J. Nielsen; A. M. Sørensen; K. Sørensen
Twenty-five children with sex chromosome aberrations found among 11000 consecutively newborn children from 1969 to 1974 have been followed with psychologicalpsychiatric examinations at four different times from the age of 1 year till the ages of 7 to 11. The results of the follow-up studies are presented, and it is concluded that diagnosis of sex chromosome aberrations at birth or
Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.
-X-Y pairing in meiosis SRY gene-testis determining factor Fewer than 50 genes-most related to gonadal In the presence of Y chromosome (TDF), testis develop Androgens complexed with 5a- reductase bind to the androgen linked recessive disease, it would be expressed in females Norandom X-inactivation Identifies carriers
Hanan A Hamamy; Sophie Dahoun
Objective: To report parental decisions regarding pregnancy termination following the prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosome abnormality (SCA) in the fetus. Methods: Retrospective collection of data from records of 61 families receiving genetic counseling after prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosome abnormality in the fetus in the Division of Medical Genetics, University Hospital of Geneva during the time period 1980–2001.
Bruce G. Bender; Mary G. Linden; Arthur Robinson
Sixty-seven adolescents participated in this protocol, including 42 with sex chromosome abnormalities and 25 controls. Results from a battery of neuropsychological tests indicated karyotype specific patterns of logical impairment: (1) 47,XXY boys had un- impaired intelligence but reduced abilities in verbal fluency and reading; (2) 47,XXX girls experienced reduced general intelligence ac- companied by impaired scores on individual tests of
Jung-Yeol Han; Moon-Young Kim; Jae-Hyug Yang; Kyu-Hong Choi; Young-Mi Kim; Jin-Mee Kim; Hyun-Mee Ryu; Samsung Cheil
Because of the widespread use of amniocentesis, the prenatal recognition of sex chromosome abnormality (SCA) has become increasingly common. Recent lit- erature provided an insight into the understanding of the natural history and prog- nosis for individuals with SCA. Our study was designed to review the parental decision on pregnancy with SCA. Over the last 10 yr, we diagnosed 38
Bruce G. Bender; Mary Linden; Arthur Robinson
Forty-six unselected children with various sex chromosome abnormalities (14 boys with 47,XXY, 4 boys with 47,XYY, 11 girls with 47,XXX, 9 girls with 45,X, and 8 girls with SCA mosaicism), identified through the consecutive chromosome screening of 40,000 Denver newborns, have been followed developmentally and evaluated in a protocol that included intellectual, language, and achievement testing. Controls consisted of 12
Bruce G. Bender; Mary Linden; Arthur Robinson
\\u000a Forty-six unselected children with various sex chromosome abnormalities (14 boys with 47, XXY, 4 boys with 47, XYY, 11 girls\\u000a with 47, XXX, 9 girls with 45, X, and 8 girls with SCA mosaicism), identified through the consecutive chromosome screening\\u000a of 40,000 Denver newborns, have been followed developmentally and evaluated in a protocol that included intellectual, language,\\u000a and achievement testing.
Johannes Nielsen; Ingelise Sillesen
Follow-up examination of 15 unselected children with aneuploid sex chromosome abnormalities has been made till between the age of 21\\/2 and 5 years. The mental development of the 15 children was in all cases within the normal range, but there was a tendency to some differences compared with their siblings.
Bender, B G; Linden, M G; Robinson, A
Sixty-seven adolescents participated in this protocol, including 42 with sex chromosome abnormalities and 25 controls. Results from a battery of neuropsychological tests indicated karyotype specific patterns of neuropsychological impairment: (1) 47,XXY boys had unimpaired intelligence but reduced abilities in verbal fluency and reading; (2) 47,XXX girls experienced reduced general intelligence accompanied by impaired scores on individual tests of attention, concept formation, spatial thinking, verbal fluency, and academic skills, while retention of memorized information was a relative strength; (3) among the 45,X girls average intelligence level was also reduced along with scores on tests of attention, concept formation, verbal fluency, spatial thinking, and academic skills, and an atypical pattern of hand dominance was identified; (4) test scores in the group of mosaic females did not differ from those of controls. Test scores and patterns of personal adaptation were quite variable in all groups; while eight nonmosaic propositi required intensive special education assistance in their public schooling, eight others have attended college. PMID:8291574
Ratcliffe, S G; Masera, N; Pan, H; McKie, M
At all ages XXX girls had significantly smaller head circumferences than control girls. Their IQ deficit was 24 points and IQ at age seven correlated significantly with head circumference at birth. In XXY boys, head circumference was significantly reduced at birth and up to nine years of age. The XXY boys' IQ deficit was 22 points, but IQ did not correlate with head circumference, as reductions in the two parameters did not always occur in tandem. The ratio of height-to-head circumference differed most in this group and could be useful in clinical recognition of this condition. XYY boys' head size did not differ from controls, despite their greater height, lower IQ scores indicating an adverse effect of an additional Y chromosome on brain development. The major factor affecting IQ outcome in the cohort was abnormal karyotype, with smaller effects from social class and head growth. PMID:8005365
Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…
Kalafat, Erkan; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Turgay, Batuhan; Koç, Acar
Cell-free fetal DNA has received significant attention for the purposes of prenatal genetic testing in the past decade. Fetal DNA testing is a new method and promising for many applications such as aneuploidy screening, prenatal diagnosis, prediction of preeclampsia and more. A 37-year-old primigravida, with a pregnancy conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), was offered non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) due to advanced maternal age. NIPT performed at 23?weeks' gestation reported a diagnosis of monosomy X. She was offered an amniocentesis, which revealed a euploid fetus with no sex chromosome abnormalities. Even with single nucleotide polymorphism-based NIPT, positive predictive value for detection of sex chromosome abnormalities is around 50%. Positive results of NIPT should be heeded with caution and an invasive diagnostic procedure should be performed, especially for rare chromosomal abnormalities and sex chromosome abnormalities where NIPT performs subpar compared to its performance for detection of trisomy 21. PMID:25631759
Paris, Françoise; Gaspari, Laura; Philibert, Pascal; Maïmoun, Laurent; Kalfa, Nicolas; Sultan, Charles
The disorders of sex development (DSD) refer to the insufficient virilization of the external genitalia of a 46,XY fetus or the excessive virilization of those of the 46,XX fetus. Some of these disorders are associated with karyotype abnormalities. DSD arise from abnormal gonadal determination or sex differentiation, as in the case of the abnormal testosterone synthesis or androgen insensitivity of 46,XY DSD. The impact of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal life requires further investigation. The basic investigations should include SRY gene sequencing and measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, anti-Mullerian hormone, and testosterone. Choosing the sex of rearing is difficult and the decision must be made by an experienced multidisciplinary team. PMID:22846521
D. A. F. Villagómez; P. Parma; O. Radi; G. Di Meo; A. Pinton; L. Iannuzzi; W. A. King
The association of abnormal chromosome constitutions and disorders of sex development in domestic animals has been recorded since the beginnings of conventional cytogenetic analysis. Deviated karyotypes consisting of abnormal sex chromosome sets (e.g. aneuploidy) and\\/or the coexistence of cells with different sex chromosome constitutions (e.g. mosaicism or chimerism) in an individual seem to be the main causes of anomalies of
This article highlights recent advances in the molecular structure and function of proteins that are activated or created by chromosomal abnormalities and discusses their possible role in tumor development. The molecular characterization of these proteins has revealed that tumor-specific fusion proteins are the consequence of most chromosome translocations associated with leukemias and solid tumors. An emerging common theme is that creation of these proteins disrupts the normal development of tumor-specific target cells by blocking apoptosis. These insights identify these chromosomal translocation-associated genes as potential targets for improved cancer therapies. PMID:9442903
The molecular steps in normal sexual development were largely discovered by studying patients and animal models with disorders of sexual development (DSD). Although several types of DSD have been reported in the cat and dog, which are often strikingly similar to human DSD, these have been infrequently utilized to contribute to our knowledge of mammalian sexual development. Canine and feline cases of DSD with sufficient evidence to be considered as potential models are summarized in this report. The consensus DSD terminology, and reference to previous terminology, is used to foster adoption of a common nomenclature that will facilitate communication and collaboration between veterinarians, physicians, and researchers. To efficiently utilize these unique resources as molecular tools continue to improve, it will be helpful to deposit samples from valuable cases into repositories where they are available to contribute to our understanding of sexual development, and thus improve human and animal health. PMID:22005097
Vafaei, Homeira; Asadi, Nasrin; Foroughinia, Leila; Salehi, Alireza; Kuhnavard, Safieh; Akbarzadeh, Mojgan; Ravanbod, Hamid Reza; Mohamadalian, Ferdos; Kasraeian, Maryam
Background Sex workers and HIV seropositive women are at high risk of abnormal cervical cytology. The objective of this study was to compare the cervical cytology among three groups of women: active sex workers, HIV-infected women, and general population in Iran. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Hazrat Zeinab, Lavan clinics and drop in center (DIC) in Shiraz, Iran. This study was performed from October 2009 to October 2011. A total of 266 patients were assigned into three groups: sex-workers (85), HIV positive patients (100), and general population (81). Pap smear was performed for all participants from the exocervix and endocervix, using a plastic Ayres’s spatula and cytobrush. The samples were sent to a pathology center, using a liquid-based media. Results The risk of cervical infection in sex workers and HIV positive women was greater than the general population (OR=5.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.24, 13.40), (OR=3.71, 95% CI:1.52, 9.09), respectively. The frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in the HIV positive and sex worker groups was higher than the general population (OR=6. 76, 95% CI:2.25, 20.32), (OR=3. 80, 95% CI:1.19, 12.07), respectively. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were associated with CD4 cell count<200Í106/L, P=0.021 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion Vaginal infections were seen more often in the sex worker group, and abnormal cervical cytology was greater in the HIV positive group. PMID:26005687
Zvi Vaknin; Orit Reish; Ido Ben-Ami; Eli Heyman; Arie Herman; Ron Maymon
Objective: To assess the indications for prenatal karyotyping of sex chromosomal abnormalities (SCAs) during pregnancy. Methods: All singleton pregnancies interrupted in our institute because of SCAs (1998–2005) were categorized into subgroups of 45,XO (Turner syndrome), 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome), 47,XXX and 47,XYY. The indications for prenatal diagnostic testing were recorded. Results: There were 67 SCAs pregnancies: 33% Turner syndrome, 28% Klinefelter
Wittig, Michele Andrisin
Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)
Ikuta, Toshikazu; Shafritz, Keith M.; Bregman, Joel; Peters, Bart; Gruner, Patricia; Malhotra, Anil K.; Szeszko, Philip R.
There is now considerable evidence that white matter abnormalities play a role in the neurobiology of autism. Little research has been directed, however, at understanding (a)typical white matter development in autism and how this relates to neurocognitive impairments observed in the disorder. In this study we used probabilistic tractography to identify the cingulum bundle in 21 adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. We investigated group differences in the relationships between age and fractional anisotropy, a putative measure of white matter integrity, within the cingulum bundle. Moreover, in a preliminary investigation, we examined the relationship between cingulum fractional anisotropy and executive functioning using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The ASD participants demonstrated significantly lower fractional anisotropy within the cingulum bundle compared to the typically developing volunteers. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that the ASD group did not show the typical age-associated increases in fractional anisotropy observed among healthy individuals. Moreover, lower fractional anisotropy within the cingulum bundle was associated with worse BRIEF behavioral regulation index scores in the ASD group. The current findings implicate a dysregulation in cingulum bundle white matter development occurring in late adolescence and early adulthood in autism spectrum disorder, and suggest that greater disturbances in this trajectory are associated with executive dysfunction in ASD. PMID:24231056
... disorder catalog Conditions > 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... 2008 What is 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development? 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development ...
Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.
Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956
Ganka Nikolova; Eric Vilain
Sex determination is the series of molecular events that direct the undifferentiated bipotential gonad to become either a testis or an ovary. In humans, disruption of this process results in intersexuality, also referred to as disorders of sex development (DSD). Despite the discovery of the sex-determining gene SRY (sex-determining region Y) 15 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of sex determination
Gorduza, Daniela; Vidal, Isabelle; Birraux, Jacques; Gay, Claire-Lise; Demède, Delphine; Mure, Pierre-Yves; Mouriquand, Pierre
Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) remain a fascinating challenge for the paediatricians, endocrinologists, biologists, psychiatrists, geneticists, radiologists, surgeons and for the whole society. This article aims at highlighting the current controversies and questions met with genital reconstruction in children born with abnormal genitalia. The main current techniques of masculinization and feminization are reviewed with their progress and their problems. The tools of decision used to assign a gender in some newborns with complex DSD are discussed showing that at the dawn of the third millenium, one still does not know why a boy is a boy, and a girl is a girl. PMID:20876944
Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla
Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21?494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip?±?palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis. PMID:25354028
The appearance of the external genitalia is the major determinant of the social sex, which is announced at or shortly after birth. In the absence of normal development of the external genitalia, definitive gender assignment and its announce- ment have to be postponed.While over the past 20 years the pathogenesis of most dis- orders causing abnormal development of the genitalia
Holemans, K; Aerts, L; Van Assche, F A
There is ample evidence that an adverse intrauterine environment has harmful consequences for health in later life. Maternal diabetes and experimentally induced hyperglycaemia result in asymmetric overgrowth, which is associated with an increased insulin secretion and hyperplasia of the insulin-producing B-cells in the fetuses. In adult life, a reduced insulin secretion is found. In contrast, intrauterine growth restriction is associated with low insulin secretion and a delayed development of the insulin-producing B-cells. These perinatal alterations may induce a deficient adaptation of the endocrine pancreas and insulin resistance in later life. Intrauterine growth restriction in human pregnancy is mainly due to a reduced uteroplacental blood flow or to maternal undernutrition or malnutrition. However, intrauterine growth restriction can be present in severe diabetes complicated by vasculopathy and nephropathy. In animal models, intrauterine growth retardation can be obtained through pharmacological (streptozotocin), dietary (semi-starvation, low protein diet) or surgical (intrauterine artery ligation) manipulation of the maternal animal. The endocrine pancreas and more specifically the insulin-producing B-cells play an important role in the adaptation to an adverse intrauterine milieu and the consequences in later life. The long-term consequences of an unfavourable intrauterine environment are of major importance worldwide. Concerted efforts are needed to explore how these long-term effects can be prevented. This review will consist of two parts. In the first part, we discuss the long-term consequences in relation to the development of the fetal endocrine pancreas and fetal growth in the human; in the second part, we focus on animal models with disturbed fetal and pancreatic development and the consequences for later life. PMID:12562919
Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.
Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…
Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Minkoff, Howard; Darragh, Teresa M.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Sanchez-Keeland, Lorraine; Watts, D. Heather; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.
Objective To estimate the frequency of abnormal Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity among HIV seropositive and seronegative women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods Pap and HPV DNA PCR tests were obtained every six months from women in a U.S. cohort of HIV seropositive and seronegative women. WSW were women reporting no male and at least one female sex partner over five years. WSW were frequency matched 1:5 to women reporting sex only with men (WSM) and assessed using multivariable generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results Paps at study entry were abnormal in 12 (21%) of 49 HIV seropositive WSW, 151 (64%) of 245 HIV seropositive WSM, 3 (9%) of 24 HIV seronegative WSW, and 16 (11%) of 120 seronegative WSM. HPV was found at entry in 18 (42%) HIV seropositive WSW, 109 (52%) HIV seropositive WSM, 6 (27%) HIV seronegative WSW and 13 (13%) HIV seronegative WSM. After controlling for HIV serostatus and CD4 count, WSW had marginally lower odds than WSM of Pap abnormality (O.R. 0.59, 95% C.I. 0.33, 1.03) and of HPV (O.R. 0.53, 95% C.I. 0.32, 0.89). After controlling for partner gender, HIV seropositivity and lower CD4 count were associated with any HPV, oncogenic HPV, any abnormal Pap result, and HSIL or worse (P < 0.0001 for all). Conclusion While risks for abnormal Pap and HPV are modestly lower in WSW than WSM, both are common in HIV seropositive women regardless of sexual preference. WSW and WSM should be screened similarly. PMID:23959300
Miles, Charles P.
Female nuclei may be identified by means of sex chromatin. In general the number of sex chromatin bodies is one less than the number of X chromosomes. An exception to this rule is a case of sex chromatin-positive XO Turner's syndrome. This case suggests the possibility of sex chromatin-positive XY males, and it may be evidence for chromosomal differentiation. PMID:14473851
Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan
This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…
Motomatsu, Nancy; Patterson, Bobbie
This bibliography cites references dealing with background material on the functions of the human brain and current research on sex differences in brain development. A list of 10 books published since 1974 is followed by a more extensive annotated bibliography of 29 articles, and a bibliography of 19 reports, complete with ERIC reference numbers…
Picard, Marion Anne-Lise; Cosseau, Céline; Mouahid, Gabriel; Duval, David; Grunau, Christoph; Toulza, Ève; Allienne, Jean-François; Boissier, Jérôme
The Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes have been intensively studied because they represent major transcription factors in the pathways governing sex determination and differentiation. These genes have been identified in animal groups ranging from cnidarians to mammals, and some of the genes functionally studied. Here, we propose to analyze (i) the presence/absence of various Dmrt gene groups in the different taxa across the animal kingdom; (ii) the relative expression levels of the Dmrt genes in each sex; (iii) the specific spatial (by organ) and temporal (by developmental stage) variations in gene expression. This review considers non-mammalian animals at all levels of study (i.e. no particular importance is given to animal models), and using all types of sexual strategy (hermaphroditic or gonochoric) and means of sex determination (i.e. genetic or environmental). To conclude this global comparison, we offer an analysis of the DM domains conserved among the different DMRT proteins, and propose a general sex-specific pattern for each member of the Dmrt gene family. PMID:26043799
Hiort, Olaf; Birnbaum, Wiebke; Marshall, Louise; Wünsch, Lutz; Werner, Ralf; Schröder, Tatjana; Döhnert, Ulla; Holterhus, Paul-Martin
The medical term disorders of sex development (DSDs) is used to describe individuals with an atypical composition of chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypic sex, which leads to differences in the development of the urogenital tract and reproductive system. A variety of genetic factors have been identified that affect sex development during gonadal differentiation or in specific disorders associated with altered androgen biosynthesis or action. The diagnosis of DSDs in individuals and the subsequent management of patients and their families requires a targeted and structured approach, involving a multidisciplinary team with effective communication between the disciplines. This approach includes distinct clinical, imaging, laboratory and genetic evaluations of patients with DSDs. Although treatment of patients with DSDs can include endocrine and surgical options, many patients have concerns that arise from past incorrect treatments that were founded on the traditional binary concept of the sexes. To dispel these concerns, it is necessary to create centres of expertise for DSDs that include physicians, surgeons, psychologists and specialists in diagnostic procedures to manage patients and their families. Additionally, the inclusion of trained peer support in the multidisciplinary DSD team seems to be integral to the supportive management of patients with DSDs. Most importantly, dealing with DSDs requires acceptance of the fact that deviation from the traditional definitions of gender is not necessarily pathologic. PMID:25022812
Crockett, Carolyn M.; Sackett, Gene P.; Sandman, Curt A.; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Bentson, Kathleen L.
Frequent or severe abnormal behavior may be associated with the release of endorphins that positively reinforce the behavior with an opiate euphoria or analgesia. One line of research exploring this association involves the superhormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The products of POMC appear to be dysregulated in some human subjects who exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB). Macaque monkeys have POMC very similar to humans, and some laboratory macaques display SIB or frequent stereotypies. We investigated associations between plasma levels of three immunoreactive POMC fragments with possible opioid action and abnormal behavior ratings in macaques. In 58 adult male and female macaques (24 Macaca fascicularis and 34 M. nemestrina), plasma levels of intact beta-endorphin (?E) and the N-terminal fragment (BEN) were significantly higher in animals with higher levels of abnormal behavior. The C-terminal fragment (BEC) was significantly higher in males but unrelated to ratings of abnormal behavior. Levels of ACTH, cortisol, and (?E-ACTH)/?E dysregulation index were unrelated to abnormal behavior. None of the POMC products differed significantly by subjects' species, age, or weight. The finding that intact beta-endorphin is positively related to abnormal behavior in two species of macaque is consistent with some previous research on human subjects and nonprimates. The positive relation of the N-terminal fragment of ?E to abnormal behavior is a new finding. PMID:17719139
Cobaleda, C; Pérez-Losada, J; Sánchez-García, I
This article highlights the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular structure and function of proteins that are activated or created by chromosomal abnormalities and discusses their possible role in tumor development. The molecular characterization of these proteins has revealed that tumor-specific fusion proteins are the consequence of the majority of chromosomal translocations associated with leukemias and solid tumors. A common theme that emerges is that creation of these proteins disrupts the normal development of tumor-specific target cells by blocking apoptosis. These insights identify these chromosomal translocation-associated genes as potential targets for improved cancer therapies. PMID:9872058
Elena F. Kranioti; Nikolaos Vorniotakis; Christianna Galiatsou; Mehmet Y. ??can; Manolis Michalodimitrakis
The determination of sex is considered one of the first essential steps in positive identification. The current study aspires to accomplish a threefold purpose: to develop an easy and rapid sex determination technique using digital radiographs from the proximal epiphysis of the femur, to develop a simplified tool for pathologists that will provide accurate sex identification using radiographs and to
Carson, D D; Lennarz, W J
Compactin, a potent inhibitor of polyisoprenoid biosynthesis, induces abnormal gastrulation during sea urchin development at concentrations that have no effect on earlier embryonic development or on macromolecular synthesis. Three lines of evidence suggest that the developmental lesion caused by compactin results from inhibition of dolichol biosynthesis and a concomitant inhibition in the biosynthesis of the oligosaccharide chains of N-linked glycoproteins. (i) Embryos cultured in the presence of compactin gastrulate normally when supplemented with dolichol alone, whereas supplementation with cholesterol or coenzyme Q or both does not prevent the compactin-induced developmental lesion. (ii) Exogenously supplemented [3H]dolichol is incorporated into a compound with the chromatographic properties of oligosaccharide-pyrophosphoryldolichol. (iii) Embryos cultured in the presence of compactin exhibit a decreased capacity to synthesize mannose-labeled glycolipids and N-linked glycoproteins. This decrease in synthesis is abolished if the embryos are cultured in the presence of dolichol along with compactin. Images PMID:293674
Background Monosomy × or 45,X is a cytogenetic characteristic for Turner syndrome. This chromosome anomaly is encountered in around 50% of cases, but wide variations of other anomalies have been found. This report is to describe the cytogenetic characteristics of 45,X individuals. To the best of our knowledge, there were no large series of 45,X cases has been reported from Indonesia. Results Ninety five cases with 45,X cell line found, of which 60 were detected by karyotyping, 4 by FISH for sex chromosomes, and 31 by both karyotyping and FISH. Using karyotyping 37 out of 91 cases(40.6%) were identified as 45,X individuals, while cases who underwent FISH only 4 out of 35 cases (11.4%) showed 45,X result, resulting in total of 39 45,X cases (41.1%), and the rest 56 (58.9%) cases are mosaic. Among these cases, 21 out of 95 (22.1%) have Y or part of Y as the second or third sex chromosome in their additional cell lines. Result discrepancies revealed in 22 out of 31 cases who underwent both FISH and karyotyping, of which 7 showed normal 46,XX or 46,XY karyotypes, but by FISH, additional monosomy × cell line was found. Most of the cases were referred at the age of puberty (8-13 years old) or after that (14-18 years old), 31 and 21 cases respectively, and there were 14 cases were sent in adulthood. Conclusion Wide variations of sex chromosome aberrations have been detected using the combination of conventional cytogenetic and FISH, including detection of low level of mosaicism and Y-chromosome fragments. Result discrepancies using both techniques were found in 22/31 cases, and in order to obtain a more details of sex chromosome constitution of individuals with 45,X cell line both FISH and karyotyping should be carried out simultaneously. PMID:21992692
Gottlieb, Gilbert; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker
An understanding of developmental phenomena demands a relational or coactive concept of causality, as opposed to a conceptualization that assumes that singular causes can act in isolation. In this article we present a developmental psychobiological systems view of relational (bidirectional, coactional) causality, in which it is proposed that developmental outcomes are a consequence of at least two specific components of coaction from the same or different levels of a developmental system. The levels are genetic, neural, behavioral, and environmental; the latter level includes the cultural, social, and physical aspects of an organism's environment. We show the applicability of this view to the understanding of the development of normal and abnormal behavioral and psychological phenotypes through illustrations from the existing animal and human literature. Finally, we discuss future possibilities and potential stumbling blocks in the implementation of a more fully realized bidirectional, coactional perspective in developmental psychopathological research. PMID:12349867
M. Sandalinas; S. Sadowy; M. Alikani; G. Calderon; J. Cohen
BACKGROUND: A correlation between morphology, developmental competence and chromosome abnormalities is established. However, since absolute correlations are rare, embryo selection remains one of the most arduous tasks in assisted reproduction. This study was undertaken in order to determine which chromosomal abnormalities are compatible with development to the blastocyst stage. METHODS: Embryos diagnosed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) as chromosomally abnormal
Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Bebermeier, Jan-Hendrik; Werner, Ralf; Demeter, Janos; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Cario, Gunnar; Appari, Mahesh; Siebert, Reiner; Riepe, Felix; Brooks, James D; Hiort, Olaf
Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis) compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions. PMID:19570224
Nikolova, Ganka; Vilain, Eric
Sex determination is the series of molecular events that direct the undifferentiated bipotential gonad to become either a testis or an ovary. In humans, disruption of this process results in intersexuality, also referred to as disorders of sex development (DSD). Despite the discovery of the sex-determining gene SRY (sex-determining region Y) 15 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of sex determination remain poorly understood. Analysis of clinically relevant mutations of sex-determining genes in individuals with DSD has provided considerable insight into the function of these genes. The majority of disorders of sex determination with known causes are explained by mutations in one of three transcription factors at the core of the sex-determining pathway: SRY, SOX9 (SRY-box 9) and NR5A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 1). These mutations either affect the level of protein available at its nuclear site of action (via changes in regulatory sequences, deletions, non-sense mutations or mutations in nuclear localization sequences), or alter the structure of the protein (via modifications of binding or bending activity, or of interactions with other proteins). Deciphering the functional diversity of the mutations affecting the sex-determining pathway has immediate clinical impact on the diagnosis, outcome studies and classification of patients with DSD. PMID:16932288
Ingleby, Fiona C; Flis, Ilona; Morrow, Edward H
Sex-biased gene expression is likely to account for most sexually dimorphic traits because males and females share much of their genome. When fitness optima differ between sexes for a shared trait, sexual dimorphism can allow each sex to express their optimum trait phenotype, and in this way, the evolution of sex-biased gene expression is one mechanism that could help to resolve intralocus sexual conflict. Genome-wide patterns of sex-biased gene expression have been identified in a number of studies, which we review here. However, very little is known about how sex-biased gene expression relates to sex-specific fitness and about how sex-biased gene expression and conflict vary throughout development or across different genotypes, populations, and environments. We discuss the importance of these neglected areas of research and use data from a small-scale experiment on sex-specific expression of genes throughout development to highlight potentially interesting avenues for future research. PMID:25376837
Marion OBrien; Aletha C. Huston
Preference for and play with same-sex-stereotyped toys is one of the earliest manifestations of sex role development in young children. In this study, naturalistic observations of the play of 52 toddlers with a set of socially stereotyped masculine, feminine, and neutral toys were made in a day care setting over 14 months. In addition, two potential influences on toy choice
STANDISH K. ALLEN; HERBERT HIDU; JON G. STANLEY
Triploid soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) were produced by inhibiting polar body extrusion with cytochalasin B immediately after fertilization. Diploid and triploid clams grown in suspended tray culture were examined histologically during the re productive season oftheir second year. Most diploids had matured by the end of May and displayed normal gametogenic development in every individual. Triploids did not mature and
Beachy, Robert James
Research investigating the development of sex-role identity in children from father-absent families was reviewed using Biller and Borstelmann's (1967) three-fold conceptualization of sex-role identity as sex-role orientation, sex-role preference, and sex-role adoption as an organizational framework. The review revealed that sex-role orientation…
Berenbaum, S A; Meyer-Bahlburg, H F L
Understanding psychological development in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) is important for optimizing their clinical care and for identifying paths to competence and health in all individuals. In this paper, we focus on psychological outcomes likely to be influenced by processes of physical sexual differentiation that may be atypical in DSD, particularly characteristics related to being male or female (those that show sex differences in the general population, gender identity, and sexuality). We review evidence suggesting that (a) early androgens facilitate several aspects of male-typed behavior, with large effects on activity interests, and moderate effects on some social and personal behaviors (including sexual orientation) and spatial ability; (b) gender dysphoria and gender change occur more frequently in individuals with DSD than in the general population, with rates varying in relation to syndrome, initial gender assignment, and medical treatment; and (c) sexual behavior may be affected by DSD through several paths related to the condition and treatment, including reduced fertility, physical problems associated with genital ambiguity, social stigmatization, and hormonal variations. We also consider limitations to current work and challenges to studying gender and sexuality in DSD. We conclude with suggestions for a research agenda and a proposed research framework. PMID:25853895
... and may develop serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal ... Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for Families Last Updated 5/ ...
