autosome), we found the strongest deleterious interaction in this system was mito-nuclear. Consistent with the snowball theory of incompatibility accumulation, we found that trigenic interactions in this highly divergent cross were substantially more frequent (>6×) than digenic interactions. This alternative system thus allows important comparisons to studies of the genetics of reproductive isolation in more standard model systems. PMID:23860232

Foley, B R; Rose, C G; Rundle, D E; Leong, W; Edmands, S

2013-11-01

196

Postzygotic isolation involves strong mitochondrial and sex-specific effects in Tigriopus californicus, a species lacking heteromorphic sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Detailed studies of the genetics of speciation have focused on a few model systems, particularly Drosophila. The copepod Tigriopus californicus offers an alternative that differs from standard animal models in that it lacks heteromorphic chromosomes (instead, sex determination is polygenic) and has reduced opportunities for sexual conflict, because females mate only once. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was conducted on reciprocal F2 hybrids between two strongly differentiated populations, using a saturated linkage map spanning all 12 autosomes and the mitochondrion. By comparing sexes, a possible sex ratio distorter was found but no sex chromosomes. Although studies of standard models often find an excess of hybrid male sterility factors, we found no QTL for sterility and multiple QTL for hybrid viability (indicated by non-Mendelian adult ratios) and other characters. Viability problems were found to be stronger in males, but the usual explanations for weaker hybrid males (sex chromosomes, sensitivity of spermatogenesis, sexual selection) cannot fully account for these male viability problems. Instead, higher metabolic rates may amplify deleterious effects in males. Although many studies of standard speciation models find the strongest genetic incompatibilities to be nuclear–nuclear (specifically X chromosome–autosome), we found the strongest deleterious interaction in this system was mito–nuclear. Consistent with the snowball theory of incompatibility accumulation, we found that trigenic interactions in this highly divergent cross were substantially more frequent (>6 × ) than digenic interactions. This alternative system thus allows important comparisons to studies of the genetics of reproductive isolation in more standard model systems. PMID:23860232

Foley, B R; Rose, C G; Rundle, D E; Leong, W; Edmands, S

2013-01-01

197

Independent evolution of transcriptional inactivation on sex chromosomes in birds and mammals.  

PubMed

X chromosome inactivation in eutherian mammals has been thought to be tightly controlled, as expected from a mechanism that compensates for the different dosage of X-borne genes in XX females and XY males. However, many X genes escape inactivation in humans, inactivation of the X in marsupials is partial, and the unrelated sex chromosomes of monotreme mammals have incomplete and gene-specific inactivation of X-linked genes. The bird ZW sex chromosome system represents a third independently evolved amniote sex chromosome system with dosage compensation, albeit partial and gene-specific, via an unknown mechanism (i.e. upregulation of the single Z in females, down regulation of one or both Zs in males, or a combination). We used RNA-fluorescent in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH) to demonstrate, on individual fibroblast cells, inactivation of 11 genes on the chicken Z and 28 genes on the X chromosomes of platypus. Each gene displayed a reproducible frequency of 1Z/1X-active and 2Z/2X-active cells in the homogametic sex. Our results indicate that the probability of inactivation is controlled on a gene-by-gene basis (or small domains) on the chicken Z and platypus X chromosomes. This regulatory mechanism must have been exapted independently to the non-homologous sex chromosomes in birds and mammals in response to an over-expressed Z or X in the homogametic sex, highlighting the universal importance that (at least partial) silencing plays in the evolution on amniote dosage compensation and, therefore, the differentiation of sex chromosomes. PMID:23874231

Livernois, Alexandra M; Waters, Shafagh A; Deakin, Janine E; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Waters, Paul D

2013-01-01

198

Investigation of chromosome abnormalities and early embryonic mortality in goose lines.  

PubMed

Early embryonic mortality and chromosome abnormalities were studied in three goose lines: Grey Landes (line 7), White Polish (line 4) and their synthetic line (line 9). Eggs laid at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the laying season were set. At candling at 5th day after egg set, all eggs (2847) were examined and those showing no normal embryonic development were opened 2847. Dead embryos were classified phenotypically and karyotyped. The mean ratio of embryonic mortality (EM) among fertile eggs was 9.4%, 5.2%, 7.3% in the lines 4, 7 and 9, respectively. The mean ratio of embryos with chromosomal abnormalities (CA) among the dead embryos was 8.0%, 14.8% and 13.1% in the lines 4, 7 and 9, respectively. Gander effect and layer within gander effect on embryo mortality were significant, indicating genetic factors. Father and mother of the layer effects were also significant, showing family effects. Animals producing dead embryos and embryos with chromosome abnormalities in high proportion were selected. In the selected groups the mean EM was 17.7-22.9%, and the mean CA was 11.7-34.7% among the three lines. The repetition of CA was not observed in the reproductive season of following year, while animals repeated the high EM (repeatability coefficient of 0.54). This shows that some part of EM may be resulted from other genetic factors. Ganders and layers progeny of these selected animals showed also high EM. It was concluded that culling pairs giving high EM value in their embryos could increase the average level of embryo viability and that the study of genetic determinism of that trait should be continued in geese. PMID:15813214

Liptói, Krisztina; Hidas, A; Rouvier, R

2005-01-01

199

A sex-chromosome mutation in Silene latifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silene latifolia is dioecious, yet rare hermaphrodites have been found, and such natural mutants can provide valuable insight into genetic\\u000a mechanisms. Here, we describe a hermaphrodite-inducing mutation that is almost certainly localized to the gynoecium-suppression\\u000a region of the Y chromosome in S. latifolia. The mutant Y chromosome was passed through the megaspore, and the presence of two X chromosomes was

Paige M. MillerRichard; Richard V. Kesseli

200

Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Disorders and Prenatal Diagnosis of Down Syndrome using Interphase Fluorescent In-Situ Hyperidization Technique  

PubMed Central

Background : Thousands of infants are born each year with chromosomal abnormalities that severely impact physical and mental development. Among common genetic disorders are Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and sex chromosomal disorders. Objectives : Evaluation of guidelines used for prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome (DS) as well as sex chromosomal disorders including interphase Fluorescent In Situ Hyperidization (FISH) technique. Methods : Enrolled cases were among those presenting to Genetics and Neonatology Units, Mansoura and Ain-Shams University hospitals,(Egypt) during 2002 to 2004. These included: Groups 1 comprised fifty pregnant women presenting for genetic counseling. They were subjected to complete history analysis, ultrasound examination in addition to triple screening test (for alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic goandotrophin (HCG) and unconjugated esteriol (E2). Results were confirmed by doing routine karyogram on cultured amniotic fluid. Groups 2 comprised suspected cases with sex chromosomal disorders including neonates with ambiguous genitalia (64 cases) and adults with primary amenorrhea (69 cases) or infertility (38 cases). They were subjected to a diagnostic workup including Results : Among the pregnant women group, seven were found to be at a high risk of having DS fetuses including 3 cases with a history of affected off-springs, 2 cases with age above 35 years, and 2 cases with high triple test. Only one case had positive trisomy 21 on interphase FISH confirmed by karyogram on cultured amniotic cells. The other 6 ladies had normal FISH confirmed by karyograms. Regarding the other group, 5 cases out of the 9 females were proved to be feminized males, one proved mosaic turner, one proved mixed gonadal dysgenesis and 2 normal females. On the other hand one out of three males were proved to be verilized female while the other one was a male with incomplete testicular feminization and the last one was a male with infertility diagnosed as Klinefelter syndrome at the age of 26 years. Conclusion : Interphase FISH is a rapid, accurate and very sensitive method in sex chromosom and autosomal abnormalities. It adds to the diagnostic utility of routine cytogenetics and its use on interphase nuclei overcomes the difficulty of conventional cytogenetics. It could be used in the prenatal diagnosis of DS in addition to ultrasonography, and triple test. PMID:21475429

Settin, Ahmad; Abu-Saif, Ibrahem S; El-Baz, Rizk; Dowaidar, Moataz; Kasim, Rabab Abu-Al; Shabana, Shaimaa

2007-01-01

201

Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of the Dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY Chromosome Sex Determination System  

PubMed Central

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71), 5S rDNA (pCT4.2), a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1) and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants). The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution. PMID:24465491

Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Alexandrov, Oleg S.; Razumova, Olga V.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Karlov, Gennady I.

2014-01-01

202

Association testing to detect gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes in trio data  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) occurs more often among males than females in a 4:1 ratio. Among theories used to explain the causes of ASD, the X chromosome and the Y chromosome theories attribute ASD to the X-linked mutation and the male-limited gene expressions on the Y chromosome, respectively. Despite the rationale of the theory, studies have failed to attribute the sex-biased ratio to the significant linkage or association on the regions of interest on X chromosome. We further study the gender biased ratio by examining the possible interaction effects between two genes in the sex chromosomes. We propose a logistic regression model with mixed effects to detect gene–gene interactions on sex chromosomes. We investigated the power and type I error rates of the approach for a range of minor allele frequencies and varying linkage disequilibrium between markers and QTLs. We also evaluated the robustness of the model to population stratification. We applied the model to a trio-family data set with an ASD affected male child to study gene–gene interactions on sex chromosomes. PMID:24312118

Lee, Yeonok; Ghosh, Debashis; Zhang, Yu

2013-01-01

203

Sex chromosomes of the Asian black pond turtle, Siebenrockiella crassicollis (Testudines: Emydidae).  

PubMed

A heteromorphism in a pair of macrochromosomes in male Siebenrockiella crassicollis is interpreted as an XX/XY sex determining system. The heteromorphism involves a difference in centromere position and amount and distribution of heterochromatin. The only other sex chromosome system known in turtles is found in the kinosternid genus Staurotypus and is also an XX/XY system, but it involves a different chromosome pair and different chromosomal rearrangements. These two systems have independently arisen within the suborder Cryptodira and share no common ancestry. The sex chromosome system in Siebenrockiella represents a relatively early stage of differentiation. It differs from the hypothesized steps of differentiation in having a heterochromatically derived X. PMID:7326996

Carr, J L; Bickham, J W

1981-01-01

204

Triploid plover female provides support for a role of the W chromosome in avian sex determination  

PubMed Central

Two models, Z Dosage and Dominant W, have been proposed to explain sex determination in birds, in which males are characterized by the presence of two Z chromosomes, and females are hemizygous with a Z and a W chromosome. According to the Z Dosage model, high dosage of a Z-linked gene triggers male development, whereas the Dominant W model postulates that a still unknown W-linked gene triggers female development. Using 33 polymorphic microsatellite markers, we describe a female triploid Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus identified by characteristic triallelic genotypes at 14 autosomal markers that produced viable diploid offspring. Chromatogram analysis showed that the sex chromosome composition of this female was ZZW. Together with two previously described ZZW female birds, our results suggest a prominent role for a female determining gene on the W chromosome. These results imply that avian sex determination is more dynamic and complex than currently envisioned. PMID:22647929

Kupper, Clemens; Augustin, Jakob; Edwards, Scott; Szekely, Tamas; Kosztolanyi, Andras; Burke, Terry; Janes, Daniel E.

2012-01-01

205

Chromosome aberrations in a series of 120 multiple myeloma cases with abnormal karyotypes.  

PubMed

We identified 120 multiple myeloma (MM) cases with satisfactory cytogenetic evaluation and abnormal karyotypes. Hyperdiploid karyotype was found in 77 cases (64%), hypodiploid in 30 cases (25%), and the remaining 13 cases (11%) had a pseudodiploid karyotype. The most common numerical abnormalities were gains of chromosomes 15, 9, 3 followed by chromosomes 19, 11, 7, 21, and 5. Whole chromosome losses were also frequent involving primarily chromosomes X/Y, 8, 13, 14, and 22. Most cases showed also structural rearrangements leading to del(1p), dup(1q), del(5q), del(6q), del(8p), del(9p), del(13q), and del(17p). Chromosome 13/13q deletion was found in 52% of cases; complete loss of 13 was observed in 73% of cases, whereas 27% had interstitial deletions. In addition, 13/13q deletions occurred in 75% of nonhyperdiploid myeloma but only 39% of the hyperdiploid had 13/13q deletions. Translocations affecting 14q32/IGH region was seen 40 cases; t(11;14)(q13;q32) in 17 cases, t(14;16)(q32;q23) and t(8;14)(q24;q32) in three cases each, and t(6;14)(p21;q32) and t(1;14)(q21;q32) in two cases each. The remaining 14q32 translocations had various t(V;14) partners or of an undetermined origin. Remarkably, the 14q32/IGH translocations were less frequent in the hyperdiploid karyotypes than the nonhyperdiploid karyotypes (17 vs. 63%). Fourteen cases showed break at 8q24/CMYC site; seven of those had Burkitt's-type translocations. Our results revealed that conventional cytogenetics remains an important tool in elucidating the complex and divers genetic anomalies of MM. Cytogenetics identifies two distinct groups of MM, hyperdiploid and nonhyperdiploid, and establishes the presence of prognostic chromosomal markers such as 13/13q, 17p, 8q24, and 16q aberrations. PMID:17654686

Mohamed, Anwar N; Bentley, Gail; Bonnett, Michelle L; Zonder, Jeff; Al-Katib, Ayad

2007-12-01

206

Identification of prognostic relevant chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using microarray-based genomic profiling  

PubMed Central

Background Characteristic genomic abnormalities in patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have been shown to provide important prognostic information. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), currently used in clinical diagnostics of CLL, are targeted tests aimed at specific genomic loci. Microarray-based genomic profiling is a new high-resolution tool that enables genome-wide analyses. The aim of this study was to compare two recently launched genomic microarray platforms, i.e., the CytoScan HD Array (Affymetrix) and the HumanOmniExpress Array (Illumina), with FISH and MLPA to ascertain whether these latter tests can be replaced by either one of the microarray platforms in a clinical diagnostic setting. Result Microarray-based genomic profiling and FISH were performed in all 28 CLL patients. For an unbiased comparison of the performance of both microarray platforms 9 patients were evaluated on both platforms, resulting in the identification of exactly identical genomic aberrations. To evaluate the detection limit of the microarray platforms we included 7 patients in which the genomic abnormalities were present in a relatively low percentage of the cells (range 5-28%) as previously determined by FISH. We found that both microarray platforms allowed the detection of copy number abnormalities present in as few as 16% of the cells. In addition, we found that microarray-based genomic profiling allowed the identification of genomic abnormalities that could not be detected by FISH and/or MLPA, including a focal TP53 loss and copy neutral losses of heterozygosity of chromosome 17p. Conclusion From our results we conclude that although the microarray platforms exhibit a somewhat lower limit of detection compared to FISH, they still allow the detection of copy number abnormalities present in as few as 16% of the cells. By applying similar interpretation criteria, the results obtained from both platforms were comparable. In addition, we conclude that both microarray platforms allow the identification of additional potential prognostic relevant abnormalities such as focal TP53 deletions and copy neutral losses of heterozygosity of chromosome 17p, which would have remained undetected by FISH or MLPA. The prognostic relevance of these novel genomic alterations requires further evaluation in prospective clinical trials. PMID:24401281

2014-01-01

207

Higher-order genome organization in platypus and chicken sperm and repositioning of sex chromosomes during mammalian evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, chromosomes occupy defined positions in sperm, whereas previous work in chicken showed random chromosome distribution.\\u000a Monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are the most basal group of living mammals. They have elongated sperm like chicken and\\u000a a complex sex chromosome system with homology to chicken sex chromosomes. We used platypus and chicken genomic clones to investigate\\u000a genome organization in sperm.

Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush; Natasha Dodge; Julia Mohr; Aaron Casey; Heinz Himmelbauer; Colin L. Kremitzki; Kyriena Schatzkamer; Tina Graves; Wesley C. Warren; Frank Grützner

2009-01-01

208

Four loci on abnormal chromosome 10 contribute to meiotic drive in maize.  

PubMed Central

We provide a genetic analysis of the meiotic drive system on maize abnormal chromosome 10 (Ab10) that causes preferential segregation of specific chromosomal regions to the reproductive megaspore. The data indicate that at least four chromosomal regions contribute to meiotic drive, each providing distinct functions that can be differentiated from each other genetically and/or phenotypically. Previous reports established that meiotic drive requires neocentromere activity at specific tandem repeat arrays (knobs) and that two regions on Ab10 are involved in trans-activating neocentromeres. Here we confirm and extend data suggesting that only one of the neocentromere-activating regions is sufficient to move many knobs. We also confirm the localization of a locus/loci on Ab10, thought to be a prerequisite for meiotic drive, which promotes recombination in structural heterozygotes. In addition, we identified two new and independent functions required for meiotic drive. One was identified through the characterization of a deletion derivative of Ab10 [Df(L)] and another as a newly identified meiotic drive mutation (suppressor of meiotic drive 3). In the absence of either function, meiotic drive is abolished but neocentromere activity and the recombination effect typical of Ab10 are unaffected. These results demonstrate that neocentromere activity and increased recombination are not the only events required for meiotic drive. PMID:12807790

Hiatt, Evelyn N; Dawe, R Kelly

2003-01-01

209

Detection of sex chromosome aneuploidy in dog spermatozoa by triple color fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

With the development of a direct visualization of sex chromosome in a single sperm by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, the frequency of aberration (aneuploidy) in spermatozoa in several mammals has been investigated. However, there is no report in the incidence of X-Y aneuploidy in the sperm population of dogs. Therefore, in this study, the aneuploidy in dog spermatozoa was examined by multicolor FISH using specific molecular probes for canine sex chromosomes and autosome. Semen from eight male Labrador retrievers was used as specimen. For decondensation of sperm nuclei, the specimen was treated with 1 M NaOH for 4 minutes at room temperature. Probes for chromosomes X, Y, and 1, labeled with SpectrumGreen, Cy3 and Cy5, respectively, were hybridized with decondensed spermatozoa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization signals in sperm heads were clearly detected in each specimen, regardless of the sperm donor. The FISH signal of at least one of the three probes was detected in all sperm heads examined. There was no significant difference between the theoretical ratio (50:50) and the observed ratio of X and Y chromosomes in spermatozoa of all the eight dogs. Mean percentage of sex chromosome aneuploidy was 0.127% (ranged between 0% and 0.316%). This percentage of canine sex chromosome aneuploidy was lower than the one reported in cattle, horses, river buffalo, and goats sperm, but higher than that observed in mice and sheep. PMID:24962971

Komaki, Haruna; Oi, Maya; Suzuki, Hiroshi

2014-09-01

210

Evolutionary history of Silene latifolia sex chromosomes revealed by genetic mapping of four genes.  

PubMed

The sex chromosomes of dioecious white campion, Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae), are of relatively recent origin (10-20 million years), providing a unique opportunity to trace the origin and evolution of sex chromosomes in this genus by comparing closely related Silene species with and without sex chromosomes. Here I demonstrate that four genes that are X-linked in S. latifolia are also linked in nondioecious S. vulgaris, which is consistent with Ohno's (1967) hypothesis that sex chromosomes evolve from a single pair of autosomes. I also report a genetic map for four S. latifolia X-linked genes, SlX1, DD44X, SlX4, and a new X-linked gene SlssX, which encodes spermidine synthase. The order of the genes on the S. latifolia X chromosome and divergence between the homologous X- and Y-linked copies of these genes supports the "evolutionary strata" model, with at least three consecutive expansions of the nonrecombining region on the Y chromosome (NRY) in this plant species. PMID:15834147

Filatov, Dmitry A

2005-06-01

211

Abnormal Behavior in a Chromosome- Engineered Mouse Model for Human 15q11-13 Duplication Seen in Autism  

PubMed Central

Summary Substantial evidence suggests that chromosomal abnormalities contribute to the risk of autism. The duplication of human chromosome 15q11-13 is known to be the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality in autism. We have modeled this genetic change in mice by using chromosome engineering to generate a 6.3 Mb duplication of the conserved linkage group on mouse chromosome 7. Mice with a paternal duplication display poor social interaction, behavioral inflexibility, abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations, and correlates of anxiety. An increased MBII52 snoRNA within the duplicated region, affecting the serotonin 2c receptor (5-HT2cR), correlates with altered intracellular Ca2+ responses elicited by a 5-HT2cR agonist in neurons of mice with a paternal duplication. This chromosome-engineered mouse model for autism seems to replicate various aspects of human autistic phenotypes and validates the relevance of the human chromosome abnormality. This model will facilitate forward genetics of developmental brain disorders and serve as an invaluable tool for therapeutic development. PMID:19563756

Nakatani, Jin; Tamada, Kota; Hatanaka, Fumiyuki; Ise, Satoko; Ohta, Hisashi; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Watanabe, Yasuhito; Chung, Yeun Jun; Banerjee, Ruby; Iwamoto, Kazuya; Kato, Tadafumi; Okazawa, Makoto; Yamauchi, Kenta; Tanda, Koichi; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Bradley, Allan; Takumi, Toru

2009-01-01

212

Chromatin structural changes around satellite repeats on the female sex chromosome in Schistosoma mansoni and their possible role in sex chromosome emergence  

PubMed Central

Background In the leuphotrochozoan parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni, male individuals are homogametic (ZZ) whereas females are heterogametic (ZW). To elucidate the mechanisms that led to the emergence of sex chromosomes, we compared the genomic sequence and the chromatin structure of male and female individuals. As for many eukaryotes, the lower estimate for the repeat content is 40%, with an unknown proportion of domesticated repeats. We used massive sequencing to de novo assemble all repeats, and identify unambiguously Z-specific, W-specific and pseudoautosomal regions of the S. mansoni sex chromosomes. Results We show that 70 to 90% of S. mansoni W and Z are pseudoautosomal. No female-specific gene could be identified. Instead, the W-specific region is composed almost entirely of 36 satellite repeat families, of which 33 were previously unknown. Transcription and chromatin status of female-specific repeats are stage-specific: for those repeats that are transcribed, transcription is restricted to the larval stages lacking sexual dimorphism. In contrast, in the sexually dimorphic adult stage of the life cycle, no transcription occurs. In addition, the euchromatic character of histone modifications around the W-specific repeats decreases during the life cycle. Recombination repression occurs in this region even if homologous sequences are present on both the Z and W chromosomes. Conclusion Our study provides for the first time evidence for the hypothesis that, at least in organisms with a ZW type of sex chromosomes, repeat-induced chromatin structure changes could indeed be the initial event in sex chromosome emergence. PMID:22377319

2012-01-01

213

The (r)evolution of SINE versus LINE distributions in primate genomes: Sex chromosomes are important  

PubMed Central

The densities of transposable elements (TEs) in the human genome display substantial variation both within individual chromosomes and among chromosome types (autosomes and the two sex chromosomes). Finding an explanation for this variability has been challenging, especially in light of genome landscapes unique to the sex chromosomes. Here, using a multiple regression framework, we investigate primate Alu and L1 densities shaped by regional genome features and location on a particular chromosome type. As a result of our analysis, first, we build statistical models explaining up to 79% and 44% of variation in Alu and L1 element density, respectively. Second, we analyze sex chromosome versus autosome TE densities corrected for regional genomic effects. We discover that sex-chromosome bias in Alu and L1 distributions not only persists after accounting for these effects, but even presents differences in patterns, confirming preferential Alu integration in the male germline, yet likely integration of L1s in both male and female germlines or in early embryogenesis. Additionally, our models reveal that local base composition (measured by GC content and density of L1 target sites) and natural selection (inferred via density of most conserved elements) are significant to predicting densities of L1s. Interestingly, measurements of local double-stranded breaks (a 13-mer associated with genome instability) strongly correlate with densities of Alu elements; little evidence was found for the role of recombination-driven deletion in driving TE distributions over evolutionary time. Thus, Alu and L1 densities have been influenced by the combination of distinct local genome landscapes and the unique evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes. PMID:20219940

Kvikstad, Erika M.; Makova, Kateryna D.

2010-01-01

214

DNA replication in the sex chromosomes of the pronghorn and the Rocky Mountain goat.  

PubMed

The X chromosomes of the male pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is larger than the "original" type and carries a large segment of late-labelling chromatin. The Y chromosome has a late-labelling segment that appears to duplicate synchronously with that of the X. Both chromosomes have segments that label throughout the period of observation; that the X is about 4.7% of the haploid complement and approaches "original" proportions. The X chromosomes of the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) appear to be of the "original" type, without marked late-labelling regions, and the Y chromosomes is small. The structure and origin of extra-large sex chromosomes are discussed. PMID:862436

Dain, A

1977-01-01

215

Early stages of sex chromosome differentiation in fish as analysed by simple repetitive DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Animal sex chromosome evolution has started on different occasions with a homologous pair of autosomes leading to morphologically differentiated gonosomes. In contrast to other vertebrate classes, among fishes cytologically demonstrable sex chromosomes are rare. In reptiles, certain motifs of simple tandemly repeated DNA sequences like (gata)n/(gaca)m are associated with the constitutive heterochromatin of sex chromosomes. In this study a panel of simple repetitive sequence probes was hybridized to restriction enzyme digested genomic DNA of poeciliid fishes. Apparent male heterogamety previously established by genetic experiments in Poecilia reticulata (guppy) was correlated with male-specific hybridization using the (GACA)4 probe. The (GATA)4 oligonucleotide identifies certain male guppies by a Y chromosomal polymorphism in the outbred population. In contrast none of the genetically defined heterogametic situations in Xiphophorus could be verified consistently using the collection of simple repetitive sequence probes. Only individuals from particular populations produced sex-specific patterns of hybridization with (GATA)4. Additional poeciliid species (P. sphenops, P. velifera) harbour different sex-specifically organized simple repeat motifs. The observed sex-specific hybridization patterns were substantiated by banding analyses of the karyotypes and by in situ hybridization using the (GACA)4 probe. PMID:1576882

Nanda, I; Schartl, M; Feichtinger, W; Epplen, J T; Schmid, M

1992-03-01

216

Differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Apareiodon ibitiensis (Teleostei, Parodontidae): cytotaxonomy and biogeography.  

PubMed

Conventional and molecular chromosomal analyses were carried out on three populations of Apareiodon ibitiensis sampled from the hydrographic basins of the Săo Francisco River and Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The results reveal a conserved diploid number (2n = 54 chromosomes), a karyotype formula consisting of 50 m-sm + 4st and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system that has not been previously identified for the species. C-banding analysis with propidium iodide staining revealed centromeric and terminal bands located in the chromosomes of the specimens from the three populations and allowed the identification of heteromorphism of heterochromatin regions in the Z and W chromosomes. The number of 18S sites located through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) varied between the populations of the Săo Francisco and Upper Paraná Rivers. The location of 5S rDNA sites proved comparable in one pair of metacentric chromosomes. Thus, the present study proposes a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system for A. ibitiensis among the Parodontidae, and a hypothesis is presented regarding possible W chromosome differentiation stages in this species through DNA accumulation, showing geographical variations for this characteristic, possibly as a consequence of geographical reproductive isolation. PMID:20738689

Bellafronte, E; Vicari, M R; Artoni, R F; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

2009-12-01

217

DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes including sex chromosomes, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The millions of bases, which make up the human genome are organized into structures called chromosomes. These are arranged into 22 matching pairs plus 1 pair of sex chromosomes consisting of 2 X's in women and an X and a Y in men. So humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell, known collectively as a karyotype. This set of chromosomes has a Y, so it must belong to a male.