Muellner, Julia; Delmaire, Christine; Valabrégue, Romain; Schüpbach, Michael; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics. We hypothesized that patients with this syndrome would present an aberrant pattern of cortical formation, which could potentially reflect global alterations of brain development. Using 3 Tesla structural neuroimaging, we compared sulcal depth, opening, and length and thickness of sulcal gray matter in 52 adult patients and 52 matched controls. Cortical sulci were automatically reconstructed and identified over the whole brain, using BrainVisa software. We focused on frontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions, in which abnormal structure and functional activity were identified in previous neuroimaging studies. Partial correlation analysis with age, sex, and treatment as covariables of noninterest was performed amongst relevant clinical and neuroimaging variables in patients. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome showed lower depth and reduced thickness of gray matter in the pre- and post-central as well as superior, inferior, and internal frontal sulci. In patients with associated obsessive-compulsive disorder, additional structural changes were found in temporal, insular, and olfactory sulci. Crucially, severity of tics and of obsessive-compulsive disorder measured by Yale Global Tic severity scale and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale, respectively, correlated with structural sulcal changes in sensorimotor, temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and middle cingulate cortical areas. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome displayed an abnormal structural pattern of cortical sulci, which correlated with severity of clinical symptoms. Our results provide further evidence of abnormal brain development in GTS. PMID:25820811
Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian
Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.
Salinas, Joel; Mills, Elizabeth D.; Conrad, Amy L.; Koscik, Timothy; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg
Structural MRI studies provide evidence for sex differences in the human brain. Differences in surface area and the proportion of gray to white matter volume are observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge, there are no studies examining sex differences of parietal lobe structure in younger populations or in the context of development. The current study evaluated sex difference in the structure of the parietal lobe in children (7-17 years of age). Also, by adding the cohort of previously studied adults (18-50 years of age), sex differences of parietal lobe morphology were examined across the age span of 7-50 years. In the youth sample, we found that, similar to adults, the ratio of parietal lobe cortex to white matter was greater in females. Unlike the adult sample, there were no sex differences in surface area. When examining effects of age, surface area had a significant sex-by-age interaction. Males had essentially no decrease in surfaces area over time, but females had a significant decrease in surface area over time. These findings support the notion of structural sex differences in the parietal lobe, not only in the context of cross sectional assessment, but also in terms of differences of developmental trajectories. PMID:22333522
Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas
The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232
Ismail, S I; Mazen, I A
Children with disorder of sex development (DSD) may be born with ambiguous genitalia. Decision-making in relation to sex assignment has been perceived as extremely disturbing and difficult to families and health care professionals. This is mainly due to a general paucity of information about the condition and an exaggerated feeling of stigma and shame associated with genital abnormalities. This is the first study in Egypt aimed at studying the psychosexual development and gender outcome of 40 Egyptian patients with 46,XY DSD focusing on the impact of social and religious factors. The patients were subjected to history-taking, pedigree analysis, full clinical examination, and cytogenetic studies. Hormonal, radiological investigations and molecular studies were performed when possible. Accordingly, they were classified into 4 groups: (1) sex chromosome aneuploid DSD (mixed gonadal dysgenesis) and (2) disorders of gonadal development (gonadal dysgenesis); (3) androgen biosynthesis defect (5alpha-reductase deficiency, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency), and (4) defect in androgen action (androgen insensitivity syndrome). The psychosexual development was assessed using adapted structured questionnaire and the Bem sex role inventory for patients below and above 12 years of age, respectively. Thirty-two patients (80%) were initially assigned as females; 3 patients with gonadal dysgenesis, 1 patient with 5alpha-reductase deficiency, and 1 patient with androgen insensitivity were reassigned as male. Male reassignment also was recorded in 5 patients with 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency and one of them showed sex reversal twice. Gender outcome of our patients is elusive; the social component has a significant impact on the gender outcome in our society, even more than religion. We recommend that in the future more and more patients should be analyzed as well. These studies should be designed to emphasize the quality of life of DSD patients. PMID:20664246
Hanson, G.R.; And Others
This report describes the development and validation of the Unisex ACT Interest Inventory (UNIACT). In contrast to other interest inventories in common use, the UNIACT contains scales on which males and females receive similar scores. In the development of the UNIACT, more than 200 potentially sex-balanced items were administered to 10,211 people,…
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Review Recent developments in embryo sexing and its field application Peter Bredbacka Finnish embryos in commercial situations with emphasis on new developments. Simplifications of the biopsy technique is one of the major simplifications over the last few years. The stabilization of the embryo
Purpose of review Recommendations regarding the care of individuals with disorders of sex development include that care be provided by multidisciplinary teams. This article will discuss team composition and function as well as the role of the gynecologist and barriers to such care. Recent findings Many barriers to multidisciplinary care exist, but recent reports stress the roles of different team members as well as tools for planning and implementation of such a team that may help to overcome such barriers. All current recommendations include the participation of a gynecologist in the disorders of sex development team. Gynecologists are in the unique position to continue to provide care as these individuals mature into adulthood. Summary Multidisciplinary care for patients with disorders of sex development is recommended and gynecologists provide unique expertise. PMID:25110979
Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Singh, Anita; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh
The gap between the developed and developing nations with regards to maternal mortality and morbidity may have narrowed but still a lot of dedicated work is required to bridge these differences. Obstetrical haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal deaths in these developing nations especially in India. The most common causes of this fatal haemorrhage are the placental abnormalities which rarely get detected before delivery. Numerous factors have been incremental in the causation of this abnormal placental implantation with resultant complications. The present article is an attempt to review possible predictors of abnormal placental implantation. Also, a genuine attempt has been made to enumerate possible measures to identify the predictors of abnormal placentation during early pregnancy and their suitable prevention and management. PMID:24404455
Baxter, Ruth M.; Vilain, Eric
Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions with discrepancies between the chromosomal, gonadal, and phenotypic sex of the individual. Such disorders have historically been difficult to diagnose and cause great stress to patients and their families. Genetic analysis of human samples has been instrumental in elucidating the molecules and pathways involved in the development of the bipotential gonad into a functioning testis or ovary. However, many DSD patients still do not receive a genetic diagnosis. New genetic and genomic technologies are expanding our knowledge of the underlying mechanism of DSDs and opening new avenues for clinical diagnosis. We review the genetic technologies that have elucidated the genes that are well established in sex determination in humans, discuss findings from more recent genomic technologies, and propose a new paradigm for clinical diagnosis of DSDs. PMID:23875799
Wilkinson, G S; Sanchez, M I
The cytological basis of X chromosome meiotic drive or sex ratio (SR) has been reported for several species of Drosophila but not for other species. Here we describe how sperm development in the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis whitei, influences progeny sex proportion, in order to determine if a common developmental mechanism could cause meiotic drive in these distantly related taxa. Because age has been found to affect the degree of segregation distortion in some Drosophila, we tested flies from six to 26 weeks of age. We find that spermatocyst bundles in SR males frequently contain incompletely elongated spermatid nuclei independently of male age. Older males have, however, more spermatocyst bundles in their testes than younger males. Abnormal spermatid elongation affects male fertility since SR males produce 74% as many progeny per week as ST males. The proportion of spermatocyst bundles with improperly elongated spermatid nuclei explains 71% of the variation in progeny sex proportion. After reviewing the literature on sperm development and meiotic drive, we conclude that the cytological basis of meiotic drive in diopsids closely resembles Drosophila. Across species in both groups, the production of fertile males is associated with less than half of all spermatids not elongating normally in a spermatocyst bundle. We discuss the possibility that frequency-dependent selection on male fertility could stabilize the drive polymorphism in these unusual flies. PMID:11678983
To assess sex role development in Mexican-American males, about 40 kindergarten boys from low middle to very low socioeconomic backgrounds were divided into 2 statistical test groups according to whether their fathers were or were not resident in the home. Data were obtained from toy preference scorings, which followed Biller's 1968 measure;…
Frederick Groenman; Sharon Unger; Martin Post
Our understanding of lung development in the past two decades has moved from an anatomical to a histological basis and, most recently, to a molecular basis. Tissue interactions specify tracheal and lung primordia formation, program branching morphogenesis of the airway epithelium and regulate epithelial differentiation. In addition, lung development is influenced by mechanical and humoral factors. The regulatory molecules involved
strategies, thus contributing to a coherent evolutionary theory of human development. Keywords: adrenarche plasticity, reproductive strategies, sexual selection, stress 1. Introduction 1.1. Aim and scope investment theory, and sexual selection; it aims to provide a significant update to current life history
G. Pinto; V. Abadie; R. Mesnage; J. Blustajn; S. Cabrol; J. Amiel; L. Hertz-Pannier; A. M. Bertrand; S. Lyonnet; R. Rappaport; I. Netchine
Context: CHARGE (coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, re- tarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormali- ties, and\\/or hearing loss defect) syndrome consists of a combination of congenital malformations including genital hypoplasia and re- tarded growth. Objective: The objective of the study was to study gonadotropic axis function and growth parameters in CHARGE syndrome. Design: This was a retrospective study.
Phelps, William R.
Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…
Adolescents and Sex Erin Morgan, Research Associate, Human Development, Virginia Tech, Virginia any parents, teachers, and others who work with teens wonder how to address the topic of teens and sex. More teens have sex now than in the 1970s. Teens are also younger, on average, when they have sex
Paquette, Lisa B; Votava-Smith, Jodie K; Ceschin, Rafael; Nagasunder, Arabhi C; Jackson, Hollie A; Blüml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica L; Panigrahy, Ashok
Preterm birth is associated with alteration in corticothalamic development, which underlies poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our hypothesis was that preterm neonates with CHD would demonstrate abnormal thalamic microstructure when compared to critically ill neonates without CHD. A secondary aim was to identify any association between thalamic microstructural abnormalities and perioperative clinical variables. We compared thalamic DTI measurements in 21 preterm neonates with CHD to two cohorts of neonates without CHD: 28 term and 27 preterm neonates, identified from the same neonatal intensive care unit. Comparison was made with three other selected white matter regions using ROI manual-based measurements. Correlation was made with post-conceptional age and perioperative clinical variables. In preterm neonates with CHD, there were age-related differences in thalamic diffusivity (axial and radial) compared to the preterm and term non-CHD group, in contrast to no differences in anisotropy. Contrary to our hypothesis, abnormal thalamic and optic radiation microstructure was most strongly associated with an elevated first arterial blood gas pO2 and elevated preoperative arterial blood gas pH (p < 0.05). Age-related thalamic microstructural abnormalities were observed in preterm neonates with CHD. Perinatal hyperoxemia and increased perioperative serum pH were associated with abnormal thalamic microstructure in preterm neonates with CHD. This study emphasizes the vulnerability of thalamocortical development in the preterm neonate with CHD. PMID:25608695
Presentations given at the Conference on Abnormal Functional Development of the Heart, Lungs, and Kidneys are documented in this publication. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and was held in Asheville, NC, May 11-13, 1983. In an attempt to car...
1 Human placental development is impaired by abnormal hCG signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies in trisomy 21 pregnancies. Key words: LH/CG-receptor, trophoblast, Down syndrome, cell-cell fusion, maternal a fetus with trisomy 21, with defective syncytiotrophoblast (ST) formation and function. The ST arises
Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; Bilbo, Staci D.
Microglia and astrocytes are the primary immune cells within the central nervous system. Microglia influence processes including neural development, synaptic plasticity and cognition; while their activation and production of immune molecules can induce stereotyped sickness behaviors or pathologies including cognitive dysfunction. Given their role in health and disease, we propose that glia may be also be a critical link in understanding the etiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders that present with a strong sex-bias in their symptoms or prevalence. Specifically, males are more likely to be diagnosed with disorders that have distinct developmental origins such as autism or schizophrenia. In contrast, females are more likely to be diagnosed with disorders that present later in life, after the onset of adolescence, such as depression and anxiety disorders. In this review we will summarize the evidence suggesting that sex differences in the colonization and function of glia within the normal developing brain may contribute to distinct windows of vulnerability between males and females. We will also highlight the current gaps in our knowledge as well as the future directions and considerations of research aimed at understanding the link between neuroimmune function and sex differences in mental health disorders. PMID:22387107
Etaugh, Claire; Duits, Terri L.
Toddlers (41 girls and 35 boys) between 18 and 37 months of age were given four gender discrimination tasks each consisting of 6 pairs of color drawings. Three of the tasks employed color drawings of preschool girls and boys holding either a sex-typical toy, a sex-atypical toy, or no toy. The fourth employed pictures of sex-typical masculine and…
Brenes, Margarita Elena; And Others
Examines sex-role development in families in which parents were divorced or separated, specifically assessing children's understanding of gender identity and sex-role stereotypes and indicating toy choices during play. (Author/KS)
Art, Mercedes Juliana; Doerfler, Daniela
In this study the clinical data of all girls who visited the ambulance for paediatric and adolescent gynaecology at the university clinic for gynaecology and obstetrics in Vienna between 2001 and 2008 because of menstrual cycle abnormalities were used (n = 255). Most frequently, the girls suffered from dysmenorrhoea (29%), tempoanomaly (24%) and metrorrhagia (19%). For 57%, it was possible to find an underlying cause, mainly (24%) a hormonal one. The therapy was in 54% of all cases hormonal. In a second step, the study analyses matches between the age at menarche and the development of menstrual cycle abnormalities. Girls with primary amenorrhoea were excluded (n = 219). The study shows that every age of menarche has its special kind of menstrual cycle abnormality. Only if the menarche had set in at the age of 16, two kinds were named with equal frequency. PMID:20812052
There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection "Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers" highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work. PMID:26079267
There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection “Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers” highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work. PMID:26079267
Takei, Nobuyuki; Nawa, Hiroyuki
Target of rapamycin (TOR) was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mammalian TOR (mTOR). mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid) synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development. PMID:24795562
Lamke, Leanne K.; Bell, Nancy J.
Assessed the relationship between sex-role identity, behavioral interaction, and interpersonal attraction in an initial extended encounter. Female subjects (N=82) identified as either feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated participated in same-sex dyads. Results of the combined initial and final unstructured interactions indicated greater…
Ishishita, Satoshi; Tsuboi, Kazuma; Ohishi, Namiko; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Matsuda, Yoichi
Hybrid sterility plays an important role in the maintenance of species identity and promotion of speciation. Male interspecific hybrids from crosses between Campbell's dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) and the Djungarian hamster (P. sungorus) exhibit sterility with abnormal spermatogenesis. However, the meiotic phenotype of these hybrids has not been well described. In the present work, we observed the accumulation of spermatocytes and apoptosis of spermatocyte-like cells in the testes of hybrids between P. campbelli females and P. sungorus males. In hybrid spermatocytes, a high frequency of asynapsis of X and Y chromosomes during the pachytene-like stage and dissociation of these chromosomes during metaphase I (MI) was observed. No autosomal univalency was observed during pachytene-like and MI stages in the hybrids; however, a low frequency of synapsis between autosomes and X or Y chromosomes, interlocking and partial synapsis between autosomal pairs, and ?-H2AFX staining in autosomal chromatin was observed during the pachytene-like stage. Degenerated MI-like nuclei were frequently observed in the hybrids. Most of the spermatozoa in hybrid epididymides exhibited head malformation. These results indicate that the pairing of X and Y chromosomes is more adversely affected than that of autosomes in Phodopus hybrids. PMID:25801302
de Vries, Geert J.
Minireview: Sex Differences in Adult and Developing Brains: Compensation, Compensation, Massachusetts 01003 Despite decades of research, we do not know the functional significance of most sex differences in the brain. We are heavily invested in the idea that sex differences in brain struc- ture cause
Petersen, Anne C.
Although sex differences in research have received considerable attention, few researchers have examined the bias, social context, and process of that research. In analyzing sex differences in academic achievement over the past 10 years, three areas (mathematics, spatial ability, and verbal ability) would appear to establish consistent sex…
Weinraub, Marsha; And Others
The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Family characteristics that affect early sex role development also were investigated. (Author/RH)
B?lgr?dean, Mihaela; Cintez?, Eliza; Cîrstoveanu, C; Enculescu, Augustina; Ple?ca, Doina
Pulmonary venous system development starts early in embryonic life. Abnormalities in the development of pulmonary venous system occur either by the absence of common pulmonary vein communication to the splanchnic plexus or by the absence of its incorporation into the dorsal wall of the left atrium. We present the case of a 10-day-old male newborn, diagnosed with TAPVC, operated, with long recovery and, who died by pneumonia, heart failure, and obstructive pulmonary disease (one pulmonary vein obstructed and another one with severe stenosis). Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) reflects one of the most severe forms of congenital heart disease, with important clinical consequences. PMID:24068416
Yan, Zhengli; Wei, Huimiao; Ren, Chuanlu; Yuan, Shishan; Fu, Hu; Lv, Yuan; Zhu, Yongfei; Zhang, Tianbao
Heat shock proteins (Hsps), which have important biological functions, are a class of highly conserved genetic molecules with the capacity of protecting and promoting cells to repair themselves from damage caused by various stimuli. Our previous studies found that Hsp25, HspB2, HspB3, HspB7, Hsp20, HspB9, HspB10, and Hsp40 may be related to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-induced phocomelic and other abnormalities, while HspA12B, HspA14, Trap1, and Hsp105 may be forelimb development-related genes; Grp78 may play an important role in forelimb development. In this study, the embryonic phocomelic, oligodactylic model of both forelimbs and hindlimbs was developed by atRA administered per os to the pregnant mice on gestational day 11, and the expression of 36 members of Hsps family in normal and abnormal development of embryonic hindlimbs was measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). It is found that HspA1L, Hsp22, Hsp10, Hsp60, Hsp47, HspB2, HspB10, HspA12A, Apg1, HspB4, Grp78, and HspB9 probably performs a major function in limb development, and HspA13, Grp94 and Hsp110 may be hindlimb development-related genes. PMID:25352652
Auchus, R J; Quint, E H
Children with chronic illnesses face multiple challenges as they mature into adulthood, which relate to independence, access to care, and changes in care providers. The scope and magnitude of these problems is amplified in children with disorders of sex development (DSD). In these children, the normal progression of pubertal events can be early, late, contrasexual, pharmacologically assisted, or some combination of these features. The diagnosis of DSD can occur in childhood, which gives the family some time to prepare for future events, but in other cases, the diagnosis is made during adolescence as the condition becomes apparent. This article discusses the difficulties these children and their families face during adolescence, provides an overview of the transitioning process, and uses a few conditions as examples to illustrate particular aspects. PMID:25750080
Itman, Catherine; Bielanowicz, Amanda; Goh, Hoey; Lee, Queenie; Fulcher, Alex J; Moody, Sarah C; Doery, James C G; Martin, Jacinta; Eyre, Sarah; Hedger, Mark P; Loveland, Kate L
Activin production and signaling must be strictly regulated for normal testis development and function. Inhibins are potent activin inhibitors; mice lacking the inhibin-? gene (Inha-/- mice) cannot make inhibin and consequently have highly elevated activin and FSH serum concentrations and excessive activin signaling, resulting in somatic gonadal tumors and infertility. Dose-dependent effects of activin in testicular biology have been widely reported; hence, we hypothesized that male mice lacking one copy of the Inha gene would produce less inhibin and have an abnormal reproductive phenotype. To test this, we compared hormone concentrations, testis development, and sperm production in Inha+/+ and Inha+/- mice. Serum and testicular inhibin-? concentrations in adult Inha+/- mice were approximately 33% lower than wild type, whereas activin A, activin B, FSH, LH, and T were normal. Sixteen-day-old Inha+/- mice had a mixed phenotype, with tubules containing extensive germ cell depletion juxtaposed to tubules with advanced Sertoli and germ cell development. This abnormal phenotype resolved by day 28. By 8 weeks, Inha+/- testes were 11% larger than wild type and supported 44% greater daily sperm production. By 26 weeks of age, Inha+/- testes had distinct abnormalities. Although still fertile, Inha+/- mice had a 27% reduction in spermatogenic efficiency, a greater proportion of S-phase Sertoli cells and lower Leydig cell CYP11A1 expression. This study is the first to identify an intratesticular role for inhibin/inhibin-? subunit, demonstrating that a threshold level of this protein is required for normal testis development and to sustain adult somatic testicular cell function. PMID:25781564
Abazyan, Bagrat; Dziedzic, Jenifer; Hua, Kegang; Abazyan, Sofya; Yang, Chunxia; Mori, Susumu; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Guilarte, Tomas R
The glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that hypoactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is an important factor in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related mental disorders. The environmental neurotoxicant, lead (Pb(2+)), is a potent and selective antagonist of the NMDAR. Recent human studies have suggested an association between prenatal Pb(2+) exposure and the increased likelihood of schizophrenia later in life, possibly via interacting with genetic risk factors. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined the neurobehavioral consequences of interaction between Pb(2+) exposure and mutant disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (mDISC1), a risk factor for major psychiatric disorders. Mutant DISC1 and control mice born by the same dams were raised and maintained on a regular diet or a diet containing moderate levels of Pb(2+). Chronic, lifelong exposure of mDISC1 mice to Pb(2+) was not associated with gross developmental abnormalities but produced sex-dependent hyperactivity, exaggerated responses to the NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, mildly impaired prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle, and enlarged lateral ventricles. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that environmental toxins could contribute to the pathogenesis of mental disease in susceptible individuals. PMID:23716713
Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen
The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.
Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.
Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590
Malinger, G; Lev, D; Lerman-Sagie, T
The multiplanar neurosonographic examination of the fetus enables superb visualization of brain anatomy during pregnancy. The examination may be performed using a transvaginal or a transfundal approach and it is indicated in patients at high risk for CNS anomalies or in those with a suspicious finding during a routine examination. The purpose of this paper is to present a description of the normal brain and of abnormal findings usually diagnosed late in pregnancy, including malformations of cortical development, infratentorial anomalies, and prenatal insults. PMID:16387462
Griffin, Wilma P.; Kelly, Joan M.
A model for increasing awareness of sex-bias and sex stereotyping in vocational education was developed. The model consisted of a five-hour workshop which included these elements: (1) an introductory slide presentation which provided an overview of sex stereotyping; (2) five group activities (The Exchange, A Closer Look, Taking Stock, What a…
Hastings, Thomas Worcester
A THEORETICAL APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE ROLE OF ROCK AND FLUID PROPERTIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ABNORMAL FLUID PRESSURES A Thesis by THOMAS WORCESTER HASTINGS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Geology A THEORETICAL APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE ROLE OF ROCK AND FLUID PROPERTIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ABNORMAL FLUID PRESSURES A Thesis by THOMAS MORCESTER HASTINGS...
Schau, Candace Garrett; Busch, Judith Wilde
This article reports a study in which a sample of 89 White and 34 Spanish-language heritage children from ages 2 1/2 to 6 1/2 from the lower- and middle-classes responded to two cognitive measures (classification skill and gender knowledge), three verbal sex-typing measures (occupations, toys, and peer behaviors), and a behavioral sex-typing…
Mekkawy, Mona; Kamel, Alaa; El-Ruby, Mona; Mohamed, Amal; Essawi, Mona; Soliman, Hala; Dessouky, Nabil; Shehab, Marwa; Mazen, Inas
Isodicentric chromosome formation is the most common structural abnormality of the Y chromosome. As dicentrics are mitotically unstable, they are subsequently lost during cell division resulting in mosaicism with a 45,X cell line. We report on six patients with variable signs of disorders of sex development (DSD) including ambiguous genitalia, short stature, primary amenorrhea, and male infertility with azoospermia. Cytogenetic studies showed the presence of a sex chromosome marker in all patients; associated with a 45,X cell line in five of them. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique was used to determine the structure and the breakage sites of the markers that all proved to be isodicentric Y chromosomes. Three patients, were found to have similar breakpoints: idic Y(qter? p11.32:: p11.32? qter), two of them presented with ambiguous genitalia and were found to have ovotesticular DSD, while the third presented with short stature and hypomelanosis of Ito. One female patient presenting with primary amenorrhea, Turner manifestations and ambiguous genitalia revealed the breakpoint: idic Y (pter?q11.1::q11.1?pter). The same breakpoint was detected in a male with azoospermia but in non-mosaic form. An infant with ambiguous genitalia and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) had the breakpoint at Yq11.2: idic Y(pter?q11.2::q11.2?pter). SRY signals were detected in all patients. Sequencing of the SRY gene was carried out for three patients with normal results. This study emphasizes the importance of FISH analysis in the diagnosis of patients with DSD as well as the establishment of the relationship between phenotype and karyotype. PMID:22628100
Susan M. McHale; Ji-Yeon Kim; Shawn Whiteman; Ann C. Crouter
The authors studied sex-typing in the kinds (e.g., sports, handicrafts) and social contexts (same- vs. other-sex companions) of children's free time activities, and the links between sex-typed activities and gender development over 2 years. Participants were 200 White, working- and middle-class children (103 girls, 97 boys; mean age = 10.86 years). In annual home interviews, children rated their self-esteem, gender
Cardiff, Robert D.; Trott, Josephine F.; Hovey, Russell C.; Hubbard, Neil E.; Engelberg, Jesse A.; Tepper, Clifford G.; Willis, Brandon J.; Khan, Imran H.; Ravindran, Resmi K.; Chan, Szeman R.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Borowsky, Alexander D.
Female 129:Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1tm1Rds homozygous) uniquely develop estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumors. Herein we report that the mammary glands (MG) of these mice have altered growth and development with abnormal terminal end buds alongside defective branching morphogenesis and ductal elongation. We also find that the 129:Stat1-null mammary fat pad (MFP) fails to sustain the growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and Stat1-null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by elevated serum progesterone and prolactin whereas transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into 129:Stat1-null mice does not reverse the MG developmental defects. Medium conditioned by 129:Stat1-null epithelium-cleared MFP does not stimulate epithelial proliferation, whereas it is stimulated by medium conditioned by epithelium-cleared MFP from either wild-type or 129:Stat1-null females having elevated progesterone and prolactin. Microarrays and multiplexed cytokine assays reveal that the MG of 129:Stat1-null mice has lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal MG growth and development. Transplanted 129:Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in 129:Stat1-null MG compared to wild-type recipient MG. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic 129:Stat1-null epithelium is dependent on the hormonal milieu and on factors from the mammary stroma such as cytokines. While the individual or combined effects of these factors remains to be resolved, our data supports the role of STAT1 in maintaining a tumor-suppressive MG microenvironment. PMID:26075897
Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A
This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men. PMID:18689194
Scott, Brigitte C.
In this ethnographic research, I offer an analysis of a state-sponsored professional development workshop for sex educators. Positioning theory is used to understand how the lived space of the workshop -- including texts, talk and silence -- positions sex education teachers as professionals and practitioners with certain (limited) speaking rights…
Molecular biomarkers for determination of gonadal phenotypic sex in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), will serve as a case study. The medaka has unique features that aid in the development of appropriate molecular biomarkers of gonad phenotype, a) genetic sex can be determin...
Terry Frueh; Paul E. McGhee
Tested the hypothesis that the amount of time spent watching TV is significantly related to the strength of traditional sex-role development. Data from 80 kindergartners and 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders support the hypothesis and suggest that this relationship holds equally for both sexes and does not change with increasing age.
Janice E. Butcher
This study investigated the development of sex role orientation among adolescent girls, and explored its relationship with sports participation, self-esteem, and age at menarche. The instruments were administered to 134 girls yearly from Grades 6 to 10 (ages 11 to 15). The results obtained with the Bem Sex Role Inventory showed group mean increases in the masculine and feminine scale
The objective of this study was to identify and develop DNA markers that can be used for sex diagnosis in the ostrich (Struthio camelus) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. DNA was isolated from 15 male and 15 female, year old, crossbred ostriches. Two bulked DNA samples were prepared by grouping sexes. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used
Moczek, Armin P.
. Specifically, we focus on the role of somatic sex determination mechanisms, which mediate bodyDevelopment and evolution of insect polyphenisms: novel insights through the study of sex determination mechanisms Armin P Moczek and Teiya Kijimoto Polyphenism is defined as a single individual
Hanauer, David A.; Gardner, Melissa; Sandberg, David E.
Disorders of sex development (DSD) represent a collection of rare diseases that generate substantial controversy regarding best practices for diagnosis and treatment. A significant barrier preventing a better understanding of how patients with these conditions should be evaluated and treated, especially from a psychological standpoint, is the lack of systematic and standardized approaches to identify cases for study inclusion. Common approaches include “hand-picked” subjects already known to the practice, which could introduce bias. We implemented an informatics-based approach to identify patients with DSD from electronic health records (EHRs) at three large, academic children’s hospitals. The informatics approach involved comprehensively searching EHRs at each hospital using a combination of structured billing codes as an initial filtering strategy followed by keywords applied to the free text clinical documentation. The informatics approach was implemented to replicate the functionality of an EHR search engine (EMERSE) available at one of the hospitals. At the two hospitals that did not have EMERSE, we compared case ascertainment using the informatics method to traditional approaches employed for identifying subjects. Potential cases identified using all approaches were manually reviewed by experts in DSD to verify eligibility criteria. At the two institutions where both the informatics and traditional approaches were applied, the informatics approach identified substantially higher numbers of potential study subjects. The traditional approaches yielded 14 and 28 patients with DSD, respectively; the informatics approach yielded 226 and 77 patients, respectively. The informatics approach missed only a few cases that the traditional approaches identified, largely because those cases were known to the study team, but patient data were not in the particular children’s hospital EHR. The use of informatics approaches to search electronic documentation can result in substantially larger numbers of subjects identified for studies of rare diseases such as DSD, and these approaches can be applied across hospitals. PMID:25268640
Lee, Kristie; Tan, Jacqueline; Morris, Michael B.; Rizzoti, Karine; Hughes, James; Cheah, Pike See; Felquer, Fernando; Liu, Xuan; Piltz, Sandra; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul Q.
Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is a life-threatening medical condition in which excessive accumulation of CSF leads to ventricular expansion and increased intracranial pressure. Stenosis (blockage) of the Sylvian aqueduct (Aq; the narrow passageway that connects the third and fourth ventricles) is a common form of CH in humans, although the genetic basis of this condition is unknown. Mouse models of CH indicate that Aq stenosis is associated with abnormal development of the subcommmissural organ (SCO) a small secretory organ located at the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon. Glycoproteins secreted by the SCO generate Reissner's fibre (RF), a thread-like structure that descends into the Aq and is thought to maintain its patency. However, despite the importance of SCO function in CSF homeostasis, the genetic program that controls SCO development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the X-linked transcription factor SOX3 is expressed in the murine SCO throughout its development and in the mature organ. Importantly, overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal diencephalic midline of transgenic mice induces CH via a dose-dependent mechanism. Histological, gene expression and cellular proliferation studies indicate that Sox3 overexpression disrupts the development of the SCO primordium through inhibition of diencephalic roof plate identity without inducing programmed cell death. This study provides further evidence that SCO function is essential for the prevention of hydrocephalus and indicates that overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal midline alters progenitor cell differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22291885
Lee, Kristie; Tan, Jacqueline; Morris, Michael B; Rizzoti, Karine; Hughes, James; Cheah, Pike See; Felquer, Fernando; Liu, Xuan; Piltz, Sandra; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul Q
Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is a life-threatening medical condition in which excessive accumulation of CSF leads to ventricular expansion and increased intracranial pressure. Stenosis (blockage) of the Sylvian aqueduct (Aq; the narrow passageway that connects the third and fourth ventricles) is a common form of CH in humans, although the genetic basis of this condition is unknown. Mouse models of CH indicate that Aq stenosis is associated with abnormal development of the subcommmissural organ (SCO) a small secretory organ located at the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon. Glycoproteins secreted by the SCO generate Reissner's fibre (RF), a thread-like structure that descends into the Aq and is thought to maintain its patency. However, despite the importance of SCO function in CSF homeostasis, the genetic program that controls SCO development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the X-linked transcription factor SOX3 is expressed in the murine SCO throughout its development and in the mature organ. Importantly, overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal diencephalic midline of transgenic mice induces CH via a dose-dependent mechanism. Histological, gene expression and cellular proliferation studies indicate that Sox3 overexpression disrupts the development of the SCO primordium through inhibition of diencephalic roof plate identity without inducing programmed cell death. This study provides further evidence that SCO function is essential for the prevention of hydrocephalus and indicates that overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal midline alters progenitor cell differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22291885
Chueasiri, Chutharat; Chunthong, Ketsuwan; Pitnjam, Keasinee; Chakhonkaen, Sriprapai; Sangarwut, Numphet; Sangsawang, Kanidta; Suksangpanomrung, Malinee; Michaelson, Louise V.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Muangprom, Amorntip
The orosomucoids (ORM) are ER-resisdent polypeptides encoded by ORM and ORMDL (ORM-like) genes. In humans, ORMDL3 was reported as genetic risk factor associated to asthma. In yeast, ORM proteins act as negative regulators of sphingolipid synthesis. Sphingolipids are important molecules regulating several processes including stress responses and apoptosis. However, the function of ORM/ORMDL genes in plants has not yet been reported. Previously, we found that temperature sensitive genetic male sterility (TGMS) rice lines controlled by tms2 contain a deletion of about 70 kb in chromosome 7. We identified four genes expressed in panicles, including an ORMDL ortholog, as candidates for tms2. In this report, we quantified expression of the only two candidate genes normally expressed in anthers of wild type plants grown in controlled growth rooms for fertile and sterile conditions. We found that only the ORMDL gene (LOC_Os07g26940) showed differential expression under these conditions. To better understand the function of rice ORMDL genes, we generated RNAi transgenic rice plants suppressing either LOC_Os07g26940, or all three ORMDL genes present in rice. We found that the RNAi transgenic plants with low expression of either LOC_Os07g26940 alone or all three ORMDL genes were sterile, having abnormal pollen morphology and staining. In addition, we found that both sphingolipid metabolism and expression of genes involved in sphingolipid synthesis were perturbed in the tms2 mutant, analogous to the role of ORMs in yeast. Our results indicated that plant ORMDL proteins influence sphingolipid homeostasis, and deletion of this gene affected fertility resulting from abnormal pollen development. PMID:25192280
Leet, J K; Lesteberg, K E; Schoenfuss, H L; Olmstead, A W; Amberg, J J; Ankley, G T; Sepúlveda, M S
Although fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish in endocrine disruption studies, past studies have not characterized sex-specific baseline expression of genes involved in sex differentiation during development in this species. Using a sex-linked DNA marker to verify gender, we evaluated the expression over time of genes involved in sex differentiation (dmrt1, cyp19a, cyp17, star, esr1, ar) in developing fathead minnows (10-45 days post hatch). Evaluation of these molecular markers in combination with gender identification help us to better understand the mechanisms regulating sex differentiation in fathead minnows and how endocrine-disrupting chemicals may alter these processes. PMID:23948860
, the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) Kristine L. Pilgrim · William J. Zielinski rufa nigra) is an endangered subspecies that occurs in a very restricted range in northern California nigra Á Sex determination Á Mountain beaver Á Non-invasive genetic sampling Á ZFX Á ZFY The mountain
O'Brien, Marion; Huston, Aletha C.
Observed play of 52 toddlers with a set of socially stereotyped masculine, feminine, and neutral toys in a day care setting over 14 months to (1) determine the age at which toddlers consistently exhibit sex-stereotyped toy choices in a natural setting and (2) investigate relation of parents' expectations and the children's own knowledge of gender…
Tomoko Nagase; Nobuyuki Shimozawa; Yasuhiko Takemoto; Yasuyuki Suzuki; Masayuki Komori; Naomi Kondo
In subjects with Zellweger syndrome, the most severe phenotype of peroxisomal biogenesis disorder, brain abnormalities include cortical dysplasia, neuronal heterotopia, and dysmyelination. To clarify the relationship between the lack of peroxisomes and neuronal abnormalities, we investigated peroxisomal localization in the mouse cerebellum, using double immunofluorescent staining for peroxisomal proteins.On immunostaining for peroxisomal matrix protein, while there are few peroxisomes in
In this essay a few relevant aspects of the neural and behavioral development of the brain in the human and in the rat are reviewed and related to the consequences of lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system at early and later age. Movements initially are generated by local circuits in the spinal cord and without the involvement of descending projections. After birth, both in humans and in rats it seems that the devlopment of postural control is the limiting factor for several motor behaviors to mature. Strong indications exist that the cerebellum is significantly involved in this control. Lesions in the CNS at early stages interfere with fundamental processes of neural development, such as the establishment of fiber connections and cell death patterns. Consequently, the functional effects are strongly dependent on the stage of development. The young and undisturbed CNS, on the other hand, has a much greater capacity than the adult nervous system for compensating abnormal reinnervation in the peripheral nervous system. Animal experiments indicated that the cerebellar cortex might play an important part in this compensation. This possibility should be investigated further as it might offer important perspectives for treatment in the human. PMID:11530886
Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei
Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility. PMID:25803723
Background Stem/progenitor cells are in the focus of research as a future therapeutic option to stimulate regeneration in diseased renal parenchyma. However, current data indicate that successful seeding of implanted stem/progenitor cells is prevented by harmful interstitial fluid and altered extracellular matrix. To find out possible parameters for cell adaptation, the present investigation was performed. Methods Renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in an artificial interstitium for perfusion culture. Exposure to chemically defined but CO2-independent culture media was tested during 13 days. Cell biological features were then analyzed by histochemistry, while structural details were investigated by transmission electron microscopy after conventional and improved fixation of specimens. Results Culture of renal stem/progenitor cells as well in Leibovitz’s L-15 Medium as CO2 Independent Medium shows in fluorescence microscopy spatial development of numerous tubules. Specimens of both media fixed by conventional glutaraldehyde exhibit in electron microscopy a homogeneous cell population in developed tubules. In contrast, fixation by glutaraldehyde including tannic acid illuminates that dispersed dark marked cells of unknown function are present. The screening further demonstrates that the dark cell type does not comply with cells found in embryonic, maturing or matured renal parenchyma. Conclusions The actual data show that development of abnormal cell features must be taken into account, when regeneration of renal tubules is simulated under in vitro conditions. PMID:25071418
Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.
The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)
Cravey, Matthew David
DEVELOPMENT OF AGE OF DAM AND SEX ADJUSTMENT FACTORS FOR PREWEANING TRAITS OF BRANGUS CATTLE A Thesis By MATTHEW DAVID CRAVEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Animal Science DEVELOPMENT OF AGE OF DAM AND SEX ADJUSTMENT FACTORS FOR PREWEANING TRAITS OF BRANGUS CATTLE A Thesis by MATTHEW DAVID CRAVEY Approved as to style and content by: J. W...
Mutlu, A Kadir; Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Schaer, Marie
While significant differences in male and female brain structures have commonly been reported, only a few studies have focused on the sex differences in the way the cortex matures over time. Here, we investigated cortical thickness maturation between the age of 6 to 30 years, using 209 longitudinally-acquired brain MRI scans. Significant sex differences in the trajectories of cortical thickness change with age were evidenced using non-linear mixed effects models. Similar statistical analyses were computed to quantify the differences between cortical gyrification changes with age in males and females. During adolescence, we observed a statistically significant higher rate of cortical thinning in females compared to males in the right temporal regions, the left temporoparietal junction and the left orbitofrontal cortex. This finding is interpreted as a faster maturation of the social brain areas in females. Concomitantly, statistically significant sex differences in cortical folding changes with age were observed only in one cluster of the right prefrontal regions, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying cortical thickness and gyrification changes with age are quite distinct. Sexual dimorphism in the developmental course of the cortical maturation may be associated with the different age of onset and clinical presentation of many psychiatric disorders between males and females. PMID:23721724
Sloand, Elaine; Pfannes, Loretta; Ling, Casey; Jasek, Monika; Calado, Rodrigo; Tucker, Zachary C. G.; Feng, Xingmin; Hematti, Peiman; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Dunbar, Cynthia; Barrett, John; Young, Neal
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major risk factor for secondary malignancy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin and mucous membranes are especially frequent in this setting where aneuploidy and tetraploidy are associated with aggressive disease. The current study is directed to the mechanism of neoplasia in this setting. Un-manipulated keratinocytes from areas of oral GVHD in 9 patients showed tetraploidy in 10–46% of cells when examined by florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Keratinocytes isolated from biopsy sites of GVHD but not from normal tissue showed even greater numbers of tetraploid cells (mean 78%, range 15–85%; N=9) after culture. To mimic the inflammatory process in GVHD, allogeneic HLA- mismatched lymphocytes were mixed with normal keratinocytes. After two weeks, substantial numbers of aneuploid and tetraploid cells were evident in cultures with lymphocytes and with purified CD8 but not CD4 cells. Telomere length was substantially decreased in the lymphocyte-treated sample. No mutations were present in p53 gene, although haploinsufficiency for p53 due to loss of chromosome 17 was common in cells exposed to lymphocytes. These findings suggest that in GVHD, inflammation and repeated cell division correlates with the development of karyotypic abnormalities. PMID:20659573
Western, P S; Harry, J L; Graves, J A; Sinclair, A H
In mammals, birds and reptiles the morphological development of the gonads appear to be conserved. This conservation is evident despite the different sex determining switches employed by these vertebrate groups. Mammals exhibit chromosomal sex determination (CSD) where the key sex determining switch is the Y-linked gene, SRY. Although SRY is the trigger for testis determination in mammals, it is not conserved in other vertebrate groups. However, a gene closely related to SRY, the highly conserved transcription factor, SOX9, plays an important role in the testis pathway of mammals and birds. In contrast to the CSD mechanism evident in mammals and birds, many reptiles exhibit temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) where the egg incubation temperature triggers sex determination. Here we examine the expression of SOX9 during gonadogenesis in the American alligator, (Alligator mississippiensis), a reptile that exhibits TSD. Alligator SOX9 is expressed in the embryonic testis but not in the ovary. However, the timing of SOX9 upregulation in the developing testis is not consistent with a role for this gene in the early stages of alligator sex determination. Since SOX9 upregulation in male embryos coincides with the structural organisation of the testis, SOX9 may operate farther downstream in the vertebrate sex differentiation pathway than previously postulated. PMID:10090144
O. S. Aleksandrov; M. G. Divashuk; G. I. Karlov
Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc.) is a dioecious plant and a suitable model for studying the XX\\/XY1Y2 system of sex chromosomes. To develop a sex-specific marker, 12 RAPD and 36 ISSR markers were analyzed on the basis of pools\\u000a of male and female plants identified after flowering. We were the first to identify ISSR marker K-16, which manifested
Kristina M. Zosuls; Cindy Faith Miller; Diane N. Ruble; Carol Lynn Martin; Richard A. Fabes
The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research\\u000a in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th\\u000a anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions
Ediati, Annastasia; Juniarto, Achmad Zulfa; Birnie, Erwin; Drop, Stenvert L S; Faradz, Sultana M H; Dessens, Arianne B
In most Western countries, clinical management of disorders of sex development (DSD), including ambiguous genitalia, begins at diagnosis soon after birth. For many Indonesian patients born with ambiguous genitalia, limited medical treatment is available. Consequently, affected individuals are raised with ambiguous genitalia and atypical secondary sex characteristics. We investigated gender identity and gender role behavior in 118 Indonesian subjects (77 males, 41 females) with different types of DSD in comparison with 118 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and residential setting (rural, suburban, or urban). In Study 1, we report on methodological aspects of the investigation, including scale adaptation, pilot testing, and determining reliability and validity of measures. In Study 2, we report on gender development in 60 children (42 boys, 18 girls), 24 adolescents (15 boys, 9 girls), and 34 adults (19 men, 15 women) with DSD. The majority of participants with DSD never received any medical or surgical treatment prior to this study. We observed a gender change in all age groups, with the greatest incidence in adults. Among patients who changed, most changed from female to male, possessed a 46,XY karyotype, and had experienced significant masculinization during life. Gender identity confusion and cross-gender behavior was more frequently observed in children with DSD raised as girls compared to boys. Puberty and associated masculinization were related to gender problems in individuals with 46,XY DSD raised female. An integrated clinical and psychological follow-up on gender outcome is necessary prior to puberty and adulthood. PMID:25813609
Hasan, Md Zobaer; Ikawati, Muthi; Tocharus, Jiraporn; Kawaichi, Masashi; Oka, Chio
Abnormal levels of High temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) protein have been repeatedly observed in sera and placentas of preeclampsia patients. To understand the functions of HtrA1 in placentation and in the etiology of preeclampsia, we established HtrA1(-/-) mice. HtrA1(-/-) mice show intrauterine growth retardation, and their placentas are small due to a reduced size of the junctional zone and aberrant vascularization in the labyrinth at the mid-gestation stage. HtrA1 is expressed by Tpbpa-positive trophoblast precursors in the outer ectoplacental cone and junctional zone from embryonic day 7.5 to 10.5. In the HtrA1(-/-) placenta, Tpbpa-positive cell precursors are decreased in the early stage. Spongiotrophoblasts and glycogen trophoblast cells, both of which differentiate from Tpbpa-positive precursors, are consequently decreased in the junctional zone. Fewer spiral artery-associated trophoblast giant cells, another cell type derived from Tpbpa-positive precursors, invade the decidua and associate with maternal arteries in the HtrA1(-/-) placenta than in the wild type placenta. Maternal arteries in the HtrA1(-/-) decidua have narrower lumens, thicker arterial walls, and more vascular smooth muscle cells remaining in the walls than those in the wild type decidua, indicating impaired remodeling of maternal arteries. These results indicate that HtrA1 plays important roles in the differentiation of trophoblasts from Tpbpa-positive precursors in the ectoplacental cone. Insufficient levels of HtrA1 cause poor placental development and intrauterine growth retardation, due to aberrant trophoblast differentiation and consequent defects in maternal artery remodeling, and may contribute to the onset of preeclampsia. PMID:25446274
Katherine G Akers; Steven A Kushner; Ana T Leslie; Laura Clarke; Derek van der Kooy; Jason P Lerch; Paul W Frankland
Background Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral\\u000a disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities\\u000a and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high\\u000a resolution MRI to
Laino, Luigi; Majore, Silvia; Preziosi, Nicoletta; Grammatico, Barbara; De Bernardo, Carmelilia; Scommegna, Salvatore; Rapone, Anna Maria; Marrocco, Giacinto; Bottillo, Irene; Grammatico, Paola
Sex development is a process under genetic control directing both the bi-potential gonads to become either a testis or an ovary, and the consequent differentiation of internal ducts and external genitalia. This complex series of events can be altered by a large number of genetic and non-genetic factors. Disorders of sex development (DSD) are all the medical conditions characterized by an atypical chromosomal, gonadal, or phenotypical sex. Incomplete knowledge of the genetic mechanisms involved in sex development results in a low probability of determining the molecular definition of the genetic defect in many of the patients. In this study, we describe the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular study of 88 cases with DSD, including 29 patients with 46,XY and disorders in androgen synthesis or action, 18 with 46,XX and disorders in androgen excess, 17 with 46,XY and disorders of gonadal (testicular) development, 11 classified as 46,XX other, eight with 46,XX and disorders of gonadal (ovarian) development, and five with sex chromosome anomalies. In total, we found a genetic variant in 56 out of 88 of them, leading to the clinical classification of every patient, and we outline the different steps required for a coherent genetic testing approach. In conclusion, our results highlight the fact that each category of DSD is related to a large number of different DNA alterations, thus requiring multiple genetic studies to achieve a precise etiological diagnosis for each patient. PMID:25248670
Johanna Bartling; Anja Kotzerke; Maike Mai; Jürgen Esperschütz; Franz Buegger; Michael Schloter; Berndt-Michael Wilke
Soil respiration measurements are an established method to test the abundance, activity and vitality of the soil microorganisms. However, abnormal progressions of soil respiration curves impede a clear interpretation of the data. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the microbial structure during the formation of phenomena like double peaks and terraces by analysis of the
Moya, J.L.; Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.
Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: (1) a purely regulatory approach, or (2) by a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches.
Greeley, Ann T.; Tinsley, Howard E. A.