2008-10-06

218

Sex-specific SCAR markers in the dioecious plant Rumex nivalis (Polygonaceae) and implications for the evolution of sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

We developed SCAR primers based on isolated and sequenced male-specific fragments as identified in an AFLP analysis of the dioecious plant Rumex nivalis. PCR amplification using these primers on females and males resulted in fragments exclusively present in males. Co-amplification of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 together with the male-specific fragment was applied as an internal control for successful PCR reactions to avoid false-negative sex scoring. With a length of about 164 bp, the AFLP fragment was of a similar size as the tandemly arranged, repetitive sequences of 180 bp located on the Y chromosomes of Rumex acetosa. The genetic distances between the Y-chromosomal sequences of R. nivalis and R. acetosa, both members of the section Acetosa, were substantial. We found intra-individual divergence among cloned sequences of the male-specific fragment in R. nivalis. The patterns of interspecific and intra-individual sequence variation found are in accordance with proposed modes of the evolution of sex chromosomes. Y chromosomes possibly arose only once in the genus Rumex and consist mainly of heterochromatic DNA. Due to the almost complete absence of selection on them, Y chromosomes are likely to accumulate large numbers of mutations. PMID:13679980

Stehlik, I; Blattner, F R

2004-01-01

219

The X chromosome Aneuploidy for the X chromosome is among the most  

E-print Network

The X chromosome · Aneuploidy for the X chromosome is among the most common of cytogenetic abnormalities · These are tolerated because of X chromosome inactivation ­ Inactivation occurs early;-# bar bodies = # X chromosomes ­1 -presence of Y determines male sex #12;What mechanisms cause females

Dellaire, Graham

220

The epigenome of evolving Drosophila neo-sex chromosomes: dosage compensation and heterochromatin formation.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes originated from autosomes but have evolved a highly specialized chromatin structure. Drosophila Y chromosomes are composed entirely of silent heterochromatin, while male X chromosomes have highly accessible chromatin and are hypertranscribed as a result of dosage compensation. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanisms and functional pressures driving heterochromatin formation and dosage compensation of the recently formed neo-sex chromosomes of Drosophila miranda. We show that the onset of heterochromatin formation on the neo-Y is triggered by an accumulation of repetitive DNA. The neo-X has evolved partial dosage compensation and we find that diverse mutational paths have been utilized to establish several dozen novel binding consensus motifs for the dosage compensation complex on the neo-X, including simple point mutations at pre-binding sites, insertion and deletion mutations, microsatellite expansions, or tandem amplification of weak binding sites. Spreading of these silencing or activating chromatin modifications to adjacent regions results in massive mis-expression of neo-sex linked genes, and little correspondence between functionality of genes and their silencing on the neo-Y or dosage compensation on the neo-X. Intriguingly, the genomic regions being targeted by the dosage compensation complex on the neo-X and those becoming heterochromatic on the neo-Y show little overlap, possibly reflecting different propensities along the ancestral chromosome that formed the sex chromosome to adopt active or repressive chromatin configurations. Our findings have broad implications for current models of sex chromosome evolution, and demonstrate how mechanistic constraints can limit evolutionary adaptations. Our study also highlights how evolution can follow predictable genetic trajectories, by repeatedly acquiring the same 21-bp consensus motif for recruitment of the dosage compensation complex, yet utilizing a diverse array of random mutational changes to attain the same phenotypic outcome. PMID:24265597

Zhou, Qi; Ellison, Christopher E; Kaiser, Vera B; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; Gorchakov, Andrey A; Bachtrog, Doris

2013-11-01

221

Allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci and abnormal chromosome behaviour caused pollen sterility in intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids  

PubMed Central

The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F1 pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F1 sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids. PMID:21624978

He, J. H.; Shahid, M. Q.; Guo, H. B.; Cheng, X. A.; Liu, X. D.; Lu, Y. G.

2011-01-01

222

Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line test in pregnancies with a priori low risk for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we aimed to explore the utility of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in groups of pregnancies with a priori low risk for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities, usually not considered an indication for testing, in order to assess whether CMA improves the detection rate of prenatal chromosomal aberrations. A total of 3000 prenatal samples were processed in parallel using both whole-genome CMA and conventional karyotyping. The indications for prenatal testing included: advanced maternal age, maternal serum screening test abnormality, abnormal ultrasound findings, known abnormal fetal karyotype, parental anxiety, family history of a genetic condition and cell culture failure. The use of CMA resulted in an increased detection rate regardless of the indication for analysis. This was evident in high risk groups (abnormal ultrasound findings and abnormal fetal karyotype), in which the percentage of detection was 5.8% (7/120), and also in low risk groups, such as advanced maternal age (6/1118, 0.5%), and parental anxiety (11/1674, 0.7%). A total of 24 (0.8%) fetal conditions would have remained undiagnosed if only a standard karyotype had been performed. Importantly, 17 (0.6%) of such findings would have otherwise been overlooked if CMA was offered only to high risk pregnancies.The results of this study suggest that more widespread CMA testing of fetuses would result in a higher detection of clinically relevant chromosome abnormalities, even in low risk pregnancies. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the introduction of CMA as a first-line diagnostic test for all pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing, regardless of risk factors. PMID:23211699

Fiorentino, Francesco; Napoletano, Stefania; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Sessa, Mariateresa; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Gordon, Anthony; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Baldi, Marina

2013-01-01

223

Sex chromosome complement contributes to sex differences in coxsackievirus B3 but not influenza A virus pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Both coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and influenza A virus (IAV; H1N1) produce sexually dimorphic infections in C57BL/6 mice. Gonadal steroids can modulate sex differences in response to both viruses. Here, the effect of sex chromosomal complement in response to viral infection was evaluated using four core genotypes (FCG) mice, where the Sry gene is deleted from the Y chromosome, and in some mice is inserted into an autosomal chromosome. This results in four genotypes: XX or XY gonadal females (XXF and XYF), and XX or XY gonadal males (XXM and XYM). The FCG model permits evaluation of the impact of the sex chromosome complement independent of the gonadal phenotype. Methods Wild-type (WT) male and female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to remain intact or be gonadectomized (Gdx) and all FCG mice on a C57BL/6 background were Gdx. Mice were infected with either CVB3 or mouse-adapted IAV, A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8), and monitored for changes in immunity, virus titers, morbidity, or mortality. Results In CVB3 infection, mortality was increased in WT males compared to females and males developed more severe cardiac inflammation. Gonadectomy suppressed male, but increased female, susceptibility to CVB3. Infection with IAV resulted in greater morbidity and mortality in WT females compared with males and this sex difference was significantly reduced by gonadectomy of male and female mice. In Gdx FCG mice infected with CVB3, XY mice were less susceptible than XX mice. Protection correlated with increased CD4+ forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ T regulatory (Treg) cell activation in these animals. Neither CD4+ interferon (IFN)? (T helper 1 (Th1)) nor CD4+ interleukin (IL)-4+ (Th2) responses differed among the FCG mice during CVB3 infection. Infection of Gdx FCG mice revealed no effect of sex chromosome complement on morbidity or mortality following IAV infection. Conclusions These studies indicate that sex chromosome complement can influence pathogenicity of some, but not all, viruses. PMID:21806829

2011-01-01

224

Genetic and functional analysis of DD44, a sex-linked gene from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, provides clues to early events in sex chromosome evolution.  

PubMed Central

Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes of S. latifolia provide an opportunity to study the early events in sex chromosome evolution because of their relatively recent emergence. In this article, we present the genetic and physical mapping, expression analysis, and molecular evolutionary analysis of a sex-linked gene from S. latifolia, DD44 (Differential Display 44). DD44 is homologous to the oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein, an essential component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, and is ubiquitously expressed in both sexes. We have been able to genetically map DD44 to a region of the Y chromosome that is genetically linked to the carpel-suppressing locus. Although we have physically mapped DD44 to the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), DD44 maps to the opposite arm of the Y chromosome as determined by our genetic map. These data suggest that chromosomal rearrangements have occurred on the Y chromosome, which may have contributed to the genetic isolation of the Y chromosome. We discuss the implications of these results with respect to the structural and functional evolution of the S. latifolia Y chromosome. PMID:12586719

Moore, Richard C; Kozyreva, Olga; Lebel-Hardenack, Sabine; Siroky, Jiri; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Grant, Sarah R

2003-01-01

225

Characteristics of hematologic malignancies with coexisting t(9;22) and inv(16) chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background The coexistence of t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) and inv(16)(p13q22) chromosomal abnormalities is extremely uncommon, and only a small number of such cases have been reported. Here, we characterized 7 cases of hematologic malignancy exhibiting t(9;22) and inv(16) coexistence. Methods We reviewed the cytogenetic data for hematologic malignancies treated at the Catholic Blood and Marrow Transplantation Center between January 2004 and June 2013. We identified 7 cases exhibiting t(9;22) and inv(16) coexistence. In addition, we analyzed mutations in the IKZF1, NPM1, FLT3, N-RAS, K-RAS, c-KIT, and TP53 genes. Results Four cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; 1 chronic phase, 2 accelerated phase, and 1 blast phase) and 3 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 1 de novo and 2 therapy-related) were identified. The percentages of circulating blasts and bone marrow eosinophils were higher in AML cases than in CML cases (53% vs. 5% and 30% vs. 5.5%, respectively). The proportions of each chromosomal abnormality were used along with follow-up karyotyping results to identify secondary changes. In BCR/ABL, a p210 fusion transcript was associated with CML, whereas a p190 fusion transcript was associated with AML. One patient with AML harbored 2 mutations: c-KIT D816V and TP53 E11Q. All patients except 1 with CML blast phase sustained clinical remission after treatment, which included an imatinib mesylate regimen. Conclusion This study shows that observations of bone marrow morphology, initial and follow-up cytogenetic studies, and karyotyping of BCR/ABL1 and CBFB/MYH11 provide valuable information for characterizing hematologic malignancies exhibiting t(9;22) and inv(16) coexistence. PMID:24724063

Han, Eunhee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Kim, Yonggoo; Han, Kyungja; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Hee-Je; Kim, Dong-Wook

2014-01-01

226

Cognition and the Sex Chromosomes: Studies in Turner Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turner syndrome (TS) is a human genetic disorder involving females who lack all or part of one X chromosome. The complex phenotype includes ovarian failure, a characteristic neurocognitive profile and typical physical features. TS features are associated not only with complete monosomy X but also with partial deletions of either the short (Xp) or long (Xq) arm (partial monosomy X).

Judith Ross; David Roeltgen; Andrew Zinn

2006-01-01

227

Determination of the parental origin of sex-chromosome monosomy using restriction fragment length polymorphisms.  

PubMed Central

The parental origin of the single X chromosome in sex-chromosome monosomy was evaluated by comparing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of 10 spontaneous aborted 45,X conceptions with those of their parents. Seven X-linked marker loci were used, and we were able to specify the origin of the X in nine cases, with six being maternally and three paternally derived. These results demonstrate the efficiency of the technique and show that the single X chromosome in 45,X spontaneous abortions can be derived from either parent. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2996336

Hassold, T; Kumlin, E; Takaesu, N; Leppert, M

1985-01-01

228

XXXY sex chromosomes in males of the jumping spider genus Pellenes (Araneae: Salticidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of male meiosis and female chromosome number indicate that eight species of Pellenes have the X1X2O male, X1X1X2X2 female sex chromosome system typical of salticids, four species have an X'1X'2X'3Y male, X'1X'1X'2X'3X'3X'3 female system, and one species has both X1X2O and X'1X'2X'3Y males. This is the first report of a Y chromosome in spiders. It is hypothesized that the

Wayne Paul Maddison; S IA

1982-01-01

229

Higher-order genome organization in platypus and chicken sperm and repositioning of sex chromosomes during mammalian evolution.  

PubMed

In mammals, chromosomes occupy defined positions in sperm, whereas previous work in chicken showed random chromosome distribution. Monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are the most basal group of living mammals. They have elongated sperm like chicken and a complex sex chromosome system with homology to chicken sex chromosomes. We used platypus and chicken genomic clones to investigate genome organization in sperm. In chicken sperm, about half of the chromosomes investigated are organized non-randomly, whereas in platypus chromosome organization in sperm is almost entirely non-random. The use of genomic clones allowed us to determine chromosome orientation and chromatin compaction in sperm. We found that in both species chromosomes maintain orientation of chromosomes in sperm independent of random or non-random positioning along the sperm nucleus. The distance of loci correlated with the total length of sperm nuclei, suggesting that chromatin extension depends on sperm elongation. In platypus, most sex chromosomes cluster in the posterior region of the sperm nucleus, presumably the result of postmeiotic association of sex chromosomes. Chicken and platypus autosomes sharing homology with the human X chromosome located centrally in both species suggesting that this is the ancestral position. This suggests that in some therian mammals a more anterior position of the X chromosome has evolved independently. PMID:18726609

Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Dodge, Natasha; Mohr, Julia; Casey, Aaron; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Kremitzki, Colin L; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Graves, Tina; Warren, Wesley C; Grützner, Frank

2009-02-01

230

Down syndrome-associated haematopoiesis abnormalities created by chromosome transfer and genome editing technologies  

PubMed Central

Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at a high risk of developing transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). A GATA1 mutation leading to the production of N-terminally truncated GATA1 (GATA1s) in early megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors is linked to the onset of TAM and cooperated with the effect of trisomy 21 (Ts21). To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the progression to TAM in DS patients, we generated human pluripotent stem cells harbouring Ts21 and/or GATA1s by combining microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and genome editing technologies. In vitro haematopoietic differentiation assays showed that the GATA1s mutation blocked erythropoiesis irrespective of an extra chromosome 21, while Ts21 and the GATA1s mutation independently perturbed megakaryopoiesis and the combination of Ts21 and the GATA1s mutation synergistically contributed to an aberrant accumulation of skewed megakaryocytes. Thus, the DS model cells generated by these two technologies are useful in assessing how GATA1s mutation is involved in the onset of TAM in patients with DS. PMID:25159877

Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Yakura, Yuwna; Abe, Satoshi; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Kajitani, Naoyo; Kazuki, Kanako; Takehara, Shoko; Honma, Kazuhisa; Suemori, Hirofumi; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Toki, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Oshimura, Mitsuo

2014-01-01

231

Sex ratio in normal and disomic sperm: Evidence that the extra chromosome 21 preferentially segregates with the Y chromosome  

SciTech Connect

In humans, deviations from a 1:1 male:female ratio have been identified in both chromosomally normal and trisomic live births: among normal newborns there is a slight excess of males, among trisomy 18 live borns a large excess of females, and among trisomy 21 live borns an excess of males. These differences could arise from differential production of or fertilization by Y- or X-bearing sperm or from selection against male or female conceptions. To examine the proportion of Y- and X- bearing sperm in normal sperm and in sperm disomic for chromosomes 18 or 21, we used three-color FISH (to the X and Y and either chromosome 18 or chromosome 21) to analyze > 300,000 sperm from 24 men. In apparently normal sperm, the sex ratio was nearly 1:1 (148,074 Y-bearing to 148,657 X-bearing sperm), and the value was not affected by the age of the donor. Certain of the donors, however, had significant excesses of Y- or X-bearing sperm. In disomy 18 sperm, there were virtually identical numbers of Y- and X-bearing sperm; thus, the excess of females in trisomy 18 presumably is due to selection against male trisomic conceptions. In contrast, we observed 69 Y-bearing and 44 X-bearing sperm disomic for chromosome 21. This is consistent with previous molecular studies, which have identified an excess of males among paternally derived cases of trisomy 21, and suggests that some of the excess of males among Down syndrome individuals is attributable to a nondisjunctional mechanism in which the extra chromosome 21 preferentially segregates with the Y chromosome. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

Griffin, D.K.; Millie, E.A.; Hassold, T.J. [Case Western Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)]|[Univ. Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01

232

Noninvasive Fetal Trisomy (NIFTY) test: an advanced noninvasive prenatal diagnosis methodology for fetal autosomal and sex chromosomal aneuploidies  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional prenatal screening tests, such as maternal serum tests and ultrasound scan, have limited resolution and accuracy. Methods We developed an advanced noninvasive prenatal diagnosis method based on massively parallel sequencing. The Noninvasive Fetal Trisomy (NIFTY) test, combines an optimized Student’s t-test with a locally weighted polynomial regression and binary hypotheses. We applied the NIFTY test to 903 pregnancies and compared the diagnostic results with those of full karyotyping. Results 16 of 16 trisomy 21, 12 of 12 trisomy 18, two of two trisomy 13, three of four 45, X, one of one XYY and two of two XXY abnormalities were correctly identified. But one false positive case of trisomy 18 and one false negative case of 45, X were observed. The test performed with 100% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity for autosomal aneuploidies and 85.7% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity for sex chromosomal aneuploidies. Compared with three previously reported z-score approaches with/without GC-bias removal and with internal control, the NIFTY test was more accurate and robust for the detection of both autosomal and sex chromosomal aneuploidies in fetuses. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a powerful and reliable methodology for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. PMID:23198897

2012-01-01

233

Sex chromosomes regulate nighttime sleep propensity during recovery from sleep loss in mice.  

PubMed

Sex differences in spontaneous sleep amount are largely dependent on reproductive hormones; however, in mice some sex differences in sleep amount during the active phase are preserved after gonadectomy and may be driven by non-hormonal factors. In this study, we sought to determine whether or not these sex differences are driven by sex chromosome complement. Mice from the four core genotype (FCG) mouse model, whose sex chromosome complement (XY, XX) is independent of phenotype (male or female), were implanted with electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) electrodes for the recording of sleep-wake states and underwent a 24-hr baseline recording followed by six hours of forced wakefulness. During baseline conditions in mice whose gonads remained intact, males had more total sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep than females during the active phase. Gonadectomized FCG mice exhibited no sex differences in rest-phase sleep amount; however, during the mid-active-phase (nighttime), XX males had more spontaneous non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep than XX females. The XY mice did not exhibit sex differences in sleep amount. Following forced wakefulness there was a change in the factors regulating sleep. XY females slept more during their mid-active phase siestas than XX females and had higher NREM slow wave activity, a measure of sleep propensity. These findings suggest that the process that regulates sleep propensity is sex-linked, and that sleep amount and sleep propensity are regulated differently in males and females following sleep loss. PMID:23658713

Ehlen, J Christopher; Hesse, September; Pinckney, Lennisha; Paul, Ketema N

2013-01-01

234

Sex Chromosomes Regulate Nighttime Sleep Propensity during Recovery from Sleep Loss in Mice  

PubMed Central

Sex differences in spontaneous sleep amount are largely dependent on reproductive hormones; however, in mice some sex differences in sleep amount during the active phase are preserved after gonadectomy and may be driven by non-hormonal factors. In this study, we sought to determine whether or not these sex differences are driven by sex chromosome complement. Mice from the four core genotype (FCG) mouse model, whose sex chromosome complement (XY, XX) is independent of phenotype (male or female), were implanted with electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) electrodes for the recording of sleep-wake states and underwent a 24-hr baseline recording followed by six hours of forced wakefulness. During baseline conditions in mice whose gonads remained intact, males had more total sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep than females during the active phase. Gonadectomized FCG mice exhibited no sex differences in rest-phase sleep amount; however, during the mid-active-phase (nighttime), XX males had more spontaneous non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep than XX females. The XY mice did not exhibit sex differences in sleep amount. Following forced wakefulness there was a change in the factors regulating sleep. XY females slept more during their mid-active phase siestas than XX females and had higher NREM slow wave activity, a measure of sleep propensity. These findings suggest that the process that regulates sleep propensity is sex-linked, and that sleep amount and sleep propensity are regulated differently in males and females following sleep loss. PMID:23658713

Pinckney, Lennisha; Paul, Ketema N.

2013-01-01

235

Autosomal location of genes from the conserved mammalian X in the platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus ): implications for mammalian sex chromosome evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ancient autosomal pair. Mapping of human X- and Y-borne genes in distantly related mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates has proved valuable to help deduce the evolution of this unique part of the genome. The platypus, a monotreme mammal distantly related to eutherians and marsupials, has an extraordinary sex chromosome system comprising five X and five

Paul D. Waters; Margaret L. Delbridge; Janine E. Deakin; Nisrine El-Mogharbel; Patrick J. Kirby; Denise R. Carvalho-Silva; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

2005-01-01

236

Aberrant subclavian artery origin in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormality.  

PubMed

We determined the relationship between aortic arch anatomy in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis and chromosomal or genetic abnormality, by performing analysis of 257 consecutive patients undergoing surgical repair from January, 2003 to March, 2011. Chromosomal or genetic abnormality was identified in 49 of the 257 (19%) patients. These included trisomy 21 (n = 14); chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (n = 16); other chromosomal abnormalities (n = 9); CHARGE (n = 2); Pierre Robin (n = 2); and Kabuki, Alagille, Holt-Oram, Kaufman McKusick, Goldenhar, and PHACE (n = 1 each). Aortic anatomy was classified as left arch with normal branching, right arch with mirror image branching, left arch with aberrant right subclavian artery, or right arch with aberrant left subclavian artery. Associated syndromes occurred in 33 of 203 (16%) patients with left arch and normal branching (odds ratio 1); three of 36 (8%) patients with right arch and mirror image branching (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.1-1.6); seven of eight (88%) patients with left arch and aberrant right subclavian artery (odds ratio 36, 95% confidence interval 4-302); and six of 10 (60%) patients with right arch and aberrant left subclavian artery (odds ratio 8, 95% confidence interval 2-26). Syndromes were present in 13 of 18 (72%) patients with either right or left aberrant subclavian artery (odds ratio 15, 95% confidence interval 4-45). Syndromes in patients with an aberrant subclavian artery included trisomy 21 (n = 4); chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (n = 5); and Holt-Oram, PHACE, CHARGE, and chromosome 18p deletion (n = 1 each). Aberrant right or left subclavian artery in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis is associated with an increased incidence of chromosomal or genetic abnormality, whereas right aortic arch with mirror image branching is not. The assessment of aortic arch anatomy at prenatal diagnosis can assist counselling. PMID:23732114

Oswal, Nilesh; Christov, Georgi; Sridharan, Shankar; Khambadkone, Sachin; Bull, Catherine; Sullivan, Ian

2014-06-01

237

Can a Sex-Biased Human Demography Account for the Reduced Effective Population Size of Chromosome X in  

E-print Network

Can a Sex-Biased Human Demography Account for the Reduced Effective Population Size of Chromosome X. Previous studies point to a period around the time of the dispersal of anatomically modern humans out in producing the striking chromosome X/autosome patterns. Key words: gender-biased demography, chromosome X

Reich, David

238

Genomic identification and characterization of the pseudoautosomal region in highly differentiated avian sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

The molecular characteristics of the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of sex chromosomes remain elusive. Despite significant genome-sequencing efforts, the PAR of highly differentiated avian sex chromosomes remains to be identified. Here we use linkage analysis together with whole-genome re-sequencing to uncover the 630-kb PAR of an ecological model species, the collared flycatcher. The PAR contains 22 protein-coding genes and is GC rich. The genetic length is 64?cM in female meiosis, consistent with an obligate crossing-over event. Recombination is concentrated to a hotspot region, with an extreme rate of >700?cM/Mb in a 67-kb segment. We find no signatures of sexual antagonism and propose that sexual antagonism may have limited influence on PAR sequences when sex chromosomes are nearly fully differentiated and when a recombination hotspot region is located close to the PAR boundary. Our results demonstrate that a very small PAR suffices to ensure homologous recombination and proper segregation of sex chromosomes during meiosis. PMID:25378102

Smeds, Linnéa; Kawakami, Takeshi; Burri, Reto; Bolivar, Paulina; Husby, Arild; Qvarnström, Anna; Uebbing, Severin; Ellegren, Hans

2014-01-01

239

Unique secondary chromosomal abnormalities are frequently found in the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia in southern Vietnam.  

PubMed

During the Vietnam War, southern Vietnam was exposed to a large amount of dioxin, a strong human carcinogen. Although we have observed much shorter survival in southern Vietnamese chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, the cause remains to be clarified. Here, we report cytogenetic and molecular findings for 47 CML patients. Cytogenetically, the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome was found in 44 patients (93.6%); of the remaining 3 patients with Ph-negative CML, 2 exhibited BCR/ABL transcripts but no BCR/ABL FISH fusion signals, suggesting the existence of two clones, with and without the BCR/ABL fusion gene. Surprisingly, in 17 patients (36.2%) (4 at diagnosis, 11 during chronic phase, and 2 in accelerated phase), we found several unique secondary chromosome abnormalities including trisomy 13, partial trisomy 13, and abnormalities of 1p, 3p, 6p, 7p, 10p, and 11p, which are different from the so-called additional chromosome abnormalities (extra Ph, +8, i(17q), +19, and +21) observed in blastic phase CML. FISH analysis revealed the Ph translocation with der(9) deletion in 11 patients (23.4%). Of these, 2 had two clones, with and without der(9) deletion, suggesting that der(9) deletion would occur in a subset of patients during disease progression. These observations point to preexisting genetic instability that induces various secondary chromosome abnormalities and multiple clones, resulting in shorter survival. PMID:16772122

Phan, Thi Xinh; Hoang, Anh Vu; Huynh, Van Man; Nguyen, Khanh Tri; Nguyen, Tan Binh; Huynh, Nghia; Pham, Quy Trong; Tran, Van Binh; Tran, Van Be; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Sato, Yuko

2006-07-01

240

Accumulation of Y-specific satellite DNAs during the evolution of Rumex acetosa sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

The study of the molecular structure of young heteromorphic sex chromosomes of plants has shed light on the evolutionary forces that control the differentiation of the X and Y during the earlier stages of their evolution. We have used the model plant Rumex acetosa, a dioecious species with multiple sex chromosomes, 2n = 12 + XX female and 2n = 12 + XY(1)Y(2) male, to analyse the significance of repetitive DNA accumulation during the differentiation of the Y. A bulk segregant analysis (BSA) approach allowed us to identify and isolate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the sex chromosomes. From a total of 86 RAPD markers in the parents, 6 markers were found to be linked to the Ys and 1 to the X. Two of the Y-linked markers represent two AT-rich satellite DNAs (satDNAs), named RAYSII and RAYSIII, that share about 80% homology, as well as with RAYSI, another satDNA of R. acetosa. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation demonstrated that RAYSII is specific for Y(1), whilst RAYSIII is located in different clusters along Y(1) and Y(2). The two satDNAs were only detected in the genome of the dioecious species with XX/XY(1)Y(2) multiple sex chromosome systems in the subgenus Acetosa, but were absent from other dioecious species with an XX/XY system of the subgenera Acetosa or Acetosella, as well as in gynodioecious or hermaphrodite species of the subgenera Acetosa, Rumex and Platypodium. Phylogenetic analysis with different cloned monomers of RAYSII and RAYSIII from both R. acetosa and R. papillaris indicate that these two satDNAs are completely separated from each other, and from RAYSI, in both species. The three Y-specific satDNAs, however, evolved from an ancestral satDNA with repeating units of 120 bp, through intermediate satDNAs of 360 bp. The data therefore support the idea that Y-chromosome differentiation and heterochromatinisation in the Rumex species having a multiple sex chromosome system have occurred by different amplification events from a common ancestral satDNA. Since dioecious species with multiple XX/XY(1)Y(2) sex chromosome systems of the section Acetosa appear to have evolved from dioecious species with an XX/XY system, the amplification of tandemly repetitive elements in the Ys of the section Acetosa is a recent evolutionary process that has contributed to an increase in the size and differentiation of the already non-recombining Y chromosomes. PMID:19085011

Mariotti, Beatrice; Manzano, Susana; Kejnovský, Eduard; Vyskot, Boris; Jamilena, Manuel

2009-03-01

241

Association between venous leg ulcers and sex chromosome anomalies in men.  