Examined extent to which developmental theories of Erikson, Chickering, and Gilligan explain sex differences in autonomy and intimacy development in college students. Results from 441 college students suggest that both Gilligan's and Chickering's theories contribute to understanding of autonomy and intimacy development. Intimacy was strongest…
Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) mediates the development of sex-specific brain morphology March 1, 2000) Steroid hormone action during brain development exerts profound effects on reproductive physiology and behavior that last into adulthood. A variety of in vitro studies indicate that steroid
Sheri L. Bonar; Susannah D. Brydges; James L. Mueller; Matthew D. McGeough; Carla Pena; Debbie Chen; Susan K. Grimston; Cynthia L. Hickman-Brecks; Soumya Ravindran; Audrey McAlinden; Deborah V. Novack; Daniel L. Kastner; Roberto Civitelli; Hal M. Hoffman; Gabriel Mbalaviele
The NLRP3 inflammasome complex is responsible for maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1?. Mutations in NLRP3 are responsible for the cryopyrinopathies, a spectrum of conditions including neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). While excessive production of IL-1? and systemic inflammation are common to all cryopyrinopathy disorders, skeletal abnormalities, prominently in the knees, and low bone mass are unique features of patients
Picard, Christine J; Deblois, Kimberley; Tovar, Felicia; Bradley, Jessica L; Johnston, J Spencer; Tarone, Aaron M
Forensic entomologists typically use either succession models for postmortem interval (PMI) estimates or development-based models for minimum PMI (PMI(MIN) estimates. Development-based age estimates are calculated with durations of immature stadia and can also include morphological data such as larval size. For developmental data, the first and second instar stages are typically brief with little variation in larval length. The third instar, a much longer stage by comparison, is prone to considerable variation. This variation is, in part, because of the nonlinear growth during the third instar. There is evidence that genetic and environmental factors influence growth curve divergence during this stage. We chose to investigate one genetic factor, sex, as numerous insect species exhibit sex-specific immature growth patterns. The development rate of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) males and females is considered here. We previously determined the genome sizes of L. sericata and found significant sexually dimorphic genome sizes. This difference can be exploited to identify larval sex to evaluate male and female immature growth curves. A preliminary development study encompassing the third larval instar was conducted to compare larval lengths for each sex. Results showed length (P < 0.0001) and sex (P < 0.01) were statistically significant predictors of age at two temperatures (30 and 33.5 degrees C), and that total male development was significantly shorter (P < 0.001). These results introduce a new tool, assessment of sex-specific growth, that has the potential to reduce noise in PMI(MIN) estimates when using third instar larvae. PMID:23540132
Kathleen Caslow (Episcopal High School)
This lesson is an inquiry based activity for high school students that allows for hands-on exploration of sea urchin development and the environmental parameters that best suit this process. The students will research the sea urchin, its habitat, and the ideal living and mating conditions for this organism. The lesson lends itself to the study of the effects of pollution on sea urchin development. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to explain the ideal conditions for fertilization and development and the importnace of these conditions and compare and contrast sea urchin development and human development. Students should have some knowledge of cell structure and function, cell division, reproduction, and development. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.
Marcia L. Collaer; Melissa Hines
Evidence that gonadal hormones during prenatal and neonatal development influence behavior is reviewed. Several theoretical models of hormonal influences, derived from research in other species, are described. These models are evaluated on the basis of data from humans with either normal or abnormal hormonal exposure. It is concluded that the evidence is insufficient to determine which model best explains the
Lifton, P D
Individual differences in moral development are examined, with a particular emphasis on sex and gender differences. This examination includes an extensive review of the empirical and theoretical literature in psychology on morality. Based on this review, it is concluded that sex differences occur with less frequency and with a less systematic favoring of males than is predicted by several theories of moral development. In addition, a study is presented which considers the relation of sex, gender, and personality to morality. Two age cohort samples, college sophomores (n = 169) and adults (n = 151), were assessed with the moral judgment scale of the cognitive-developmental model (Kohlberg, 1984) and a newly developed moral character template of the personological model (Lifton, in press). Participants also completed the CPI and MMPI personality inventories. Results of the study indicate (1) the absence of sex differences for either model, (2) the presence of gender differences favoring masculine persons for the cognitive-developmental but not personological model, and (3) that individual differences in moral development parallel individual differences in personality development. The implications of these findings are discussed with regard to Gilligan's (1982) claim that men and women differ in their moral orientations. Finally, it is argued that an individual difference approach, particularly one that emphasizes personality, would prove useful for future research on moral development. PMID:4045680
Orzack, Steven Hecht; Stubblefield, J. William; Akmaev, Viatcheslav R.; Colls, Pere; Munné, Santiago; Scholl, Thomas; Steinsaltz, David; Zuckerman, James E.
We describe the trajectory of the human sex ratio from conception to birth by analyzing data from (i) 3- to 6-d-old embryos, (ii) induced abortions, (iii) chorionic villus sampling, (iv) amniocentesis, and (v) fetal deaths and live births. Our dataset is the most comprehensive and largest ever assembled to estimate the sex ratio at conception and the sex ratio trajectory and is the first, to our knowledge, to include all of these types of data. Our estimate of the sex ratio at conception is 0.5 (proportion male), which contradicts the common claim that the sex ratio at conception is male-biased. The sex ratio among abnormal embryos is male-biased, and the sex ratio among normal embryos is female-biased. These biases are associated with the abnormal/normal state of the sex chromosomes and of chromosomes 15 and 17. The sex ratio may decrease in the first week or so after conception (due to excess male mortality); it then increases for at least 10–15 wk (due to excess female mortality), levels off after ?20 wk, and declines slowly from 28 to 35 wk (due to excess male mortality). Total female mortality during pregnancy exceeds total male mortality. The unbiased sex ratio at conception, the increase in the sex ratio during the first trimester, and total mortality during pregnancy being greater for females are fundamental insights into early human development. PMID:25825766
Orzack, Steven Hecht; Stubblefield, J William; Akmaev, Viatcheslav R; Colls, Pere; Munné, Santiago; Scholl, Thomas; Steinsaltz, David; Zuckerman, James E
We describe the trajectory of the human sex ratio from conception to birth by analyzing data from (i) 3- to 6-d-old embryos, (ii) induced abortions, (iii) chorionic villus sampling, (iv) amniocentesis, and (v) fetal deaths and live births. Our dataset is the most comprehensive and largest ever assembled to estimate the sex ratio at conception and the sex ratio trajectory and is the first, to our knowledge, to include all of these types of data. Our estimate of the sex ratio at conception is 0.5 (proportion male), which contradicts the common claim that the sex ratio at conception is male-biased. The sex ratio among abnormal embryos is male-biased, and the sex ratio among normal embryos is female-biased. These biases are associated with the abnormal/normal state of the sex chromosomes and of chromosomes 15 and 17. The sex ratio may decrease in the first week or so after conception (due to excess male mortality); it then increases for at least 10-15 wk (due to excess female mortality), levels off after ?20 wk, and declines slowly from 28 to 35 wk (due to excess male mortality). Total female mortality during pregnancy exceeds total male mortality. The unbiased sex ratio at conception, the increase in the sex ratio during the first trimester, and total mortality during pregnancy being greater for females are fundamental insights into early human development. PMID:25825766
Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). Severe illness or surgery may cause horizontal depressions ...
Kijimoto, Teiya; Moczek, Armin P.; Andrews, Justen
Sex-specific trait expression is frequently associated with highly variable, condition-dependent expression within sexes and rapid divergence among closely related species. Horned beetles are an excellent example for studying the molecular basis of these phenomena because horn morphology varies markedly among species, between sexes, and among alternative, nutritionally-cued morphs within sexes. In addition, horns lack obvious homology to other insect traits and provide a good opportunity to explore the molecular basis of the rapid diversification of a novel trait within and between species. Here we show that the sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) underlies important aspects of horn development, including differences between sexes, morphs, and species. In male Onthophagus taurus, dsx transcripts were preferentially expressed in the horns of the large, horned morph, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of dsx dramatically altered male horn allometry by massively reducing horn development in large males, but not in smaller males. Conversely, dsx RNAi induced ectopic, nutrition-sensitive horn development in otherwise hornless females. Finally, in a closely related species (Onthophagus sagittarius) that has recently evolved a rare reversed sexual dimorphism, dsx RNAi revealed reversed as well as novel dsx functions despite an overall conservation of dsx expression. This suggests that rapid evolution of dsx functions has facilitated the transition from a regular sexual dimorphism to a reversed sexual dimorphism in this species. Our findings add beetle horns to existing examples of a close relationship between dsx and sexual trait development, and suggest that dsx function has been coopted to facilitate both the evolution of environmentally-cued intrasexual dimorphisms and rapid species divergences in a novel trait. PMID:23184999
Gripka, Abbey Alyssa Campbell
theories describe a complex development of castration anxiety for boys and penis envy for girls after a shocking awareness of genital differences between sexes which eventually leads to identification with their same-sex parent (Freud, 1949). Social.... Enculturated Lens Theory Numerous theories have been proposed to explain the development and socialization of sex roles within cultures (Bandura, 1989; Freud, 1949; Kohlberg, 1966; Mischel, 1970). Each theory describes a slightly different perspective...
Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.
Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed test results, we developed a software prototype to account for technical, usability, organizational, and workflow needs. Our evaluation has shown the feasibility of the prototype as a means of facilitating better follow-up for cancer-related abnormal test results. PMID:24155789
Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy
Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes. PMID:24056158
Wilkinson, Gerald S; Johns, Philip M; Metheny, Jackie D; Baker, Richard H
Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae) are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and related sexually monomorphic species could confirm this interpretation. PMID:23527273
Robeck, Todd R; Montano, G A; Steinman, K J; Smolensky, P; Sweeney, J; Osborn, S; O'Brien, J K
Since its development in bottlenose dolphins, widespread application of AI with sex-selected, frozen-thawed (FT) spermatozoa has been limited by the significant expense of the sorting process. Reducing the total number of progressively motile sperm (PMS) required for an AI would reduce the sorting cost. As such, this research compared the efficacy of small-dose deep uterine AI with sexed FT spermatozoa (SEXED-SMALL; ~50×10(6)PMS, n=20), to a moderate dose deposited mid-horn (SEXED-STD, ~200×10(6)PMS; n=20), and a large dose of FT non-sexed spermatozoa deposited in the uterine body (NONSEXED-LARGE, 660×10(6)PMS, n=9). Ten of the 11 calves resulting from use of sexed spermatozoa were of the predetermined sex. Similar rates of conception (NONSEXED-LARGE: 78%, SEXED-STD: 60%, SEXED-SMALL: 57%) and total pregnancy loss (TPL: NONSEXED-LARGE: 28.6%; SEXED-STD: 41.0%; SEXED-SMALL: 63.6%) were observed across groups, but early pregnancy loss (EPL,
Birger Scholz; Kim Kultima; Anna Mattsson; Jeanette Axelsson; Björn Brunström; Krister Halldin; Michael Stigson; Lennart Dencker
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of the brain during development leads to sexually dimorphic adult reproductive behavior and other neural sex dimorphisms. Genetic mechanisms independent of steroid hormones produced by the gonads have recently been suggested to partly explain these dimorphisms. RESULTS: Using cDNA microarrays and real-time PCR we found gene expression differences between the male and female embryonic brain (or whole head)
Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran
Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…
Busch, Judith W.; Schau, Candace Garrett
This is the final report of a project that studied sex role stereotyping behavior among children in four preschools in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and attempted to intervene in the development of such stereotyping. The three phases of the study, which included contacting the schools, data collection and analysis, and information dissemination, are…
This longitudinal study examines 92 white middle-class participants' descriptions of their friendship networks from childhood to late adolescence, and their romantic relationships from middle to late adolescence. As expected, having larger other-sex friendship networks in early adolescence is related to the development of affiliative qualities in romantic relationships in middle adolescence and the maintenance of longer relationships in middle and
Stevenson, Michael R.; Black, Kathryn N.
This paper reports the results of meta-analysis of the literature addressing the effects of father-absence on both male and female sex-role development. Considering both published and unpublished papers, the analysis involved 33 studies of males and 16 studies of females which become available between 1958 and 1982 and which studied father-absence…
Stevenson, Michael R.
Current thought about the effects of single-parenting on children's sex-role development has supported (1) the traditional view that being raised in a single-parent home is deleterious to the well-being of children; (2) the conditional view noting that differences exist between children in father-absent and father-present homes (but only in…
, 2000; Carroll, 2004). In vertebrate immune systems, there is often a clear difference in the selectiveIncubation Environment Affects Immune System Development in a Turtle with Environmental Sex immune system is likely to be important for survival in the wild, because it is nonspecific
2011 ODU Game Development Summer Camp Registration Form M F Child's Name Date of Birth Sex Parent is authorized to pick up your child at the end of the day? (Those picking up the child will be required to come into the VMASC building, with a valid I.D., to sign out the child.) The summer camp will provide lunch. However
Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N
Variation in the number of sex chromosomes is a relatively common genetic condition, affecting as many as 1/400 individuals. The sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are associated with characteristic behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, although the degree to which specific individuals are affected can fall within a wide range. Understanding the effects of different dosages of sex chromosome genes on brain development may help to understand the basis for functional differences in affected individuals. It may also be informative regarding how sex chromosomes contribute to typical sexual differentiation. Studies of 47,XXY males make up the bulk of the current literature of neuroimaging studies in individuals with supernumerary sex chromosomes, with a few small studies or case reports of the other SCAs. Findings in 47,XXY males typically include decreased gray and white matter volumes, with most pronounced effects in the frontal and temporal lobes. Functional studies have shown evidence of decreased lateralization. Although the hypogonadism typically found in 47,XXY males may contribute to the decreased brain volume, the observation that 47,XXX females also show decreased brain volume in the presence of normal pubertal maturation suggests a possible direct dosage effect of X chromosome genes. Additional X chromosomes, such as in 49,XXXXY males, are associated with more markedly decreased brain volume and increased incidence of white matter hyperintensities. The limited data regarding effects of having two Y chromosomes (47,XYY) do not find significant differences in brain volume, although there are some reports of increased head size. PMID:20014372
SYLVAIN C. BOIES; GAIL KNUDSON; JULIAN YOUNG
This article summarizes the research to date on youths' online sexual activities pertaining to socialization, education, and entertainment. It presents how these activities relate to the overall sexuality and mental health of adolescents and young adults, while situating the findings within a perspective of psychosocial and sexual development. It also provides information relevant to the prevention and treatment of problematic
Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A
The birth of a baby with malformations of the genitalia urges medical action. Even in cases where the condition is not life-threatening, the identification of the external genitalia as male or female is emotionally essential for the family, and genital malformations represent one of the most stressful situations around a newborn. The female or male configuration of the genitalia normally evolves during fetal life according to the genetic, gonadal, and hormonal sex. Disorders of sex development occur when male hormone (androgens and anti-Müllerian hormone) secretion or action is insufficient in the 46,XY fetus or when there is an androgen excess in the 46,XX fetus. However, sex hormone defects during fetal development cannot explain all congenital malformations of the reproductive tract. This review is focused on those congenital conditions in which gonadal function and sex hormone target organ sensitivity are normal and, therefore, not responsible for the genital malformation. Furthermore, because the reproductive and urinary systems share many common pathways in embryo-fetal development, conditions associating urogenital malformations are discussed. PMID:25472912
Cok, Figen; Gray, Lizbeth Ann
Previous research has documented a need for the development of a sex education programme in Turkish schools in terms of adolescence readiness and the presence of misconceptions regarding critical aspects of sexual issues. Currently no school-based sex education is available for Turkish adolescents. This paper presents the development of a…
M. Isabel Fernández; Robin J. Jacobs; Jacob C. Warren; Jesus Sanchez; G. Stephen Bowen
Despite continued high HIV risk among Hispanic men who have sex with men (HMSM), culturally tailored, theoretically based interventions have yet to be developed and tested. As a first step toward intervention development, we collected quantitative and qualitative data on sociocultural and psycho- logical factors associated with drug use and risky sex among 566 HMSM recruited from community and Internet
Schaafsma, Dilana; Stoffelen, Joke M. T.; Kok, Gerjo; Curfs, Leopold M. G.
Background: People with intellectual disabilities face barriers that affect their sexual health. Sex education programmes have been developed by professionals working in the field of intellectual disabilities with the aim to overcome these barriers. The aim of this study was to explore the development of these programmes. Methods: Sex education…
Rona Carter; Wendy K. Silverman; James Jaccard
This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9–13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development
I. A. Stewart-Scott
Chromosomal abnormalities have been detected in five mares identified by their poor reproductive performance. All had small gonads and absent or irregular oestrous cycles. One mare was 65, XXX, two were 64, XY sex-reversal females and two were sex chromosome mosaics with karyotypes of 63, XO\\/64, XX\\/64, XY and 63, XO\\/64, XX respectively. This report supports the suggestion made in
Arboleda, VA; Lee, H; Sánchez, FJ; Délot, EC; Sandberg, DE; Grody, WW; Nelson, SF; Vilain, E
Disorders of sex development (DSD) are rare disorders in which there is discordance between chromosomal, gonadal, and phenotypic sex. Only a minority of patients clinically diagnosed with DSD obtains a molecular diagnosis, leaving a large gap in our understanding of the prevalence, management, and outcomes in affected patients. We created a novel DSD-genetic diagnostic tool, in which sex development genes are captured using RNA probes and undergo massively parallel sequencing. In the pilot group of 14 patients, we determined sex chromosome dosage, copy number variation, and gene mutations. In the patients with a known genetic diagnosis (obtained either on a clinical or research basis), this test identified the molecular cause in 100% (7/7) of patients. In patients in whom no molecular diagnosis had been made, this tool identified a genetic diagnosis in two of seven patients. Targeted sequencing of genes representing a specific spectrum of disorders can result in a higher rate of genetic diagnoses than current diagnostic approaches. Our DSD diagnostic tool provides for first time, in a single blood test, a comprehensive genetic diagnosis in patients presenting with a wide range of urogenital anomalies. PMID:22435390
Salazar, Laura F; Stephenson, Robert B; Sullivan, Patrick S; Tarver, Russell
The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of several scales that measure dyadic constructs derived from an integrated model of interdependence theory and communal coping perspectives. The scales are specific to HIV risk and men who have sex with men who are in an intimate relationship. These scales are newly developed measures of perceived severity of HIV, preferences for sexual health outcomes, outcome and couple efficacy to avoid HIV, and communal coping strategies. Scale items were created based on theoretical definitions and results from six focus groups with men who have sex with men. Face and content validity of the scales were assessed with a panel of six experts in the field of HIV prevention. Revised scales were subsequently administered to an online sample of 638 men who have sex with men, who indicated being in a relationship for at least three months. All scales showed adequate reliability, and evidence for construct validity was obtained for all scales, except for perceived severity of HIV. The results indicate that these dyadic scales are psychometrically sound and can be used in future HIV prevention research and practice with men who have sex with men couples. PMID:22206480
R. Langevin; M. H. Ben-Aron; P. Wright; V. Marchese; L. Handy
Thirteen sex killers were compared to 13 nonsex killers and 13 nonhomicidal sexually aggressive men on sexual history, substance abuse, history of violence, mental illness and personality, brain pathology and endocrine abnormalities. There were more similarities among the three groups than differences. Among the findings, the presence of transvestism and the early appearance of sadism differentiated the sex killers from
Ren, Mingqiang; Qin, Haiyan; Ren, Ruizhe; Cowell, John K.
Myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities are characterized by constitutive activated FGFR1 kinase and rapid transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Molecular targeted therapies have not been widely used for SCLL. Ponatinib (AP24534), that potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL, also targets the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. Using murine BaF3 cells stably transformed with six different FGFR1 fusion genes, as well as human KG1 cells expressing activated chimeric FGFR1 and five newly established murine SCLL cell lines, we show that Ponatinib (< 50 nM) can effectively inhibit phosphoactivation of the fusion kinases and their downstream effectors, such as PLC?, Stat5 and Src. Ponatinib also significantly extended survival of mice transplanted with different SCLL cell lines. Ponatinib administered at 30 mg/kg daily also significantly delayed, or even prevented, tumorigenesis of KG1 cells in xenotransplanted mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ponatinib specifically inhibits cell growth and clonogenicity of normal human CD34+ progenitor cells transformed by chimeric FGFR1 fusion kinases. Overall, our data provide convincing evidence to suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR1 fusion kinases with Ponatinib is likely to be beneficial for patients with SCLL and perhaps for other human disorders associated with dysregulated FGFR1 activity. PMID:22781593
Tønnessen, Espen; Svendsen, Ida Siobhan; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Guttormsen, Atle; Haugen, Thomas
Introduction Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex. Methods The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete. Results Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events) or 14 (for jumping events) and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation. PMID:26043192
Pooh, Ritsuko K; Kurjak, Asim
Advanced transvaginal neurosonography has revealed normal and abnormal intracranial morphology. Transvaginal three-dimensional (3D) sonography demonstrates bony structure, multiplanar analysis of inside detailed morphology, tomographic ultrasound imaging in any cutting sections, 3D sonoangiography and volume calculation of ventricles and/or intracranial lesions. Longitudinal assessment of normal and abnormal central nervous system (CNS) development is done by serial scanning. However, the transvaginal high-frequency approach has several limitations due to lack of penetration and cranial bone ossification with advanced gestational age. Magnetic resonance neuroimaging enabled observation of the whole intracranial cavity, brainstem and cortical gyral/sulcal development. On the other hand, neuro-sonography has advantages in detecting intracranial calcification, vascular abnormalities, intratumoral vascularity and bone dysplasia. Moreover, 3D ultrasound demonstrates extra CNS abnormalities, strongly associated with CNS abnormalities. Any less-invasive modalities can be used for a CNS anomaly screening scan and ultrasound is no doubt the first choice. Once CNS abnormality is suspected, it is suggested to use the different technologies according to what is looked for in each abnormal CNS case. Of course, MR and 3D ultrasound imaging should be complementary as well as alternative. PMID:20979445
Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong
This study examined the nature of cognitive and behavioral sex differences in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and two comparison groups: a group of typically developing (TD) children and a group of unaffected siblings of ASD children. Sex differences in core autistic symptoms, co-occurring behavioral symptoms, and cognitive styles…
Perry, Louise C.; Morgan, Amy K.
To explore early sex-role development, this study examined the gender schemas of parents in relation to the sex-typed toy preferences of their own young children. Subjects were 82 parents of children between the ages of 3 and 8. Test stimuli consisted of 2 equivalent lists of 24 occupations, each list containing 8 occupations coded as typically…
KOHLBERG, LAWRENCE; ZIGLER, EDWARD
A SERIES OF STUDIES WAS CONDUCTED TO CLARIFY THE ROLE OF INTELLIGENCE IN PERSONALITY ORGANIZATION AND TO ASSESS A COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL INTERPRETATION OF IQ-PERSONALITY CORRELATIONS. THE SPECIFIC FOCUS OF THE STUDY WAS THE RELATIONSHIP OF INTELLECTUAL MATURITY TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEX-ROLE ATTITUDES. AGE-DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN SEX-ROLE…
Millen, K J; Wurst, W; Herrup, K; Joyner, A L
The cerebellum is an ideal system to study pattern formation in the central nervous system because of its simple cytoarchitecture and regular organization of folds and neural circuitry. Engrailed-2 (En-2) is expressed in a spatially restricted broad band around the mesencephalic-metencephalic junction, a region from which the cerebellum is derived. Mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the En-2 homeobox, En-2hd, previously have been shown to have an altered adult cerebellar foliation pattern. To address whether the En-2hd allele was hypomorphic, we generated a putative null mutation that makes an N-terminal deletion (ntd). Mice homozygous for this new mutation, En-2ntd, display an identical cerebellar patterning defect, suggesting that both alleles represent null alleles. We also examined the developmental profile of En-2 homozygous mutant cerebellar foliation. This revealed a complex phenotype of general developmental delay and abnormal formation of specific fissures with the most severe morphological disruptions being limited to the posterior region of the cerebellum. The expression of two transgenes, which express lacZ in lobe-specific patterns in the cerebellum, also was found to be altered in En-2 homozygotes, suggesting possible lobe transformations. Finally, during embryogenesis there was a clear delay in fusion of the cerebellar rudiments at the midline by 15.5 d.p.c. This and the expression pattern of En-2 suggests that although cerebellar foliation is largely a postnatal process, the patterning of the cerebellum may begin during embryogenesis and that En-2 plays a critical role in this early process. PMID:7909289
Wu, Di; Mandal, Shyamali; Choi, Alex; Anderson, August; Prochazkova, Michaela; Perry, Hazel; Gil-Da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L; Lao, Richard; Wan, Eunice; Tang, Paul Ling-Fung; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Klein, Ophir; Zhuan, Bian; Slavotinek, Anne M
Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are common structural birth defects in humans. We used exome sequencing to study a patient with bilateral CL/P and identified a single nucleotide deletion in the patient and her similarly affected son-c.546_546delG, predicting p.Gln183Argfs*57 in the Distal-less 4 (DLX4) gene. The sequence variant was absent from databases, predicted to be deleterious and was verified by Sanger sequencing. In mammals, there are three Dlx homeobox clusters with closely located gene pairs (Dlx1/Dlx2, Dlx3/Dlx4, Dlx5/Dlx6). In situ hybridization showed that Dlx4 was expressed in the mesenchyme of the murine palatal shelves at E12.5, prior to palate closure. Wild-type human DLX4, but not mutant DLX4_c.546delG, could activate two murine Dlx conserved regulatory elements, implying that the mutation caused haploinsufficiency. We showed that reduced DLX4 expression after short interfering RNA treatment in a human cell line resulted in significant up-regulation of DLX3, DLX5 and DLX6, with reduced expression of DLX2 and significant up-regulation of BMP4, although the increased BMP4 expression was demonstrated only in HeLa cells. We used antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to target the orthologous Danio rerio gene, dlx4b, and found reduced cranial size and abnormal cartilaginous elements. We sequenced DLX4 in 155 patients with non-syndromic CL/P and CP, but observed no sequence variants. From the published literature, Dlx1/Dlx2 double homozygous null mice and Dlx5 homozygous null mice both have clefts of the secondary palate. This first finding of a DLX4 mutation in a family with CL/P establishes DLX4 as a potential cause of human clefts. PMID:25954033
Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.
Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.
Watson, C M; Johnston, P G; Rodger, K A; McKenzie, L M; O'Neill, R J; Cooper, D W
An intersexual agile wallaby (Macropus agilis) with a penis, a pouch and four teats had a sex-chromosome constitution of XXY in lymphocytes and cultured fibroblasts; the sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene was present, consistent with the presence of a testis. An intersexual eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) with a small empty scrotum and no penis, and an abnormal red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with no penis, pouch or teats, both had XX sex-chromosome complements; the SRY gene was not present, consistent with testis absence. The agile wallaby and grey kangaroo described here provide further evidence that scrotal development in marsupials is independent of the Y chromosome. The cause of the abnormalities in the XX individuals cannot be determined until candidate genes are identified. These animals provide a basis for further genetic studies into marsupial intersexuality and sex differentiation. PMID:9208434
Wojniusz, Slawomir; Ropstad, Erik; Evans, Neil; Robinson, Jane; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold
Prenatal exposure to androgens has been shown to modulate brain development, resulting in changed behavioral attitudes, sexual orientation and cognitive functions, including processing of spatial information. Whether later changes in gonadotropic hormones during puberty induce further organizational effects within the brain is still insufficiently understood. The purpose of this study was to assess development of spatial orientation before and after the time of normal pubertal development, in an ovine model where half of the animals did not undergo typical reproductive maturation due to the pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) signaling. The study formed part of a larger trial and utilized 46 pairs of same sex Scottish Mule Texel Cross twins (22 female and 24 male). One twin remained untreated throughout (control) while the other received a subcutaneous GnRH agonist (GnRHa: Goserelin-Acetate) implant every fourth week. GnRHa treatment began at eight and 28 weeks of age, in males and females respectively, because the timing of the pubertal transition is sexually differentiated in sheep as it is in humans. Spatial orientation was assessed at three different time points: eight weeks of age, before puberty and treatment in both sexes; 28 weeks of age, after 20 weeks GnRHa treatment in males and before puberty and GnRHa treatment in females; and at 48 weeks of age, which is after the normal time of the pubertal transition in both sexes. Spatial orientation was tested in a spatial maze with traverse time as the main outcome measure. GnRHa treatment did not affect spatial maze performance as no significant differences in traverse time between treated and untreated animals were observed at any time-point. Adolescent females (48 weeks of age) traversed the maze significantly faster than adolescent males, whereas no sex differences in traverse time were seen at earlier developmental stages (eight and 28 weeks). Development of sex differences in spatial orientation was independent of exposure to pubertal hormones since puberty-blocked and control animals both showed the same pattern of spatial maze performance. This result demonstrates the prenatal nature of spatial orientation development. Furthermore, the unexpected finding that female animals outperformed males in the spatial orientation task, underscores the importance of the testing context in spatial orientation experiments. PMID:23477973
Clark, Peggy Love
's sex-role and personality development but for the girl' s as well (e. g. , Lynn, 1974). The present study is an investigation of single parent families with the father as the primary caretaker. The research design includes subjects from intact (two... Draw-a- I'erson te t) on the sex-role preference (using a feminini ty que tionnaire) oF adolescent. girls. Iiiureover, when co!!, pared with 10 fa't iar pi c oil'L g! i 1 s, no s i()il I I ! c&lll t &3 i't I c! &'ences oil ti'acli t i co a! moat...
DeSouza, Kristin R.; Saha, Monalee; Carpenter, Ashley R.; Scott, Melissa; McHugh, Kirk M.
In this study, we examined the expression of Sonic Hedgehog, Patched, Gli1, Gli2, Gli3 and Myocardin in the developing bladders of male and female normal and megabladder (mgb?/?) mutant mice at embryonic days 12 through 16 by in situ hybridization. This analysis indicated that each member of the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway as well as Myocardin displayed distinct temporal and spatial patterns of expression during normal bladder development. In contrast, mgb?/? bladders showed both temporal and spatial changes in the expression of Patched, Gli1 and Gli3 as well as a complete lack of Myocardin expression. These changes occurred primarily in the outer mesenchyme of developing mgb?/? bladders consistent with the development of an amuscular bladder phenotype in these animals. These results provide the first comprehensive analysis of the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway during normal bladder development and provide strong evidence that this key signaling cascade is critical in establishing radial patterning in the developing bladder. In addition, the lack of detrusor smooth muscle development observed in mgb?/? mice is associated with bladder-specific temporospatial changes in Sonic Hedgehog signaling coupled with a lack of Myocardin expression that appears to result in altered patterning of the outer mesenchyme and poor initiation and differentiation of smooth muscle cells within this region of the developing bladder. PMID:23308271
Edelmann, Michelle; Wolfe, Cory; Scordalakes, Elka M.; Rissman, Emilie F.; Tobet, Stuart
Throughout the hypothalamus there are several regions known to contain sex differences in specific cellular, neurochemical, or cell grouping characteristics. The current study examined the potential origin of sex differences in calbindin expression in the preoptic area and hypothalamus as related to sources of nitric oxide. Specific cell populations were defined by immunoreactive (ir) calbindin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (POA/AH), anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv), and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN). The POA/AH of adult mice was characterized by a striking sex difference in the distribution of cells with ir-calbindin. Examination of the POA/AH of androgen receptor deficient Tfm mice suggests that this pattern was in part androgen receptor dependent, since Tfm males had reduced ir-calbindin compared with wild-type males and more similar to wild-type females. At P0 ir-calbindin was more prevalent than in adulthood, with males having significantly more ir-calbindin and nNOS than have females. Cells that contained either ir-calbindin or ir-nNOS in the POA/AH were in adjacent cell groups, suggesting that NO derived from the enzymatic activity of nNOS may influence the development of ir-calbindin cells. In the region of AVPv, at P0, there was a sex difference with males having more ir-nNOS fibers than have females while ir-calbindin was not detected. In the VMN, at P0, ir-nNOS was greater in females than in males, with no significant difference in ir-calbindin. We suggest that NO as an effector molecule and calbindin as a molecular biomarker illuminate key aspects of sexual differentiation in the developing mouse brain. PMID:17638388
Jeong, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Dong-Woon; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, In-Soo
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the abnormal prion protein isoform (PrP(res)) are indispensable for diagnosing chronic wasting disease (CWD). In this study, eight mAbs were developed by immunizing PrP knockout mice with recombinant elk PrP and an immunogenic PrP peptide. The reactivity of the mAbs to recombinant PrP and the PrP peptide was measured, and their isotypes were subsequently determined. Among them, four mAbs (B85-05, B85-08, B85-12, and B77-75) were shown by Western blotting to recognize proteinase K-treated brain homogenate derived from an elk suffering from CWD. PMID:23271186
Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T
Background We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). Synthesis We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. Conclusions We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. PMID:25441756
Hock, Alyson; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole; Bhatt, Ramesh S.
Sex is a significant social category, and adults derive information about it from both faces and bodies. Research indicates that young infants process sex category information in faces. However, no prior study has examined whether infants derive sex categories from bodies and match faces and bodies in terms of sex. In the current study,…
Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Hines, J.E.; Domenech, J.
We developed an extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber models to handle a complex mark-recapture problem in which (a) the sex of birds cannot be determined prior to first moult, but can be predicted on the basis of body measurements, and (b) a significant portion of captured birds appear to be transients (i.e. are captured once but leave the area or otherwise become 'untrappable'). We applied this methodology to a data set of 4184 serins (Serinus serinus) trapped in northeastern Spain during 1985-96, in order to investigate age-, sex-, and time-specific variation in survival rates. Using this approach, we were able to successfully incorporate the majority of ringings of serins. Had we eliminated birds not previously captured (as has been advocated to avoid the problem of transience) we would have reduced our sample sizes by >2000 releases. In addition, we were able to include 1610 releases of birds of unknown (but predicted) sex; these data contributed to the precision of our estimates and the power of statistical tests. We discuss problems with data structure, encoding of the algorithms to compute parameter estimates, model selection, identifiability of parameters, and goodness-of-fit, and make recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies facing similar problems.
Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Hines, J.E.; Domenech, J.
We developed an extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber models to handle a complex mark-recapture problem in which (a) the sex of birds cannot be determined prior to first moult, but can be predicted on the basis of body measurements, and (b) a significant portion of captured birds appear to be transients (i.e. are captured once but leave the area or otherwise become ' untrappable'). We applied this methodology to a data set of 4184 serins (Serinus serinus) trapped in northeastern Spain during 1985-96, in order to investigate age-, sex-, and time-specific variation in survival rates. Using this approach, we were able to successfully incorporate the majority of ringings of serins. Had we eliminated birds not previously captured (as has been advocated to avoid the problem of transience) we would have reduced our sample sizes by >2000 releases. In addition, we were able to include 1610 releases of birds of unknown (but predicted) sex; these data contributed to the precision of our estimates and the power of statistical tests. We discuss problems with data structure, encoding of the algorithms to compute parameter estimates, model selection, identifiability of parameters, and goodness-of-fit, and make recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies facing similar problems.
Coulter, David P; Höök, Tomas O; Mahapatra, Cecon T; Guffey, Samuel C; Sepúlveda, Maria S
Natural and human activities can result in both high temporal and spatial variability in water temperature. Rapid temperature changes have the potential to dramatically affect physiological processes in aquatic organisms and, due to their limited mobility, fish early life stages are particularly vulnerable to ambient temperature fluctuations. In this study, we examined how the magnitude and frequency of temperature fluctuations affect survival, growth, development, expression of thermoresponsive genes, and gonadal differentiation in fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas. We exposed individuals (0 to 4 days post fertilization) of known genotypic sex to fluctuations of ?4 °C over 12-h, ?8 °C over 12- and 24-h, and three stable temperatures (21, 25, and 29 °C) for up to 45 d. Expression of hsp70 in fish exposed to the highest-magnitude, highest-frequency fluctuating treatment cycled in concert with temperature and was upregulated initially during exposure, and may have contributed to temperature fluctuations having little effect on time to and size at hatching (whole-organism responses). This treatment also caused fish to undergo nondirectional sex reversal. These results indicate that hsp70 may be involved in mediating thermal stress from subdaily temperature fluctuations and that sex determination in fathead minnows can be influenced by cycling temperatures. PMID:25587805
Pollow, Dennis P; Uhrlaub, Jennifer; Romero-Aleshire, Melissa J; Sandberg, Kathryn; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Brooks, Heddwen L; Hay, Meredith
There is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (?22.1 mm Hg males versus ?18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (?37.7 mm : Hg; P<0.05) when compared with females (?13.7 mm : Hg). Flow cytometric analysis of total T cells and CD4(+), CD8(+), and regulatory Foxp3(+)-CD4(+) T-cell subsets identified that renal lymphocyte infiltration was significantly increased in males versus females in both control and Ang II-infused animals (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining for CD3(+)-positive T cells in the subfornical organ region of the brain was increased in males when compared with that in females. These results suggest that female Rag-1(-/-) mice are protected from male T-cell-mediated increases in Ang II-induced hypertension when compared with their male counterparts, and this protection may involve sex differences in the magnitude of T-cell infiltration of the kidney and brain. PMID:24890822
David Gur; Bin Zheng; Sreeram Dhurjaty; Gene Wolfe; Mary Fradin; Richard Weil; Jules Sumkin; Margarita Zuley
In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and
Dever, Jennifer A.
in flat, scaly surface cells that line the cervix (called squamous cell carcinomas). Approximately 10-15% of cases develop in glandular surface cells (called adenocarcinomas). Types of Cervical Cancer: Squamous Cell Carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Small Cell Carcinoma #12;11/12/12 2 B. Incidence & Prevelance n Cervical
Bulakhova, L A
The author presents the data of 4- to 25-year-long observation of a group of boys distinguished since the early age by a pronounced disproportionaity of the psychic development: an accelerated development of abstract-logical thinking with gross defects of sensuous perception, emotions, psychomotor functions, and adaptive behaviour as a whole. Despite the evolutional course of the state most of the patients appeared to be unable to independent social adaptation. The degree and structure of this disharmonic underdevelopment allow one to regard this pathology as a variant of nervous system dysontogenesis differing from, but bordering on such forms as Kanner's autism, Asperger's psychopathy, or mental retardation with partial giftedness. PMID:6177132
Meiling Lu; Elizabeth A. Grove; Richard J. Miller
We investigated the role of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor in development of the mouse hippocampus. CXCR4 mRNA is expressed at sites of neuronal and progenitor cell migration in the hippocampus at late embryonic and early postnatal ages. mRNA for stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), the only known ligand for the CXCR4 receptor, is expressed close to these migration sites, in
Akihira Ohtoshi; Richard R. Behringer
Dmbx1 encodes a paired-like homeodomain protein that is expressed in developing neural tissues during mouse embryogenesis. To elucidate the in vivo role of Dmbx1, we generated two Dmbx1 mutant alleles. Dmbx1 lacks the homeobox and Dmbx1z is an insertion of a lacZ reporter gene. Dmbx1z appears to be a faithful reporter of Dmbx1 expression during embryogenesis and after birth. Dmbx1-lacZ
Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; Rempala, Grzegorz; Kozlowski, David J.; Mumm, Jeff S.; Cowell, John K.
Epilepsy is a common disorder, typified by recurrent seizures with underlying neurological disorders or disease. Approximately one-third of patients are unresponsive to currently available therapies. Thus, a deeper understanding of the genetics and etiology of epilepsy is needed to advance the development of new therapies. Previously, treatment of zebrafish with epilepsy-inducing pharmacological agents was shown to result in a seizure-like phenotype, suggesting that fish provide a tractable model to understand the function of epilepsy-predisposing genes. Here, we report the first model of genetically linked epilepsy in zebrafish and provide an initial characterization of the behavioral and neurological phenotypes associated with morpholino (MO) knockdown of leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1a (lgi1a) expression. Mutations in the LGI1 gene in humans have been shown to predispose to a subtype of autosomal dominant epilepsy. Low-dose Lgi1a MO knockdown fish (morphants) appear morphologically normal but are sensitized to epilepsy-inducing drugs. High-dose Lgi1a morphants have morphological defects which persist into adult stages that are typified by smaller brains and eyes and abnormalities in tail shape, and display hyperactive swimming behaviors. Increased apoptosis was observed throughout the central nervous system of high-dose morphant fish, accounting for the size reduction of neural tissues. These observations demonstrate that zebrafish can be exploited to dissect the embryonic function(s) of genes known to predispose to seizure-like behavior in humans, and offer potential insight into the relationship between developmental neurobiological abnormalities and seizure. PMID:20819949
Webster, Ben; Hayes, William; Pike, Thomas W.
Avian chemical communication is a rapidly emerging field, but has been hampered by a critical lack of information on volatile chemicals that communicate ecologically relevant information (semiochemicals). A possible, but as yet unexplored, function of olfaction and chemical communication in birds is in parent-embryo and embryo-embryo communication. Communication between parents and developing embryos may act to mediate parental behaviour, while communication between embryos can control the synchronicity of hatching. Embryonic vocalisations and vibrations have been implicated as a means of communication during the later stages of development but in the early stages, before embryos are capable of independent movement and vocalisation, this is not possible. Here we show that volatiles emitted from developing eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) convey information on egg fertility, along with the sex and developmental status of the embryo. Specifically, egg volatiles changed over the course of incubation, differed between fertile and infertile eggs, and were predictive of embryo sex as early as day 1 of incubation. Egg odours therefore have the potential to facilitate parent-embryo and embryo-embryo interactions by allowing the assessment of key measures of embryonic development long before this is possible through other modalities. It also opens up the intriguing possibility that parents may be able to glean further relevant information from egg volatiles, such as the health, viability and heritage of embryos. By determining information conveyed by egg-derived volatiles, we hope to stimulate further investigation into the ecological role of egg odours. PMID:25629413
Melookaran, Ann M; Rao, Sirisha A; Antony, Sible B; Herrera, Adriana
Interest in global health to provide safer pediatric surgical care in developing countries has increased during the last decade. A collaborative effort between surgeons and anesthesiologists has provided the opportunity to deliver specialized care to children, particularly in the areas of cleft lip and palate repair. However, medical resources, facilities, and adequately trained personnel, especially in pediatric anesthesia, are often limited in these countries. Challenges, educational efforts, and future directions for the globalization of anesthesia are discussed. Involvement of international entities may help raise awareness, channel efforts, expand programs and encourage volunteerism to ultimately provide safer care to pediatric patients, have better outcomes and reduced anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:26080126
Liu, Leah Y; Fox, Caroline S; North, Trista E; Goessling, Wolfram
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10) decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50) decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes. PMID:23813869
El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil
Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5th) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP. PMID:23734251
Hock, Alyson; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole; Bhatt, Ramesh S
Sex is a significant social category, and adults derive information about it from both faces and bodies. Research indicates that young infants process sex category information in faces. However, no prior study has examined whether infants derive sex categories from bodies and match faces and bodies in terms of sex. In the current study, 5-month-olds exhibited a preference between sex congruent (face and body of the same sex) versus sex-incongruent (face and body belonging to different genders) images. In contrast, 3.5-month-olds failed to exhibit a preference. Thus, 5-month-olds process sex information from bodies and match it to facial information. However, younger infants' failure to match suggests that there is a developmental change between 3.5 and 5 months of age in the processing of sex categories. These results indicate that rapid developmental changes lead to fairly sophisticated social information processing quite early in life. PMID:25621754
Jukic, Marin M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Bar, Michal; Becker, Gal; Jovanovic, Vukasin M; Zega, Ksenija; Binder, Elisabeth B; Brodski, Claude
Subtle mood fluctuations are normal emotional experiences, whereas drastic mood swings can be a manifestation of bipolar disorder (BPD). Despite their importance for normal and pathological behavior, the mechanisms underlying endogenous mood instability are largely unknown. During embryogenesis, the transcription factor Otx2 orchestrates the genetic networks directing the specification of dopaminergic (DA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. Here we behaviorally phenotyped mouse mutants overexpressing Otx2 in the hindbrain, resulting in an increased number of DA neurons and a decreased number of 5-HT neurons in both developing and mature animals. Over the course of 1 month, control animals exhibited stable locomotor activity in their home cages, whereas mutants showed extended periods of elevated or decreased activity relative to their individual average. Additional behavioral paradigms, testing for manic- and depressive-like behavior, demonstrated that mutants showed an increase in intra-individual fluctuations in locomotor activity, habituation, risk-taking behavioral parameters, social interaction, and hedonic-like behavior. Olanzapine, lithium, and carbamazepine ameliorated the behavioral alterations of the mutants, as did the mixed serotonin receptor agonist quipazine and the specific 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809101. Testing the relevance of the genetic networks specifying monoaminergic neurons for BPD in humans, we applied an interval-based enrichment analysis tool for genome-wide association studies. We observed that the genes specifying DA and 5-HT neurons exhibit a significant level of aggregated association with BPD but not with schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The results of our translational study suggest that aberrant development of monoaminergic neurons leads to mood fluctuations and may be associated with BPD. PMID:25241801
Murphy, Stephanie J; Lusardi, Theresa A; Phillips, Jay I; Saugstad, Julie A
There are important sex differences in the risk and outcome of conditions and diseases between males and females. For example, stroke occurs with greater frequency in men than in women across diverse ethnic backgrounds and nationalities. Work from our lab and others have revealed a sex-specific sensitivity to cerebral ischemia whereby males exhibit a larger extent of brain damage following an ischemic event compared to females. Studies suggest that the difference in male and female susceptibility to ischemia may be triggered by innate variations in gene regulation and protein expression between the sexes that are independent of post-natal exposure to sex hormones. We have shown that there are differences in microRNA (miRNA) expression in adult male and female brain following focal cerebral ischemia in mouse cortex. Herein we examine a role for differential expression of miRNAs during development in male and female rat cortex as potential effectors of the phenotype that leads to sex differences to ischemia. Expression studies in male and female cortices isolated from postnatal day 0 (P0), postnatal day 7 (P7), and adult rats using TaqMan Low Density miRNA arrays and NanoString nCounter analysis revealed differential miRNA levels between males and females at each developmental stage. We focused on the miR-200 family of miRNAs that showed higher levels in females at P0, but higher levels in males at P7 that persisted into adulthood, and validated the expression of miR-200a, miR-200b, and miR-429 by individual qRT-PCR as these are clustered on chromosome 5 and may be transcriptionally co-regulated. Prediction analysis of the miR-200 miRNAs revealed that genes within the Gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor pathway are the most heavily targeted. These studies support that developmental changes in miRNA expression may influence phenotypes in adult brain that underlie sexually dimorphic responses to disease, including ischemia. PMID:24969725
Underwood, S L; Bathgate, R; Maxwell, W M C; Evans, G
Dairy bull sperm may be sex-sorted, frozen and used to artificially inseminate heifers with acceptable fertility if the herd is well-managed. One drawback to the technology is that donor bulls must be located within a short distance of the sorting facility in order to collect semen, which limits the number of bulls from which sorted sperm are available. A successful method used to overcome this limitation in sheep is sex-sorting from frozen-thawed semen and refreezing for artificial insemination. This technique is attractive to the dairy industry, and therefore a series of three experiments was designed to investigate the optimal methods to prepare, sex-sort and re-freeze frozen-thawed bovine sperm. Sperm were prepared for sorting by density gradient separation in either PureSperm or BoviPure, followed by staining in one of three diluents (Androhep, Bovine Sheath Fluid + 0.3% BSA or TALP buffer). Sperm were sorted and collected into Test yolk buffer, and frozen in an extender containing 0, 0.25, 0.375 or 0.5% Equex STM Paste. Frozen-thawed sperm were better orientated (p = 0.006) and had fewer damaged membranes (8.7 +/- 0.6% vs 19.5 +/- 2.4%; p = 0.003) after centrifugation in PureSperm rather than BoviPure gradients. Sperm orientation (p < 0.05) and motility (69.9 +/- 3.0 vs 55.6 +/- 4.0; p < 0.001) were highest after staining in Androhep rather than in TALP buffer. Sperm were more motile (58.2 +/- 4.7 vs 38.7 +/- 3.5; p < 0.001) and had better acrosome integrity (74.3 +/- 2.9 vs 66.8 +/- 2.0; p < 0.001) after freezing in an extender containing 0.375% Equex STM Paste than in extender without Equex. Hence, a protocol has been developed to allow frozen-thawed bull sperm to be sex-sorted with high resolution between the sexes, then re-frozen and thawed with retention of motility and acrosome integrity. PMID:19055558
Bernstein, M.; Cline, T. W.
In response to the primary sex determination signal, X chromosome dose, the Sex-lethal gene controls all aspects of somatic sex determination and differentiation, including X chromosome dosage compensation. Two complementary classes of mutations have been identified that differentially affect Sxl somatic functions: (1) those impairing the ``early'' function used to set developmental pathway choice in response to the sex determination signal and (2) those impairing ``late'' functions involved in maintaining the pathway choice independent of the initiating signal and/or in directing differentiation. This ``early vs. late'' distinction correlates with a switch in promoter utilization from Sxl(Pe) to Sxl(Pm) at the blastoderm stage and a corresponding switch from transcriptional to RNA splicing control. Here we characterize five partial-loss-of-function Sxl alleles to explore a distinction between ``early vs. late'' functioning of Sxl in dosage compensation. Assaying for dosage compensation during the blastoderm stage, we find that the earliest phase of the dosage compensation process is controlled by products of the early Sxl promoter, Sxl(Pe). Hence, in addition to triggering the sexual pathway decision of cells, products derived from Sxl(Pe) also control early dosage compensation, the first manifestation of sexually dimorphic differentiation. The effects of mutant Sxl alleles on early dosage compensation are consistent with their previous categorization as early vs. late defective with respect to their effects on pathway initiation. Results reported here suggest that the dosage compensation regulatory genes currently known to function downstream of Sxl, genes known as the ``male-specific lethals,'' do not control all aspects of dosage compensation either at the blastoderm stage or later in development. In the course of this study, we also discovered that the canonical early defective allele, Sxl(f9), which is impaired in its ability to establish the female developmental pathway commitment, is likely to be defective in the stability and/or functioning of products derived from Sxl(Pe), rather than in the ability of Sxl(Pe) to respond to the chromosomal sex determination signal. PMID:8005414
Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita
In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our clinical breast imaging facility. We are conducting a prospective study to assess performance when using this REIS system under an approved IRB protocol. Over 200 examinations have been conducted to date. Our experience showed that this new REIS system was easy to operate and the REIS examination was fast and considered "comfortable" by examinees since the women presses her breast into the cup herself without any need for forced breast compression, and all but a few highly sensitive women have any sensation of an electrical current during the measurement.
Cox, Kathryn; Bryce, Jillian; Jiang, Jipu; Rodie, Martina; Sinnott, Richard; Alkhawari, Mona; Arlt, Wiebke; Audi, Laura; Balsamo, Antonio; Bertelloni, Silvano; Cools, Martine; Darendeliler, Feyza; Drop, Stenvert; Ellaithi, Mona; Guran, Tulay; Hiort, Olaf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Hughes, Ieuan; Krone, Nils; Lisa, Lidka; Morel, Yves; Soder, Olle; Wieacker, Peter
Context: The focus of care in disorders of sex development (DSD) is often directed to issues related to sex and gender development. In addition, the molecular etiology remains unclear in the majority of cases. Objective: To report the range of associated conditions identified in the international DSD (I-DSD) Registry. Design, Setting, and Patients: Anonymized data were extracted from the I-DSD Registry for diagnosis, karyotype, sex of rearing, genetic investigations, and associated anomalies. If necessary, clarification was sought from the reporting clinician. Results: Of 649 accessible cases, associated conditions occurred in 168 (26%); 103 (61%) cases had one condition, 31 (18%) had two conditions, 20 (12%) had three conditions, and 14 (8%) had four or more conditions. Karyotypes with most frequently reported associations included 45,X with 6 of 8 affected cases (75%), 45,X/46,XY with 19 of 42 cases (45%), 46,XY with 112 of 460 cases (24%), and 46,XX with 27 of 121 cases (22%). In the 112 cases of 46,XY DSD, the commonest conditions included small for gestational age in 26 (23%), cardiac anomalies in 22 (20%), and central nervous system disorders in 22 (20%), whereas in the 27 cases of 46,XX DSD, skeletal and renal anomalies were commonest at 12 (44%) and 8 (30%), respectively. Of 170 cases of suspected androgen insensitivity syndrome, 19 (11%) had reported anomalies and 9 of these had confirmed androgen receptor mutations. Conclusions: Over a quarter of the cases in the I-DSD Registry have an additional condition. These associations can direct investigators toward novel genetic etiology and also highlight the need for more holistic care of the affected person. PMID:24302751
Liu, Yun; Oppenheim, Ronald W.; Sugiura, Yoshie; Lin, Weichun
Nedd4 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase highly conserved from yeast to humans. The expression of Nedd4 is developmentally down-regulated in the mammalian nervous system, but the role of Nedd4 in mammalian neural development remains poorly understood. Here we show that a null mutation of Nedd4 in mice leads to perinatal lethality: mutant mice were stillborn and many of them died in utero before birth (between E15.5–E18.5). In Nedd4 mutant embryos, skeletal muscle fiber sizes and motoneuron numbers are significantly reduced. Surviving motoneurons project axons to their target muscles on schedule, but motor nerves defasciculate upon reaching the muscle surface, suggesting that Nedd4 plays a critical role in fine-tuning the interaction between the nerve and the muscle. Electrophysiological analyses of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) demonstrate an increased spontaneous miniature endplate potential (mEPP) frequency in Nedd4 mutants. However, the mutant neuromuscular synapses are less responsive to membrane depolarization, compared to the wildtypes. Ultrastructural analyses further reveal that the pre-synaptic nerve terminal branches at the NMJs of Nedd4 mutants are increased in number, but decreased in diameter compared to the wildtypes. These ultrastructural changes are consistent with functional alternation of the NMJs in Nedd4 mutants. Unexpectedly, Nedd4 is not expressed in motoneurons, but is highly expressed in skeletal muscles and Schwann cells. Together, these results demonstrate that Nedd4 is involved in regulating the formation and function of the NMJs through non-cell autonomous mechanisms. PMID:19345204
Rolston, Aimee M.; Vilain, Eric; Sandberg, David E.
Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn–17 years) questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child's condition. Medical chart excerpts identified diagnoses and clinical management details. Stigma scale scores were generally low. Parents of children with DSD reported less stigma than parents of children with epilepsy; however, a notable proportion rated individual items in the moderate to high range. Stigma was unrelated to child's age or the number of DSD-related surgeries. Child-focused stigma scores exceeded parent-focused stigma and mothers reported more stigma than fathers, with a moderate level of agreement. Within 46,XY DSD, reported stigma was higher for children reared as girls. In conclusion, in this first quantitative study of ongoing experiences, DSD-related stigma in childhood and adolescence, while limited in the aggregate, is reported at moderate to high levels in specific areas. Because stigma threatens positive psychosocial adaptation, systematic screening for these concerns should be considered and, when reported, targeted for psychoeducational counseling. PMID:25918529
Sudsarn, Pakkayanee; Wongchalee, Nadchanan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Chamgramol, Yaovaluk; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Juasook, Amornrat; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip
Worldwide, the highest incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is found in northeast Thailand, the endemic area of Opisthorchis viverrini infection. Cumulated clinical data revealed that the majority of CCA patients are men. However, many other types of cancers are more commonly found in women. In this study, we investigated the sex differences in the development of CCA, induced by O. viverrini infection and N-nitrosodimethylamine administration, in Syrian hamsters. Histopathology, liver function tests, and fecal egg counts were analyzed. The results showed that there are no sex differences in hamsters responses to O. viverrini infection and no prevalence of CCA development. Even though serum ALT level in O. viverrini-infected or CCA hamsters was significantly increased in female compared to male (p < 0.05) and uninfected control (p < 0.05), our results may imply that the higher prevalence of opisthorchiasis and CCA in men than in women in northeast Thailand may depend on behaviors of an individual exposed to risk factors rather than gender difference. PMID:24318666
Rolston, Aimee M; Gardner, Melissa; Vilain, Eric; Sandberg, David E
Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn-17 years) questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child's condition. Medical chart excerpts identified diagnoses and clinical management details. Stigma scale scores were generally low. Parents of children with DSD reported less stigma than parents of children with epilepsy; however, a notable proportion rated individual items in the moderate to high range. Stigma was unrelated to child's age or the number of DSD-related surgeries. Child-focused stigma scores exceeded parent-focused stigma and mothers reported more stigma than fathers, with a moderate level of agreement. Within 46,XY DSD, reported stigma was higher for children reared as girls. In conclusion, in this first quantitative study of ongoing experiences, DSD-related stigma in childhood and adolescence, while limited in the aggregate, is reported at moderate to high levels in specific areas. Because stigma threatens positive psychosocial adaptation, systematic screening for these concerns should be considered and, when reported, targeted for psychoeducational counseling. PMID:25918529
Barseghyan, H; Délot, E; Vilain, E
The Chicago Consensus Conference of 2005 defined Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) as "congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex is atypical." DSD diagnoses are difficult to establish. A lack of standardization of anatomical and endocrine phenotyping and the limited number of known DSD genes and genotype/correlation has long hampered the field, leaving many patients without a definitive diagnosis. The resulting uncertainty may intrinsically pose a great amount of discomfort to affected individuals and their families. DSD-causative genes have historically been identified thanks to positional cloning of disease-associated variants segregating in families or chromosomal rearrangements. Recent advances of chromosomal microarray and exome sequencing technologies are allowing for higher rates of diagnostic success for DSD patients and are changing clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the application of these technologies and their findings as an upcoming model for clinical diagnosis of DSD. We show that exome sequencing is a valuable tool and we propose that it should be used as a first-stage diagnostic technique because it allows for early identification of a genetic cause that may be critical for patient management. PMID:25970709
Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K
Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25736181
Akiyama, Kouyou; Katayama, Kentaro; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo
The development of the axial skeleton is a complex process, consisting of segmentation and differentiation of somites and ossification of the vertebrae. The autosomal recessive skeletal fusion with sterility (sks) mutation of the mouse causes skeletal malformations due to fusion of the vertebrae and ribs, but the underlying defects of vertebral formation during embryonic development have not yet been elucidated. For the present study, we examined the skeletal phenotypes of sks/sks mice during embryonic development and the chromosomal localization of the sks locus. Multiple defects of the axial skeleton, including fusion of vertebrae and fusion and bifurcation of ribs, were observed in adult and neonatal sks/sks mice. In addition, we also found polydactyly and delayed skull ossification in the sks/sks mice. Morphological defects, including disorganized vertebral arches and fusions and bifurcations of the axial skeletal elements, were observed during embryonic development at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E14.5. However, no morphological abnormality was observed at E11.5, indicating that defects of the axial skeleton are caused by malformation of the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs at an early developmental stage after formation and segmentation of the somites. By linkage analysis, the sks locus was mapped to an 8-Mb region of chromosome 4 between D4Mit331 and D4Mit199. Since no gene has already been identified as a cause of malformation of the vertebra and ribs in this region, the gene responsible for sks is suggested to be a novel gene essential for the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs. PMID:24521859
T. Révay; D. A. F. Villagómez; D. Brewer; T. Chenier; W. A. King
Genetic sex in mammals is determined by the sex chromosomal composition of the zygote. The X and Y chromosomes are responsible for numerous factors that must work in close concert for the proper development of a healthy sexual phenotype. The role of androgens in case of XY chromosomal constitution is crucial for normal male sex differentiation. The intracellular androgenic action
Munroe, Ruth H.; Munroe, Robert L.
The study examines the acquisition of gender constancy in children as it relates to cultural, socioenvironmental, or individual differences. Gender constancy refers to the stages from simple identification of biological sex of self and others, to the understanding that one's sex is stable over time, and to comprehension of one's sex as consistent…
Whiting, K J; Brown, S N; Browne, W J; Hadley, P J; Knowles, T G
In a cross-sectional study, data from records of cattle slaughtered over a 1-year period at a large abattoir in South West England were analysed using an ordered category response model to investigate the inter-relationships between age, sex and breed on development of the permanent anterior (PA) teeth. Using the model, transition points at which there was a 50% probability of membership of each category of paired PA teeth were identified. Data from ?60,000 animals were initially analysed for age and sex effect. The age transition was found to be ?23 months moving from zero to two teeth; 30 months for two to four teeth; 37 months for four to six teeth and 42 months for six to eight teeth. Males were found to develop, on average, ?22 days earlier than females across all stages. A reduced data set of ?23,000 animals registered as pure-bred only was used to compare breed and type interactions and to investigate sex effects within the sub-categories. Breeds were grouped into dairy and beef-type and beef breeds split into native and continental. It was found that dairy-types moved through the transition points earlier than beef-types across all stages (interval varying between ?8 and 12 weeks) and that collectively, native beef breeds moved through the transition points by up to 3 weeks earlier than the continental beef breeds. Interestingly, in contrast to beef animals, dairy females matured before dairy males. However, the magnitude of the difference between dairy females and males diminished at the later stages of development. Differences were found between breeds. Across the first three stages, Ayrshires and Guernseys developed between 3 and 6 weeks later than Friesian/Holsteins and Simmental, Limousin and Blonde Aquitaine 6 and 8 weeks later than Aberdeen Angus. Herefords, Charolais and South Devon developed later but by a smaller interval and Red Devon and Galloway showed the largest individual effect with transition delayed by 8 to 12 weeks. PMID:23552220
Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.
Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long-term effect on behavior, as evidenced by behavioral changes that persisted despite re-enrichment. Ours is the first study evaluating the relationship between personality dimensions, environment, and abnormal behaviors in an avian species. PMID:26114423
Reid, Shaina N; Ziermann, Janine M; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C
Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE. With a combination of traditional gross dissection and state-of-the-art computed tomography, we demonstrate the deleterious effects of T18 caused by a translocation at 18p11.31. Bony features included a single developmentally unseparated frontal bone, and complete dual absence of the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid bone. From a superior view with the calvarium plates removed, there was direct visual access to the orbital foramen and hard palate. Both the eyes and the pituitary gland, normally protected by bony structures, were exposed in the cranial cavity and in direct contact with the brain. The middle cranial fossa was shifted anteriorly, and foramina were either missing or displaced to an abnormal location due to the absence or misplacement of its respective cranial nerve (CN). When CN development was conserved in its induction and placement, the respective foramen developed in its normal location albeit with abnormal gross anatomical features, as seen in the facial nerve (CNVII) and the internal acoustic meatus. More anteriorly localized CNs and their foramina were absent or heavily disrupted compared with posterior ones. The severe malformations exhibited in the cranial fossae, orbital region, pituitary gland and sella turcica highlight the crucial involvement of transcription factors such as TGIF, which is located on chromosome 18 and contributes to neural patterning, in the proper development of neural and cranial structures. Our study of a T18 specimen emphasizes the intricate interplay between bone and brain development in midline craniofacial abnormalities in general. PMID:26018729
Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334
Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334
Wisniewski, A B; Sandberg, D E
Advances in therapeutics for specific conditions have contributed to a categorical psychological approach to chronic diseases that affect children. Consensus statements and clinical guidelines recognize stress associated with disorders of sex development (DSD) for patients and their caregivers - yet much remains to be learned concerning the social adjustment, mental health, and quality of life of affected children and their families. We present preliminary data on the psychosocial comorbidities of caregivers of children with DSD, including stigma, isolation, stress, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology. Evidence is offered in support of individualized psychological approaches for families according to such variables as: 1) gender of the caregiver, 2) gender of the affected child and 3) presence of genital ambiguity at birth. Development of feasible, targeted interventions to ameliorate psychosocial comorbidities among caregivers is needed to optimize social adjustment, mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for children with DSD. PMID:25654767
Warner, Daniel A; Addis, Elizabeth; Du, Wei-guo; Wibbels, Thane; Janzen, Fredric J
Steroid hormones affect sex determination in a variety of vertebrates. The feminizing effects of exposure to estradiol and the masculinizing effects of aromatase inhibition during development are well established in a broad range of vertebrate taxa, but paradoxical findings are occasionally reported. Four independent experiments were conducted on two turtle species with temperature-dependent sex determination (Chrysemys picta and Chelydra serpentina) to quantify the effects of egg incubation temperature, estradiol, and an aromatase inhibitor on offspring sex ratios. As expected, the warmer incubation temperatures induced female development and the cooler temperatures produced primarily males. However, application of an aromatase inhibitor had no effect on offspring sex ratios, and exogenous applications of estradiol to eggs produced male offspring across all incubation temperatures. These unexpected results were remarkably consistent across all four experiments and both study species. Elevated concentrations of estradiol could interact with androgen receptors or inhibit aromatase expression, which might result in relatively high testosterone concentrations that lead to testis development. These findings add to a short list of studies that report paradoxical effects of steroid hormones, which addresses the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the role of sex steroids in sexual development. PMID:24954686
Bernard, Jessica A; Orr, Joseph M; Mittal, Vijay A
Background/Objectives Abnormal development of the hippocampus has been reported in adolescents at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and thalamic abnormalities have been found. However, the white matter connections between the hippocampus and the thalamus have not been studied. The connections between these regions are of key importance to our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychosis. Methods Twenty-six UHR and 21 healthy age-matched controls were tested at a baseline assessment and 12 months later. Symptoms were assessed at both the time points and all the participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging scans. We used tractography to trace the white matter connections in each individual between the thalamus and hippocampus and then extracted fractional anisotropy (FA) to assess white matter structural integrity. Results There was a significant group by time interaction indicating that FA decreased in UHR, and increased in controls over 12 months. Across both groups, baseline FA of the thalamic–hippocampal tract was predictive of positive symptoms at 12-month follow-up. Critically, this pattern remained significant in UHR individual group alone. At baseline, those with higher FA, indicative of abnormal white matter development, show higher positive symptoms 1 year later. Conclusions Here, we provide evidence to indicate that there are differences in white matter development in hippocampal–thalamic connections, both of which are important nodes in networks associated with schizophrenia. Furthermore, abnormal developmental patterns in UHR individuals are associated with positive symptom course.
Zhou, Yang; Sun, Jiajie; Li, Congjun; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Lan; Cai, Hanfang; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong
Background Adipose tissue has long been recognized to play an extremely important role in development. In bovines, it not only serves a fundamental function but also plays a key role in the quality of beef and, consequently, has drawn much public attention. Age and sex are two key factors that affect the development of adipose tissue, and there has not yet been a global study detailing the effects of these two factors on expressional differences of adipose tissues. Results In this study, total RNA from the back fat of fetal bovines, adult bulls, adult heifers and adult steers were used to construct libraries for Illumina next-generation sequencing. We detected the expression levels of 12,233 genes, with over 3,000 differently expressed genes when comparing fetal and adult patterns and an average of 1000 differently expressed genes when comparing adult patterns. Multiple Gene Ontology terms and pathways were found to be significantly enriched for these differentially expressed genes. Of the 12,233 detected genes, a total of 4,753 genes (38.85%) underwent alternative splicing events, and over 50% were specifically expressed in each library. Over 4,000 novel transcript units were discovered for one library, whereas only approximately 30% were considered to have coding ability, which supplied a large amount of information for the lncRNA study. Additionally, we detected 56,564 (fetal bovine), 65,154 (adult bull), 78,061 (adult heifer) and 86,965 (adult steer) putative single nucleotide polymorphisms located in coding regions of the four pooled libraries. Conclusion Here, we present, for the first time, a complete dataset involving the spatial and temporal transcriptome of bovine adipose tissue using RNA-seq. These data will facilitate the understanding of the effects of age and sex on the development of adipose tissue and supply essential information towards further studies on the genomes of beef cattle and other related mammals. PMID:24983926
Background Ovarian sex cord stromal tumors are rare neoplasms as compared to epithelial tumors. No large study has been done in Pakistan to find out the frequencies of various sex cord stromal tumors and their clinicopathological behavior in our region. The purpose of our study was to determine the various histological patterns and clinical features of ovarian sex cord stromal tumors along with follow-up in our set-up. Methods It is a retrospective observational study. The study was conducted in section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. All reported cases of sex cord stromal tumors of ovary during 1992 to 2012 were retrieved. The retrieved slides were reviewed and patient demographics, clinical and pathological features were noted on proforma. SPSS Statistics Version 19 was used for all analyses. Data is expressed as absolute values and percentage or as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Results A total of 480 cases of sex cord stromal tumors were retrieved. The median age was 45 years. Bilaterality was observed in 4 cases. Of the different subtypes of sex-cord stromal tumors, most common was adult granulosa cell tumor 211(43.9%). 24 Juvenile granulosa cell tumors were retrieved (5%). Other types were fibromas 98 (20.4%) fibrothecomas 47(9.8%), thecomas 26(5.4%), sertoli-leydig cell tumors 34(7%), sclerosing stromal tumors 26 (5.4%), steroid cell tumors (10) and 4 cases of sex cord tumor with annular tubules. Of various immunohistochemical stains applied, Inhibin was frequently positive in all subtypes and focal cytokeratins were also seen commonly. Follow up information was available in 305 cases and out of these only 16 (5%) developed recurrence or metastasis. Conclusions Sex cord stromal tumors are uncommon ovarian tumors in Pakistani population, with wide age range and diverse histological types having good prognosis. Immunohistochemical markers overlap with epithelial tumors so there is need to distinguish these two. PMID:24304499
Canberra, University of
Temperature Sex Reversal Implies Sex Gene Dosage in a Reptile Alexander E. Quinn,1 * Arthur Georges by genes on sex chromo- somes in many vertebrates [genotypic sex determination (GSD)], but may also be determined by temperature during embryonic development [temperature-dependent sex de- termination (TSD)] (1
Larsdotter-Mellström, Helena; Murtazina, Rushana; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Wiklund, Christer
The life history traits and behavior of the butterfly Pieris napi are well-known, as the species is often used as a model organism for evolutionary and ecological studies. The species has two or more generations per year in the major part of its temperate distribution, and as different selection pressures affect the different generations, both behavioral and physiological seasonal polyphenisms have been shown previously. Here, we explored the dynamics of male sex pheromone production. The two generations are shown to have significantly different scent compositions early in life; the direct developers--who have shorter time for pupal development--need the first 24 hr of adult life after eclosion to synthesize the sex pheromone citral (geranial and neral 1:1)--whereas the diapausing individuals who have spent several months in the pupal stage eclose with adult scent composition. Resource allocation and biosynthesis also were studied in greater detail by feeding butterflies (13)C labeled glucose either in the larval or adult stage, and recording incorporation into geranial, neral, and other volatiles produced. Results demonstrate that the pheromone synthesized by newly eclosed adult males is based on materials ingested in the larval stage, and that adult butterflies are able to synthesize the pheromone components geranial and neral and the related alcohols also from adult intake of glucose. In summary, our study shows that time-stress changes the timing in biosynthesis of the complete pheromone between generations, and underpins the importance of understanding resource allocation and the physiological basis of life history traits. PMID:22555771
Jürgensen, Martina; Hiort, Olaf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Thyen, Ute
Children exhibit gender-typical preferences in play, toys, activities and interests, and playmates. Several studies suggest that high concentrations of pre- and postnatal androgens contribute to male-typical behavior development, whereas female-typical behavior develops in the absence of high androgens levels. This study aims to explore the consequences of hypoandrogenization on gender-typical behavior in children who have an XY karyotype and disorder of sex development (DSD). Participants included 33 children (ages 2-12 years) with an XY karyotype and DSD; 21 reared as girls and 12 reared as boys. Children's preferred activities and interests and playmate preferences were assessed with parent report questionnaires, a structured free-play task, and choice of a toy to keep as a gift. Participant's responses were compared to those of children recruited in a pre-school and elementary school survey (N=166). In this study, the degree of hypoandrogenization as indicated by genital stage and diagnosis showed a significant relationship to nearly all of the gender-related behaviors assessed, supporting the hypothesis that masculinization of gender role behavior is a function of prenatal androgen exposure. Despite the fact that children with partial androgen effects reared as girls showed increased "boyish" behaviors, they did not show increased signs of gender identity confusion or instability on a group level. We conclude that androgen exposure plays a decisive role in the development of gender-typical behavior in children with XY karyotype and DSD conditions. PMID:17306800
McClure, E B
Quantitative and qualitative reviews of the literature on sex differences in facial expression processing (FEP) have yielded conflicting findings regarding children. This study was designed to review quantitatively the literature on sex differences in FEP from infancy through adolescence and to evaluate consistency between the course of FEP development and predictions derived from preliminary theoretical models. Results, which indicate a female advantage at FEP, are consistent with predictions derived from an integrated neurobehavioral/social constructivist model. These findings suggest a need for research examining both neurological maturation and socialization as important factors in the development of sex differences in FEP and related skills. Possible directions for future study are discussed, with emphasis on the need to integrate the infant literature with research focused on older children and adults. PMID:10825784
Entrekin, D.L.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Pound, J.M.
Protonymphal Dermanyssus gallinae were irradiated with 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 krad of gamma radiation and subsequently monitored regarding their developmental, feeding, and mating success. Also, sex ratios of adults treated as protonymphs were recorded as were sex ratios of embryos and F1 adults produced by these adults. Doses up to 1.0 krad did not prevent development of treated protonymphs to the adult stage or stop mating. Three krad reduced the number of treated protonymphs attaining adulthood and 6.0-krad treatment prevented all mites from developing to the adult stage. Egg (embryo) production was normal for mites treated with 0.50 krad, but significantly curtailed by doses of 0.75 krad and greater. Radiation doses used in this study did not appear to affect the normal variable sex ratios observed in untreated mites.
Raper, Jessica; Wallen, Kim; Sanchez, Mar M.; Stephens, Shannon B. Z.; Henry, Amy; Villareal, Trina; Bachevalier, Jocelyne
Amygdala dysfunction and abnormal fear and stress reactivity are common features of several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, little is known about the exact role the amygdala plays in the development of threat detection and emotional modulation. The current study examined the effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on defensive, emotional, and neuroendocrine reactivity of infant rhesus monkeys reared with their mothers in large species-typical social groups. Monkeys received either bilateral MRI-guided ibotenic acid amygdala (Neo-A; n = 16) or sham (Neo-C; n = 12) lesions at 24.8 ± 1.2 days of age, or served as behavioral control (Neo-BC; n = 3). Defensive and emotional responses were assessed using the Human Intruder Paradigm as infants and as juveniles (2.5 and 12 months of age, respectively), whereas neuroendocrine reactivity was only examined during the juvenile period. As infants, Neo-A animals expressed similar levels of freezing and hostile behaviors as compared to controls, whereas during the juvenile period Neo-A animals expressed significantly less freezing compared to controls. Interestingly, the sex of the infant modulated the behavioral effects of neonatal amygdalectomy, leading to different patterns of behavior depending on the sex and lesion status of the infant. Unlike controls, Neo-A infants did not modulate their behavioral responses based on the salience of the threat. The impact of neonatal amygdalectomy increased with age, such that Neo-A juveniles exhibited fewer emotional behaviors and increased cortisol response to the stressor as compared to controls. These data indicate that the amygdala plays a critical role in the development of both emotional and neuroendocrine reactivity as well as the expression of sexually dimorphic emotional expression. PMID:23380162
Raper, Jessica; Wallen, Kim; Sanchez, Mar M; Stephens, Shannon B Z; Henry, Amy; Villareal, Trina; Bachevalier, Jocelyne
Amygdala dysfunction and abnormal fear and stress reactivity are common features of several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, little is known about the exact role the amygdala plays in the development of threat detection and emotional modulation. The current study examined the effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on defensive, emotional, and neuroendocrine reactivity of infant rhesus monkeys reared with their mothers in large species-typical social groups. Monkeys received either bilateral MRI-guided ibotenic acid amygdala (Neo-A; n = 16) or sham (Neo-C; n = 12) lesions at 24.8 ± 1.2 days of age, or served as behavioral control (Neo-BC; n = 3). Defensive and emotional responses were assessed using the Human Intruder paradigm as infants and as juveniles (2.5 and 12 months of age, respectively), whereas neuroendocrine reactivity was only examined during the juvenile period. As infants, Neo-A animals expressed similar levels of freezing and hostile behaviors as compared to controls, whereas during the juvenile period Neo-A animals expressed significantly less freezing compared to controls. Interestingly, the sex of the infant modulated the behavioral effects of neonatal amygdalectomy, leading to different patterns of behavior depending on the sex and lesion status of the infant. Unlike controls, Neo-A infants did not modulate their behavioral responses based on the salience of the threat. The impact of neonatal amygdalectomy increased with age, such that Neo-A juveniles exhibited fewer emotional behaviors and increased cortisol response to the stressor as compared to controls. These data indicate that the amygdala plays a critical role in the development of both emotional and neuroendocrine reactivity as well as the expression of sexually dimorphic emotional expression. PMID:23380162
Özbaran, Burcu; Özen, Samim; Gök?en, Damla; Korkmaz, Özlem; Onay, Hüseyin; Özk?nay, Ferda; Ço?ulu, Özgür; Erermi?, Serpil; Köse, Sezen; Avano?lu, Ali; Ulman, ?brahim; Darcan, ?ükran
Objective: Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a group of congenital medical conditions that affect life as a whole. In this study, we aimed to reflect the experience of a multidisciplinary team in the clinical/psychiatric follow-up of a group of children and adolescents with DSD. Methods: The study group consisted of 51 patients diagnosed with DSD. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Draw a Person Test and Children’s Apperception Test, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGIS) were used for psychiatric evaluations. Results: The mean age of the patients was 7.8 years (median: 7.8; min: 1.0; max: 18.0). Genetic evaluation showed 46,XX configuration in 15 patients (29.4%) and 46,XY in 35 (68.6%). One patient (2.0%) was diagnosed to have a sex chromosome disorder. Forty patients (78.4%) had no problems with their given gender identity and gender role. Thirty-four (66.7%) patients had normal intellectual capacity. Twenty-eight (54.9%) patients did not have any psychiatric problem. Depression, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and adjustment disorders were the common diagnoses. The mean score of symptom severity on CGIS-severity-baseline was 6.15±0.68 and after one year, it was 1.46±0.51 (Z=-3.236 p=0.001). The mean score of CGI–Improvement was 1.23±0.44. Conclusion: It is important to identify and treat the psychiatric disorders encountered in patients with DSD. A psychiatrist needs to be included in the professional team following these patients. Examination and observation results need to be shared by holding periodic team meetings to establish a wholesome point of view for every unique child. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24379031
Alexander John R Macdonald
The pressure algometer probe tip is usually held stationary and pressure is steadily increased from zero until a pressure pain threshold (PPT) is elicited. In order to explore the extent of surface markings of abnormally tender regions in more detail an improved method is proposed whereby the pressure algometer is not kept still. It is slid over the tissues at
Alex R Paciorkowski; Liu Lin Thio; Jill A Rosenfeld; Marzena Gajecka; Christina A Gurnett; Shashikant Kulkarni; Wendy K Chung; Eric D Marsh; Mattia Gentile; James D Reggin; James W Wheless; Sandhya Balasubramanian; Ravinesh Kumar; Susan L Christian; Carla Marini; Renzo Guerrini; Natalia Maltsev; Lisa G Shaffer; William B Dobyns
Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content
Rhen, T; Metzger, K; Schroeder, A; Woodward, R
Modes of sex determination are quite variable in vertebrates. The developmental decision to form a testis or an ovary can be influenced by one gene, several genes, environmental variables, or a combination of these factors. Nevertheless, certain morphogenetic aspects of sex determination appear to be conserved in amniotes. Here we clone fragments of nine candidate sex-determining genes from the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). We then analyze expression of these genes during the thermosensitive period of gonad development. In particular, we compare gene expression profiles in gonads from embryos incubated at a male-producing temperature to those from embryos at a female-producing temperature. Expression of Dmrt1 and Sox9 mRNA increased gradually at the male-producing temperature, but was suppressed at the female-producing temperature. This finding suggests that Dmrt1 and Sox9 play a role in testis development. In contrast, expression of aromatase, androgen receptor (Ar), and Foxl2 mRNA was constant at the male-producing temperature, but increased several-fold in embryos at the female-producing temperature. Aromatase, Ar, and Foxl2 may therefore play a role in ovary development. In addition, there was a small temperature effect on ER alpha expression with lower mRNA levels found in embryos at the female-producing temperature. Finally, Dax1, Fgf9, and SF-1 were not differentially expressed during the sex-determining period, suggesting these genes are not involved in sex determination in the snapping turtle. Comparison of gene expression profiles among amniotes indicates that Dmrt1 and Sox9 are part of a core testis-determining pathway and that Ar, aromatase, ER alpha, and Foxl2 are part of a core ovary-determining pathway. PMID:18391536
Hillman, Carol A.