PubMed

We report here two cases of men, aged 46 and 23 years, with refractory chronic venous leg ulcers in association with sex chromosome aberrations: one with a 47,XXY/48,XXXY karyotype (Klinefelter syndrome) and the other with a 47,XYY karyotype (Jacob syndrome). In both patients, the occurrence of leg ulcers was the reason for seeking medical care; their medical history was other-wise unremarkable. Chromosomal analyses were performed due to the unusually young age for development of venous leg ulcers. The pathophysiology behind the occurrence of venous leg ulcers in patients with numerical aberrations of the sex chromosomes is incompletely understood. Involvement of elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in the pathogenesis of venous leg ulcers has been reported in patients with Klinefelter syndrome. Notably, our patient with 47,XXY/48,XXXY presented with androgen deficiency but normal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity. PMID:21057745

Gattringer, Cornelia; Scheurecker, Christine; Höpfl, Reinhard; Müller, Hansgeorg

2010-11-01

242

Cloning and characterization of dispersed repetitive DNA derived from microdissected sex chromosomes of Rumex acetosa.  

PubMed

Rumex acetosa is characterized by a multiple chromosome system (2n = 12 + XX for females, and 2n = 12 + XY1Y2 for males), in which sex is determined by the ratio between the number of X chromosomes and autosome sets. For a better understanding of the molecular structure and evolution of plant sex chromosomes, we have generated a sex chromosome specific library of R. acetosa by microdissection. The screening of this library has allowed us to identify 5 repetitive DNA families that have been characterized in detail. One of these families, DOP-20, has shown no homology with other sequences in databases. Nevertheless, the putative proteins encoded by the other 4 families, DOP-8, DOP-47, DOP-60, and DOP-61, show homology with proteins from different plant retroelements, including poly proteins from Ty3-gypsy- and Ty1-copia-like long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements, and reverse transcriptase from non-LTR retro elements. Results indicate that sequences from these 5 families are dispersed throughout the genome of both males and females, but no appreciable accumulation or differentiation of these types of sequences have been found in the Y chromosomes. These repetitive DNA sequences are more conserved in the genome of other dioecious species such as Rumex papillaris, Rumex intermedius, Rumex thyrsoides, Rumex hastatulus, and Rumex suffruticosus, than in the polygamous, gynodioecious, or hermaphrodite species Rumex induratus, Rumex lunaria, Rumex con glom er atus, Rumex crispus, and Rumex bucephalo phorus, which supports a single origin of dioecious species in this genus. The implication of these transposable elements in the origin and evolution of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes of R. acetosa is discussed. PMID:16498461

Mariotti, Beatrice; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Lozano, Rafael; Parker, John S; de la Herrán, Roberto; Rejón, Carmelo Ruiz; Rejón, Manuel Ruiz; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel; Jamilena, Manuel

2006-02-01

243

Embryo sexing and sex chromosomal chimerism analysis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification in cattle and water buffaloes.  

PubMed

In domestic animals of the family Bovidae, sex preselection of offspring has been demanded for convenience of milk/beef production and animal breeding. Development of the nonsurgical embryo transfer technique and sexing methods of preimplantation embryos made it possible. Sexing based on detection of Y chromosome-specific DNA sequences is considered the most reliable method to date. PCR enables amplification of a target sequence from a small number of blastomeres. However, it requires technical skill and is time consuming. Furthermore, PCR has the risk of false positives because of DNA contamination during handling of the PCR products in duplicate PCR procedures and/or electrophoresis. Therefore, for embryo sexing to become widely used in the cattle embryo transfer industry, a simple, rapid and precise sexing method needs to be developed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method, and the reaction is carried out under isothermal conditions (range, 60 to 65 C) using DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. When the target DNA is amplified by LAMP, a white precipitate derived from magnesium pyrophosphate (a by-product of the LAMP reaction) is observed. It is noteworthy that LAMP does not need special reagents or electrophoresis to detect the amplified DNA. This review describes the development and application of an embryo sexing method using LAMP in cattle and water buffaloes. PMID:23965599

Hirayama, Hiroki; Kageyama, Soichi; Moriyasu, Satoru; Sawai, Ken; Minamihashi, Akira

2013-01-01

244

Sequential Cross-Species Chromosome Painting among River Buffalo, Cattle, Sheep and Goat: A Useful Tool for Chromosome Abnormalities Diagnosis within the Family Bovidae  

PubMed Central

The main goal of this study was to develop a comparative multi-colour Zoo-FISH on domestic ruminants metaphases using a combination of whole chromosome and sub-chromosomal painting probes obtained from the river buffalo species (Bubalus bubalis, 2n?=?50,XY). A total of 13 DNA probes were obtained through chromosome microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, labelled with two fluorochromes and sequentially hybridized on river buffalo, cattle (Bos taurus, 2n?=?60,XY), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n?=?54,XY) and goat (Capra hircus, 2n?=?60,XY) metaphases. The same set of paintings were then hybridized on bovine secondary oocytes to test their potential use for aneuploidy detection during in vitro maturation. FISH showed excellent specificity on metaphases and interphase nuclei of all the investigated species. Eight pairs of chromosomes were simultaneously identified in buffalo, whereas the same set of probes covered 13 out 30 chromosome pairs in the bovine and goat karyotypes and 40% of the sheep karyotype (11 out of 27 chromosome pairs). This result allowed development of the first comparative M-FISH karyotype within the domestic ruminants. The molecular resolution of complex karyotypes by FISH is particularly useful for the small chromosomes, whose similarity in the banding patterns makes their identification very difficult. The M-FISH karyotype also represents a practical tool for structural and numerical chromosome abnormalities diagnosis. In this regard, the successful hybridization on bovine secondary oocytes confirmed the potential use of this set of probes for the simultaneous identification on the same germ cell of 12 chromosome aneuploidies. This is a fundamental result for monitoring the reproductive health of the domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:25330006

Pauciullo, Alfredo; Perucatti, Angela; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Genualdo, Viviana; Di Berardino, Dino; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

2014-01-01

245

A pseudoautosomal random amplified polymorphic DNA marker for the sex chromosomes of Silene dioica.  

PubMed

The segregation pattern of an 810-bp random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band in the F1 and backcross generations of a Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. family provides evidence that this molecular marker is located in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. The marker was found through a combination of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and RAPD techniques. Recombination rates between this pseudoautosomal marker and the differentiating portion of the Y chromosome are 15% in both generations. Alternative explanations involving nondisjunction or autosomal inheritance are presented and discussed. Chromosome counts provide evidence against the nondisjunction hypothesis, and probability calculations argue against the possibility of autosomal inheritance. This constitutes the first report of a pseudoautosomal DNA marker for plant sex chromosomes. PMID:9691057

Di Stilio, V S; Kesseli, R V; Mulcahy, D L

1998-08-01

246

Sex Chromosomes in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus), Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and the Chinese Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small W-sex chromosome is described in the female karyotype of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). In the domestic fowl, the W-chromosome is a small unpaired, metacentric chromosome intermediate in size between the chromosomes of the ninth and the tenth pair. In the female turkey, the W is a sub-metacentric element with an

A. Krishan; R. N. Shoffner

1966-01-01

247

Dosage Effects of X and Y Chromosomes on Language and Social Functioning in Children with Supernumerary Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies: Implications for Idiopathic Language Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies (X/Y-aneuploidies), the presence of extra X and/or Y chromosomes, are associated with heightened rates of language impairments and social difficulties. However, no single study has examined different language domains and social functioning in the same sample of children with tri-, tetra-, and…

Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L.; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I.; Lopez, Katherine C.; Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Clasen, Liv S.; Giedd, Jay N.

2012-01-01

248

The Sex Chromosome Trisomy mouse model of XXY and XYY: metabolism and motor performance  

PubMed Central

Background Klinefelter syndrome (KS), caused by XXY karyotype, is characterized by low testosterone, infertility, cognitive deficits, and increased prevalence of health problems including obesity and diabetes. It has been difficult to separate direct genetic effects from hormonal effects in human studies or in mouse models of KS because low testosterone levels are confounded with sex chromosome complement. Methods In this study, we present the Sex Chromosome Trisomy (SCT) mouse model that produces XXY, XYY, XY, and XX mice in the same litters, each genotype with either testes or ovaries. The independence of sex chromosome complement and gonadal type allows for improved recognition of sex chromosome effects that are not dependent on levels of gonadal hormones. All mice were gonadectomized and treated with testosterone for 3 weeks. Body weight, body composition, and motor function were measured. Results Before hormonal manipulation, XXY mice of both sexes had significantly greater body weight and relative fat mass compared to XY mice. After gonadectomy and testosterone replacement, XXY mice (both sexes) still had significantly greater body weight and relative fat mass, but less relative lean mass compared to XY mice. Liver, gonadal fat pad, and inguinal fat pad weights were also higher in XXY mice, independent of gonadal sex. In several of these measures, XX mice also differed from XY mice, and gonadal males and females differed significantly on almost every metabolic measure. The sex chromosome effects (except for testis size) were also seen in gonadally female mice before and after ovariectomy and testosterone treatment, indicating that they do not reflect group differences in levels of testicular secretions. XYY mice were similar to XY mice on body weight and metabolic variables but performed worse on motor tasks compared to other groups. Conclusions We find that the new SCT mouse model for XXY and XYY recapitulates features found in humans with these aneuploidies. We illustrate that this model has significant promise for unveiling the role of genetic effects compared to hormonal effects in these syndromes, because many phenotypes are different in XXY vs. XY gonadal female mice which have never been exposed to testicular secretions. PMID:23926958

2013-01-01

249

Chromosome analysis in Pseudopaludicola (Anura, Leiuperidae), with description of sex chromosomes XX/XY in P. saltica.  

PubMed

Taxonomic changes have frequently occurred in the anuran genus Pseudopaludicola as a consequence of high morphological similarity among its species. The present work reports karyotypic analysis of three Pseudopaludicola species sampled in their type locality and four Pseudopaludicola populations from distinct localities, aiming at contributing to the systematics of this genus. Chromosomes were stained with Giemsa or submitted to the silver staining (Ag-NOR) and C-banding techniques. The karyotype was 2n=22 in P. mineira, Pseudopaludicola sp. and two populations of P. saltica. The chromosome pair 8 was heteromorphic in P. saltica, characterizing a XX/XY sex-determination system with telocentric X and submetacentric Y. Highly similar karyotypes with 2n=18 chromosomes were observed in P. canga, P. aff. canga from Barreirinhas, State of Maranhăo, Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais and Icém, State Săo Paulo. The high similarity among the karyotypes 2n=18 suggested that the populations of P. aff. canga belong to the group 'pusilla', the same group of P. canga. The data demonstrated also that P. aff. canga from Barreirinhas (northeast region) is cytogenetically identical to P. canga with regarding the NOR site position in pair 3 and the presence of a heterochromatic block in the pair 2, whereas P. aff. canga from Uberlândia and Icém (southeast) had the NOR in the pair 9. Moreover, the cytogenetic data discriminated P. mineira and Pseudopaludicola sp. from the previously analyzed species with 22 chromosomes, and suggested that Pseudopaludicola sp. is an undescribed species. Sexual heteromorphic chromosomes are firstly reported in Pseudopaludicola and the data indicated the need of an extensive taxonomic review in this genus. PMID:20536541

Duarte, Thiago C; Veiga-Menoncello, Ana Cristina P; Lima, Janaína F R; Strüssmann, Christine; Del-Grande, Maria L; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A; Pereira, Emiliane G; Rossa-Feres, Denise C; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

2010-04-01

250

Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice. PMID:21829300

Guruprasad, K. P.; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

2010-01-01

251

Natural variation of the Y chromosome suppresses sex ratio distortion and modulates testis-specific gene expression in Drosophila simulans  

PubMed Central

X-linked sex-ratio distorters that disrupt spermatogenesis can cause a deficiency in functional Y-bearing sperm and a female-biased sex ratio. Y-linked modifiers that restore a normal sex ratio might be abundant and favored when a X-linked distorter is present. Here we investigated natural variation of Y-linked suppressors of sex-ratio in the Winters systems and the ability of these chromosomes to modulate gene expression in Drosophila simulans. Seventy-eight Y chromosomes of worldwide origin were assayed for their resistance to the X-linked sex-ratio distorter gene Dox. Y chromosome diversity caused males to sire ?63% to ?98% female progeny. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed hundreds of genes differentially expressed between isogenic males with sensitive (high sex ratio) and resistant (low sex ratio) Y chromosomes from the same population. Although the expression of about 75% of all testis-specific genes remained unchanged across Y chromosomes, a subset of post-meiotic genes was upregulated by resistant Y chromosomes. Conversely, a set of accessory gland-specific genes and mitochondrial genes were downregulated in males with resistant Y chromosomes. The D. simulans Y chromosome also modulated gene expression in XXY females in which the Y-linked protein-coding genes are not transcribed. The data suggest that the Y chromosome might exert its regulatory functions through epigenetic mechanisms that do not require the expression of protein-coding genes. The gene network that modulates sex ratio distortion by the Y chromosome is poorly understood, other than that it might include interactions with mitochondria and enriched for genes expressed in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:23591516

Branco, A T; Tao, Y; Hartl, D L; Lemos, B

2013-01-01

252

[Sonomarkers: subtle ultrasound findings in the 20-week ultrasound examination, which have a low association with some chromosomal and non-chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus].  

PubMed

Currently all pregnant women residing in the Netherlands are offered second trimester ultrasound screening for the detection of fetal congenital structural abnormalities. This routine ultrasound examination takes place at 18 to 22 weeks' gestation. The ultrasound examination may yield soft markers, which are characterized by subtle morphological changes that are often transient and have little or no pathological significance. Soft markers are of interest because of their association with fetal congenital anomalies, in particular aneuploidy. This may create uncertainty for the pregnant woman and the care provider. Information can be found in the literature about the strength of the association of soft markers, when detected as an isolated finding, and the presence of fetal abnormalities. One or more soft markers are detected during routine ultrasound in approximately 5% of pregnant women. 4 markers (echogenic intracardiac focus, echogenic bowel, mild ventriculomegaly and shortened femur) are associated with Down syndrome. Given the low prevalence of Down syndrome in the general population and the relatively low strength of association with the syndrome, the positive predictive value of these markers is very low. The same is true for choroid plexus cysts, which are associated with trisomy 18. Apart from chromosomal abnormalities, some soft markers (echogenic bowel, mild ventriculomegaly and shortened femur) are also associated with non-chromosomal fetal abnormalities. Renal pyelectasis and the 2-vessel (instead of 3-vessel) umbilical cord are associated with non-chromosomal abnormalities only. It is recommended that pregnant women be informed about the nature and implications of these findings before the examination. PMID:19009809

Grijseels, E W M; Cohen-Overbeek, T E; Adama van Scheltema, P N; Groenenberg, I A L; Schoonderwaldt, E M; Steegers, E A P; Wildschut, H I J

2008-10-11

253

Sex chromosome mosaicism and hybrid speciation among tiger swallowtail butterflies.  

PubMed

Hybrid speciation, or the formation of a daughter species due to interbreeding between two parental species, is a potentially important means of diversification, because it generates new forms from existing variation. However, factors responsible for the origin and maintenance of hybrid species are largely unknown. Here we show that the North American butterfly Papilio appalachiensis is a hybrid species, with genomic admixture from Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Papilio appalachiensis has a mosaic phenotype, which is hypothesized to be the result of combining sex-linked traits from P. glaucus and P. canadensis. We show that P. appalachiensis' Z-linked genes associated with a cooler thermal habitat were inherited from P. canadensis, whereas its W-linked mimicry and mitochondrial DNA were inherited from P. glaucus. Furthermore, genome-wide AFLP markers showed nearly equal contributions from each parental species in the origin of P. appalachiensis, indicating that it formed from a burst of hybridization between the parental species, with little subsequent backcrossing. However, analyses of genetic differentiation, clustering, and polymorphism based on molecular data also showed that P. appalachiensis is genetically distinct from both parental species. Population genetic simulations revealed P. appalachiensis to be much younger than the parental species, with unidirectional gene flow from P. glaucus and P. canadensis into P. appalachiensis. Finally, phylogenetic analyses, combined with ancestral state reconstruction, showed that the two traits that define P. appalachiensis' mosaic phenotype, obligatory pupal diapause and mimicry, evolved uniquely in P. canadensis and P. glaucus, respectively, and were then recombined through hybridization to form P. appalachiensis. These results suggest that natural selection and sex-linked traits may have played an important role in the origin and maintenance of P. appalachiensis as a hybrid species. In particular, ecological barriers associated with a steep thermal cline appear to maintain the distinct, mosaic genome of P. appalachiensis despite contact and occasional hybridization with both parental species. PMID:21931567

Kunte, Krushnamegh; Shea, Cristina; Aardema, Matthew L; Scriber, J Mark; Juenger, Thomas E; Gilbert, Lawrence E; Kronforst, Marcus R

2011-09-01

254

Sex Chromosome Mosaicism and Hybrid Speciation among Tiger Swallowtail Butterflies  

PubMed Central

Hybrid speciation, or the formation of a daughter species due to interbreeding between two parental species, is a potentially important means of diversification, because it generates new forms from existing variation. However, factors responsible for the origin and maintenance of hybrid species are largely unknown. Here we show that the North American butterfly Papilio appalachiensis is a hybrid species, with genomic admixture from Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Papilio appalachiensis has a mosaic phenotype, which is hypothesized to be the result of combining sex-linked traits from P. glaucus and P. canadensis. We show that P. appalachiensis' Z-linked genes associated with a cooler thermal habitat were inherited from P. canadensis, whereas its W-linked mimicry and mitochondrial DNA were inherited from P. glaucus. Furthermore, genome-wide AFLP markers showed nearly equal contributions from each parental species in the origin of P. appalachiensis, indicating that it formed from a burst of hybridization between the parental species, with little subsequent backcrossing. However, analyses of genetic differentiation, clustering, and polymorphism based on molecular data also showed that P. appalachiensis is genetically distinct from both parental species. Population genetic simulations revealed P. appalachiensis to be much younger than the parental species, with unidirectional gene flow from P. glaucus and P. canadensis into P. appalachiensis. Finally, phylogenetic analyses, combined with ancestral state reconstruction, showed that the two traits that define P. appalachiensis' mosaic phenotype, obligatory pupal diapause and mimicry, evolved uniquely in P. canadensis and P. glaucus, respectively, and were then recombined through hybridization to form P. appalachiensis. These results suggest that natural selection and sex-linked traits may have played an important role in the origin and maintenance of P. appalachiensis as a hybrid species. In particular, ecological barriers associated with a steep thermal cline appear to maintain the distinct, mosaic genome of P. appalachiensis despite contact and occasional hybridization with both parental species. PMID:21931567

Kunte, Krushnamegh; Shea, Cristina; Aardema, Matthew L.; Scriber, J. Mark; Juenger, Thomas E.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.; Kronforst, Marcus R.

2011-01-01

255

Sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae) revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization of subtelomeric repeat  

PubMed Central

Abstract Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zucc (Japanese hop) is a dioecious species of the family Cannabaceae. The chromosome number is 2n = 16 = 14 + XX for females and 2n = 17 = 14 + XY1Y2 for male. To date, no fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) markers have been established for the identification of Humulus japonicus sex chromosomes. In this paper, we report a method for the mitotic and meiotic sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus by FISH for HJSR, a high copy subtelomeric repeat. The signal is present in the subtelomeric region of one arm of the X chromosome. We demonstrate that males have two Y chromosomes that differ in FISH signal with the HJSR probe. Indeed, the HJSR probe hybridizes to a subtelomeric region on both arms of chromosome Y1 but not of chromosome Y2. The orientation and position of pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) were also determined. PMID:24260665

Alexandrov, Oleg S.; Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Yakovin, Nikolay A.; Karlov, Gennady I.

2012-01-01

256

Possible influences on the expression of X chromosome-linked dystrophin abnormalities by heterozygosity for autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy  

SciTech Connect

Abnormalities of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein of muscle and nerve, are generally considered specific for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. However, several patients have recently been identified with dystrophin deficiency who, before dystrophin testing, were considered to have Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) on the basis of clinical findings. Epidemiologic data suggest that only 1/3,500 males with autosomal recessive FCMD should have abnormal dystrophin. To explain the observation of 3/23 FCMD males with abnormal dystrophin, the authors propose that dystrophin and the FCMD gene product interact and that the earlier onset and greater severity of these patients' phenotype (relative to Duchenne muscular dystrophy) are due to their being heterozygous for the FCMD mutation in addition to being hemizygous for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a genotype that is predicted to occur in 1/175,000 Japanese males. This model may help explain the genetic basis for some of the clinical and pathological variability seen among patients with FCMD, and it has potential implications for understanding the inheritance of other autosomal recessive disorders in general. For example, sex ratios for rare autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in proteins that interact with X chromosome-linked gene products may display predictable deviation from 1:1.

Beggs, A.H.; Neumann, P.E.; Anderson, M.S.; Kunkel, L.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Arahata, Kiichi; Arikawa, Eri; Nonaka, Ikuya (National Inst. of Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan))

1992-01-15

257

Rainfall-driven sex-ratio genes in African buffalo suggested by correlations between Y-chromosomal haplotype frequencies and foetal sex ratio  

PubMed Central

Background The Y-chromosomal diversity in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population of Kruger National Park (KNP) is characterized by rainfall-driven haplotype frequency shifts between year cohorts. Stable Y-chromosomal polymorphism is difficult to reconcile with haplotype frequency variations without assuming frequency-dependent selection or specific interactions in the population dynamics of X- and Y-chromosomal genes, since otherwise the fittest haplotype would inevitably sweep to fixation. Stable Y-chromosomal polymorphism due one of these factors only seems possible when there are Y-chromosomal distorters of an equal sex ratio, which act by negatively affecting X-gametes, or Y-chromosomal suppressors of a female-biased sex ratio. These sex-ratio (SR) genes modify (suppress) gamete transmission in their own favour at a fitness cost, allowing for stable polymorphism. Results Here we show temporal correlations between Y-chromosomal haplotype frequencies and foetal sex ratios in the KNP buffalo population, suggesting SR genes. Frequencies varied by a factor of five; too high to be alternatively explained by Y-chromosomal effects on pregnancy loss. Sex ratios were male-biased during wet and female-biased during dry periods (male proportion: 0.47-0.53), seasonally and annually. Both wet and dry periods were associated with a specific haplotype indicating a SR distorter and SR suppressor, respectively. Conclusions The distinctive properties suggested for explaining Y-chromosomal polymorphism in African buffalo may not be restricted to this species alone. SR genes may play a broader and largely overlooked role in mammalian sex-ratio variation. PMID:20416038

2010-01-01

258

"Bouquet arrest", monopolar chromosomes segregation, and correction of the abnormal spindle.  

PubMed

According to our data, the arrest of univalents in bouquet arrangement is a widespread meiotic feature in cereal haploids and allohaploids (wide hybrids F(1)). We have analyzed 83 different genotypes of cereal haploids and allohaploids with visualization of the cytoskeleton and found a bouquet arrest in 45 of them (in 30% to 100% pollen mother cells (PMCs)). The meiotic plant cell division in 26 various genotypes with a zygotene bouquet arrest was analyzed in detail. In three of them in PMCs, a very specific monopolar conic-shaped figure at early prometaphase is formed. This monopolar figure consists of mono-oriented univalents and their kinetochore fibers converging in pointed pole. Such figures are never observed at wild-type prometaphase or in asynaptic meiosis in the variants without a bouquet arrest. Later at prometaphase, the bipolar central spindle fibers join in this monopolar figure, and a bipolar spindle with all univalents connected to one pole is formed. As a result of monopolar chromosome segregation at anaphase and normal cytokinesis at telophase, a dyad with one member carrying a restitution nucleus and the other enucleated is formed. However, such phenotype has only three genotypes among 26 analyzed with a bouquet arrest. In the remaining 23 haploids and allohaploids, the course of prometaphase was altered after the conic monopolar figure formation. In these variants, the completely formed conic monopolar figure was disintegrated into a chaotic network of spindle fibers and univalents acquired a random orientation. This arrangement looks like a mid-prometaphase in the wild-type meiosis. At late prometaphase, a bipolar spindle is formed with the univalents distributed more or less equally between two poles, similar to the phenotypes without a bouquet arrest. The product of cell division is a dyad with aneuploid members. Thus, the spindle abnormality-monopolar chromosome orientation-is corrected. In some cells the correction of the prometaphase monopolus occurs by means of its splitting into two half-spindles and their rotation along the future division axis. PMID:21274580

Shamina, Nataliya V

2012-01-01

259

Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme's performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong

2010-07-01

260

Sex differences in white matter abnormalities after mild traumatic brain injury: localization and correlation with outcome.  