This study investigated the construction of sexual identity and sex stereotypes. A total of 32 mainly Caucasian, married primiparous parents attending birthing classes participated in a study of their buying habits and gifts they received prior to and after the birth of their child, and hence, before and after the child's sex was known. Under both…
Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.
Variation in the number of sex chromosomes is a relatively common genetic condition, affecting as many as 1/400 individuals. The sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are associated with characteristic behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, although the degree to which specific individuals are affected can fall within a wide range. Understanding the…
Fredlund, Cecilia; Svensson, Frida; Svedin, Carl Goran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie
Lifetime experience of selling sex among adolescents was investigated together with sociodemographic correlates, parent-child relationship, and the existence of people to confide in. Changes over time regarding the selling of sex were investigated through a comparison of data from 2004 and 2009. This study was carried out using 3,498 adolescents…
Kimberly S. Young
Internet sex addiction typically involves viewing, downloading, and trading online pornography or engagement in adult fantasy role-play rooms. Adult Web sites comprise the largest segment of electronic commerce catering to a wide variety of sexual interests. Given the widespread availability of sexually explicit material online, Internet sex addiction is the most common form of problem online behavior among users. Using
MARJA JANNE; KEVIN N. HOGEVEEN; HARMINDER K. DEOL; GEOFFREY L. HAMMOND
Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is produced by hepatocytes and transports sex steroids in the blood. The rat gene encoding SHBG is expressed transiently in the liver during fetal life, but it is not expressed in the liver postnatally, and the small amounts of SHBG in rat blood are derived from gonadal sources. To study the biosynthesis and function of
The first practical genetic sexing strain for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, developed in Hawaii was mass-reared and released as sterile males into wild fly populations. Significant improvements in the field quality of sterile males were made with the pupal color strain in which males can be ...
Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie
Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:25229553
Schaafsma, Dilana; Stoffelen, Joke M T; Kok, Gerjo; Curfs, Leopold M G
Background People with intellectual disabilities face barriers that affect their sexual health. Sex education programmes have been developed by professionals working in the field of intellectual disabilities with the aim to overcome these barriers. The aim of this study was to explore the development of these programmes. Methods Sex education programmes geared to people with intellectual disabilities were examined in the context of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were obtained via interviews with the programme developers. Results All programmes lack specific programme outcomes, do not have a theoretical basis, did not involve members of relevant groups in the development process and lack systematic evaluation. Conclusions Based on our findings and the literature, we conclude that these programmes are unlikely to be effective. Future programmes should be developed using a more systematic and theory- and evidence-based approach. PMID:23280605
Chethik, B B
Presented is a brief description of the process involved in the effort of the Washtenaw County Health Department in Michigan to allay the fears of school administrators and to motivate each school district to take the 1st steps to implement the new legislation that permitted birth control instructions in public schools. In the spring of 1978, the Family Planning staff sent letters to 80 school administrators identifying the new legislation and asking if the schools wanted the assistance of the Health Department in developing sex education programs. 30 administrators phoned or wrote confirming that their schools needed and wanted help. Consequently, a conference, Sexuality with Responsibility: Developing a School Program, was scheduled tentatively for the fall. After the mail contact, the health educator visited each school district in the county. A total of 150 people attended the conference, representing a "team" from each school district. 4 months following the initial conference, 50 teachers and nurses from 9 school districts participated in the health department's 1st teacher-education program in human sexuality. 8 months later an additional group of 70 educators enrolled in the program. 10 months following the conference, 8 school districts had appointed advisory committees, 1 district expected to create 1 during the upcoming school year, and 1 district was waiting to see what the other school districts would do. PMID:6908936
Juniarto, A. Zulfa; van der Zwan, Yvonne G.; Santosa, Ardy; Hersmus, Remko; de Jong, Frank H.; Olmer, Renske; Bruggenwirth, Hennie T.; Themmen, Axel P. N.; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Drop, Stenvert L. S.
Disorder of sex development (DSD) patients in Indonesia most often do not receive a proper diagnostic evaluation and treatment. This study intended to categorize 88 Indonesian patients in accordance with the new consensus DSD algorithm. Diagnostic evaluation including clinical, hormonal, genetic, imaging, surgical, and histological parameters was performed. Fifty-three patients were raised as males, and 34 as females. Of 22 patients with 46, XX DSD, 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia, while in one patient, an ovarian Leydig cell tumor was found. In all 58 46, XY DSD patients, 29 were suspected of a disorder of androgen action (12 with an androgen receptor mutation), and in 9, gonadal dysgenesis was found and, in 20, severe hypospadias e.c.i. Implementation of the current consensus statement in a resource-poor environment is very difficult. The aim of the diagnostic workup in developing countries should be to end up with an evidence-based diagnosis. This is essential to improve treatment and thereby to improve the patients' quality of life. PMID:22253624
Helen Thompson Woolley
Reviews 88 publications of studies on psychology of sex (1910-1914). Sex differences have been investigated for the following: heredity; physical development; motor ability; sensation and perception; memory; the effect of drill; association; attention; judgment and reasoning; general intelligence; affective processes, tastes and ideals; creative ability in art and letters; suggestibility; and variability. According to some, sex differences are most marked
Trent, Simon; Davies, William
It is now generally agreed that there are inherent sex differences in healthy individuals across a number of neurobiological domains (including brain structure, neurochemistry, and cognition). Moreover, there is a burgeoning body of evidence highlighting sex differences within neuropsychiatric populations (in terms of the rates of incidence, clinical features/progression, neurobiology and pathology). Here, we consider the extent to which attention and impulsivity are sexually dimorphic in healthy populations and the extent to which sex might modulate the expression of disorders characterised by abnormalities in attention and/or impulsivity such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism and addiction. We then discuss general genetic mechanisms that might underlie sex differences in attention and impulsivity before focussing on specific positional and functional candidate sex-linked genes that are likely to influence these cognitive processes. Identifying novel sex-modulated molecular targets should ultimately enable us to develop more effective therapies in disorders associated with attentional/impulsive dysfunction. PMID:21983394
Chemes, H E; Venara, M; Del Rey, G; Arcari, A J; Musse, M P; Papazian, R; Forclaz, V; Gottlieb, S
All malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) of adult men are preceded by an in situ stage (CIS) of protracted evolution. The adult CIS is well characterized, but there is debate on the phenotype of infantile CIS, its distinction from delayed maturation of germ cells and prognostic potential. A large series of 43 patients with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) and dysgenetic testes (90% ranging from neonates to 12 years, mean age 4.7 years), was studied by quantifying dysgenetic features, degree of germ cell abnormalities/atypia (GCA), expression of OCT 3/4 (a pluripotency-undifferentiation marker), germ cell ploidy and evolution to CIS and invasive TGCT. Findings were compared with those of normal testes. The type of gonads present defined three groups of patients: bilateral testes (BT-DSD, n = 21), one testis and one streak gonad (CT-DSD, C for combined, n = 13), and ovarian-testicular combinations (OT-DSD, n = 9). There were 5 boys with infantile CIS, bilateral in 3 (total of 8 infantile CIS) and two patients with adult CIS, bilateral in one (total of 3 adult CIS). Two patients had bilateral seminomas one at 12-17 and the other at 23 years. Histological dysgenesis was significantly higher in CT-DSD (p < 0.05), that had only 1 CIS. The highest frequency of GCA was in BT-DSD (p < 0.05), which coincided with a total of 11CIS + Seminomas. In all patients, aneuploidy was significantly higher (63%) than diploidy (p < 0.02), and GCA were more frequent in aneuploid than in diploid samples (p < 0.02). All CIS and TGCT were OCT 3/4 positive. Finally, there was a significant association between the triad Aneuploidy + GCA + OCT 3/4 positivity and the incidence of CIS (Fisher Exact test p < 0.002, relative risk 7.0). The degree of testicular dysgenesis (derived from abnormal organization of Sertoli cells in fetal testicular cords) is inversely related to the incidence of CIS. Our data demonstrate that the combined use of OCT 3/4 expression, quantification of germ cell abnormalities-atypia and ploidy in dysgenetic testes can satisfactorily identify infantile CIS with high risk of malignant evolution and set it aside from delayed germ cell maturation with lower or nil neoplastic potential. PMID:25598272
Perez-Pouchoulen, Miguel; Roby, Clinton R.; Ryan, Timothy E.; McCarthy, Margaret M.
Sex differences in vocal communication are prevalent in both the animals and humans. The mechanism(s) mediating gender differences in human language are unknown, although, sex hormones, principally androgens, play a central role in the development of vocalizations in a wide variety of animal species. The discovery of FOXP2 has added an additional avenue for exploring the origins of language and animal communication. The FOXP2 gene is a member of the forkhead box P (FOXP) family of transcription factors. Prior to the prenatal androgen surge in male fetuses, we observed no sex difference for Foxp2 protein levels in cultured cells. In contrast, 24 hours after the onset of the androgen surge, we found a sex difference for Foxp2 protein levels in cultured cortical cells with males having higher levels than females. Furthermore, we observed the potent nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone altered not only Foxp2 mRNA and protein levels but also Foxp1. Androgen effects on both Foxp2 and Foxp1 were found to occur in the striatum, cerebellar vermis, and cortex. Immunofluorescence microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation demonstrate Foxp2 and the androgen receptor protein interact. Databases for transcription factor binding sites predict a consensus binding motif for androgen receptor on the Foxp2 promoter regions. We also observed a sex difference in rat pup vocalization with males vocalizing more than females and treatment of females with dihydrotestosterone eliminated the sex difference. We propose that androgens might be an upstream regulator of both Foxp2 and Foxp1 expression and signaling. This has important implications for language and communication as well as neuropsychiatric developmental disorders involving impairments in communication. PMID:25247470
Doyle, Colleen; Werner, Elizabeth; Feng, Tianshu; Lee, Seonjoo; Altemus, Margaret; Isler, Joseph R; Monk, Catherine
Prenatal maternal distress is associated with an at-risk developmental profile, yet there is little fetal evidence of this putative in utero process. Moreover, the biological transmission for these maternal effects remains uncertain. In a study of n?=?125 pregnant adolescents (ages 14-19), ambulatory assessments of daily negative mood (anger, frustration, irritation, stress), physical activity, blood pressure, heart rate (every 30?min over 24?hr), and salivary cortisol (six samples) were collected at 13-16, 24-27, 34-37 gestational weeks. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6 from blood draws and 20?min assessments of fetal heart rate (FHR) and movement were acquired at the latter two sessions. On average, fetuses showed development in the expected direction (decrease in FHR, increase in SD of FHR and in the correlation of movement and FHR ("coupling")). Maternal distress characteristics were associated with variations in the level and trajectory of fetal measures, and results often differed by sex. For males, greater maternal 1st and 2nd session negative mood and 2nd session physical activity were associated with lower overall FHR (p?.01), while 1st session cortisol was associated with a smaller increase in coupling (p?.01), and overall higher levels (p?=?.05)-findings suggesting accelerated development. For females, negative mood, cortisol, and diastolic blood pressure were associated with indications of relatively less advanced and accelerated outcomes. There were no associations between negative mood and biological variables. These data indicate that maternal psychobiological status influences fetal development, with females possibly more variously responsive to different exposures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 57: 607-625, 2015. PMID:25945698
Callens, Nina; Hoebeke, Piet
In cases of severe penile inadequacy, such as in pathological conditions involving penile amputation (e.g. penile cancer), or in 46,XY disorders of sex development with severe undervirilization or maldevelopment of the penis (e.g. idiopathic micropenis, cloacal exstrophy), standard (surgical) penile lengthening techniques do not provide patients with a phallus suitable for sexual intercourse. Genital dissatisfaction can lead to low self-esteem and psychosexual dysfunction. Therefore, phalloplasty, the gold standard in transgender surgery, may provide a possibility to achieve a satisfactory genital appearance and sexual function. Small series have reported cosmetically acceptable and erogenous sensate neophalli with incorporation of a neourethra to allow voiding in a standing position and with enough bulk to allow penile prosthesis insertion for pleasurable intercourse. Although early results seem promising, further publication of series with large numbers and longer follow-up is needed to evaluate to what extent phalloplasty improves physical and sexual outcomes. Complications are of particular concern because of associated scarring and loss of sensitive tissue. Without full preoperative workups assessing patients' expectations and reasons for undergoing surgery, they may still struggle with self/penile image and with psychological barriers for engaging in sexual activity. Recommendations for the psychosocial management of boys and men with penile deficiency are suggested. PMID:25247659
Bender, B; Fry, E; Pennington, B; Puck, M; Salbenblatt, J; Robinson, A
Forty-one children with sex chromosome anomalies identified from the chromosome screening of a newborn population were blindly evaluated by a speech-language pathologist, along with a control group of 31 siblings. 47,XXX girls and 47,XXY boys were found to have increased problems in auditory perception, receptive language, and expressive language; the problems of the 47,XXY boys were less severe than those of the 47,XXX group, and reflected specific deficits in their ability to process linguistic information rather than a deficit in comprehension. An increased occurrence of speech production problems among the 45,X girls was associated with the presence of oral/structural malformations that often had no measurable effect on their production of speech sounds. Although the 45,X girls and 47,XYY boys had no significant increase of problems in auditory reception, receptive language, and expressive language, the trend of the data suggested more difficulty than in the control groups. The mosaic children were not different from the control subjects. Some children in all groups were found to have normal speech and language development. PMID:6823432
Wang, Chunqing; Tian, Qinjie
Objective. In the process of care for disorders of sex development (DSD), clinical decisions should focus on the long-term quality of life (QOL). We sought to investigate the QOL of patients with DSD in China. Design. Case-control study was carried out. Patients. 90 patients of DSD participated in the study. Finally, 87 patients were analyzed including Turner's syndrome (23), Noonan syndrome (2), androgen insensitivity syndrome (22), testicular regression syndrome (2), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (16), and pure gonadal dysgenesis (22). Measurements. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was chosen for the present investigation. Four domain scores were analyzed independently including physical, psychological, and social relationship and environmental domains. Results. The average age of the DSD group is 22.34 ± 4.97 years, and only 13.79% patients ever had sexual life. The scores of psychological and environmental domains were lower than that of the physical and social relationship domains, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Compared with the Chinese urban population, the QOL scores of DSD patients in China were not significantly lower. Conclusions. With proper treatment, including the follow-up and psychological support, the QOL of DSD patients cannot be significantly reduced. For DSD patients, more attention should be paid to the potential psychological and sexual problems. PMID:26075230
Wang, Chunqing; Tian, Qinjie
Objective. In the process of care for disorders of sex development (DSD), clinical decisions should focus on the long-term quality of life (QOL). We sought to investigate the QOL of patients with DSD in China. Design. Case-control study was carried out. Patients. 90 patients of DSD participated in the study. Finally, 87 patients were analyzed including Turner's syndrome (23), Noonan syndrome (2), androgen insensitivity syndrome (22), testicular regression syndrome (2), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (16), and pure gonadal dysgenesis (22). Measurements. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was chosen for the present investigation. Four domain scores were analyzed independently including physical, psychological, and social relationship and environmental domains. Results. The average age of the DSD group is 22.34 ± 4.97 years, and only 13.79% patients ever had sexual life. The scores of psychological and environmental domains were lower than that of the physical and social relationship domains, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Compared with the Chinese urban population, the QOL scores of DSD patients in China were not significantly lower. Conclusions. With proper treatment, including the follow-up and psychological support, the QOL of DSD patients cannot be significantly reduced. For DSD patients, more attention should be paid to the potential psychological and sexual problems.
Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang
The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8-10 beetles per minute. PMID:25934924
Lerner, Richard M.; And Others
This study assessed personal space schemata of children towards stimulus figures representing male and female body build stereotypes. Greater spatial distances were used towards the Endomorph than other physique types and significant sex differences were found. (GO)
North Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta L.) populations respond to the integrated effects of multiple environmental stressors. Environmental stressors often occur in spatially distinct frameworks and affect distinct age classes, sexes, and subpopulations differentia...
Judith G. Smetana; Karen J. Letourneau
64 preschool children (aged 27–70 mo) with nearly equal numbers of boys and girls at each of 4 levels of gender constancy were observed during free-play sessions at their preschools to examine relationships among gender constancy, preferences for same- or opposite-sex playmates, and sex-typed activities. Each S's play was rated 40 times on a point-time schedule for type of activity
Liqin Liao; Jun Liu; Yanxia Dai; Qian Li; Ming Xie; Qijiong Chen; Huaqun Yin; Guanzhou Qiu; Xueduan Liu
There is an urgent need for early sex identification to support field planting in Ginkgo biloba L., due to the different economic and medicinal values between male and female trees. An easy, rapid and reliable molecular\\u000a method for sex type determination of G. biloba was reported in the paper. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR)
Stephen Rossetti; Patricia Anthony; Peter Cimbolic; Thomas L. Wright
Priests with the disorder of same-sex ephebophilia were investigated, with the purpose of constructing and validating an MMPI-2 scale. The authors performed an item-level analysis, comparing priests in evaluation for same-sex ephebophilia (N = 100) to priests in evaluation for non-sexual psychiatric disorders (N = 100) and the MMPI-2 normative sample of men (N = 1138). The comparison resulted in
Nishiyama, Maki; Chiba, Hiroaki; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Shimotani, Toyokazu; Nozaki, Masumi
The relationship between sex steroid hormone profiles in plasma and gonadal function in hagfish is poorly understood. In the present study, plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were examined with respect to gonadal development, sexual differences, and possible function of atretic follicles in the brown hagfish, Paramyxine atami, using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Plasma concentrations of these three hormones were low in juveniles of both sexes. In females, plasma estradiol showed a significant correlation with ovarian development, with the highest concentrations in late vitellogenic adults. Plasma testosterone and progesterone also increased significantly in non-vitellogenic adult females; however, plasma testosterone showed no significant differences among adult females at different ovarian developments, while plasma progesterone was significantly lower in late vitellogenic adults than it was in non-vitellogenic adults. Vitellogenic females that possessed atretic follicles showed significantly lower concentrations of all three hormones than females that only possessed normal follicles. In males, no significant differences were found in plasma estradiol or testosterone levels among groups of different developmental stages of the testis, while plasma progesterone showed a clear inverse relationship with testicular development. Thus, differences were found in plasma sex steroid hormone profiles between male and female P. atami. Moreover, plasma estradiol showed a significant correlation with ovarian development, which suggests that estradiol is involved in the regulation of ovarian development. The present study also revealed that steroid hormone production was strongly suppressed in females that possessed atretic follicles in their ovaries. PMID:24199862
Sharma, P.; Patino, Reynaldo
We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.
Moran, Mary Elizabeth; Karkazis, Katrina
In the treatment of patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) represent a new standard of care. While DSDs are too complex for care to be delivered effectively without specialized team management, these conditions are often considered to be too rare for their medical management to be a hospital priority. Many specialists involved in DSD care want to create a clinic or team, but there is no available guidance that bridges the gap between a group of like-minded DSD providers who want to improve care and the formation of a functional MDT. This is an important dilemma, and one with serious implications for the future of DSD care. If a network of multidisciplinary DSD teams is to be a reality, those directly involved in DSD care must be given the necessary program planning and team implementation tools. This paper offers a protocol and set of tools to meet this need. We present a 6-step process to team formation, and a sample set of tools that can be used to guide, develop, and evaluate a team throughout the course of its operation. PMID:22792098
Lorraine Cassidy; David Taylor; Christopher Harris
Abnormal eye movements in the infant or young child can be congenital or acquired. They may be a result of abnormal early visual development or a sign of underlying neurologic or neuromuscular disease. It is important to be able to detect these abnormalities and to distinguish them from normal but immature eye movements. The spectrum of disease in children differs
determination genes lead to various abnormal sexual phenotypes, including sex reversal syndrome in which the genetic and phenotypic sex do not match. Sex reversal syndrome has been reported in humans, mouse, and several domestic species. In horses, SRY...
determination genes lead to various abnormal sexual phenotypes, including sex reversal syndrome in which the genetic and phenotypic sex do not match. Sex reversal syndrome has been reported in humans, mouse, and several domestic species. In horses, SRY...
Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.; Senyukova, Olga
Numerous research efforts and clinical testing have confirmed validity of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis as one of the cardiac diagnostics modalities. The majority of HRV analysis tools currently used in practice are based on linear indicators. Methods from nonlinear dynamics (NLD) provide more natural modeling framework for adaptive biological systems with multiple feedback loops. Compared to linear indicators, many NLD-based measures are much less sensitive to data artifacts and non-stationarity. However, majority of NLD measures require long time series for stable calculation. Similar restrictions also apply for linear indicators. Such requirements could drastically limit practical usability of HRV analysis in many applications, including express diagnostics, early indication of subtle directional changes during personalization of medical treatment, and robust detection of emerging or transient abnormalities. Recently we have illustrated that these challenges could be overcome by using classification framework based on boosting-like ensemble learning techniques that are capable of discovering robust meta-indicators from existing HRV measures and other incomplete empirical knowledge. In this paper we demonstrate universality of such meta-indicators and discuss operational details of their practical usage. Using such pathology examples as congestive heart failure (CHF) and arrhythmias, we show that classifiers trained on short RR segments (down to several minutes) could achieve reasonable classification accuracy (˜80-85% and higher). These indicators calculated from longer RR segments could be applicable for accurate diagnostics with classification accuracy approaching 100%. In addition, it is feasible to discover single "normal-abnormal" meta-classifier capable of detecting multiple abnormalities.
Jouyan, Najmeh; Davoudi Dehaghani, Elham; Senemar, Sara; Shojaee, Ashraf; Mozdarani, Hossein
Background: Chromosome abnormality (CA) including Sex chromosomes abnormality (SCAs) is one of the most important causes of disordered sexual development and infertility. SCAs formed by numerical or structural alteration in X and Y chromosomes, are the most frequently CA encountered at both prenatal diagnosis and at birth. Objective: This study describes cytogenetic findings of cases suspected with CA referred for cytogenetic study. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 4151 patients referred for cytogenetic analysis were cultured for chromosome preparation. Karyotypes were prepared for all samples and G-Banded chromosomes were analyzed using x100 objective lens. Sex chromosome aneuploidy cases were analyzed and categorized in two groups of Turners and Klinefelter’s syndrome (KFS). Results: Out of 230 (5.54%) cases with chromosomally abnormal karyotype, 122 (30%) cases suspected of sexual disorder showed SCA including 46% Turner’s syndrome, 46% KFS and the remaining other sex chromosome abnormalities. The frequency of classic and mosaic form of Turner’s syndrome was 33% and 67%, this was 55% and 45% for KFS, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows a relatively high sex chromosome abnormality in this region and provides cytogenetic data to assist clinicians and genetic counselors to determine the priority of requesting cytogenetic study. Differences between results from various reports can be due to different genetic background or ethnicity. PMID:25242988
Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin
Objectives This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13–18. Results One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. PMID:25916489
Goodpasture, C.; Seluja, G.; Gee, G.
A laboratory procedure for sex identification of monomorphic birds was developed using modern cytological methods of detecting chromosome abnormalities in human amniotic fluid samples. A pin feather is taken from a pre-fledging bird for tissue culture and karyotype analysis. Through this method, the sex was identified and the karyotype described of the whooping crane (Grus americana) and the Mississippi sandhill crane (G. canadensis pulla). Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these species showed an identical chromosome constitution with 2n = 78 + 2. However, differences in the amount of centromeric heterochromatin were observed in the Mississippi sandhill crane when compared to the whooping crane C-banded karyotype.
Brewster, Marnie; Wylie, Kevan R.
The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…
Amanda J. Rose; Karen D. Rudolph
Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls' and boys' development. This article provides a critical review of sex differences in several peer relationship processes, including behavioral and social-cognitive styles, stress and coping, and relationship provisions. The authors present a
Rose, Amanda J.; Rudolph, Karen D.
Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls' and boys' development. This article provides a critical review of sex differences in several peer relationship processes, including behavioral and…
Marcovecchio, M. Loredana; Dalton, R. Neil; Prevost, A. Toby; Acerini, Carlo L.; Barrett, Timothy G.; Cooper, Jason D.; Edge, Julie; Neil, Andrew; Shield, Julian; Widmer, Barry; Todd, John A.; Dunger, David B.