PubMed

Purpose To evaluate sex differences in diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) white matter abnormalities after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and to compare associated clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this study, with waiver of informed consent. DTI in 69 patients with mTBI (47 male and 22 female patients) and 21 control subjects (10 male and 11 female subjects) with normal conventional magnetic resonance (MR) images were retrospectively reviewed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated as a measure of white matter integrity. Patients with mTBI underwent serial neurocognitive testing with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). Correlation between sex, white matter FA values, ImPACT scores, and time to symptom resolution (TSR) were analyzed with multivariate analysis and TBSS. Results No significant difference in age was seen between males and females (control subjects, P = .3; patients with mTBI, P = .34). No significant difference was seen in initial ImPACT symptom scores (P = .33) between male and female patients with mTBI. Male patients with mTBI had significantly decreased FA values in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) bilaterally (mean FA, 0.425; 95% confidence interval: 0.375, 0.476) compared with female patients with mTBI and control subjects (P < .05), with a significantly longer TSR (P = .04). Multivariate analysis showed sex and UF FA values independently correlated with TSR longer than 3 months (adjusted odds ratios, 2.27 and 2.38; P = .04 and P < .001, respectively), but initial symptom severity did not (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; P = .35). Conclusion Relative sparing of the UF is seen in female compared with male patients after mTBI, with sex and UF FA values as stronger predictors of TSR than initial symptom severity. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:24802388

Fakhran, Saeed; Yaeger, Karl; Collins, Michael; Alhilali, Lea

2014-09-01

261

Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of the multiple sex chromosome system of Rumex acetosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repeated sequence of 180 bp in tandem array has been isolated from the dioecious plant species Rumex acetosa which has a multiple sex chromosome system, XX?\\/XY1Y2?. There are two or three thin C-bands on the X while the Ys are almost entirely heteropycnotic and DAPI-positive but contain no C-band material. The Ys thus represent massive blocks of facultative heterochromatin.

C Ruiz Rejón; M Jamilena; M Garrido Ramos; J S Parker; M Ruiz Rejón

1994-01-01

262

Probing the W chromosome of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella , with sequences from microdissected sex chromatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The W chromosome of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, like that of most Lepidoptera species, is heterochromatic and forms a female-specific sex chromatin body in somatic cells.\\u000a We collected chromatin samples by laser microdissection from euchromatin and W-chromatin bodies. DNA from the samples was\\u000a amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and used to prepare painting probes and\\u000a start

Iva Fuková; Walther Traut; Magda Vítková; Petr Nguyen; Svatava Kubí?ková; František Marec

2007-01-01

263

A sex-determining region on the Y chromosome controls the sex-reversal ratio in interspecific hybrids between Oryzias curvinotus females and Oryzias latipes males.  

PubMed

Oryzias latipes and Oryzias curvinotus are closely related medaka species that have the common sex-determining gene, DMY, on their homologous Y chromosomes. We previously reported that sex-reversed XY females were produced in hybrids between O. curvinotus females and O. latipes males (Hd-rR inbred strain). In this study we used HNI inbred strain males of O. latipes for mating with O. curvinotus females, and found that all the XY hybrids developed as males. To map the factor responsible for this strain-specific XY sex reversal, O. curvinotus females were mated with two Y-congenic strains (HNI.Y(Hd-rR) and Hd-rR.Y(HNI)) and a recombinant congenic strain (Hd-rR.Y(HNI)rr). HNI.Y(Hd-rR) produced sex-reversed females in the XY hybrids, whereas no sex-reversed females were obtained in the XY hybrids from Hd-rR.Y(HNI) and Hd-rR.Y(HNI)rr, demonstrating that a small region on the Y chromosome, which includes DMY, is responsible for the XY sex reversal. Sex-reversed hybrids were only produced in the presence of the Y-chromosomal region derived from the Hd-rR strain, suggesting that missense or regulatory mutations specific to the Hd-rR Y-chromosomal region induce the sex reversal. PMID:19756038

Kato, M; Takehana, Y; Sakaizumi, M; Hamaguchi, S

2010-02-01

264

SNP-based non-invasive prenatal testing detects sex chromosome aneuploidies with high accuracy  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a single nucleotide polymorphism- and informatics-based non-invasive prenatal test that detects sex chromosome aneuploidies early in pregnancy. Methods Fifteen aneuploid samples, including thirteen 45,X, two 47,XXY, and one 47,XYY, along with 185 euploid controls, were analyzed. Cell-free DNA was isolated from maternal plasma, amplified in a single multiplex PCR assay that targeted 19,488 polymorphic loci covering chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, and sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed using a Bayesian-based maximum likelihood statistical method to determine copy number of interrogated chromosomes, calculating sample-specific accuracies. Results Of the samples that passed a stringent quality control metric (93%), the algorithm correctly identified copy number at all five chromosomes in all 187 samples, for 934/935 correct calls as early as 9.4 weeks of gestation. We detected 45,X with 91.7% sensitivity (CI: 61.5-99.8%) and 100% specificity (CI: 97.9-100%), and 47,XXY and 47,XYY. The average calculated accuracy was 99.78%. Conclusion This method non-invasively detected 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XYY fetuses from cfDNA isolated from maternal plasma with high calculated accuracies, and thus offers a non-invasive method with the potential to function as a routine screen allowing for early prenatal detection of rarely diagnosed yet commonly occurring sex aneuploidies. PMID:23712453

Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Banjevic, Milena; Ryan, Allison; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Zimmermann, Bernhard; Hill, Matthew; Hall, Megan P.; Westemeyer, Margaret; Saucier, Jennifer; Demko, Zachary; Rabinowitz, Matthew

2013-01-01

265

Distance segregation of sex chromosomes in crane-fly spermatocytes studied using laser microbeam irradiations.  

PubMed

Univalent sex chromosomes in crane-fly spermatocytes have kinetochore spindle fibres to each spindle pole (amphitelic orientation) from metaphase throughout anaphase. The univalents segregate in anaphase only after the autosomes approach the poles. As each univalent moves in anaphase, one spindle fibre shortens and the other spindle fibre elongates. To test whether the directionality of force production is fixed at anaphase, that is, whether one spindle fibre can only elongate and the other only shorten, we cut univalents in half with a laser microbeam, to create two chromatids. In both sex-chromosome metaphase and sex-chromosome anaphase, the two chromatids that were formed moved to opposite poles (to the poles to which their fibre was attached) at speeds about the same as autosomes, much faster than the usual speeds of univalent movements. Since the chromatids moved to the pole to which they were attached, independent of the direction to which the univalent as a whole was moving, the spindle fibre that normally elongates in anaphase still is able to shorten and produce force towards the pole when allowed (or caused) to do so. PMID:23315093

Forer, Arthur; Ferraro-Gideon, Jessica; Berns, Michael

2013-10-01

266

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Rumex papillaris, a dioecious plant with an XX/XY(1)Y (2) sex chromosome system.  

PubMed

Rumex papillaris Boiss, & Reut., an Iberian endemic, belongs to the section Acetosa of the genus Rumex whose main representative is R. acetosa L., a species intensively studied in relation to sex-chromosome evolution. Here, we characterize cytogenetically the chromosomal complement of R. papillaris in an effort to enhance future comparative genomic approaches and to better our understanding of sex chromosome structure in plants. Rumex papillaris, as is common in this group, is a dioecious species characterized by the presence of a multiple sex chromosome system (with females 2n = 12 + XX and males 2n = 12 + XY(1)Y(2)). Except for the X chromosome both Y chromosomes are the longest in the karyotype and appear heterochromatic due to the accumulation of at least two satellite DNA families, RAE180 and RAYSI. Each chromosome of pair VI has an additional major heterochromatin block at the distal region of the short arm. These supernumerary heterochromatic blocks are occupied by RAE730 satellite DNA family. The Y-related RAE180 family is also present in an additional minor autosomal locus. Our comparative study of the chromosomal organization of the different satellite-DNA sequences in XX/XY and XX/XY(1)Y(2) Rumex species demonstrates that of active mechanisms of heterochromatin amplification occurred and were accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements giving rise to the multiple XX/XY(1)Y(2) chromosome systems observed in Rumex. Additionally, Y(1) and Y(2) chromosomes have undergone further rearrangements leading to differential patterns of Y-heterochromatin distribution between Rumex species with multiple sex chromosome systems. PMID:18373205

Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Schwarzacher, Trude; Rejón, Manuel Ruiz; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

2009-01-01

267

Numerical chromosome abnormalities in spermatozoa of fertile and infertile men detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with single-color chromosome-specific probes was used to study the rates of disomy for chromosome 1, 16, X, and Y in sperm of fertile and infertile subjects. Diploidy rates were studied using a two-color cocktail of probes for chromosomes 17 and 18 in the same sperm samples. Two-color methodology was not available at the outset of

Norio Miharu; Robert G. Best; S. Robert Young

1994-01-01

268

Placental contribution to the origins of sexual dimorphism in health and diseases: sex chromosomes and epigenetics  

PubMed Central

Sex differences occur in most non-communicable diseases, including metabolic diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric and neurological disorders and cancer. In many cases, the susceptibility to these diseases begins early in development. The observed differences between the sexes may result from genetic and hormonal differences and from differences in responses to and interactions with environmental factors, including infection, diet, drugs and stress. The placenta plays a key role in fetal growth and development and, as such, affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts, in part for the developmental origin of health and disease (DOHaD). There is accumulating evidence to demonstrate the sex-specific relationships between diverse environmental influences on placental functions and the risk of disease later in life. As one of the few tissues easily collectable in humans, this organ may therefore be seen as an ideal system for studying how male and female placenta sense nutritional and other stresses, such as endocrine disruptors. Sex-specific regulatory pathways controlling sexually dimorphic characteristics in the various organs and the consequences of lifelong differences in sex hormone expression largely account for such responses. However, sex-specific changes in epigenetic marks are generated early after fertilization, thus before adrenal and gonad differentiation in the absence of sex hormones and in response to environmental conditions. Given the abundance of X-linked genes involved in placentogenesis, and the early unequal gene expression by the sex chromosomes between males and females, the role of X- and Y-chromosome-linked genes, and especially those involved in the peculiar placenta-specific epigenetics processes, giving rise to the unusual placenta epigenetic landscapes deserve particular attention. However, even with recent developments in this field, we still know little about the mechanisms underlying the early sex-specific epigenetic marks resulting in sex-biased gene expression of pathways and networks. As a critical messenger between the maternal environment and the fetus, the placenta may play a key role not only in buffering environmental effects transmitted by the mother but also in expressing and modulating effects due to preconceptional exposure of both the mother and the father to stressful conditions. PMID:23514128

2013-01-01

269

Array comparative genomic hybridization detects chromosomal abnormalities in hematological cancers that are not detected by conventional cytogenetics.  

PubMed

Application of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has allowed an unprecedented high-resolution analysis of cancer genomes. We developed a custom genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray interrogating 493 genes involved in hematological disorders. We analyzed 55 patients with hematological neoplasms by using this microarray. In 33 patients with apparent normal conventional cytogenetic analysis, aneuploidy or isochromosomes were detected in 12% (4 of 33) of the patients by aCGH. The chromosomal changes included trisomy of chromosomes 10, 14, and 15, tetrasomy 11, and isochromosome 17q. In 17 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who were initially investigated by using a panel of standard fluorescence in situ hybridization probes, additional copy number changes that were not interrogated by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel were detected in 47% (8 of 17) of the patients by aCGH. Important copy number changes included gain on 2p16 involving REL and BCL11A genes, rearrangements of chromosomes 8 and 15, and trisomy of chromosomes 19 and 22. In five patients with known abnormal karyotypes, aCGH identified the origin of two marker chromosomes and detected microdeletions at five breakpoints involved in three apparent balanced translocations. Our results suggest that a subset of potentially significant genomic alterations is missed by the currently available cytogenetic techniques. This pilot study clearly demonstrates high sensitivity of oligonucleotide aCGH for potential use in diagnosis and follow-up in patients with hematological neoplasms. PMID:20724749

Shao, Lina; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Li, Jian; Hixson, Patricia; Taylor, Jesalyn; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Shaw, Chad A; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Chang, Chung-Che; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita

2010-09-01

270

A sex-linked SCAR marker in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), a dioecious species with XY sex-determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

Genetic crosses between the dioecious Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae) and the monoecious B. alba in 1903 provided the first clear evidence for Mendelian inheritance of dioecy and made B. dioica the first organism for which XY sex-determination was experimentally proven. Applying molecular tools to this system, we developed a sex-linked sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for B. dioica and sequenced it for individuals representing the full geographic range of the species from Scotland to North Africa. For comparison, we also sequenced this marker for representatives of the dioecious B. cretica, B. multiflora and B. syriaca, and monoecious B. alba. In no case did any individual, male or female, yield more than two haplotypes. In northern Europe, we found strong linkage between our marker and sex, with all Y-sequences being identical to each other. In southern Europe, however, the linkage between our marker and sex was weak, with recombination detected within both the X- and the Y-homologues. Population genetic analyses suggest that the SCAR marker experienced different evolutionary pressures in northern and southern Europe. These findings fit with phylogenetic evidence that the XY system in Bryonia is labile and suggest that the genus may be a good system in which to study the early steps of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:19120821

Oyama, R K; Volz, S M; Renner, S S

2009-01-01

271

The Molecular through Ecological Genetics of Abnormal Abdomen in Drosophila Mercatorum. VI. the Non-Neutrality of the Y Chromosome Rdna Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

An association between quantitative variation of rDNA on the Y chromosome and male expression of the juvenilized, adult cuticle of the abnormal abdomen syndrome has been found for Drosophila mercatorum. Many pleiotropic effects of this syndrome have been described previously for females, but little was known about possible pleiotropic effects in males. The effects on males open up new avenues for the action of natural selection operating on the system. In females, the syndrome causes an increase in egg-to-adult development time, precocious sexual maturation, increased fecundity and decreased longevity. In addition to the cuticle phenotype, in males abnormal abdomen causes delayed sexual maturation, increased longevity, and decreased mating success, yet no change in egg-to-adult development time. Thus the syndrome has opposing fitness effects in the two sexes, which may help explain the genetic polymorphism observed in this system. Although investigated intensively, associations between naturally occurring Y-linked polymorphism and fitness phenotypes have not been found in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:8013914

Hollocher, H.; Templeton, A. R.

1994-01-01

272

Cytogenetic studies in Eigenmannia virescens (Sternopygidae, Gymnotiformes) and new inferences on the origin of sex chromosomes in the Eigenmannia genus  

PubMed Central

Background Cytogenetic studies were carried out on samples of Eigenmannia virescens (Sternopygidae, Gymnotiformes) obtained from four river systems of the Eastern Amazon region (Para, Brazil). Results All four populations had 2n = 38, with ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes (Z, acrocentric; W, submetacentric). Constitutive heterochromatin (CH) was found at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes. The W chromosome had a heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the short arm; this CH was positive for DAPI staining, indicating that it is rich in A-T base pairs. The nucleolar organizer region (NOR) was localized to the short arm of chromosome pair 15; this result was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with human 45S rDNA, and CMA3 staining indicated that the region is G-C rich. FISH with telomeric probes did not show any evidence of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITS). Conclusion Previous studies have shown that the species Eigenmannia sp. 2 and E. virescens have differentiated sex chromosomes, and diverse sex chromosome systems have been described for E. virescens specimens obtained from different Brazilian rivers. A comparative analysis of the present data and prior reports suggests that the sex chromosomes of Eigenmannia may have arisen independently in the different populations. PMID:19930594

2009-01-01

273

Sex chromosome polymorphism and heterogametic males revealed by two cloned DNA probes in the ZW\\/ZZ fish Leporinus elongatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the divergence of teleost sex chromosomes, subtractive cloning was carried out between genomic DNA of males and females of the rainbow trout (XX\\/XY) and of Leporinus elongatus (ZW\\/ZZ). Inserts cloned in a plasmid vector were individually tested on Southern blots of DNA of males and females for sex specificity. No sex-specific insert was obtained from trout,

Ichiro Nakayama; Fausto Foresti; Rita Tewari; Manfred Schartl; Daniel Chourrout

1994-01-01

274

An association between skewed X-chromosome inactivation and abnormal outcome in mosaic trisomy 16 confined predominantly to the placenta.  

PubMed

Skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is frequently found in the diploid fetal tissues of individuals with mosaic trisomy that originated from a 'trisomic zygote rescue' event. This may result from a high number of trisomic cells in the embryonic cell pool at the time of XCI, which are subsequently eliminated by selection. We hypothesize that extremely skewed XCI in these mosaic cases will be associated with a poor fetal outcome due to failure to completely eliminate the trisomy from all fetal tissues. To test this hypothesis, XCI status was evaluated in 17 cases of prenatally detected trisomy 16 mosaicism. Ten of the 15 informative cases showed extreme XCI skewing ( > or = 90% inactivation of one allele) in blood or other diploid fetal tissues compared to six of the 111 controls (p < 0.001). Among these 10 'skewed' cases, 6 showed an abnormal outcome, defined as developmental abnormalities and/or intrauterine or neonatal death. In contrast, of the 5 cases without extreme skewing, none showed abnormal outcome, although outcome information was incomplete in 1 case. An additional 6 cases analyzed, involving trisomy mosaicism for other chromosomes, showed similar results. Further studies are warranted to determine if XCI status adds useful information to the prediction of pregnancy outcome in prenatally detected mosaic trisomy. PMID:11149612

Peńaherrera, M S; Barrett, I J; Brown, C J; Langlois, S; Yong, S L; Lewis, S; Bruyčre, H; Howard-Peebles, P N; Kalousek, D K; Robinson, W P

2000-12-01

275

Identification of FISH biomarkers to detect chromosome abnormalities associated with prostate adenocarcinoma in tumour and field effect environment  

PubMed Central

Background To reduce sampling error associated with cancer detection in prostate needle biopsies, we explored the possibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the histologically benign prostate tissue from patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate. Methods Tumour specimens from 33 radical prostatectomy (RP) cases, histologically benign tissue from 17 of the 33 RP cases, and 26 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) control cases were evaluated with Locus Specific Identifier (LSI) probes MYC (8q24), LPL (8p21.22), and PTEN (10q23), as well as with centromere enumerator probes CEP8, CEP10, and CEP7. A distribution of FISH signals in the tumour and histologically benign adjacent tissue was compared to that in BPH specimens using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results The combination of MYC gain, CEP8 Abnormal, PTEN loss or chromosome 7 aneusomy was positive in the tumour area of all of the 33 specimens from patients with adenocarcinomas, and in 88% of adjacent histologically benign regions (15 out of 17) but in only 15% (4 out of 26) of the benign prostatic hyperplasia control specimens. Conclusions A panel of FISH markers may allow detection of genomic abnormalities that associate with adenocarcinoma in the field adjacent to and surrounding the tumour, and thus could potentially indicate the presence of cancer in the specimen even if the cancer focus itself was missed by biopsy and histology review. PMID:24568597

2014-01-01

276

Differential immunolocalization of a putative Rec8p in meiotic autosomes and sex chromosomes of triatomine bugs.  

PubMed

Hemipteran chromosomes are holocentric and show regular, special behavior at meiosis. While the autosomes pair at pachytene, have synaptonemal complexes (SCs) and recombination nodules (RNs) and segregate at anaphase I, the sex chromosomes do not form an SC or RNs, divide equationally at anaphase I, and their chromatids segregate at anaphase II. Here we show that this behavior is shared by the X and Y chromosomes of Triatoma infestans and the X(1)X(2)Y chromosomes of Triatoma pallidipennis. As Rec8p is a widely occurring component of meiotic cohesin, involved in meiotic homolog segregation, we used an antibody against Rec8p of Caenorhabditis elegans for immunolocalization in these triatomines. We show that while Rec8p is colocalized with SCs in the autosomes, no Rec8p can be found by immunolabeling in the sex chromosomes at any stage of meiosis. Furthermore, Rec8p labeling is lost from autosomal bivalents prior to metaphase I. In both triatomine species the sex chromosomes conjoin with each other during prophase I, and lack any SC, but they form "fuzzy cores", which are observed with silver staining and with light and electron microscopy during pachytene. Thin, serial sectioning and electron microscopy of spermatocytes at metaphases I and II reveals differential behavior of the sex chromosomes. At metaphase I the sex chromosomes form separate entities, each surrounded by a membranous sheath. On the other hand, at metaphase II the sex chromatids are closely tied and surrounded by a shared membranous sheath. The peculiar features of meiosis in these hemipterans suggest that they depart from the standard meiotic mechanisms proposed for other organisms. PMID:12707778

Pigozzi, M I; Solari, A J

2003-07-01

277

Microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes at different stages of heteromorphism and heterochromatinization in two lizard species (Squamata: Eublepharidae: Coleonyx elegans and Lacertidae: Eremias velox)  

PubMed Central

Background The accumulation of repetitive sequences such as microsatellites during the differentiation of sex chromosomes has not been studied in most squamate reptiles (lizards, amphisbaenians and snakes), a group which has a large diversity of sex determining systems. It is known that the Bkm repeats containing tandem arrays of GATA tetranucleotides are highly accumulated on the degenerated W chromosomes in advanced snakes. Similar, potentially homologous, repetitive sequences were found on sex chromosomes in other vertebrates. Using FISH with probes containing all possible mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide sequences and GATA, we studied the genome distribution of microsatellite repeats on sex chromosomes in two lizard species (the gecko Coleonyx elegans and the lacertid Eremias velox) with independently evolved sex chromosomes. The gecko possesses heteromorphic euchromatic sex chromosomes, while sex chromosomes in the lacertid are homomorphic and the W chromosome is highly heterochromatic. Our aim was to test whether microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes corresponds to the stage of their heteromorphism or heterochromatinization. Moreover, because the lizards lie phylogenetically between snakes and other vertebrates with the Bkm-related repeats on sex chromosomes, the knowledge of their repetitive sequence is informative for the determination of conserved versus convergently evolved repetitive sequences across vertebrate lineages. Results Heteromorphic sex chromosomes of C. elegans do not show any sign of microsatellite accumulation. On the other hand, in E. velox, certain microsatellite sequences are extensively accumulated over the whole length or parts of the W chromosome, while others, including GATA, are absent on this heterochromatinized sex chromosome. Conclusion The accumulation of microsatellite repeats corresponds to the stage of heterochromatinization of sex chromosomes rather than to their heteromorphism. The lack of GATA repeats on the sex chromosomes of both lizards suggests that the Bkm-related repeats on sex chromosomes in snakes and other vertebrates evolved convergently. The comparison of microsatellite sequences accumulated on sex chromosomes in E. velox and in other eukaryotic organisms suggests that historical contingency, not characteristics of particular sequences, plays a major role in the determination of which microsatellite sequence is accumulated on the sex chromosomes in a particular lineage. PMID:22013909

2011-01-01

278

Expansion of the Pseudo-autosomal Region and Ongoing Recombination Suppression in the Silene latifolia Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves. The former question has been intensively studied in a diversity of organisms, but the latter has been studied largely theoretically. To obtain empirical data, we used codominant genic markers in genetic mapping of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, together with comparative mapping of S. latifolia sex-linked genes in S. vulgaris (a related hermaphrodite species without sex chromosomes). We mapped 29 S. latifolia fully sex-linked genes (including 21 newly discovered from transcriptome sequencing), plus 6 genes in a recombining pseudo-autosomal region (PAR) whose genetic map length is ?25 cM in both male and female meiosis, suggesting that the PAR may contain many genes. Our comparative mapping shows that most fully sex-linked genes in S. latifolia are located on a single S. vulgaris linkage group and were probably inherited from a single autosome of an ancestor. However, unexpectedly, our maps suggest that the S. latifolia PAR region expanded through translocation events. Some genes in these regions still recombine in S. latifolia, but some genes from both addition events are now fully sex-linked. Recombination suppression is therefore still ongoing in S. latifolia, and multiple recombination suppression events have occurred in a timescale of few million years, much shorter than the timescale of formation of the most recent evolutionary strata of mammal and bird sex chromosomes. PMID:23733786

Bergero, Roberta; Qiu, Suo; Forrest, Alan; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Deborah

2013-01-01

279

Expansion of the pseudo-autosomal region and ongoing recombination suppression in the Silene latifolia sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves. The former question has been intensively studied in a diversity of organisms, but the latter has been studied largely theoretically. To obtain empirical data, we used codominant genic markers in genetic mapping of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, together with comparative mapping of S. latifolia sex-linked genes in S. vulgaris (a related hermaphrodite species without sex chromosomes). We mapped 29 S. latifolia fully sex-linked genes (including 21 newly discovered from transcriptome sequencing), plus 6 genes in a recombining pseudo-autosomal region (PAR) whose genetic map length is ?25 cM in both male and female meiosis, suggesting that the PAR may contain many genes. Our comparative mapping shows that most fully sex-linked genes in S. latifolia are located on a single S. vulgaris linkage group and were probably inherited from a single autosome of an ancestor. However, unexpectedly, our maps suggest that the S. latifolia PAR region expanded through translocation events. Some genes in these regions still recombine in S. latifolia, but some genes from both addition events are now fully sex-linked. Recombination suppression is therefore still ongoing in S. latifolia, and multiple recombination suppression events have occurred in a timescale of few million years, much shorter than the timescale of formation of the most recent evolutionary strata of mammal and bird sex chromosomes. PMID:23733786

Bergero, Roberta; Qiu, Suo; Forrest, Alan; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Deborah

2013-07-01

280

Analysis of a novel gene, Sdgc, reveals sex chromosome-dependent differences of medaka germ cells prior to gonad formation.  

PubMed

In vertebrates that have been examined to date, the sexual identity of germ cells is determined by the sex of gonadal somatic cells. In the teleost fish medaka, a sex-determination gene on the Y chromosome, DMY/dmrt1bY, is expressed in gonadal somatic cells and regulates the sexual identity of germ cells. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which sex chromosomes cell-autonomously confer sexually different characters upon germ cells prior to gonad formation in a genetically sex-determined species. We have identified a novel gene, Sdgc (sex chromosome-dependent differential expression in germ cells), whose transcripts are highly enriched in early XY germ cells. Chimeric analysis revealed that sexually different expression of Sdgc is controlled in a germ cell-autonomous manner by the number of Y chromosomes. Unexpectedly, DMY/dmrt1bY was expressed in germ cells prior to gonad formation, but knockdown and overexpression of DMY/dmrt1bY did not affect Sdgc expression. We also found that XX and XY germ cells isolated before the onset of DMY/dmrt1bY expression in gonadal somatic cells behaved differently in vitro and were affected by Sdgc. Sdgc maps close to the sex-determination locus, and recombination around the two loci appears to be repressed. Our results provide important insights into the acquisition and plasticity of sexual differences at the cellular level even prior to the developmental stage of sex determination. PMID:25078651

Nishimura, Toshiya; Herpin, Amaury; Kimura, Tetsuaki; Hara, Ikuyo; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Saito, Taro L; Yoshimura, Jun; Morishita, Shinichi; Tsukahara, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Satoru; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Schartl, Manfred; Tanaka, Minoru

2014-09-01

281

A Sex Chromosomal Restriction-Fragment-Length Marker Linked to Melanoma-Determining Tu Loci in Xiphophorus  

PubMed Central

In Xiphophorus, the causative genetic information for melanoma formation has been assigned by classical genetics to chromosomal loci, which are located on the sex chromosomes. In our attempts to molecularly clone these melanoma-determining loci, named Tu, we have looked for restriction-fragment-length markers (RFLMs) linked to the Tu loci. These RFLMs should be useful in obtaining a physical map of a Tu locus, which will aid in the cloning of the corresponding sequences. DNA samples from various Xiphophorus strains and hybrids including those bearing different Tu wild-type, deletion and translocation chromosomes, were screened for the presence of random RFLMs using homologous or heterologous sequences as hybridization probes. We find an EcoRI restriction fragment which shows limited crosshybridization to the v-erb B gene--but not representing the authentic c-erb B gene of Xiphophorus--to be polymorphic with respect to different sex chromosomes. Linkage analysis revealed that a 5-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sd locus on the X chromosome, a 7-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sr locus on the Y chromosome, both of Xiphophorus maculatus, and that a 12-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Li locus on the X chromosome of Xiphophorus variatus. Using different chromosomal mutants this RFLM has been mapped to a frequent deletion/translocation breakpoint of the X chromosome, less than 0.3 cM apart from the Tu locus. PMID:2841190

Schartl, M.

1988-01-01

282

Autoimmunity in women with sex chromosome aneuploidy and in their parents compared to controls  

PubMed Central

The incidence of thyroid and gastric antibodies in patients with clinical and cytogenetic features of gonadal dysgenesis, in doubly chromatin positive women and in the parents of patients with gonadal dysgenesis was not found to be significantly higher than in controls matched for age. The incidence of antibodies appeared to be appreciably higher in mosaics and in mosaics whose sex chromosome complement included an isochromosome of the long arm of the X. Failure to establish the significance of these raised incidences may be due to inadequate numbers. The discrepancy between the findings in this series and in previously reported series is discussed. PMID:5787337

Price, W. H.; Irvine, W. J.

1969-01-01

283

MECP2 duplications in six patients with complex sex chromosome rearrangements  

PubMed Central

Duplications of the Xq28 chromosome region resulting in functional disomy are associated with a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by infantile hypotonia, severe developmental delay, progressive neurological impairment, absent speech, and proneness to infections. Increased expression of the dosage-sensitive MECP2 gene is considered responsible for the severe neurological impairments observed in affected individuals. Although cytogenetically visible duplications of Xq28 are well documented in the published literature, recent advances using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) led to the detection of an increasing number of microduplications spanning MECP2. In rare cases, duplication results from intrachromosomal rearrangement between the X and Y chromosomes. We report six cases with sex chromosome rearrangements involving duplication of MECP2. Cases 1–4 are unbalanced rearrangements between X and Y, resulting in MECP2 duplication. The additional Xq material was translocated to Yp in three cases (cases 1–3), and to the heterochromatic region of Yq12 in one case (case 4). Cases 5 and 6 were identified by array CGH to have a loss in copy number at Xp and a gain in copy number at Xq28 involving the MECP2 gene. In both cases, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed a recombinant X chromosome containing the duplicated material from Xq28 on Xp, resulting from a maternal pericentric inversion. These cases add to a growing number of MECP2 duplications that have been detected by array CGH, while demonstrating the value of confirmatory chromosome and FISH studies for the localization of the duplicated material and the identification of complex rearrangements. PMID:21119712

Breman, Amy M; Ramocki, Melissa B; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Williams, Misti; Freedenberg, Debra; Patel, Ankita; Bader, Patricia I; Cheung, Sau Wai

2011-01-01

284

Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation Is Disrupted in Sterile Hybrid Male House Mice  

PubMed Central

In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis. PMID:23307891

Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M.; Nachman, Michael W.

2013-01-01

285

XY sex chromosome complement, compared with XX, in the CNS confers greater neurodegeneration during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Women are more susceptible to multiple sclerosis (MS) and have more robust immune responses than men. However, men with MS tend to demonstrate a more progressive disease course than women, suggesting a disconnect between the severity of an immune attack and the CNS response to a given immune attack. We have previously shown in an MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, that autoantigen-sensitized XX lymph node cells, compared with XY, are more encephalitogenic. These studies demonstrated an effect of sex chromosomes in the induction of immune responses, but did not address a potential role of sex chromosomes in the CNS response to immune-mediated injury. Here, we examined this possibility using XX versus XY bone marrow chimeras reconstituted with a common immune system of one sex chromosomal type. We found that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice with an XY sex chromosome complement in the CNS, compared with XX, demonstrated greater clinical disease severity with more neuropathology in the spinal cord, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. A candidate gene on the X chromosome, toll-like receptor 7, was then examined. Toll-like receptor 7 expression in cortical neurons was higher in mice with XY compared with mice with XX CNS, consistent with the known neurodegenerative role for toll-like receptor 7 in neurons. These results suggest that sex chromosome effects on neurodegeneration in the CNS run counter to effects on immune responses, and may bear relevance to the clinical enigma of greater MS susceptibility in women but faster disability progression in men. This is a demonstration of a direct effect of sex chromosome complement on neurodegeneration in a neurological disease. PMID:24550311

Du, Sienmi; Itoh, Noriko; Askarinam, Sahar; Hill, Haley; Arnold, Arthur P.; Voskuhl, Rhonda R.

2014-01-01

286

Multiple Nuclear Gene Phylogenetic Analysis of the Evolution of Dioecy and Sex Chromosomes in the Genus Silene  

PubMed Central

In the plant genus Silene, separate sexes and sex chromosomes are believed to have evolved twice. Silene species that are wholly or largely hermaphroditic are assumed to represent the ancestral state from which dioecy evolved. This assumption is important for choice of outgroup species for inferring the genetic and chromosomal changes involved in the evolution of dioecy, but is mainly based on data from a single locus (ITS). To establish the order of events more clearly, and inform outgroup choice, we therefore carried out (i) multi-nuclear-gene phylogenetic analyses of 14 Silene species (including 7 hermaphrodite or gynodioecious species), representing species from both Silene clades with dioecious members, plus a more distantly related outgroup, and (ii) a BayesTraits character analysis of the evolution of dioecy. We confirm two origins of dioecy within this genus in agreement with recent work on comparing sex chromosomes from both clades with dioecious species. We conclude that sex chromosomes evolved after the origin of Silene and within a clade that includes only S. latifolia and its closest relatives. We estimate that sex chromosomes emerged soon after the split with the ancestor of S. viscosa, the probable closest non-dioecious S. latifolia relative among the species included in our study. PMID:21853022

Marais, Gabriel A. B.; Forrest, Alan; Kamau, Esther; Kafer, Jos; Daubin, Vincent; Charlesworth, Deborah

2011-01-01

287

Sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system: potential roles for sex chromosome genes  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that some sex differences in brain and behavior might result from direct genetic effects, and not solely the result of the organizational effects of steroid hormones. The present study examined the potential role for sex-biased gene expression during development of sexually dimorphic singing behavior and associated song nuclei in juvenile zebra finches. Results A microarray screen revealed more than 2400 putative genes (with a false discovery rate less than 0.05) exhibiting sex differences in the telencephalon of developing zebra finches. Increased expression in males was confirmed in 12 of 20 by qPCR using cDNA from the whole telencephalon; all of these appeared to be located on the Z sex chromosome. Six of the genes also showed increased expression in one or more of the song control nuclei of males at post-hatching day 25. Although the function of half of the genes is presently unknown, we have identified three as: 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type IV, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and sorting nexin 2. Conclusion The data suggest potential influences of these genes in song learning and/or masculinization of song system morphology, both of which are occurring at this developmental stage. PMID:19309515

Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Peabody, Camilla; Replogle, Kirstin; Clayton, David F; Tempelman, Robert J; Wade, Juli

2009-01-01

288

Sensitive and specific detection of mosaic chromosomal abnormalities using the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method  

PubMed Central

Background Mosaic somatic alterations are present in all multi-cellular organisms, but the physiological effects of low-level mosaicism are largely unknown. Most mosaic alterations remain undetectable with current analytical approaches, although the presence of such alterations is increasingly implicated as causative for disease. Results Here, we present the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method for chromosomal abnormality detection in trio-based SNP microarray data. Our software implementation, triPOD, was benchmarked using a simulated dataset, outperformed comparable software for sensitivity of abnormality detection, and displayed substantial improvement in the detection of low-level mosaicism while maintaining comparable specificity. Examples of low-level mosaic abnormalities from a large autism dataset demonstrate the benefits of the increased sensitivity provided by triPOD. The triPOD analyses showed robustness across multiple types of Illumina microarray chips. Two large, clinically-relevant datasets were characterized and compared. Conclusions Our method and software provide a significant advancement in the ability to detect low-level mosaic abnormalities, thereby opening new avenues for research into the implications of mosaicism in pathogenic and non-pathogenic processes. PMID:23724825

2013-01-01

289

Dosage effects of X and Y chromosomes on language and social functioning in children with supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies: Implications for idiopathic language impairment and autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies (X/Y-aneuploidies), the presence of extra X- and/or Y-chromosomes, are associated with heightened rates of language impairments and social difficulties. However, no single study has examined different language domains and social functioning in the same sample of children with tri-, tetra-, and pentasomy X/Y-aneuploidy. The current research sought to fill this gap in the literature and to examine dosage effects of X- and Y-chromosomes on language and social functioning. Methods Participants included 110 youth with X/Y-aneuploidies (32 female) and 52 with typical development (25 female) matched on age (mean~12 years; range 4–22) and maternal education. Participants completed the Wechsler intelligence scales and parents completed the Children’s Communication Checklist-2 and the Social Responsiveness Scale to assess language skills and autistic traits, respectively. Results Both supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes were related to depressed structural and pragmatic language skills and increased autistic traits. The addition of a Y-chromosome had a disproportionately greater impact on pragmatic language; the addition of one or more X-chromosomes had a disproportionately greater impact on structural language. Conclusions Given that we link extra X-chromosomes with structural language impairments and an extra Y-chromosome with pragmatic language impairments, X/Y-aneuploidies may provide clues to genetic mechanisms contributing to idiopathic language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22827287

Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L.; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I.; Lopez, Katherine C.; Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Clasen, Liv S.; Giedd, Jay N.

2012-01-01

290

Is the rate of insertion and deletion mutation male biased?: Molecular evolutionary analysis of avian and primate sex chromosome sequences.  

PubMed Central

The rate of mutation for nucleotide substitution is generally higher among males than among females, likely owing to the larger number of DNA replications in spermatogenesis than in oogenesis. For insertion and deletion (indel) mutations, data from a few human genetic disease loci indicate that the two sexes may mutate at similar rates, possibly because such mutations arise in connection with meiotic crossing over. To address origin- and sex-specific rates of indel mutation we have conducted the first large-scale molecular evolutionary analysis of indels in noncoding DNA sequences from sex chromosomes. The rates are similar on the X and Y chromosomes of primates but about twice as high on the avian Z chromosome as on the W chromosome. The fact that indels are not uncommon on the nonrecombining Y and W chromosomes excludes meiotic crossing over as the main cause of indel mutation. On the other hand, the similar rates on X and Y indicate that the number of DNA replications (higher for Y than for X) is also not the main factor. Our observations are therefore consistent with a role of both DNA replication and recombination in the generation of short insertion and deletion mutations. A significant excess of deletion compared to insertion events is observed on the avian W chromosome, consistent with gradual DNA loss on a nonrecombining chromosome. PMID:12750337

Sundström, Hannah; Webster, Matthew T; Ellegren, Hans

2003-01-01

291

Characterization of the temporal persistence of chromosomal abnormalities in the semen of Hodkin`s disease patients after treatment with NOVP chemotherapy using multi-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Three-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to sperm of men with Hodgkin`s disease to measure the persistence of chromosomally abnormal sperm within the time interval of 3 to 33 months after the end of treatment. NOVP chemotherapy includes the agents novantrone, oncovin, vinblastine, and prednisone, two of which are spindle poisons expected to induce aneuploidy. Semen samples were evaluated for the frequencies of fluorescence phenotypes representing hyperhaploidy, hypohaploidy, and genomic duplications using DNA probes specific for repetitive sequences on chromosomes X,Y, and 8. Using this procedure, NOVP was previously shown to induce chromosomally abnormal sperm in treated patients. In a longitudinal assessment of 11 semen samples from 2 men, frequencies of abnormal sperm appeared to return to pre-treatment levels at {approximately}6 months after the end of treatment and remained at these levels up to 33 months after the end of treatment. However, pre-treatment frequencies of chromosomally abnormal cells in Hodgkin`s patients were elevated above those found in normal healthy men. Additional patients are being evaluated to determine how long after therapy Hodgkin`s disease patients remain at increased risk for producing chromosomally abnormal sperm.

Cassel, M.J.; Robbins, W.A.; Wyrobek, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Meistrich, M.L. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

292

Sex chromosome linkage of mate preference and color signal maintains assortative mating between interbreeding finch morphs.  

PubMed

Assortative mating is a key aspect in the speciation process because it is important for both initial divergence and maintenance of distinct species. However, it remains a challenge to explain how assortative mating evolves when diverging populations are undergoing gene flow (e.g., during hybridization). Here I experimentally test how assortative mating is maintained with frequent gene flow between diverged head-color morphs of the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae). Contrary to the predominant view on the development of sexual preferences in birds, cross-fostered offspring did not imprint on the phenotype of their conspecific (red or black morphs) or heterospecific (Bengalese finch) foster parents. Instead, the mating preferences of F(1) and F(2) intermorph-hybrids are consistent with inheritance on the Z chromosomes, which are also the location for genes controlling color expression and the genes causing low fitness of intermorph-hybrids. Genetic associations between color signal and preference loci on the sex chromosomes may prevent recombination from breaking down these associations when the morphs interbreed, helping to maintain assortative mating in the face of gene flow. Although sex linkage of reproductively isolating traits is theoretically expected to promote speciation, social and ecological constraints may enforce frequent interbreeding between the morphs, thus preventing complete reproductive isolation. PMID:19922444

Pryke, Sarah R

2010-05-01

293

COMMON TYPES OF CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA  

E-print Network

to the failure of chromosomes to separate during cell division in the formation of the egg, sperm, or the fetus often result in miscarriage. Nondisjunction in cell division of the sperm or egg before fertilization There is an increased risk of nondisjunction in women with advanced age. The chance of having a child with a trisomy 21

294

[Diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities by array CGH in constitutional pathology: the end of the first-line karyotype].  

PubMed

Today, the array CGH has supplanted the karyotype for the global study of the genome with a resolution from 10 to 500 times better and with providing access to the genes content of the chromosomal rearrangement. The study of patients with intellectual disabilities and/or congenital malformations allowed to detect thanks to this technique 10 to 15% of abnormalities not visible on the karyotype. In addition, its use extended to other indications revealed anomalies associated with neuropsychiatric diseases (such as autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or isolated epilepsy) and cardiac, bone, kidney or other isolated defects. The analysis of genes in the unbalanced chromosome segment to establish the causal link between the genomic imbalance identified and the pathology observed is at the core of the cytogeneticist's work. The array CGH freeing a morphological analysis of chromosomes of the karyotype in contrast, offers the advantage of being fully automated allowing improved reliability and reproducibility of the results and a study of more patients. Today, it has become the first-line test to explore the genome of many patients. PMID:22342099

Malan, V; Romana, S

2012-04-01

295

Molecular antagonism between X-chromosome and autosome signals determines nematode sex  

PubMed Central

Sex is determined in Caenorhabditis elegans by the ratio of X chromosomes to the sets of autosomes, the X:A signal. A set of genes called X signal elements (XSEs) communicates X-chromosome dose by repressing the masculinizing sex determination switch gene xol-1 (XO lethal) in a dose-dependent manner. xol-1 is active in 1X:2A embryos (males) but repressed in 2X:2A embryos (hermaphrodites). Here we showed that the autosome dose is communicated by a set of autosomal signal elements (ASEs) that act in a cumulative, dose-dependent manner to counter XSEs by stimulating xol-1 transcription. We identified new ASEs and explored the biochemical basis by which ASEs antagonize XSEs to determine sex. Multiple antagonistic molecular interactions carried out on a single promoter explain how different X:A values elicit different sexual fates. XSEs (nuclear receptors and homeodomain proteins) and ASEs (T-box and zinc finger proteins) bind directly to several sites on xol-1 to counteract each other's activities and thereby regulate xol-1 transcription. Disrupting ASE- and XSE-binding sites in vivo recapitulated the misregulation of xol-1 transcription caused by disrupting cognate signal element genes. XSE- and ASE-binding sites are distinct and nonoverlapping, suggesting that direct competition for xol-1 binding is not how XSEs counter ASEs. Instead, XSEs likely antagonize ASEs by recruiting cofactors with reciprocal activities that induce opposite transcriptional states. Most ASE- and XSE-binding sites overlap xol-1's ?1 nucleosome, which carries activating chromatin marks only when xol-1 is turned on. Coactivators and corepressors tethered by proteins similar to ASEs and XSEs are known to deposit and remove such marks. The concept of a sex signal comprising competing XSEs and ASEs arose as a theory for fruit flies a century ago. Ironically, while the recent work of others showed that the fly sex signal does not fit this simple paradigm, our work shows that the worm signal does. PMID:23666922

Farboud, Behnom; Nix, Paola; Jow, Margaret M.; Gladden, John M.; Meyer, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

296

Male gametophyte development and two different DNA classes of pollen grains in Rumex acetosa L., a plant with an XX\\/XY 1 Y 2 sex chromosome system and a female-biased sex ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female-biased sex ratio is an interesting phenomenon observed in Rumex acetosa, a dioecious plant with an XX\\/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. Previous authors have suggested that the biased sex ratio in this species is conditioned not only\\u000a postzygotically (sex-differential sporophytic mortality) but also prezygotically, because the sex ratio of seeds is also female-biased,\\u000a although to a lesser extent than the sex

Magdalena B?ocka-Wandas; Elwira Sliwinska; Aleksandra Grabowska-Joachimiak; Krystyna Musial; Andrzej J. Joachimiak

2007-01-01

297

The significance of radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities in radiological protection  

PubMed Central

A brief review is given of the production and analysis of chromosome aberrations induced by ionizing radiation. The various tissues in which it is possible to demonstrate aberrations are noted and particular emphasis is laid on the culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Some examples of recent applications of the technique are described. These are in the determination of suspected overdoses to radiation workers, in estimating doses to radiotherapy patients, and investigating the depth/biological profile for a negative ? meson beam. PMID:4841086

Dolphin, G. W.; Lloyd, D. C.

1974-01-01

298

Chromosomal gains measured in cytology samples from women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results  

PubMed Central

Objective Chromosomal gains at 3q26, 5p15 and 20q13 have been described in cervical precancer and cancer. We evaluated a novel fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay that detects gains at these three loci simultaneously as a possible biomarker for detecting cervical precancer. Methods Chromosomal copy numbers at 3q26 (3q), 5p15 (5p), 20q13 (20q) and the centromere of chromosome7 (cen7) in liquid-based cytology specimens from 168 women enrolled in the Biopsy Study were determined by FISH. The number of cells with ?3 or ?4 signals for a genomic locus was enumerated and diagnostic test performance measures were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Sensitivity and specificity values were determined for the detection of CIN2+ and/or HSIL. Results The median number of cells with ?3 signals increased with the severity of cervical lesion for each genomic locus (p-trend<0.02 for each locus). ROC analysis for the number of cells with ?3 signals resulted in area under the curve values of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.54-0.86), 0.67 (0.52-0.83), 0.67 (0.51-0.83) and 0.78 (0.64-0.92) for 3q, 5p, 20q and cen7, respectively, for the detection of CIN2+ and/or HSIL. Positivity for gains at multiple loci resulted in only slightly better test performance measures than those for the individual probes for four distinct combinations of probes. Conclusions Chromosomal gains at 3q, 5p, 20q and cen7 are associated with severity of cervical lesions. Further studies are required to quantify risk stratification of FISH assays for cervical cancer screening. PMID:23769811

Luhn, Patricia; Houldsworth, Jane; Cahill, Lynnette; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Dunn, S. Terence; Gold, Michael A.; Walker, Joan; Wentzensen, Nicolas

2013-01-01

299

The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the diagnosis of hidden mosaicism: apropos of three cases of sex chromosome anomalies.  

PubMed

FISH has been used as a complement to classical cytogenetics in the detection of mosaicism in sex chromosome anomalies. The aim of this study is to describe three cases in which the final diagnosis could only be achieved by FISH. Case 1 was an 8-year-old 46,XY girl with normal female genitalia referred to our service because of short stature. FISH analysis of lymphocytes with probes for the X and Y centromeres identified a 45,X/46,X,idic(Y) constitution, and established the diagnosis of Turner syndrome. Case 2 was a 21-month-old 46,XY boy with genital ambiguity (penile hypospadias, right testis, and left streak gonad). FISH analysis of lymphocytes and buccal smear identified a 45,X/46,XY karyotype, leading to diagnosis of mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Case 3 was a 47,XYY 19-year-old boy with delayed neuromotor development, learning disabilities, psychological problems, tall stature, small testes, elevated gonadotropins, and azoospermia. FISH analysis of lymphocytes and buccal smear identified a 47,XYY/48,XXYY constitution. Cases 1 and 2 illustrate the phenotypic variability of the 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, and the importance of detection of the 45,X cell line for proper management and follow-up. In case 3, abnormal gonadal function could be explained by the 48,XXYY cell line. The use of FISH in clinical practice is particularly relevant when classical cytogenetic analysis yields normal or uncertain results in patients with features of sex chromosome aneuploidy. PMID:23295296

Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas; Paulo, Juliana De; Santos, Ana Paula; Guaragna-Filho, Guilherme; Andrade, Juliana Gabriel Ribeiro; Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Guerra-Júnior, Gil

2012-11-01

300

Sex-ratio meiotic drive in Drosophila simulans is related to equational nondisjunction of the Y chromosome.  

PubMed Central

The sex-ratio trait, an example of naturally occurring X-linked meiotic drive, has been reported in a dozen Drosophila species. Males carrying a sex-ratio X chromosome produce an excess of female offspring caused by a deficiency of Y-bearing sperm. In Drosophila simulans, such males produce approximately 70-90% female offspring, and 15-30% of the male offspring are sterile. Here, we investigate the cytological basis of the drive in this species. We show that the sex-ratio trait is associated with nondisjunction of Y chromatids in meiosis II. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using sex-chromosome-specific probes provides direct evidence that the drive is caused by the failure of the resulting spermatids to develop into functional sperm. XYY progeny were not observed, indicating that few or no YY spermatids escape failure. The recovery of XO males among the progeny of sex-ratio males shows that some nullo-XY spermatids become functional sperm and likely explains the male sterility. A review of the cytological data in other species shows that aberrant behavior of the Y chromosome may be a common basis of sex-ratio meiotic drive in Drosophila and the signal that triggers differential spermiogenesis failure. PMID:10628983

Cazemajor, M; Joly, D; Montchamp-Moreau, C

2000-01-01

301

Arsenic Exposure, Dermatological Lesions, Hypertension, and Chromosomal Abnormalities among People in a Rural Community of Northwest Iran  

PubMed Central

Chronic exposure to arsenic compounds is one of the major public-health problems in many developing and some developed countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to arsenic on dermatological lesions, hypertension, and chromosomal abnormalities among people in a community in the northwest of Iran. The occurrence of dermatological lesions, hypertension, and chromosomal abnormalities was investigated in two groups: Ghopuz village, including 101 subjects with chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking-water and Mayan village, including 107 subjects with no exposure. Daily/yearly absorbed amounts of arsenic were calculated for all subjects. Cumulative arsenic index for each individual was then estimated on the basis of age, water consumption, and location of residence. Arsenic concentration in drinking-water sources in Ghopuz and Mayan villages was 1031±1103 ?g/L and non-detectable respectively. The mean systolic blood pressure in the exposure group [n=137, 95% confidence interval (CI 132–142)] was significantly higher than that in the control group (n=107, 95% CI 99.9–114). A similar significant difference was observed for diastolic blood pressure (exposed: n=82, 95% CI 79–85 vs non-exposed: n=71, 95% CI 66–75). The incidence of hyperkeratosis was 34 times higher among the exposure group compared to the control subjects [odds ratio (OR)=34, p<0.001)]. A significant difference was also observed in the occurrence of skin-pigmentation between the two groups (OR=2.4, p<0.007). Location and severity of the pigmentations were statistically different between the two groups. Twenty-five percent of the subjects in the exposure group showed chromosomal abnormalities (p=0.05). Arsenic exposure was a serious health problem in the region. More studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects and dose-response relationship of arsenic in the region and similar areas. Wide-ranging monitoring programmes for drinking-water sources should be implemented by public-health authorities. PMID:20214082

Dastgiri, Saeed; Fizi, Mohammad A.H.; Olfati, Nahid; Zolali, Shahin; Pouladi, Nasser; Azarfam, Parvin

2010-01-01

302

Prolonged exposure to acid and bile induces chromosome abnormalities that precede malignant transformation of benign Barrett's epithelium  

PubMed Central

Abstract Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is an asymptomatic, pre-malignant condition of the esophagus that can progress to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). BE arises typically in individuals with long-standing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The neoplastic progression of BE has been extensively studied histologically and defined as a metaplasia- dyplasia- carcinoma sequence. However the genetic basis of this process is poorly understood. It is conceived that preclinical models of BE may facilitate discovery of molecular markers due to ease of longitudinal sampling. Clinical markers to stratify the patients at higher risk are vital to institute appropriate therapeutic intervention since EAC has very poor prognosis. We developed a dynamic in-vitro BE carcinogenesis (BEC) model by exposing naďve Barrett’s epithelium cell line (BAR-T) to acid and bile at pH4 (B4), 5min/day for a year. The BEC model acquired malignant characteristics after chronic repeated exposure to B4 similar to the sequential progression of BE to EAC in vivo. Aim To study cytogenetic changes during progressive transformation in the BEC model. Results We observed that the BAR-T cells progressively acquired several chromosomal abnormalities in the BEC model. Evidence of chromosomal loss (-Y) rearrangements [t(10;16) and dup (11q)] and clonal selection appeared during the early stages of the BEC model. Clonal selection resulted in a stabilized monoclonal population of cells that had a changed morphology and formed colony in soft agar. BAR-T cells grown in parallel without any exposure did not show any of these abnormalities. Conclusions Prolonged acid and bile exposure induced chromosomal aberrations and clonal selection in benign BAR-T cells. Since aneuploidy preceded morphological/dysplastic changes in the BEC model, chromosomal aberrations may be an early predictor of BE progression. The [t(10;16) and dup(11q)] aberrations identified in this study harbor several genes associated with cancer and may be responsible for neoplastic behavior of cells. After further validation, in-vivo, they may be clinically useful for diagnosis of BE, progressing to dysplasia/esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:23194200

2012-01-01

303

Chromosome  

MedlinePLUS

Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

304

Genomic Diversity in Two Related Plant Species with and without Sex Chromosomes - Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Background Genome size evolution is a complex process influenced by polyploidization, satellite DNA accumulation, and expansion of retroelements. How this process could be affected by different reproductive strategies is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed differences in the number and distribution of major repetitive DNA elements in two closely related species, Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris. Both species are diploid and possess the same chromosome number (2n?=?24), but differ in their genome size and mode of reproduction. The dioecious S. latifolia (1C?=?2.70 pg DNA) possesses sex chromosomes and its genome is 2.5× larger than that of the gynodioecious S. vulgaris (1C?=?1.13 pg DNA), which does not possess sex chromosomes. We discovered that the genome of S. latifolia is larger mainly due to the expansion of Ogre retrotransposons. Surprisingly, the centromeric STAR-C and TR1 tandem repeats were found to be more abundant in S. vulgaris, the species with the smaller genome. We further examined the distribution of major repetitive sequences in related species in the Caryophyllaceae family. The results of FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) on mitotic chromosomes with the Retand element indicate that large rearrangements occurred during the evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that the evolution of genome size in the genus Silene is accompanied by the expansion of different repetitive elements with specific patterns in the dioecious species possessing the sex chromosomes. PMID:22393373

Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovsky, Eduard; Kubat, Zdenek; Blavet, Hana; Safar, Jan; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Blavet, Nicolas; Hobza, Roman

2012-01-01

305

Neurocognitive outcomes of individuals with a sex chromosome trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY: a systematic review*  

PubMed Central

Aim To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). Method A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. Results We identified 35 articles on five neonatally identified samples that had adequate power for our review. An additional 11 studies were included where cases had been identified for reasons other than neurodevelopmental concerns. Individuals with an additional X chromosome had mean IQs that were within broadly normal limits but lower than the respective comparison groups, with verbal IQ most affected. Cognitive outcomes were poorest for females with XXX. Males with XYY had normal-range IQs, but all three SCT groups (XXX, XXY, and XYY) had marked difficulties in speech and language, motor skills, and educational achievement. Nevertheless, most adults with SCTs lived independently. Less evidence was available for brain structure and for attention, social, and psychiatric outcomes. Within each group there was much variation. Interpretation Individuals with SCTs are at risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties. However, the evidence base is slender, and further research is needed to ascertain the nature, severity, and causes of these difficulties in unselected samples. PMID:20059514

LEGGETT, VICTORIA; JACOBS, PATRICIA; NATION, KATE; SCERIF, GAIA; BISHOP, DOROTHY V M

2010-01-01

306

Analysis of HLA and disease susceptibility: Chromosome 6 genes and sex influence long-QT phenotype  

SciTech Connect

The long-QT (LQT) syndrome is a genetically complex disorder that is characterized by syncope and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. LQT syndrome, as defined by a prolonged electrocardiographic QT interval, has a higher incidence in females than in males and does not exhibit Mendelian transmission patterns in all families. Among those families that are nearly consistent with Mendelian transmission, linkage between a locus for LQT syndrome and the H-ras-1 locus on the short arm of chromosome 11 has been reported in some families but not in others. Earlier analyses suggesting that LQT syndrome might be caused by a gene in the HLA region of chromosome 6 were not confirmed by standard linkage analyses. Here, we present an analysis of HLA haplotype sharing among affected pedigree members, showing an excess of haplotype sharing in a previously published Japanese pedigree and possibly also in 15 families of European descent. The haplotypes shared by affected individuals derive from both affected and unaffected parents. In an analysis of independent (unrelated) HLA haplotypes, we also found a nonrandom distribution of HLA-DR genes in LQT syndrome patients compared with controls, suggesting an association between the LQT phenotype and specific HLA-DR genes. Our data indicate that DR2 has a protective effect and, particularly in males, that DR7 may increase susceptibility to the LQT syndrome. Thus, LQT syndrome may be influenced by genes on chromosomes 11 and 6, possibly with a sex-specific effect. These results provide a model for an effect of HLA-region genes inherited from either parent on the expression of an illness that may be determined principally by alleles at loci not linked to HLA.

Weitkamp, L.R.; Moss, A.J.; Hall, W.J.; Robinson, J.L.; Guttormsen, S.A. [Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (United States); Lewis, R.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); MacCluer, J.W. [Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX (United States); Schwartz, P.J. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Locati, E.H. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Tzivoni, D. [Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel)

1994-12-01

307

Social Deficits in Male Children and Adolescents with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: A Comparison of XXY, XYY, and XXYY Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compare social skills in three groups of males with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Participants included males with XXY (N = 102, M = 10.08 years), XYY (N = 40, M = 9.93 years), and XXYY (N = 32, M = 11.57 years). XXY had lower (better) SRS scores compared to XYY and XXYY. Scores were not…

Cordeiro, Lisa; Tartaglia, Nicole; Roeltgen, David; Ross, Judith

2012-01-01

308

Turner syndrome and female sex chromosome aberrations: deduction of the principal factors involved in the development of clinical features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although clinical features in Turner syndrome have been well defined, underlying genetic factors have not been clarified. To deduce the factors leading to the development of clinical features, we took the following four steps: (1) assessment of clinical features in classic 45,X Turner syndrome; (2) review of clinical features in various female sex chromosome aberrations (karyotype-phenotype correlations); (3) assessment of

Tsutomu Ogata; Nobutake Matsuo

1995-01-01

309

Evidence for female heterogamety in two terrestrial crustaceans and the problem of sex chromosome evolution in isopods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female heterogamety (WZ type) has been demonstrated in the terrestrial isopods Oniscus asellus (Oniscidae) and Eluma purpurascens (Armadillidiidae), by making crosses between two genetic females (one of them experimentally reversed into a functional neo-male). The WW individuals generated by such crosses were viable and fertile females. These data, plus the frequent monomorphism of sex chromosomes and the coexistance of two

Pierre Juchault; Thierry Rigaud

1995-01-01

310

Rapid detection of sex chromosomal aneuploidies by QF-PCR: application in 200 men with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia.  

PubMed

Klinefelter syndrome is the most common genetic cause of severe male factor infertility. Cytogenetic evaluation of metaphase chromosomes generally has a long turnaround time. We describe a reliable molecular genetic method that can be completed in 2 working days to identify the presence of any extra X chromosomes. The quantitative fluorescent (QF) 5-plex PCR includes the amplification of amelogenin, which is present on both sex chromosomes in a biallelic form, a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) on the pseudoautosomal region of X and Y (X22), two polymorphic X-specific STRs (DXS6803, DXS6809), and a Y-specific marker (SY134), in a single tube. The presence of an extra X chromosome is recognized either by a supernumerary peak or an increased peak area based on criteria we have developed. The application of the method on 200 patients resulted in the identification of 14 patients (7%) with Klinefelter syndrome or a variant form (2 SRY-positive 46,XX men), as well as an additional patient with 47,XYY karyotype. The QF-PCR method, along with Y chromosome microdeletion testing, can be used as a first-step genetic analysis in azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients for the rapid identification of sex chromosome aneuploidies. PMID:17627384

Fodor, Flora; Kamory, Eniko; Csokay, Bela; Kopa, Zsolt; Kiss, Attila; Lantos, Istvan; Tisza, Timea

2007-01-01

311

A gradual process of recombination restriction in the evolutionary history of the sex chromosomes in dioecious plants.  

PubMed

To help understand the evolution of suppressed recombination between sex chromosomes, and its consequences for evolution of the sequences of Y-linked genes, we have studied four X-Y gene pairs, including one gene not previously characterized, in plants in a group of closely related dioecious species of Silene which have an X-Y sex-determining system (S. latifolia, S. dioica, and S. diclinis). We used the X-linked copies to build a genetic map of the X chromosomes, with a marker in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) to orient the map. The map covers a large part of the X chromosomes--at least 50 centimorgans. Except for a recent rearrangement in S. dioica, the gene order is the same in the X chromosomes of all three species. Silent site divergence between the DNA sequences of the X and Y copies of the different genes increases with the genes' distances from the PAR, suggesting progressive restriction of recombination between the X and Y chromosomes. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of the four genes, which also revealed that the least-diverged X-Y pair could have ceased recombining independently in the dioecious species after their split. Analysis of amino acid replacements vs. synonymous changes showed that, with one possible exception, the Y-linked copies appear to be functional in all three species, but there are nevertheless some signs of degenerative processes affecting the genes that have been Y-linked for the longest times. Although the X-Y system evolved quite recently in Silene (less than 10 million years ago) compared to mammals (about 320 million years ago), our results suggest that similar processes have been at work in the evolution of sex chromosomes in plants and mammals, and shed some light on the molecular mechanisms suppressing recombination between X and Y chromosomes. PMID:15630476

Nicolas, Michael; Marais, Gabriel; Hykelova, Vladka; Janousek, Bohuslav; Laporte, Valérie; Vyskot, Boris; Mouchiroud, Dominique; Negrutiu, Ioan; Charlesworth, Deborah; Monéger, Françoise

2005-01-01

312

A Gradual Process of Recombination Restriction in the Evolutionary History of the Sex Chromosomes in Dioecious Plants  

PubMed Central

To help understand the evolution of suppressed recombination between sex chromosomes, and its consequences for evolution of the sequences of Y-linked genes, we have studied four X-Y gene pairs, including one gene not previously characterized, in plants in a group of closely related dioecious species of Silene which have an X-Y sex-determining system (S. latifolia, S. dioica, and S. diclinis). We used the X-linked copies to build a genetic map of the X chromosomes, with a marker in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) to orient the map. The map covers a large part of the X chromosomes—at least 50 centimorgans. Except for a recent rearrangement in S. dioica, the gene order is the same in the X chromosomes of all three species. Silent site divergence between the DNA sequences of the X and Y copies of the different genes increases with the genes' distances from the PAR, suggesting progressive restriction of recombination between the X and Y chromosomes. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of the four genes, which also revealed that the least-diverged X-Y pair could have ceased recombining independently in the dioecious species after their split. Analysis of amino acid replacements vs. synonymous changes showed that, with one possible exception, the Y-linked copies appear to be functional in all three species, but there are nevertheless some signs of degenerative processes affecting the genes that have been Y-linked for the longest times. Although the X-Y system evolved quite recently in Silene (less than 10 million years ago) compared to mammals (about 320 million years ago), our results suggest that similar processes have been at work in the evolution of sex chromosomes in plants and mammals, and shed some light on the molecular mechanisms suppressing recombination between X and Y chromosomes. PMID:15630476

2005-01-01

313

Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) with neurological abnormalities and without chromosomal instability  

PubMed Central

Background Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is an autosomal recessive chromosomal instability disorder with hypersensitivity to ionising radiation. The clinical phenotype is characterised by congenital microcephaly, mild dysmorphic facial appearance, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and greatly increased risk for lymphoreticular malignancy. Most NBS patients are of Slavic origin and homozygous for the founder mutation 657del5. The frequency of 657del5 heterozygotes in the Czech population is 1:150. Recently, another NBS1 mutation, 643C>T(R215W), with uncertain pathogenicity was found to have higher frequency among tumour patients of Slavic origin than in controls. This alteration results in the substitution of the basic amino acid arginine with the non?polar tryptophan and thus could potentially interfere with the function of the NBS1 protein, nibrin. Methods and Results Children with congenital microcephaly are routinely tested for the 657del5 mutation in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Here, we describe for the first time a severe form of NBS without chromosomal instability in monozygotic twin brothers with profound congenital microcephaly and developmental delay who are compound heterozygotes for the 657del5 and 643C>T(R215W) NBS1 mutations. Both children showed reduced expression of full length nibrin when compared with a control and a heterozygote for the 657del5 mutation. Radiation response processes such as phosphorylation of ATM and phosphorylation/stabilisation of p53, which are promoted by NBS1, are strongly reduced in cells from these patients. Conclusions Interestingly, the patients are more severely affected than classical NBS patients. Consequently, we postulate that homozygosity for the 643C>T(R215W) mutation will also lead to a, possibly very, severe disease phenotype. PMID:16033915

Seemanova, E; Sperling, K; Neitzel, H; Varon, R; Hadac, J; Butova, O; Schrock, E; Seeman, P; Digweed, M

2006-01-01

314

A ZZ/ZW microchromosome system in the spiny softshell turtle, Apalone spinifera, reveals an intriguing sex chromosome conservation in Trionychidae.  

PubMed

Reptiles display a wide diversity of sex-determining mechanisms ranging from temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) to genotypic sex determination (GSD) with either male (XY) or female (ZW) heterogamety. Despite this astounding variability, the origin, structure, and evolution of sex chromosomes remain poorly understood. In turtles, TSD is purportedly ancestral while GSD arose multiple times independently. Here we test whether independent (XY or ZW) or morphologically divergent heterogametic sex chromosome systems evolved in tryonichids (Cryptodira) using the GSD spiny softshell turtle, Apalone spinifera, a species with previously unidentified sex chromosomes. A female-specific signal from comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was detected in a Giemsa/4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole faint portion of a microchromosome, indicating the presence of a ZZ/ZW system in A. spinifera. In situ hybridization of a fluorescently labeled 18S rRNA probe identified a large nucleolar organizer region block in the female-specific region of the W (co-localizing with the female-specific CGH signal) and a smaller block on the Z. The heteromorphic ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosome system detected here is identical to that found in another tryonichid, the Chinese softshell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis, from which A. spinifera diverged ?95 million years ago. These results reveal a striking sex chromosome conservation in tryonichids, compared to the divergent sex chromosome morphology observed among younger XX/XY systems in pleurodiran turtles. Our findings highlight the need to understand the drivers behind sex chromosome lability and conservation in different lineages and contribute to our knowledge of sex chromosome evolution in reptiles and vertebrates. PMID:23512312

Badenhorst, Daleen; Stanyon, Roscoe; Engstrom, Tag; Valenzuela, Nicole

2013-04-01

315

Distal Deletion of Chromosome 11q Encompassing Jacobsen Syndrome without Platelet Abnormality  

PubMed Central

Terminal 11q deletion, known as Jacobsen syndrome (JBS), is a rare genetic disorder associated with numerous dysmorphic features. We studied two cases with multiple congenital anomalies that were cytogenetically detected with deletions on 11q encompassing JBS region: 46,XX,der(11) del(11)(q24). Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis confirmed partial deletion of 11.8–11.9 Mb at 11q24.1q25 (case 1) and 13.9–14 Mb deletion at 11q23.3q25 together with 7.3–7.6 Mb duplication at 12q24.32q24.33 (case 2). Dysmorphism because of the partial duplication of 12q was not overtly decipherable over the Jacobsen phenotype except for a triangular facial profile. Aberrant chromosome 11 was inherited from phenotypically normal father, carrier of balanced translocation 46,XY,t(11;12)(q23.3; q24.32). In the present study, both cases had phenotypes that were milder than the ones described in literature despite having large deletion size. Most prominent features in classical JBS is thrombocytopenia, which was absent in both these cases. Therefore, detailed functional analysis of terminal 11q region is warranted to elucidate etiology of JBS and their clinical presentation. PMID:25288895

Sheth, Frenny J; Datar, Chaitanya; Andrieux, Joris; Pandit, Anand; Nayak, Darshana; Rahman, Mizanur; Sheth, Jayesh J

2014-01-01

316

The Influence of Abnormal Sex Differences in Life Expectancy on National Happiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries with better health, as indexed by life expectancy, score higher on subjective well-being (SWB). It was predicted\\u000a that deviations from the average sex difference in life expectancy (reflecting reproductive competition among males and discrimination\\u000a against females) would be inversely related to happiness. Regression analysis of SWB for 178 countries found that deviations\\u000a from the average sex difference in life

Nigel Barber

2009-01-01

317

Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.  

PubMed

To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. PMID:25433561

Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

2014-12-01

318

Differential Expression and Sex Chromosome Association of CHD3/4 and CHD5 during Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

ATP-dependent nucleosome remodelers of the CHD family play important roles in chromatin regulation during development and differentiation. The ubiquitously expressed CHD3 and CHD4 proteins are essential for stem cell function and serve to orchestrate gene expression in different developmental settings. By contrast, the closely related CHD5 is predominantly expressed in neural tissue and its role is believed to be restricted to neural differentiation. Indeed, loss of CHD5 contributes to neuroblastoma. In this study, we first demonstrate that CHD5 is a nucleosome-stimulated ATPase. We then compare CHD3/4 and CHD5 expression in mouse brain and show that CHD5 expression is restricted to a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons whereas CHD3/4 expression is more widespread. We also uncover high levels of CHD5 expression in testis. CHD5 is transiently expressed in differentiating germ cells. Expression is first detected in nuclei of post-meiotic round spermatids, reaches a maximum in stage VIII spermatids and then falls to undetectable levels in stage IX spermatids. Surprisingly, CHD3/4 and CHD5 show complementary expression patterns during spermatogenesis with CHD3/4 levels progressively decreasing as CHD5 expression increases. In spermatocytes, CHD3/4 localizes to the pseudoautosomal region, the X centromeric region and then spreads into the XY body chromatin. In postmeiotic cells, CHD5 colocalises with macroH2A1.2 in association with centromeres and part of the Y chromosome. The subnuclear localisations of CHD4 and CHD5 suggest specific roles in regulation of sex chromosome chromatin and pericentromeric chromatin structure prior to the histone-protamine switch. PMID:24849318

Bergs, Judith W.; Neuendorff, Nina; van der Heijden, Godfried; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Rexin, Peter; Elsasser, Hans-Peter; Moll, Roland; Baarends, Willy M.; Brehm, Alexander

2014-01-01

319

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants and sperm sex chromosome ratio in men from the Faroe Islands.  

PubMed

People in the Arctic as well as fishermen on the polluted Swedish east coast are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These compounds have been shown to affect the sperm Y:X chromosome ratio. In present study, the aim was to investigate whether polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2,-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDE) influence sperm sex chromosome ratio in Faroese men, and whether these men differ regarding Y:X ratio compared to Greenland Inuit and Swedish fishermen. The study population (n=449) consisted of young men from the general population (n=276) as well as proven fertile men (n=173). The Y:X ratio was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Serum concentrations of POPs were measured using gas chromatography. Associations between POP concentrations and Y:X ratio were calculated using linear and non-linear regression models as well as trend analysis and pairwise comparison of exposure data categorized into quartiles. The selected POPs were associated with Y:X ratio in fertile Faroese men, but not in the total population; p,p'-DDE (95% CI for B=-0.005 to -0.001, p=0.005) and ?PCB (95% CI for B=-0.005 to -0.001, p=0.012). Since p,p'-DDE and ?PCB correlated significantly (r=0.927, p<0.001), the results involving the exposure variables can be regarded as a single finding. The Y:X ratio for the total Faroese population was 0.500±0.018, which was statistically significantly lower than in both Inuit and Swedish fishermen (0.512 for both). In conclusion, Faroese men presented with lower Y:X ratio than Greenland Inuit and Swedish fishermen. Although no direct health effects are expected due to the lower Faroese Y:X ratio, it could be indicative of adverse effects on the reproductive system. PMID:25222300

Kvist, L; Giwercman, A; Weihe, P; Kold Jensen, T; Grandjean, P; Halling, J; Skaalum Petersen, M; Lundberg Giwercman, Y

2014-12-01

320

Differential expression and sex chromosome association of CHD3/4 and CHD5 during spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

ATP-dependent nucleosome remodelers of the CHD family play important roles in chromatin regulation during development and differentiation. The ubiquitously expressed CHD3 and CHD4 proteins are essential for stem cell function and serve to orchestrate gene expression in different developmental settings. By contrast, the closely related CHD5 is predominantly expressed in neural tissue and its role is believed to be restricted to neural differentiation. Indeed, loss of CHD5 contributes to neuroblastoma. In this study, we first demonstrate that CHD5 is a nucleosome-stimulated ATPase. We then compare CHD3/4 and CHD5 expression in mouse brain and show that CHD5 expression is restricted to a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons whereas CHD3/4 expression is more widespread. We also uncover high levels of CHD5 expression in testis. CHD5 is transiently expressed in differentiating germ cells. Expression is first detected in nuclei of post-meiotic round spermatids, reaches a maximum in stage VIII spermatids and then falls to undetectable levels in stage IX spermatids. Surprisingly, CHD3/4 and CHD5 show complementary expression patterns during spermatogenesis with CHD3/4 levels progressively decreasing as CHD5 expression increases. In spermatocytes, CHD3/4 localizes to the pseudoautosomal region, the X centromeric region and then spreads into the XY body chromatin. In postmeiotic cells, CHD5 colocalises with macroH2A1.2 in association with centromeres and part of the Y chromosome. The subnuclear localisations of CHD4 and CHD5 suggest specific roles in regulation of sex chromosome chromatin and pericentromeric chromatin structure prior to the histone-protamine switch. PMID:24849318

Bergs, Judith W; Neuendorff, Nina; van der Heijden, Godfried; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Rexin, Peter; Elsässer, Hans-Peter; Moll, Roland; Baarends, Willy M; Brehm, Alexander

2014-01-01

321

Inversion of chromosome 7q22 and q36 as a sole abnormality presenting in myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Deletions of chromosome 7 are often detected in myelodysplastic syndrome. The most commonly deleted segments are clustered at band 7q22. A critical gene is therefore suggested to be located in this region. We report a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome whose marrow cells carried an inversion of 7q22 and q36 as a sole karyotypic abnormality. How this extremely rare chromosomal aberration contributes to the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome should be clarified by accumulating clinical data of such cases. Case presentation A 74-year-old Japanese man presented with pancytopenia incidentally detected by routine medical check-up. His complete blood cell counts revealed that his white blood cells had decreased to 2100/mm3, neutrophils 940/mm3, red blood cells 320×104/mm3, hemoglobin 11.1g/dL, hematocrit 33.1%, and platelets 12.6×104/mm3. Bone marrow examination showed normal cellularity with nucleated cells of 9.4×104/mm3. The proportion of blasts was 4%. A morphological examination showed only basophilic stippling of erythroblasts which was seen as dysplasia. According to World Health Organization classification, the diagnosis was myelodysplastic syndrome-u. Karyotypic analysis showed 46,XY,inv(7)(q22q36) in all of 20 metaphases examined. Additional analysis revealed the karyotype of his lymphocytes was 46,XY. He is asymptomatic and cytopenia has slowly progressed. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this karyotype from a clinical sample of de novo malignancies has never been documented although the identical karyotype from secondary myelodysplastic syndrome was reported. Despite the extremely low frequency, inversion of 7q22 appears to play a crucial role for myelodysplastic syndrome in this patient. PMID:25096479

2014-01-01

322

Molecular characterization of the complex sex-chromosome heterochromatin in the rodent Microtus chrotorrhinus.  

PubMed

The sex chromosomes of Microtus chrotorrhinus are unusually large compared to those of other mammals, comprising about 20% of the karyotype and containing substantial amounts of constitutive heterochromatin. Previous studies have described two highly repeated DNA families (MSAT-160 and MSAT-2570) that localize to this heterochromatin (Modi, 1992, 1993c). The present report describes a third satellite DNA family (termed MSAT-21) in M. chrotorrhinus that is also located in the sex heterochromatin. This repeat consists of diverged copies (average similarity = 75%) of a tandemly repeated 21-mer. Southern blotting of MSAT-21 revealed that although some higher order (5-20 kb) repeats do exist, none has spread throughout an appreciable portion of the genome. Pulsed field gel experiments indicated that most of the larger arrays (50-700 kb) of all three satellite families are distributed across numerous size classes, suggesting that the three repeats are interspersed with one another in this heterochromatin. Analysis of a boundary between MSAT-21 and MSAT-160 showed that the junction monomers of each satellite are intact and that a pentanucleotide has apparently been transferred from MSAT-21 to MSAT-160 via recombination. Sequence comparisons of MSAT-160 with another rodent satellite and with the U3 region of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) long terminal repeat identified inverted repeats and similarities with viral enhancer domains in the rodent sequences. Additionally, the MSAT-21 consensus was found to be similar to the R region of RSV, suggesting a retroviral ancestor for these rodent repeated DNA families. PMID:8995489

Ivanov, S V; Modi, W S

1996-01-01

323

Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) from Greece  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826) (6 populations) and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845) (7 populations) (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0) and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:24455103

Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Golub, Natalia V.; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

2013-01-01

324

Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) from Greece.  

PubMed

In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826) (6 populations) and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845) (7 populations) (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0) and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:24455103

Kuznetsova, Valentina G; Golub, Natalia V; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

2013-11-26

325

B-chromosomes and male-biased sex ratio with paternal inheritance in the fairy shrimp Branchipus schaefferi (Crustacea, Anostraca).  

PubMed

This study reports on male-biased sex ratios in west Mediterranean populations of the freshwater anostracan Branchipus schaefferi (Crustacea, Anostraca, Branchipodidae), in contrast to populations elsewhere. Crossing experiments over several generations indicate a clear paternal inheritance of the trait, possibly with a dosage effect. Various mechanisms which may underlie this phenomenon are discussed, the most plausible being the presence of one or more supernumerary ('B') chromosomes--as evidenced by karyological observations--interfering with sex determination and probably having an accumulation mechanism in male individuals. PMID:11986871

Beladjal, L; Vandekerckhove, T T M; Muyssen, B; Heyrman, J; de Caesemaeker, J; Mertens, J

2002-05-01

326

Chromosome mapping of retrotransposable elements Rex1 and Rex3 in Leporinus Spix, 1829 species (Characiformes: Anostomidae) and its relationships among heterochromatic segments and W sex chromosome  

PubMed Central

The family Anostomidae is an interesting model for studies of repetitive elements, mainly because of the presence of high numbers of heterochromatic segments related to a peculiar system of female heterogamety, which is restricted to a few species of Leporinus genus. Thus, cytogenetic mapping of the retrotransposable elements Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6 was performed in six Leporinus species, to elucidate the genomic organization of this genus. The sequencing of the Rex1 and Rex3 elements detected different base pair compositions in these elements among species, whereas the Rex6 element was not identified in the genomes of these species. FISH analysis using Rex1 detected different distribution patterns, L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus, and L. obtusidens had clusters in the terminal regions, whereas the signals were dispersed throughout all of the chromosomes with some signals in the terminal position in other species. The Rex3 signals were found mainly in the terminal positions in all the chromosomes of all species. The W chromosomes of L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus, and L. obtusidens contained the Rex1 and Rex3 signal in an interstitial position. These results suggest the emergence of different activity levels for these elements during the evolution of the species analyzed. Despite the conserved karyotype macrostructure species Leporinus often discussed, our results show some variation in hybridization patterns, particularly between the species with specific patterns in their sex chromosomes and species without this differentiated system. PMID:24404417

Splendore de Borba, Rafael; Lourenco da Silva, Edson; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

2013-01-01

327

Sex-determining chromosomes and sexual dimorphism: insights from genetic mapping of sex expression in a natural hybrid Fragaria x ananassa subsp. cuneifolia  

PubMed Central

We studied the natural hybrid (Fragaria × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia) between two sexually dimorphic octoploid strawberry species (Fragaria virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis) to gain insight into the dynamics of sex chromosomes and the genesis of sexual dimorphism. Male sterility is dominant in both the parental species and thus will be inherited maternally, but the chromosome that houses the sex-determining region differs. Thus, we asked whether (1) the cytotypic composition of hybrid populations represents one or both maternal species, (2) the sex-determining chromosome of the hybrid reflects the location of male sterility within the maternal donor species and (3) crosses from the hybrid species show less sexual dimorphism than the parental species. We found that F. × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia populations consisted of both parental cytotypes but one predominated within each population. Genetic linkage mapping of two crosses showed dominance of male sterility similar to the parental species, however, the map location of male sterility reflected the maternal donor in one cross, but not the other. Moreover, female function mapped to a single region in the first cross, but to two regions in the second cross. Aside from components of female function (fruit set and seed set), other traits that have been found to be significantly sexually dimorphic in the pure species were either not dimorphic or were dimorphic in the opposite direction to the parental species. These results suggest that hybrids experience some disruption of dimorphism in secondary sexual traits, as well as novel location and number of quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting sex function. PMID:23169558

Govindarajulu, R; Liston, A; Ashman, T-L

2013-01-01

328

DNA Replication Patterns of the Sex Chromosomes of the Pigeon (Columba livia domestica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The late replication pattern of the pigeon chromosomes was studied by means of the technique of terminal uptake of tritiated thymidine and autoradiography. The W-chromosome in the female completed replication after the other macrochromosomes. The Z-chromosome in the female and both Z-chromosomes in the male terminated DNA synthesis at the same time as the remaining macrochromosomes. The microchromosomes were later

M. Galton; Patricia R. Bredbury

1966-01-01

329

Extension, single-locus conversion and physical mapping of sex chromosome sequences identify the Z microchromosome and pseudo-autosomal region in a dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps.  

PubMed

Distribution of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD) across the phylogeny of dragon lizards implies multiple independent origins of at least one, and probably both, modes of sex determination. Female Pogona vitticeps are the heterogametic sex, but ZZ individuals reverse to a female phenotype at high incubation temperatures. We used reiterated genome walking to extend Z and W chromosome-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and fluorescence in situ hybridization for physical mapping. One extended fragment hybridized to both W and Z microchromosomes, identifying the Z microchromosome for the first time, and a second hybridized to the centromere of all microchromosomes. W-linked sequences were converted to a single-locus PCR sexing assay. P. vitticeps sex chromosome sequences also shared homology with several other Australian dragons. Further physical mapping and isolation of sex-specific bacterial artificial chromosome clones will provide insight into the evolution of sex determination and sex chromosomes in GSD and TSD dragon lizards. PMID:19812616

Quinn, A E; Ezaz, T; Sarre, S D; Graves, Ja Marshall; Georges, A

2010-04-01

330

Low rates of X-Y recombination, not turnovers, account for homomorphic sex chromosomes in several diploid species of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup).  

PubMed

Contrasting with birds and mammals, most ectothermic vertebrates present homomorphic sex chromosomes, which might be due either to a high turnover rate or to occasional X-Y recombination. We tested these two hypotheses in a group of Palearctic green toads that diverged some 3.3 million years ago. Using sibship analyses of sex-linked markers, we show that all four species investigated share the same pair of sex chromosomes and a pattern of male heterogamety with drastically reduced X-Y recombination in males. Phylogenetic analyses of sex-linked sequences show that X and Y alleles cluster by species, not by gametolog. We conclude that X-Y homomorphy and fine-scale sequence similarity in these species do not stem from recent sex-chromosome turnovers, but from occasional X-Y recombination. PMID:23316809

Stöck, M; Savary, R; Betto-Colliard, C; Biollay, S; Jourdan-Pineau, H; Perrin, N

2013-03-01

331

Contrasting patterns of transposable element and satellite distribution on sex chromosomes (XY1Y2) in the dioecious plant Rumex acetosa.  

PubMed

Rumex acetosa is a dioecious plant with the XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. Both Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and are thought to be degenerated. We performed low-pass 454 sequencing and similarity-based clustering of male and female genomic 454 reads to identify and characterize major groups of R. acetosa repetitive DNA. We found that Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons dominated, followed by DNA transposons and nonlong terminal repeat retrotransposons. CRM and Tat/Ogre retrotransposons dominated the Gypsy superfamily, whereas Maximus/Sireviruses were most abundant among Copia retrotransposons. Only one Gypsy subfamily had accumulated on Y1 and Y2 chromosomes, whereas many retrotransposons were ubiquitous on autosomes and the X chromosome, but absent on Y1 and Y2 chromosomes, and others were depleted from the X chromosome. One group of CRM Gypsy was specifically localized to centromeres. We also found that majority of previously described satellites (RAYSI, RAYSII, RAYSIII, and RAE180) are accumulated on the Y chromosomes where we identified Y chromosome-specific variant of RAE180. We discovered two novel satellites-RA160 satellite dominating on the X chromosome and RA690 localized mostly on the Y1 chromosome. The expression pattern obtained from Illumina RNA sequencing showed that the expression of transposable elements is similar in leaves of both sexes and that satellites are also expressed. Contrasting patterns of transposable elements (TEs) and satellite localization on sex chromosomes in R. acetosa, where not only accumulation but also depletion of repetitive DNA was observed, suggest that a plethora of evolutionary processes can shape sex chromosomes. PMID:23542206

Steflova, Pavlina; Tokan, Viktor; Vogel, Ivan; Lexa, Matej; Macas, Jiri; Novak, Petr; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovsky, Eduard

2013-01-01

332

Sex chromosome trisomies in Europe: prevalence, prenatal detection and outcome of pregnancy.  

PubMed

This study aims to assess prevalence and pregnancy outcome for sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) diagnosed prenatally or in the first year of life. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) database on SCT cases delivered 2000-2005 from 19 population-based registries in 11 European countries covering 2.5 million births were analysed. Cases included were livebirths diagnosed to 1 year of age, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA). In all, 465 cases of SCT were diagnosed between 2000 and 2005, a prevalence of 1.88 per 10,000 births (95% CI 1.71-2.06). Prevalence of XXX, XXY and XYY were 0.54 (95% CI 0.46-0.64), 1.04 (95% CI 0.92-1.17) and 0.30 (95% CI 0.24-0.38), respectively. In all, 415 (89%) were prenatally diagnosed and 151 (36%) of these resulted in TOPFA. There was wide country variation in prevalence (0.19-5.36 per 1000), proportion prenatally diagnosed (50-100%) and proportion of prenatally diagnosed resulting in TOPFA (13-67%). Prevalence of prenatally diagnosed cases was higher in countries with high prenatal detection rates of Down syndrome. The EUROCAT prevalence rate for SCTs diagnosed prenatally or up to 1 year of age represents 12% of the prevalence expected from cytogenetic studies of newborn babies, as the majority of cases are never diagnosed or are diagnosed later in life. There is a wide variation between European countries in prevalence, prenatal detection and TOPFA proportions, related to differences in screening policies as well as organizational and cultural factors. PMID:20736977

Boyd, Patricia Anne; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Dolk, Helen

2011-02-01

333

Parental Decisions Regarding a Prenatally Detected Fetal Chromosomal Abnormality and the Impact of Genetic Counseling: An Analysis of 38 Cases with Aneuploidy in Southeast Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated parental decision-making to terminate or continue a pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of a chromosomal\\u000a abnormality among a sample of patients in Southeast Turkey. Between 2004 and 2007, 1068 amniocentesis tests were performed\\u000a in the Medical Biology and Genetic Department Laboratory at Dicle University. Aneuploidy was found in 38 cases (3.56%). Genetic\\u000a counseling was provided for the couples

Mahmut Balkan; Sevgi Kalkanli; Halit Akbas; Ahmet Yalinkaya; M. Nail Alp; Turgay Budak

2010-01-01

334

Clinical and biological implications of partial tandem duplication of the MLL gene in acute myeloid leukemia without chromosomal abnormalities at 11q23  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical and biological features of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with 11q23\\/MLL translocations are well known, but the characteristics of AML with partial tandem duplication of the MLL gene have not been explored comprehensively. In this study, MLL duplication was analyzed, in 81 AML patients without chromosomal abnormalities at 11q23, using Southern blotting, genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse-transcription

H-S Shiah; Y-Y Kuo; J-L Tang; S-Y Huang; M Yao; W Tsay; Y-C Chen; C-H Wang; M-C Shen; D-T Lin; K-H Lin; H-F Tien

2002-01-01

335

Meiotic abnormalities in metaphase I human spermatocytes from infertile males: frequencies, chromosomes involved, and relationship with polymorphic karyotype and seminal parameters  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to look in depth at the relationship between meiotic anomalies and male infertility, such as the determination of the chromosomes involved or the correlation with patient features. For this purpose, a total of 31 testicular tissue samples from individuals consulting for fertility problems were analyzed. Metaphase I cells were evaluated using a sequential methodology combining Leishman stained procedures and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols. The number of chromosomal units and chiasmata count per bivalent were established and a hierarchical cluster analysis of the individuals was performed. The relationship of the seminogram and the karyotype over recombination were evaluated using Poisson regression models. Results obtained in this study show a significant percentage of infertile individuals with altered meiotic behavior, mostly specified as a reduction in chiasmata count in medium and large chromosomes, the presence of univalents, and the observation of tetraploid metaphases. Moreover, the number and the type of anomalies were found to be different between cells of the same individual, suggesting the coexistence of cell lines with normal meiotic behavior and cell lines with abnormalities. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities in metaphase I are significantly associated with oligozoospermia and/or polymorphic karyotype variants. PMID:25080930

Sarrate, Zaida; Vidal, Francesca; Blanco, Joan

2014-01-01

336

DNA replication in the sex chromosomes of the pronghorn and the Rocky Mountain goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X chromosome of the male pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is larger than the “original” type and carries a large segment of late-labelling chromatin. The Y chromosome has a late-labelling segment that appears to duplicate synchronously with that of the X. Both chromosomes have segments that label throughout the period of observation; that of the X is about 4.7 % of

A. Dain

1977-01-01

337

Underlying karyotype abnormalities in IVF/ICSI patients.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic investigations are performed in couples asking for IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. These serve a diagnostic purpose because male or female infertility might have a chromosomal origin. Chromosomal aberrations found in these patients include numerical abnormalities, such as Klinefelter syndrome, XYY karyotype or Turner syndrome and its variants; sex reversions, such as XX males or XY females; and also structural abnormalities, such as Robertsonian or reciprocal translocations and inversions. Finding the chromosomal origin of infertility in a patient also has a prognostic value because it aids the management of pregnancies obtained after IVF or ICSI and may lead to a proposal of prenatal or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. PMID:18413060

Chantot-Bastaraud, S; Ravel, C; Siffroi, J P

2008-04-01

338

A molecular cytogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini (Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Bovinae) with an emphasis on sex chromosome morphology and NOR distribution.  

PubMed

Q-band comparisons were made among representative species of the four genera of the tribe Bovini (Bos, Bison, Bubalus, Syncerus) as well as to selected outgroup taxa representing the remaining two tribes of the subfamily Bovinae (nilgai, Boselaphini; eland, Tragelphini), the Bovidae subfamily Caprinae (domestic sheep) and the family Cervidae (sika deer and white-tailed deer). Extensive autosomal arm homologies were noted, but relatively few derivative character states were shared. Focus was then made on variation of the sex chromosomes and the chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). Bovine BAC clones were used in molecular cytogenetic analyses to decipher rearrangements of the sex chromosomes, and a pocket gopher 28s ribosomal probe was used to map the chromosomal locations of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). Some of the more noteworthy conclusions drawn from the comparative analysis were that: 1. The Bovidae ancestral X chromosome was probably acrocentric and similar to acrocentric X chromosomes of the Bovinae; 2. The domestic sheep acrocentric X is probably a derivative character state that unites non-Bovinae subfamilies; 3. Bos and Bison are united within the tribe Bovini by the presence of shared derivative submetacentric X chromosomes; 4. Sika and white-tailed deer X chromosomes differ by inversion from X chromosomes of the Bovinae; 5. The Bovini ancestral Y chromosome was probably a small acrocentric; 6. Bos taurus, B. gaurus and B. banteng share derivative metacentric Y chromosomes; 7. Syncerus and Bubalus are united by the acquisition of X-specific repetitive DNA sequence on their Y chromosomes; 8. Bovinae and Cervidae X chromosome centromere position varies without concomitant change in locus order. Preliminary data indicate that a knowledge of the chromosomal distribution of NORs among the Bovidae will prove to be phylogenetically informative. PMID:10560971

Gallagher, D S; Davis, S K; De Donato, M; Burzlaff, J D; Womack, J E; Taylor, J F; Kumamoto, A T

1999-01-01

339

Identification of supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosomes 5, 6, 19, and 20 using FISH  

PubMed Central

A large number of cases with supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) should be compared to achieve a better delineation of karyotype-phenotype correlations. Here we present four phenotypically abnormal patients with autosomal marker chromosomes analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation using centromeric, telomeric, and unique sequence probes, as well as forward and reverse painting. We also report the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of an SMC derived from chromosome 5. Furthermore, a marker chromosome 20 in a patient with sex differentiation abnormalities, a double mar(6) in a boy with psychomotor retardation, and the association of r(19) with dup(21q21.2q22.12) are described. Although the mar(6) was very small, the presence of euchromatin was shown, suggesting that the partial trisomy of pericentric region derived sequences is implicated in the aetiology of the abnormal phenotypes.???Keywords: supernumerary marker chromosomes; fluorescence in situ hybridisation; phenotype-genotype correlation PMID:10662811

Stankiewicz, P.; Bocian, E.; Jakubow-Durska, K.; Obersztyn, E.; Lato, E.; Starke, H.; Mroczek, K.; Mazurczak, T.

2000-01-01

340

Social Deficits in Male Children and Adolescents with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: A Comparison of XXY, XYY, and XXYY syndromes  

PubMed Central

We compare social skills in three groups of males with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Participants included males with XXY (N=102, M=10.08 years), XYY (N=40, M=9.93 years), and XXYY (N=32, M=11.57 years). XXY had lower (better) SRS scores compared to XYY and XXYY. Scores were not significantly different between XYY and XXYY. In all groups, there were significantly more with SRS scores in the severe range compared to the SRS normative sample. All groups scored lowest (better) on Social Motivation. Relationships between SRS scores and demographic and clinical variables were examined. Results describe the social skills in males with SCA, and suggest that an additional Y chromosome may contribute to increased risk of autistic behaviors. PMID:22502852

Cordeiro, Lisa; Tartaglia, Nicole; Roeltgen, David; Ross, Judith

2012-01-01

341

Social deficits in male children and adolescents with sex chromosome aneuploidy: a comparison of XXY, XYY, and XXYY syndromes.  

PubMed

We compare social skills in three groups of males with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Participants included males with XXY (N=102, M=10.08 years), XYY (N=40, M=9.93 years), and XXYY (N=32, M=11.57 years). XXY had lower (better) SRS scores compared to XYY and XXYY. Scores were not significantly different between XYY and XXYY. In all groups, there were significantly more with SRS scores in the severe range compared to the SRS normative sample. All groups scored lowest (better) on Social Motivation. Relationships between SRS scores and demographic and clinical variables were examined. Results describe the social skills in males with SCA, and suggest that an additional Y chromosome may contribute to increased risk of autistic behaviors. PMID:22502852

Cordeiro, Lisa; Tartaglia, Nicole; Roeltgen, David; Ross, Judith

2012-01-01

342

Slcyt, a newly identified sex-linked gene, has recently moved onto the X chromosome in Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae).  

PubMed

The sex chromosomes of the plant species Silene latifolia (white campion) are very young (only 5-10 My old), and all 11 X-linked genes so far described have Y-linked homologues. Theory predicts that X chromosomes should accumulate a nonrandom set of genes. However, little is known about the importance of gene movements between the X and the autosomes in plants, or in any very young sex chromosome system. Here, we isolate from cDNA a new gene, Slcyt, on the S. latifolia X, which encodes a cytochrome B protein. We genetically mapped SlCyt and found that it is located approximately 1 cM from the pseudoautosomal region. Genes in this region of the X chromosome have low divergence values from their homologous Y-linked genes, indicating that the X only recently stopped recombining with the Y. Genetic mapping in Silene vulgaris suggests that Slcyt originally belonged to a different linkage group from that of the other S. latifolia X-linked genes. Silene latifolia has no Y-linked homologue of Slcyt, and also no autosomal paralogues seem to exist. Slcyt moved from an autosome to the X very recently, as the Cyt gene is also X linked in Silene dioica, the sister species to S. latifolia, but is probably autosomal in Silene diclinis, implying that a translocation to the X probably occurred after the split between S. diclinis and S. latifolia/S. dioica. Diversity at Slcyt is extremely low (pi(syn) = 0.16%), and we find an excess of high frequency-derived variants and a negative Tajima's D, suggesting that the translocation was driven by selection. PMID:19587127

Kaiser, Vera B; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah

2009-10-01

343

A sex-linked SCAR marker in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), a dioecious species with XY sex-determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic crosses between the dioecious Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae) and the monoecious B. alba in 1903 provided the first clear evidence for Mendelian inheritance of dioecy and made B. dioica the first organism for which XY sex- determination was experimentally proven. Applying molecular tools to this system, we developed a sex-linked sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for B. dioica and sequenced

R. K. OYAMA; S. M. VOLZ; S. S. RENNER

2008-01-01

344

Sex Differences in the Cerebellum and Frontal Cortex: Roles of Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Sex Chromosome Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most neurobehavioral diseases are sexually dimorphic in their incidence, and sex differences in the brain may be key for understanding and treating these diseases. Calbindin (Calb) D28K is used as a biomarker for the well-studied sexually dimorphic nucleus, a hypothalamic structure that is larger in males than in females. In the current study weanling C56BL\\/6J mice were used to examine

Jean M. Abel; Diane M. Witt; Emilie F. Rissman

2011-01-01

345

Enhanced detection of chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by conventional cytogenetics using CpG oligonucleotide in combination with pokeweed mitogen and phorbol myristate acetate.  

PubMed

Reproducible cytogenetic analysis in CLL has been limited by the inability to obtain reliable metaphase cells for analysis. CpG oligonucleotide and cytokine stimulation have been shown to improve metaphase analysis of CLL cytogenetic abnormalities, but is limited by variability in the cytokine receptor levels, stability and biological activity of the cytokine in culture conditions and high costs associated with these reagents. We report here use of a novel, stable CpG, GNKG168 along with pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for conventional cytogenetic assessment in CLL. We demonstrate that the combined use of GNKG168+PWM/PMA increased the sensitivity of detection of chromosomal abnormalities compared to PWM/PMA (n=207, odds ratio=2.2, p=0.0002) and GNKG168 (n=219, odds ratio=1.5, p=0.0452). Further, a significant increase in sensitivity to detect complexity ?3 with GNKG168+PWM/PMA compared to GNKG168 alone (odds ratio 8.0, p=0.0022) or PWM/PMA alone (odds ratio 9.6, p=0.0007) was observed. The trend toward detection of higher complexity was significantly greater with GNKG168+PWM/PMA compared to GNKG168 alone (p=0.0412). The increased sensitivity was mainly attributed to the addition of PWM/PMA with GNKG168 because GNKG168 alone showed no difference in sensitivity for detection of complex abnormalities (p=0.17). Comparison of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results with karyotypic results showed a high degree of consistency, although some complex karyotypes were present in cases with no adverse FISH abnormality. These studies provide evidence for potential use of GNKG168 in combination with PWM and PMA in karyotypic analysis of CLL patient samples to better identify chromosomal abnormalities for risk stratification. PMID:21494579

Muthusamy, Natarajan; Breidenbach, Heather; Andritsos, Leslie; Flynn, Joseph; Jones, Jeffrey; Ramanunni, Asha; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C; Heerema, Nyla A

2011-02-01

346

Identification of mediator complex 26 (Crsp7) gametologs on platypus X1 and Y5 sex chromosomes: a candidate testis-determining gene in monotremes?  

PubMed

The basal lineage of monotremes features an extraordinarily complex sex chromosome system which has provided novel insights into the evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes. Recently, sequence information from autosomes, X chromosomes, and XY-shared pseudoautosomal regions has become available. However, no gene has so far been described on any of the Y chromosome-specific regions. We analyzed sequences derived from Y-specific BAC clones to identify genes with potentially male-specific function. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the mediator complex protein gametologs on platypus Y5 (Crspy). We also identified the X-chromosomal copy which unexpectedly maps to X1 (Crspx). Sequence comparison shows extensive divergence between the X and Y copy, but we found no significant positive selection on either gametolog. Expression analysis shows widespread expression of Crspx. Crspy is expressed exclusively in males with particularly strong expression in testis and kidney. Reporter gene assays to investigate whether Crspx/y can act on the recently discovered mouse Sox9 testis-specific enhancer element did reveal a modest effect together with mouse Sox9?+?Sf1, but showed overall no significant upregulation of the reporter gene. This is the first report of a differentiated functional male-specific gene on platypus Y chromosomes, providing new insights into sex chromosome evolution and a candidate gene for male-specific function in monotremes. PMID:22215486

Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Bernard, Pascal; Lim, Shu Ly; Ryan, Janelle; Rosenkranz, Ruben; Borodina, Tatiana; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Harley, Vincent R; Grützner, Frank

2012-01-01

347

Sex chromosome phylogenetics indicate a single transition to terrestriality in the guenons (tribe Cercopithecini)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first molecular study to trace the evolutionary transition in substrate preference across a primate radiation. We surveyed 20 guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) and 4 outgroup taxa for two Y-chromosomal genes, TSPY (?2240 bp) and SRY (?780 bp), and one X-chromosomal intergenic region (?1600 bp) homologous to a fragment of human Xq13.3. Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of the

Anthony J. Tosi; Don J. Melnick; Todd R. Disotell

2004-01-01

348

Sequencing of a Patient with Balanced Chromosome Abnormalities and Neurodevelopmental Disease Identifies Disruption of Multiple High Risk Loci by Structural Variation  

PubMed Central

Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs) occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14) that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception. PMID:24625750

Blake, Jonathon; Riddell, Andrew; Theiss, Susanne; Gonzalez, Alexis Perez; Haase, Bettina; Jauch, Anna; Janssen, Johannes W. G.; Ibberson, David; Pavlinic, Dinko; Moog, Ute; Benes, Vladimir; Runz, Heiko

2014-01-01

349

Genome-Wide Crossover Distribution in Arabidopsis thaliana Meiosis Reveals Sex-Specific Patterns along Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

In most species, crossovers (COs) are essential for the accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes at the first meiotic division. Their number and location are tightly regulated. Here, we report a detailed, genome-wide characterization of the rate and localization of COs in Arabidopsis thaliana, in male and female meiosis. We observed dramatic differences between male and female meiosis which included: (i) genetic map length; 575 cM versus 332 cM respectively; (ii) CO distribution patterns: male CO rates were very high at both ends of each chromosome, whereas female CO rates were very low; (iii) correlations between CO rates and various chromosome features: female CO rates correlated strongly and negatively with GC content and gene density but positively with transposable elements (TEs) density, whereas male CO rates correlated positively with the CpG ratio. However, except for CpG, the correlations could be explained by the unequal repartition of these sequences along the Arabidopsis chromosome. For both male and female meiosis, the number of COs per chromosome correlates with chromosome size expressed either in base pairs or as synaptonemal complex length. Finally, we show that interference modulates the CO distribution both in male and female meiosis. PMID:22072983

Drouaud, Jan; Pereira, Lucie; Martin, Olivier C.; Mezard, Christine

2011-01-01

350

A rearrangement of the Z chromosome topology influences the sex-linked gene display in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis.  

PubMed

Males are homogametic (ZZ) and females are heterogametic (WZ) with respect to the sex chromosomes in many species of butterflies and moths (insect order Lepidoptera). Genes on the Z chromosome influence traits involved in larval development, environmental adaptation, and reproductive isolation. To facilitate the investigation of these traits across Lepidoptera, we developed 43 degenerate primer pairs to PCR amplify orthologs of 43 Bombyx mori Z chromosome-linked genes. Of the 34 orthologs that amplified by PCR in Ostrinia nubilalis, 6 co-segregated with the Z chromosome anchor markers kettin (ket) and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), and produced a consensus genetic linkage map of ~89 cM in combination with 5 AFLP markers. The O. nubilalis and B. mori Z chromosomes are comparatively co-linear, although potential gene inversions alter terminal gene orders and a translocation event disrupted synteny at one chromosome end. Compared to B. mori orthologs, O. nubilalis Z chromosome-linked genes showed conservation of tissue-specific and growth-stage-specific expression, although some genes exhibited species-specific expression across developmental stages or tissues. The O. nubilalis Z chromosome linkage map provides new tools for isolating quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in sex-linked traits that drive speciation and it exposes genome rearrangements as a possible mechanism for differential gene regulation in Lepidoptera. PMID:21573787

Kroemer, Jeremy A; Coates, Brad S; Nusawardani, Tyasning; Rider, S Dean; Fraser, Lisa M; Hellmich, Richard L

2011-07-01

351

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position in the womb Infections during pregnancy ...

352

Differential sex allocation in sand lizards: bright males induce daughter production in a species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

In sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), males with more and brighter nuptial coloration also have more DNA fragments visualized in restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their major histocompatibility complex class I loci (and, hence, are probably more heterozygous at these loci). Such males produce more viable offspring, with a particularly strong viability effect on daughters. This suggests that females should adjust both their reproductive investment and offspring sex ratio in relation to male coloration (i.e. differential allocation). Our results show that experimental manipulation of partner coloration in the wild results in significantly higher maternal effort and a 10% higher proportion of daughters than sons. This supports the hypothesis that females increase their maternal energetic expenditure and adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to high-quality partners. However, it also suggests that this has probably evolved through natural selection for increased offspring viability (primarily through production of daughters), rather than through increased mate attraction (e.g. sexy sons). PMID:17148211

Olsson, Mats; Wapstra, Erik; Uller, Tobias

2005-09-22

353

Sex chromosome pre-reduction in male meiosis of Lethocerus patruelis (St?l, 1854) (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) with some notes on the distribution of the species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The karyotype and meiosis in males of giant water bug Lethocerus patruelis (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae: Lethocerinae) were studied using standard and fluorochrome (CMA3 and DAPI) staining of chromosomes. The species was shown to have 2n = 22A + 2m + XY where 2m are a pair of microchromosomes. NORs are located in X and Y chromosomes. Within Belostomatidae, Lethocerus patruelis is unique in showing sex chromosome pre-reduction in male meiosis, with the sex chromosomes undergoing reductional division at anaphase I and equational division at anaphase II. Cytogenetic data on the family Belostomatidae are summarized and compared. In addition, the structure of the male internal reproductive organs of Lethocerus patruelis is presented, the contemporary distribution of Lethocerus patruelis in Bulgaria and in the northern Aegean Islands is discussed, and the first information about the breeding and nymphal development of this species in Bulgaria is provided. PMID:24039515

Grozeva, Snejana; Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Simov, Nikolay; Langourov, Mario; Dalakchieva, Svetla

2013-01-01

354

Localization of the human sex hormone-binding globulin gene (SHBG) to the short arm of chromosome 17 (17p12----p13).  

PubMed

Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma steroid transport protein which is known to be encoded by an autosomal gene. We have hybridized two separate cDNA probes, corresponding to the 5' and 3' portions of the coding sequence for SHBG, to human metaphase chromosomes in situ. In this way, the SHBG gene has been localized to the p12----p13 bands of chromosome 17. PMID:2249477

Bérubé, D; Séralini, G E; Gagné, R; Hammond, G L

1990-01-01

355

Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of extra-structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) found prenatally: outcome and follow-up.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 15.3 weeks of gestation. Chromosome analysis performed using QFQ, DA-DAPI and CBG banding revealed two de novo extra-chromosomal markers (ESACs) in 11 of the 16 colonies analysed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that both chromosomes came from the Yq11.22.1 region of the Y chromosome. PCR analysis of genes and STS localized on the Y chromosome excluded the Yp presence specifically of the SRY gene, and most of the euchromatic region of Yq. After extensive genetic counselling and considering both laboratory and second-level ultrasound data, the couple decided to continue the pregnancy. At 37.4 weeks of gestational age, a girl weighing 2750 g was born with an Apgar score of 9/10. A blood sample taken from the umbilical cord showed three cellular lines: mos47,XX, +mar1 ish.der (Y)(wcpY+) [21%]/48,XX, +mar1 ish.der (Y)(wcpY+), +mar2 ish.der (Y)(wcpY+) [41%]/46,XX [38%]. One year after birth, the baby was developing normally and had normal psychomotorial activity. PMID:14663830

Marchina, E; Piovani, G; Vezzola, L; Bellotti, D; Cerri, V; Groli, C; Barlati, S

2003-12-15

356

A Pseudoautosomal Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker for the Sex Chromosomes of Silene dioica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segregation pattern of an 810-bp random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band in the F1 and backcross generations of a Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. family provides evidence that this molecular marker is located in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. The marker was found through a combination of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and RAPD techniques. Recombination

Veronica S. Di Stilio; Richard V. Kesseli; David L. Mulcahy

1998-01-01

357

Using genotyping data to assign markers to their chromosome type and to infer the sex of individuals: a Bayesian model-based classifier.  

PubMed

The recent democratization of next-generation-sequencing-based approaches towards nonmodel species has made it cost-effective to produce large genotyping data sets for a wider range of species. However, when no detailed genome assembly is available, poor knowledge about the organization of the markers within the genome might hamper the optimal use of this abundant information. At the most basic level of genomic organization, the type of chromosome (autosomes, sex chromosomes, mitochondria or chloroplast in plants) may remain unknown for most markers which might be limiting or even misleading in some applications, particularly in population genetics. Conversely, the characterization of sex-linked markers allows molecular sexing of the individuals. In this study, we propose a Bayesian model-based classifier named detsex, to assign markers to their chromosome type and/or to perform sexing of individuals based on genotyping data. The performance of detsex is further evaluated by a comprehensive simulation study and by the analysis of real data sets from various origins (microsatellite and SNP data derived from genotyping assay designs and NGS experiments). Irrespective of the origin of the markers or the size of the data set, detsex was proved efficient (i) to identify the sex-linked markers, (ii) to perform molecular sexing of the individuals and (iii) to perform basic quality check of the genotyping data sets. The underlying structure of the model also allows to consider each of these potential applications either separately or jointly. PMID:24751186

Gautier, Mathieu

2014-11-01

358

White matter alterations associated with chromosomal disorders.  

PubMed

White matter alterations in chromosomal disorders have been reported mainly in 18q-syndrome. Our aim was to evaluate white matter alterations in patients with chromosomal abnormalities detected through conventional cytogenetic techniques. Forty-four patients with chromosomal abnormalities, excluding trisomy 21, were diagnosed in our hospital between May 1999 and December 2002 (24 males, 20 females; mean age 6 years 4 months [SD 3 years 2 months], range 0 to 18 years). Of the 44 patients, 14 had brain magnetic resonance imaging (12 males, 2 females; mean age 4 years 2 months [SD 4 years 4 months]; five with sex chromosomal disorders [SCD] and nine with autosomal chromosomal disorders [ACD]). Of these 14 patients, eight (four with SCD and four with ACD) had abnormal white matter findings of similar patterns. These patients had pseudonodular, subcortical, and periventricular white matter high signal intensity images in T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences that were isolated or confluent. The images did not correlate with the neurological clinical state. Given that eight of the 14 patients showed these lesions, their prevalence in different chromosomal abnormalities appears to be high, even though they have not been well reported in the literature. To our knowledge, these alterations have never been described in SCD. We concluded that unknown factors related to the myelination processes may be localized in different chromosomes. PMID:14995083

García-Cazorla, Angels; Sans, Anna; Baquero, Miguel; García-Bargo, María Dolores; Arellano, Montse; Poo, Pilar; Gean, Esther; Campistol, Jaume

2004-03-01

359

Journal of Theoretical Biology 249 (2007) 153161 Introduction of Trojan sex chromosomes to boost population growth  

E-print Network

to avoid the negative effects of demographic stochasticity and genetic problems like inbreeding depression more females. We analyse the possible consequences for the introduction of XX-males (XX individuals that have been changed to phenotypic males in a XY/XX sex determination system) and ZW males, WW males

Cotton, Sam

360

A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is a member of a novel family of embryonically expressed genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is deleted in a line of XY female mice mutant for Tdy, and is expressed at a stage during male gonadal development consistent with its having a role in testis determination. This gene is a member of a new family of at least five mouse genes, related by

John Gubbay; Jérôme Collignon; Peter Koopman; Blanche Capel; Androulla Economou; Andrea Münsterberg; Nigel Vivian; Peter Goodfellow; Robin Lovell-Badge

1990-01-01

361

The abnormalities of chromosome 8 in two hepatocellular carcinoma cell clones with the same genetic background and different metastatic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Two hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell clones named MHCC97-H and MHCC97-L with different metastatic potential have recently been established from the same parent cell line MHCC97 in our institute. The cytogenetic alterations of these two clones were investigated in this study to explore the possible clues to the mechanism involved in HCC metastasis.Methods. Their chromosomal aberrations were analyzed with comparative

Jiong Yang; Lun-Xiu Qin; Sheng-Long Ye; Yin-Kun Liu; Yan Li; Dong-Mei Gao; Jie Chen; Zhao-You Tang

2003-01-01

362

Abnormal PMC microtubule distribution pattern and chromosome behavior resulted in low pollen fertility of an intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids have high heterosis in both vegetative and reproductive growth, but low seed\\u000a set hinders commercial utilization of autotetraploid rice. Autotetraploid rice hybrids with high and low pollen fertility\\u000a were used in the present study to compare microtubule distribution patterns and chromosome behavior during pollen mother cell\\u000a (PMC) meiosis, using indirect immunofluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy. Microtubule

Jin-Hua He; Muhammad Qasim Shahid; Zhi-Xiong Chen; Xing-An Chen; Xiang-Dong Liu; Yong-Gen Lu

2011-01-01

363

Detection of DNA Abnormalities by Arbitrarily Primed PCR Fingerprinting: Allelic Losses in Chromosome 10q in Lung Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA fingerprinting using arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) is useful for detecting cancer-specific DNA aberrations without targeting any particular genes or knowing any nucleotide sequences in advance. AP-PCR fingerprinting is an efficient method for finding loss of anonymous chromosomal regions in cancers. We analyzed DNA from 44 human non-small cell lung cancers by fingerprinting using a single primer and found a

Keita Kawakami; Jun Yasuda; Masahiko Shiraishi; Takamasa Kayama; Katsuhiko Doi; Manuel Perucho; Takao Sekiya

1998-01-01

364

Loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes and chromosome 9 karyotypic abnormalities in human bladder cancer cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Loss of cell cycle control through the structural or functional aberration of checkpoint genes and their products is a potentially important process in carcinogenesis. In this study, a panel of well-characterised established human bladder cancer cell lines was screened by the polymerase chain reaction for homozygous loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes p15, p16 and p27. The results demonstrate that, whereas there was no genetic loss of p27, homozygous deletion of both p15 and p16 genes occurred in seven of 13 (54%) independent bladder cell lines tested. Differential loss of either the p15 or p16 gene was not seen. The p15 and p16 genes are known to be juxtaposed on chromosome 9p21 at the locus of a putative tumour-suppressor gene involved in the initiation of bladder cancer. Cytogenetic analysis of the cell lines revealed karyotypes ranging from near diploid to near pentaploid with complex rearrangements of some chromosomes and a high prevalence of chromosome 9p rearrangements, although all cell lines contained at least one cytogenetically normal 9p21 region. These observations support a role for p15/p16 gene inactivation in bladder carcinogenesis and/or the promotion of cell growth in vitro and lend support to the hypothesis that homozygous deletion centred on 9p21 is a mechanism by which both p15 and p16 genes are co-inactivated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7577470

Southgate, J.; Proffitt, J.; Roberts, P.; Smith, B.; Selby, P.

1995-01-01

365

Sex determination in dioecious Silene latifolia. Effects of the Y chromosome and the parasitic smut fungus (Ustilago violacea) on gene expression during flower development.  

PubMed Central

We have embarked on a molecular cloning approach to the investigation of sex determination in Silene latifolia Poiret, a dioecious plant species with morphologically distinguishable sex chromosomes. One of our key objectives was to define a range of genes that are up-regulated in male plants in response to Y chromosome sex-determination genes. Here we present the characterization of eight male-specific cDNA sequences and classify these according to their expression dynamics to provide a range of molecular markers for dioecious male flower development. Genetically female S. latifolia plants undergo a partial sex reversal in response to infection by the parasitic smut fungus Ustilago violacea. This phenomenon has been exploited in these studies; male-specific cDNAs have been further categorized as inducible or noninducible in female plants by smut fungus infection. Analysis of the organ-specific expression of male-specific probes in male and female flowers has also identified a gene that is regulated in a sex-specific manner in nonreproductive floral tissues common to both male and female plants. This observation provides, to our knowledge, the first molecular marker for dominant effect of the Y chromosome in nonreproductive floral organs. PMID:9232878

Scutt, C P; Li, T; Robertson, S E; Willis, M E; Gilmartin, P M

1997-01-01

366

Sex-specific differences in meiotic chromosome segregation revealed by dicentric bridge resolution in mice.  

PubMed Central

The meiotic properties of paracentric inversion heterozygotes have been well studied in insects and plants, but not in mammalian species. In essence, a single meiotic recombination event within the inverted region results in the formation of a dicentric chromatid, which usually breaks or is stretched between the two daughter nuclei during the first meiotic anaphase. Here, we provide evidence that this is not the predominant mode of exchange resolution in female mice. In sharp contrast to previous observations in other organisms, we find that attempts to segregate the dicentric chromatid frequently result not in breakage, stretching, or loss, but instead in precocious separation of the sister centromeres of at least one homolog. This often further results in intact segregation of the dicentric into one of the meiotic products, where it can persist into the first few embryonic divisions. These novel observations point to an unusual mechanism for the processing of dicentric chromosomes in mammalian oogenesis. Furthermore, this mechanism is rare or nonexistent in mammalian spermatogenesis. Thus, our results provide additional evidence of sexual dimorphism in mammalian meiotic chromosome behavior; in "stressful" situations, meiotic sister chromatid cohesion is apparently handled differently in males than in females. PMID:12454080

Koehler, Kara E; Millie, Elise A; Cherry, Jonathan P; Burgoyne, Paul S; Evans, Edward P; Hunt, Patricia A; Hassold, Terry J

2002-01-01

367

Differential Divergence of Three Human Pseudoautosomal Genes and Their Mouse Homologs: Implications for Sex Chromosome Evolution  

PubMed Central

The human pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) is essential for meiotic pairing and recombination, and its deletion causes male sterility. Comparative studies of human and mouse pseudoautosomal genes are valuable in charting the evolution of this interesting region, but have been limited by the paucity of genes conserved between the two species. We have cloned a novel human PAR1 gene, DHRSXY, encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, and isolated a mouse ortholog Dhrsxy. We also searched for mouse homologs of recently reported PGPL and TRAMP genes that flank it within PAR1. We recovered a highly conserved mouse ortholog of PGPL by cross-hybridization, but found no mouse homolog of TRAMP. Like Csf2ra and Il3ra, both mouse homologs are autosomal; Pgpl on chromosome 5, and Dhrsxy subtelomeric on chromosome 4. TRAMP, like the human genes within or near PAR1, is probably very divergent or absent in the mouse genome. We interpret the rapid divergence and loss of pseudoautosomal genes in terms of a model of selection for the concentration of repetitive recombinogenic sequences that predispose to high recombination and translocation. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. AJ293620, AJ296079, and AJ293619.] PMID:11731500

Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Sanges, Remo; Esposito, Teresa; Tempesta, Sergio; Rao, Ercole; Rappold, Gudrun; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Graves, Jennifer A.M.; Forabosco, Antonino; D'Urso, Michele

2001-01-01

368

Differential divergence of three human pseudoautosomal genes and their mouse homologs: implications for sex chromosome evolution.  

PubMed

The human pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) is essential for meiotic pairing and recombination, and its deletion causes male sterility. Comparative studies of human and mouse pseudoautosomal genes are valuable in charting the evolution of this interesting region, but have been limited by the paucity of genes conserved between the two species. We have cloned a novel human PAR1 gene, DHRSXY, encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, and isolated a mouse ortholog Dhrsxy. We also searched for mouse homologs of recently reported PGPL and TRAMP genes that flank it within PAR1. We recovered a highly conserved mouse ortholog of PGPL by cross-hybridization, but found no mouse homolog of TRAMP. Like Csf2ra and Il3ra, both mouse homologs are autosomal; Pgpl on chromosome 5, and Dhrsxy subtelomeric on chromosome 4. TRAMP, like the human genes within or near PAR1, is probably very divergent or absent in the mouse genome. We interpret the rapid divergence and loss of pseudoautosomal genes in terms of a model of selection for the concentration of repetitive recombinogenic sequences that predispose to high recombination and translocation. PMID:11731500

Gianfrancesco, F; Sanges, R; Esposito, T; Tempesta, S; Rao, E; Rappold, G; Archidiacono, N; Graves, J A; Forabosco, A; D'Urso, M

2001-12-01

369

Matrisibs, Patrisibs, and the Evolution of Imprinting on Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

The conflict theory of genomic imprinting argues that parent-of-origin effects on allelic expression evolve as a consequence of conflict between maternally and paternally derived genomes. I derive explicit population-genetic models of this theory when individuals in a cohort with an arbitrary and variable number of sires and dams interact. I show that the evolution of imprinting is governed by the reciprocal of the harmonic mean number of fathers but the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean number of mothers per cohort. Thus, a few monandrous females in a polyandrous population decrease the strength of the genetic conflict and the opportunity for conflict-driven paternal imprinting. In contrast, in populations in which few males control large harems, rare males with small harems do not have such a disproportionate effect on genetic conflicts and maternal imprinting. Additionally, I demonstrate that under the conflict theory, selection for imprinted expression on paternally derived X chromosomes is much weaker than it is on maternally derived X chromosomes or autosomes. PMID:20795831

Brandvain, Yaniv

2011-01-01

370

From The Cover: Resolution and evolution of the duck-billed platypus karyotype with an X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5Y5 male sex chromosome constitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The platypus (2n = 52) has a complex karyotype that has been controversial over the last three decades. The presence of unpaired chromosomes and an unknown sex-determining system especially has defied attempts at conventional analysis. This article reports on the preparation of chromosome-specific probes from flow-sorted chromosomes and their application in the identification and classification of all platypus chromosomes. This

Willem Rens; Frank Grützner; Patricia C. M. O'Brien; Helen Fairclough; Jennifer A. M. Graves; Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith

2004-01-01

371

A case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an unreported combination of chromosomal abnormalities: gain of isochromosome 5p, tetrasomy 8 and unbalanced translocation der(19)t(17;19)(q23;p13)  

PubMed Central

Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) comprises a spectrum of myeloid malignancies which are often associated with distinct chromosomal abnormalities, and the analysis of such abnormalities provides us with important information for disease classification, treatment selection and prognosis. Some chromosomal abnormalities albeit recurrent are rare such as tetrasomy 8 or isochromosome 5p. In addition, erratic chromosomal rearrangements may occur in AML, sometimes unbalanced and also accompanied by other abnormalities. Knowledge on the contribution of rare abnormalities to AML disease, progression and prognosis is limited. Here we report a unique case of acute monoblastic leukemia with gain of i(5)(p10), tetrasomy 8, an unbalanced translocation der(19)t(17;19)(q23;p13.3) and mutated NPM1. Results Bone marrow cells were examined by conventional karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and mutation analysis at diagnosis and follow-up. At diagnosis we detected trisomy 8, an unbalanced translocation der(19)t(17;19)(q23;p13.3) and mutated NPM1. During the course of the disease we observed clonal evolution with gain of i(5)(p10), tetrasomy 8 and eventually duplication of der(19)t(17;19)(q23;p13.3). By using the der(19)t(17;19) as clonal marker, we found that i(5)(p10) and tetrasomy 8 were secondary genetic events and that tetrasomy 8 had clonally evolved from trisomy 8. Conclusions This case of acute monoblastic leukemia presents a combination of rare chromosomal abnormalities including the unbalanced translocation der(19)t(17;19)(q23;p13.3), hitherto un-reported in AML. In addition, our case supports the hypothesis of a step-wise clonal evolution from trisomy 8 to tetrasomy 8 in AML. Reporting and collecting data of rare chromosomal abnormalities will add information to AML disease, progression and prognosis, and may eventually translate to improved patient management. PMID:24079663

2013-01-01

372

The sex-linked region in Populus tremuloides Turesson 141 corresponds to a pericentromeric region of about two million base pairs on P. trichocarpa chromosome 19.  

PubMed

In the dioecious genus Populus, sex determination has been located to chromosome 19. However, despite a high degree of genome collinearity, various Populus species seem to differ with regard to the location of the sex-determining region on the respective chromosome and the apparent heterogametic sex. In this study, the boundaries of the recombination-suppressed, sex-linked region of the male P. tremuloides clone Turesson 141 were localised by genetic mapping using new SNP and InDel markers. The respective region seems to be located in a pericentromeric position. The corresponding P. trichocarpa genome region spans about two million bp and comprises 65 gene loci, which were bioinformatically evaluated for their potential as candidate genes for sex determination. Three putative transcription factor genes and four genes that are potentially involved in flower development processes, e.g. meristem transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase, were identified. Populus tremuloides sequence data of the sex-linked region is required for a final search for candidate genes. PMID:23710995

Kersten, B; Pakull, B; Groppe, K; Lueneburg, J; Fladung, M

2014-03-01

373

Role of the pseudoautosomal region in sex-chromosome pairing during male meiosis: Meiotic studies in a man with a deletion of distal Xp  

SciTech Connect

Meiotic studies were undertaken in a 24-year-old male patient with short stature, chondrodysplasia punctata, ichthyosis, steroid sulfatase deficiency, and mild mental retardation with an inherited cytologically visible deletion of distal Xp. Molecular investigations showed that the pseudoautosomal region as well as the steroid sulfatase gene were deleted, but telomeric sequences were present at the pter on the deleted X chromosome. A complete failure of sex-chromosome pairing was observed in the primary spermatocytes of the patient. Telomeric approaches between the sex chromosomes were made at zygotene in some cells, but XY synaptonemal complex was formed. The sex chromosomes were present as univalents at metaphase I, and germ-cell development was arrested between metaphase I and metaphase II in the vast majority of cells, consistent with the azoospermia observed in the patient. The failure of XY pairing in this individual indicates that the pseudoautosomal sequences play an important role in initiating XY pairing and formation of synaptonemal complex at meiosis. 36 refs., 6 figs.

Mohandas, T.K.; Passage, M.B.; Yen, P.H.; Speed, R.M.; Chandley, A.C.; Shapiro, L.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1992-09-01

374

SNP Array Karyotyping Allows for the Detection of Uniparental Disomy and Cryptic Chromosomal Abnormalities in MDS/MPD-U and MPD  

PubMed Central

We applied single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (SNP-A) to study karyotypic abnormalities in patients with atypical myeloproliferative syndromes (MPD), including myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome overlap both positive and negative for the JAK2 V617F mutation and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In typical MPD cases (N?=?8), which served as a control group, those with a homozygous V617F mutation showed clear uniparental disomy (UPD) of 9p using SNP-A. Consistent with possible genomic instability, in 19/30 MDS/MPD-U patients, we found additional lesions not identified by metaphase cytogenetics. In addition to UPD9p, we also have detected UPD affecting other chromosomes, including 1 (2/30), 11 (4/30), 12 (1/30) and 22 (1/30). Transformation to AML was observed in 8/30 patients. In 5 V617F+ patients who progressed to AML, we show that SNP-A can allow for the detection of two modes of transformation: leukemic blasts evolving from either a wild-type jak2 precursor carrying other acquired chromosomal defects, or from a V617F+ mutant progenitor characterized by UPD9p. SNP-A-based detection of cryptic lesions in MDS/MPD-U may help explain the clinical heterogeneity of this disorder. PMID:18030353

Gondek, Lukasz P.; Dunbar, Andrew J.; Szpurka, Hadrian; McDevitt, Michael A.; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

2007-01-01

375

SRY mutation analysis by next generation (deep) sequencing in a cohort of chromosomal Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) patients with a mosaic karyotype  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of the Y-chromosome or Y chromosome-derived material is seen in 4-60% of Turner syndrome patients (Chromosomal Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)). DSD patients with specific Y-chromosomal material in their karyotype, the GonadoBlastoma on the Y-chromosome (GBY) region, have an increased risk of developing type II germ cell tumors/cancer (GCC), most likely related to TSPY. The Sex determining Region on the Y gene (SRY) is located on the short arm of the Y-chromosome and is the crucial switch that initiates testis determination and subsequent male development. Mutations in this gene are responsible for sex reversal in approximately 10-15% of 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (46,XY DSD) cases. The majority of the mutations described are located in the central HMG domain, which is involved in the binding and bending of the DNA and harbors two nuclear localization signals. SRY mutations have also been found in a small number of patients with a 45,X/46,XY karyotype and might play a role in the maldevelopment of the gonads. Methods To thoroughly investigate the presence of possible SRY gene mutations in mosaic DSD patients, we performed next generation (deep) sequencing on the genomic DNA of fourteen independent patients (twelve 45,X/46,XY, one 45,X/46,XX/46,XY, and one 46,XX/46,XY). Results and conclusions The results demonstrate that aberrations in SRY are rare in mosaic DSD patients and therefore do not play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. PMID:23157850

2012-01-01

376

Diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in a patient with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) type I: The first report describing an important association between cytogenetic findings and TD  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is the most lethal and most severe type of dysplasia. It has distinct features, the most important of which is short tubular bones and short ribs with platyspondyly, allowing a precise radiologic and prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis. It has been reported to be caused by mutations in the FGFR3 gene, but exactly how cytogenetic abnormalities might lead to TD is unclear. Case Report: We report a case of TD with different prenatal sonographic features compatible with the classification of type I. In the result of cytogenetic examination, we found de novo CAs in 28% of cells analyzed from the affected infant; 75% of the abnormalities were numerical, and of those, 25% were structural aberrations; 21% of cells revealed predominantly numerical aberrations. Monosomy 18, 21 and 22 was observed in 4% of cells, monosomy 20 in 2%, and monosomy 7, 8, 14, 17 and 19 in 1%. Structural changes were observed in 7% of cells. Conclusions: It appears that these chromosomes may be preferentially involved in and important for TD development. PMID:23569503

Turgut, Mehmet; Demirhan, Osman; Tunc, Erdal; Bucak, Ibrahim Hakan; Canoz, Perihan Yasemen; Temiz, Fatih; Tumgor, Gokhan

2012-01-01

377

Unique double de novo structural rearrangements for chromosome 11 with 46,XX,del(11)(q13q23)/46,XX,inv dup(11)(q13q23) in an infant with minor congenital abnormalities and delayed development  

SciTech Connect

Reported here is a patient with two most unusual structural rearrangements, both involving chromosome 11. The first cell line showed an interstitial deletion of a chromosome 11 with a 46,XX,del(11)(q13q23) chromosome complement. In the second cell line, one of the chromosome 11s had a duplication for the exact region, (11)(q13q23), that was deleted in the first cell line. This duplication also appeared to be inverted with karyotype 46,XX,inv dup(11)(q13q23). Interestingly, chromosome analysis did not revea