OBJECTIVE To explore the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and their relationship with albumin excretion and microalbuminuria in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study population comprised 895 young subjects with type 1 diabetes (490 males); median age at the baseline assessment was 14.5 years (range 10–21.1), and median diabetes duration was 4.8 years (0.2–17). A total of 2,194 nonfasting blood samples were collected longitudinally for determination of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TG, and non-HDL cholesterol. Additional annually collected data on anthropometric parameters, A1C, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) were available. RESULTS Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol were higher in females than in males (all P < 0.001). A significant proportion of subjects presented sustained lipid abnormalities during follow-up: total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/l (18.6%), non-HDL cholesterol >3.4 mmol/l (25.9%), TG >1.7 mmol/l (20.1%), and LDL cholesterol >3.4 mmol/l (9.6%). Age and duration were significantly related to all lipid parameters (P < 0.001); A1C was independently related to all parameters (P < 0.001) except HDL cholesterol, whereas BMI SD scores were related to all parameters (P < 0.05) except total cholesterol. Total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were independently related to longitudinal changes in ACR (B coefficient ± SE): 0.03 ± 0.01/1 mmol/l, P = 0.009, and 0.32 ± 0.014/1 mmol/l, P = 0.02, respectively. Overall mean total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were higher in microalbuminuria positive (n = 115) than in normoalbuminuric subjects (n = 780): total cholesterol 4.7 ± 1.2 vs. 4.5 ± 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.04) and non-HDL cholesterol 3.2 ± 1.2 vs. 2.9 ± 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS In this longitudinal study of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, sustained lipid abnormalities were related to age, duration, BMI, and A1C. Furthermore, ACR was related to both total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, indicating a potential role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:19171721
Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael
Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…
Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Baker, Eva H.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wade, Benjamin; Clasen, Liv S.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.
As a group, people with the sex chromosome aneuploidy 49,XXXXY have characteristic physical and cognitive/behavioral tendencies, although there is high individual variation. In this study we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain morphometry in 14 youth with 49,XXXXY compared to 42 age-matched healthy controls. Total brain size was significantly smaller (t = 9.0, p < .001), and rates of brain abnormalities such as colpocephaly, plagiocephaly, periventricular cysts, and minor craniofacial abnormalities were significantly increased. White matter lesions were identified in 50% of subjects, supporting the inclusion of 49,XXXXY in the differential diagnosis of small multifocal white matter lesions. Further evidence of abnormal development of white matter was provided by the smaller cross sectional area of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that increased dosage of genes on the X chromosome has adverse effects on white matter development. PMID:23667827
Hue-Beauvais, C; Koch, E; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Galio, L; Chat, S; Letheule, M; Rousseau-Ralliard, D; Jaffrezic, F; Laloë, D; Aujean, E; Révillion, F; Lhotellier, V; Gertler, A; Devinoy, E; Charlier, M
Alterations to the metabolic endocrine environment during early life are crucial to mammary gland development. Among these environmental parameters, the initial nutritional event after birth is the consumption of milk, which represents the first maternal support provided to mammalian newborns. Milk is a complex fluid that exerts effects far beyond its immediate nutritional value. The present study, therefore, aimed to determine the effect of the nutritional changes during the neonatal and prepubertal periods on the adult mammary phenotype. Newborn rabbits were suckled by dams fed a high-fat/high-sugar obesogenic (OD) or a control (CON) diet and then subsequently fed either the OD or CON diets from the onset of puberty and throughout early pregnancy. Mammary glands were collected during early pregnancy (Day 8 of pregnancy). Rabbits fed with OD milk and then subjected to an OD diet displayed an abnormal development of the mammary gland: the mammary ducts were markedly enlarged ( < 0.05) and filled with abundant secretory products. Moreover, the alveolar secretory structures were disorganized, with an abnormal aspect characterized by large lumina. Mammary epithelial cells contained numerous large lipid droplets and exhibited fingering of the apical membrane and abnormally enlarged intercellular spaces filled with casein micelles. Leptin has been shown to be involved in modulating several developmental processes. We therefore analyzed its expression in the mammary gland. Mammary leptin mRNA was strongly expressed in rabbits fed with OD milk and subjected to an OD diet by comparison with the CON rabbits. Leptin transcripts and protein were localized in the epithelial cells, indicating that the increase in leptin synthesis occurs in this compartment. Taken together, these findings suggest that early-life nutritional history, in particular through the milking period, can determine subsequent mammary gland development. Moreover, they highlight the potentially important regulatory role that leptin may play during critical early-life nutritional windows with respect to long-term growth and mammary function. PMID:26020186
Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...
Bammens, Riet; Mehta, Nickita; Race, Valérie; Foulquier, François; Jaeken, Jaak; Tiemeyer, Michael; Steet, Richard; Matthijs, Gert; Flanagan-Steet, Heather
The congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), a group of inherited diseases characterized by aberrant glycosylation, encompass a wide range of defects, including glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, nucleotide-sugar transporters as well as proteins involved in maintaining Golgi architecture, pH and vesicular trafficking. Mutations in a previously undescribed protein, TMEM165, were recently shown to cause a new form of CDG, termed TMEM165-CDG. TMEM165-CDG patients exhibit cartilage and bone dysplasia and altered glycosylation of serum glycoproteins. We utilized a morpholino knockdown strategy in zebrafish to investigate the physiologic and pathogenic functions of TMEM165. Inhibition of tmem165 expression in developing zebrafish embryos caused craniofacial abnormalities, largely attributable to fewer chondrocytes. Decreased expression of several markers of cartilage and bone development suggests that Tmem165 deficiency alters both chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation. Glycomic analysis of tmem165 morphants also revealed altered initiation, processing and extension of N-glycans, paralleling some of the glycosylation changes noted in human patients. Collectively, these findings highlight the utility of zebrafish to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms associated with glycosylation disorders and suggest that the cartilage and bone dysplasia manifested in TMEM165-CDG patients may stem from abnormal development of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. PMID:25609749
Carme Rissech; Maureen Schaefer; Assumpció Malgosa
Growth of four variables of the femur (diapyseal length, diaphyseal length plus distal epiphysis, maximum length and vertical diameter of the head) was analyzed by polynomial regression for the purpose of evaluating its significance and capacity for age and sex determination throughout the entire life continuum. Materials included in analysis consisted of 346 specimens ranging from birth to 97 years
A stereotype is a standardized mental picture based on a common characteristic of a group of people, representing an oversimplified opinion or an uncritical judgment that is not reality-based. In order to understand the psychological basis of sex-role stereotyping it must be understood that the stereotype of men as strong, independent, and in…
Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Reiser, Mark; Gaertner, Bridget M.; Sallquist, Julie; Smith, Cynthia L.
The relations of childhood fearfulness (observed and adult reported) and adult-reported shyness at 18 (n = 256) and 30 (n = 230) months of age were assessed. Fear was positively related to shyness concurrently and longitudinally, but slightly more consistently at 18 months. The moderating roles of observed maternal sensitivity and children's sex…
Morgan, Debbie; Robbins, Jonathan; Tripp, John
Young people engaged as peer educators are increasingly important in sex and relationship education (SRE) programmes in a variety of settings and are particularly valued in the APAUSE programme (Rees et al., 1997). The increase in popularity of peer education raises a need to value the inputs of young people and to give formal recognition to…
Beaver, Jessica L.; French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes; Ullrich-French, Sarah C.
Social-emotional (SE) skills in the early developmental years of children influence outcomes in psychological, behavioral, and learning domains. The adult ratings of a child's SE skills can be influenced by sex stereotypes. These rating differences could lead to differential conclusions about developmental progress or risk. To ensure that…
Kingsley, Cherry; Peters, Barry; Babaahmady, Kaboutar; Pomeroy, Laura; Rahman, Durdana; Vaughan, Robert; Lehner, Thomas
Background Epidemiological studies suggest that allogeneic immunity may inhibit HIV-1 transmission from mother to baby and is less frequent in multiparous than uniparous women. Alloimmune responses may also be elicited during unprotected heterosexual intercourse, which is associated ex vivo with resistance to HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings The investigation was carried out in well-defined heterosexual and homosexual monogamous partners, practising unprotected sex and a heterosexual cohort practising protected sex. Allogeneic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferative responses were elicited by stimulating PBMC with the partners' irradiated monocytes and compared with 3rd party unrelated monocytes, using the CFSE method. Significant increase in allogeneic proliferative responses was found in the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to the partners' irradiated monocytes, as compared with 3rd party unrelated monocytes (p?0.001). However, a significant decrease in proliferative responses, especially of CD8+ T cells to the partners' compared with 3rd party monocytes was consistent with tolerization, in both the heterosexual and homosexual partners (p<0.01). Examination of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells by flow cytometry revealed a significantly greater proportion of these cells in the homosexual than heterosexual partners practising unprotected sex (p<0.05). Ex vivo studies of infectivity of PBMC with HIV-1 showed significantly greater inhibition of infectivity of PBMC from heterosexual subjects practising unprotected compared with those practising protected sex (p?=?0.02). Conclusions/Significance Both heterosexual and homosexual monogamous partners practising unprotected sex develop allogeneic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferative responses to the partners' unmatched cells and a minority may be tolerized. However, a greater proportion of homosexual rather than heterosexual partners developed CD4+CD25FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. These results, in addition to finding greater inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity in PBMC ex vivo in heterosexual partners practising unprotected, compared with those practising protected sex, suggest that allogeneic immunity may play a significant role in the immuno-pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. PMID:19956755
Khaliluev, M R; Chaban, I A; Kononenko, N V; Baranova, E N; Dolgov, S V; Kharchenko, P N; Poliakov, V Iu
In this study, the morphological and cytoembryological analyses of the tomato plants transformed with the genes encoding chitin-binding proteins (ac and RS-intron-Shir) from Amaranthus caudatus L. andA. retroflexus L., respectively, as well as the gene amp2 encoding hevein-like antimicrobial peptides from Stellaria media L., have been performed. The transgenic lines were adapted to soil and grown the greenhouse. The analysis of putative transgenic tomato plants revealed several lines that did not differ phenotypically from the wild type plants and three lines with disruption in differentiation of the inflorescence shoot and the flower, as well as the fruit formation (modified plants of each line were transformed with a single gene as noted before). Abnormalities in the development of the generative organs were maintained for at least six vegetative generations. These transgenic plants were shown to be defective in the mail gametophyte formation, fertilization, and, consequently, led to parthenocarpic fruits. The detailed analysis of growing ovules in the abnormal transgenic plants showed that the replacement tissue was formed and proliferated instead of unfertilized embryo sac. The structure of the replacement tissue differed from both embryonic and endosperm tissue of the normal ovule. The formation of the replacement tissue occurred due to continuing proliferation of the endothelial cells that lost their ability for differentiation. The final step in the development of the replacement tissue was its death, which resulted in the cell lysis. The expression of the genes used was confirmed by RT-PCR in all three lines with abnormal phenotype, as well as in several lines that did not phenotypically differ from the untransformed control. This suggests that abnormalities in the organs of the generative sphere in the transgenic plants do not depend on the expression of the foreign genes that were introduced in the tomato genome. Here, we argue that agrobacterial transformation affects, directly or indirectly, expression of genes encoding for transcription factors that can activate a gene cascade responsible for the normal plant development. PMID:25720263
Torres-Rovira, Laura; Tarrade, Anne; Astiz, Susana; Mourier, Eve; Perez-Solana, Mariluz; de la Cruz, Paloma; Gomez-Fidalgo, Ernesto; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio
The present study aimed to determine the effects of breed and sex on growth patterns and metabolic features of advanced-pregnancy foetuses exposed to the same environmental conditions. Thus, at Day 62 of pregnancy, swine foetuses from an obese breed with leptin resistance (Iberian breed) were compared to lean crossbred foetuses (25% Large White ×25% Landrace ×50% Pietrain). There were differential developmental patterns in foetuses with leptin resistance, mainly a higher relative weight of the brain resembling "brain-sparing effect". Prioritization of brain growth may be protective for the adequate growth and postnatal survival of the Iberian individuals, an ancient breed reared in extensive semi-feral conditions for centuries. There were also clear sex-related differences in foetal development and metabolism in the Iberian breed. Female Iberian foetuses were similar in size and weight to male littermates but had a significantly higher relative liver to body weight ratio resembling "liver-sparing effect" and a trend for a higher relative intestine to body ratio. Moreover, the availability of triglycerides, cholesterol and IL-6 in female Iberian foetuses was similar to that of lean crossbred foetuses. Overall, these features may favour a better postnatal survival and development of females, the sex more critical for the species survival. These findings set the basis for future translational studies aimed at increasing the knowledge on the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the early programming of the adult phenotype. PMID:23935823
Leigland, Lindsey A.; Budde, Matthew D.; Cornea, Anda; Kroenke, Christopher D.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) comprise a wide range of neurological deficits that result from fetal exposure to ethanol (EtOH), and are the leading cause of environmentally related birth defects and mental retardation in the western world. One aspect of diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategies that could substantially improve our ability to combat this significant problem would be to facilitate earlier detection of the disorders within individuals. Light microscopy-based investigations performed by several laboratories have previously shown that morphological development of neurons within the early-developing cerebral cortex is abnormal within the brains of animals exposed to EtOH during fetal development. We and others have recently demonstrated that diffusion MRI can be of utility for detecting abnormal cellular morphological development in the developing cerebral cortex. We therefore assessed whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be used to distinguish the developing cerebral cortices of ex vivo rat pup brains born from dams treated with EtOH (EtOH; 4.5 g/kg, 25%) or calorie-matched quantities of maltose/dextrin (M/D) throughout gestation. Water diffusion and tissue microstructure were investigated using DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA) and histology (anisotropy index, AI), respectively. Both FA and AI decreased with age, and were higher in the EtOH than the M/D group at postnatal ages (P)0, P3, and P6. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between FA and AI measurements. These findings provide evidence that disruptions in cerebral cortical development induced by EtOH exposure can be revealed by water diffusion anisotropy patterns, and that these disruptions are directly related to cerebral cortical differentiation. PMID:23921100
Ross, Lars A.; Del Bene, Victor A.; Molholm, Sophie; Frey, Hans-Peter; Foxe, John J.
Background: Previous work has revealed sizeable deficits in the abilities of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to integrate auditory and visual speech signals, with clear implications for social communication in this population. There is a strong male preponderance in ASD, with approximately four affected males for every female. The presence of sex differences in ASD symptoms suggests a sexual dimorphism in the ASD phenotype, and raises the question of whether this dimorphism extends to ASD traits in the neurotypical population. Here, we investigated possible sexual dimorphism in multisensory speech integration in both ASD and neurotypical individuals. Methods: We assessed whether males and females differed in their ability to benefit from visual speech when target words were presented under varying levels of signal-to-noise, in samples of neurotypical children and adults, and in children diagnosed with an ASD. Results: In typically developing (TD) children and children with ASD, females (n = 47 and n = 15, respectively) were significantly superior in their ability to recognize words under audiovisual listening conditions compared to males (n = 55 and n = 58, respectively). This sex difference was absent in our sample of neurotypical adults (n = 28 females; n = 28 males). Conclusions: We propose that the development of audiovisual integration is delayed in male relative to female children, a delay that is also observed in ASD. In neurotypicals, these sex differences disappear in early adulthood when females approach their performance maximum and males “catch up.” Our findings underline the importance of considering sex differences in the search for autism endophenotypes and strongly encourage increased efforts to study the underrepresented population of females within ASD.
Stottmann, R.W.; Donlin, M.; Hafner, A.; Bernard, A.; Sinclair, D.A.; Beier, D.R.
Human cortical malformations, including lissencephaly, polymicrogyria and other diseases of neurodevelopment, have been associated with mutations in microtubule subunits and microtubule-associated proteins. Here we report our cloning of the brain dimple (brdp) mouse mutation, which we recovered from an ENU screen for recessive perinatal phenotypes affecting neurodevelopment. We identify the causal mutation in the tubulin, beta-2b (Tubb2b) gene as a missense mutation at a highly conserved residue (N247S). Brdp/brdp homozygous mutants have significant thinning of the cortical epithelium, which is markedly more severe in the caudo-lateral portion of the telencephalon, and do not survive past birth. The cortical defects are largely due to a major increase in apoptosis and we note abnormal proliferation of the basal progenitors. Adult brdp/+ mice are viable and fertile but exhibit behavioral phenotypes. This allele of Tubb2b represents the most severely affected mouse tubulin phenotype reported to date and this is the first report of a tubulin mutation affecting neuronal proliferation and survival. PMID:23727838
Nelson, Erica; Edmonds, Alexander; Ballesteros, Marco; Encalada Soto, Diana; Rodriguez, Octavio
This paper is an ethnography of a four-year, multi-disciplinary adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention in Bolivia, Nicaragua and Ecuador. An important goal of the intervention – and of the larger global field of adolescent sexual and reproductive health – is to create more open parent-to-teen communication. This paper analyzes the project's efforts to foster such communication and how social actors variously interpreted, responded to, and repurposed the intervention's language and practices. While the intervention emphasized the goal of ‘open communication,’ its participants more often used the term ‘confianza’ (trust). This norm was defined in ways that might – or might not – include revealing information about sexual activity. Questioning public health assumptions about parent–teen communication on sex, in and of itself, is key to healthy sexual behavior, the paper explores a pragmatics of communication on sex that includes silence, implied expectations, gendered conflicts, and temporally delayed knowledge. PMID:25175294
Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.; Detienne, J.; Talbot, S.; Gray, K.
We predicted sex of 140 Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) nestlings out of 34 nests at our Barrow, Alaska, study area to develop a technique for sexing these owls in the field. We primarily sexed young, flightless owls (3844 d old) by quantifying plumage markings on the remiges and tail, predicting sex, and collecting blood samples to test our field predictions using molecular sexing techniques. We categorized and quantified three different plumage markings: two types of bars (defined as markings that touch the rachis) and spots (defined as markings that do not touch the rachis). We predicted sex in the field assuming that males had more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on the remiges and rectrices. Molecular data indicated that we correctly sexed 100% of the nestlings. We modeled the data using random forests and classification trees. Both models indicated that the number and type of markings on the secondary feathers were the most important in classifying nestling sex. The statistical models verified our initial qualitative prediction that males have more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on flight feathers P6P10 for both wings and tail feathers T1 and T2. This study provides researchers with an easily replicable and highly accurate method for sexing young Snowy Owls in the field, which should aid further studies of sex-ratios and sex-related variation in behavior and growth of this circumpolar owl species. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.
Ying-jie ZhouXian-guo; Xian-guo Wang; Xin-quan Zhang
Buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm, is a dioecious turfgrass native to the Great Plains of North America. Since its naturalization, it has become\\u000a the most wildly cultivated warm-season turfgrass in northern China. While dioecious plants represent only a small proportion\\u000a of all plant species, they are important models in the study of plant sex determination and evolution. The identification\\u000a of
Pike, Emily C.; Fowler, Beth; LeGrand, Sara; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bull, Sheana S.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Wohl, David A.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.
Abstract Young black men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. Rapid expansion of mobile technologies, including smartphone applications (apps), provides a unique opportunity for outreach and tailored health messaging. We collected electronic daily journals and conducted surveys and focus groups with 22 black MSM (age 18–30) at three sites in North Carolina to inform the development of a mobile phone-based intervention. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically using NVivo. Half of the sample earned under $11,000 annually. All participants owned smartphones and had unlimited texting and many had unlimited data plans. Phones were integral to participants' lives and were a primary means of Internet access. Communication was primarily through text messaging and Internet (on-line chatting, social networking sites) rather than calls. Apps were used daily for entertainment, information, productivity, and social networking. Half of participants used their phones to find sex partners; over half used phones to find health information. For an HIV-related app, participants requested user-friendly content about test site locators, sexually transmitted diseases, symptom evaluation, drug and alcohol risk, safe sex, sexuality and relationships, gay-friendly health providers, and connection to other gay/HIV-positive men. For young black MSM in this qualitative study, mobile technologies were a widely used, acceptable means for HIV intervention. Future research is needed to measure patterns and preferences of mobile technology use among broader samples. PMID:23565925
An interdisciplinary integrative approach must be utilized in the study of psychosexual differentiation. The approach must capitalize on data derived from non-human models, from experiments of nature, and from experiments of nurture. Studies from non-human primates strongly suggest the influence of prenatal sex hormone levels on postnatal sexually dimorphic behaviours. Starting from this basis we have studied sixty young adult men whose mothers received, during pregnancy, diethylstilboestrol, diethylstilboestrol and natural progesterone, natural progesterone, or synthetic progesterone. They have been compared with matched controls not exposed in utero to exogenous hormones. Studies of socialization patterns must document the differential developmental experiences, if any, of children with atypical and typical sex-typed behaviours. To this end, we are studying 60 boys whose behaviour before puberty was decidedly feminine, and their parents, and contrasting them with masculine boys and their parents. We are also studying 50 girls whose behaviour before puberty was 'masculine', and contrasting them with 'feminine' girls. Additionally, we are studying the sexually dimorphic behaviour of children of sexually atypical parents. The parents have either undergone sex-change surgery (male-to-female or female-to-male) or are homosexual. Data from the three studies are presented. A call is made to researchers working with non-human primates to test and extend these findings. PMID:256835
The ability of SV40 T antigen to cause abnormalities in cartilage development in transgenic mice and chimeras has been tested. The cis- regulatory elements of the COL2A1 gene were used to target expression of SV40 T antigen to differentiating chondrocytes in transgenic mice and chimeras derived from embryonal stem (ES) cells bearing the same transgene. The major phenotypic consequences of transgenic (pAL21) expression are malformed skeleton, disproportionate dwarfism, and perinatal/neonatal death. Expression of T antigen was tissue specific and in the main characteristic of the mouse alpha 1(II) collagen gene. Chondrocyte densities and levels of alpha 1(II) collagen mRNAs were reduced in the transgenic mice. Islands of cells which express cartilage characteristic genes such as type IIB procollagen, long form alpha 1(IX) collagen, alpha 2(XI) collagen, and aggrecan were found in the articular and growth cartilages of pAL21 chimeric fetuses and neonates. But these cells, which were expressing T antigen, were not properly organized into columns of proliferating chondrocytes. Levels of alpha 1(II) collagen mRNA were reduced in these chondrocytes. In addition, these cells did not express type X collagen, a marker for hypertrophic chondrocytes. The skeletal abnormality in pAL21 mice may therefore be due to a retardation of chondrocyte maturation or an impaired ability of chondrocytes to complete terminal differentiation and an associated paucity of some cartilage matrix components. PMID:7822417
Disorders or differences in sex development (DSD) comprise a wide spectrum of severity. The overall goal for the treatment and care is good quality of life but current knowledge concerning the psychosocial situation and health related quality of life for patients with different forms of DSD is limited. Follow-up studies have often focused on surgical results, sexual function, and psychosexual outcome and indicated unsatisfactory results in many cases. Epidemiological studies show less than optimal psychosocial situation for some of the diagnostic groups. Studies indicate that access to psychological support and understandable information is important for the outcome. Hormonal and surgical treatments are improving and new and better ways to strengthen the patient's ability to cope with the situation are needed. In a well-functioning multidisciplinary team, the patient's and family's needs should be identified. Tools to accomplish this can be developed. The care and our knowledge about disorders of sex development have developed considerably during the last decade. These are small patient groups with rare conditions that require specialized, highly qualified care in all aspects: medical, surgical, and psychological. It is important that changes in treatment practice are continuously evaluated. PMID:25738997
... able to lead a normal sex life? Since much of sexual pleasure comes from stimulation of the clitoris, the female erectile structure, and not the vagina, she should enjoy normal sensations and a good sex life. Since ...
Zhang, Heng; Pan, Jinhong; Ji, Huixiang; Wang, Yongquan; Shen, Wenhao; Liu, Limei; Lu, Gensheng; Zhou, Zhansong
Purpose. To summarize the experience in treating patients with genitoplasty due to disorders of sex development in China. Methods. The operative procedures, gender of rearing, surgical outcome, and psychosocial and family adjustments of 262 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results. At initial diagnosis, the mean age was 14.3 ± 2.8 years (range: 2–38 years). There were 96 children, 133 adolescents, and 33 adults. Follow-up was done every 6 months. Patients with female sex assignment had no urinary incontinence or voiding difficulty. Five patients underwent the second surgery (3%); vaginal dilation was performed in 35 patients with postoperative vaginal stenosis; 12 patients (7.4%) were unsatisfactory with the outcome. For patients with male sex assignment, the median length of penis was 2.2?cm in prepubertal patients, 4.2?cm in pubertal patients, and 5.0?cm in adults; 39 patients developed postvoid dribbling (39%); 21 patients underwent a second surgery (21%); urethral dilation was done in 28 patients (28%) due to urethral stricture; 38 patients were unsatisfactory with the outcome (38%). In addition, 136 patients (83%) with female sex assignment and 54 (54%) with male sex assignment had favorable psychosocial adjustment. Conclusions. Patients with male sex assignment have more surgical complications and difficulties in psychosocial adjustment as compared to those with female sex assignment. PMID:24376381
Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe; Vangie A. Foshee; Susan T. Ennett; Chirayath Suchindran
To describe trajectories of aggressive behaviors for adolescents living in rural areas, we compared the patterns, timing and\\u000a sex differences in development of physical and social aggression using five waves of data collected from youth in school surveys\\u000a administered over 2.5 years. The sample (N?=?5,151) was 50.0% female, 52.1% Caucasian and 38.2% African-American. Multilevel growth curve models showed that physical\\u000a and
Cravey, Matthew David
). Statistical analyses were performed on two edited data sets of birth weights (43, 968) and weaning weights (49, 682) from 1976 through 1987, to evaluate the main effects of age of dam, sex of calf, month of birth, year of birth and creep management...-old dams, respectively. All main effects and two-factor interactions reduced residual variation in the weaning weight analysis (P & . 05). Heifers weighed 25. 6 kg less than bulls at weaning (P & . 0001). Creep-fed calves were 8. 2 kg heavier than non...
Rose, Amanda J.; Rudolph, Karen D.
Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls’ and boys’ development. This paper provides a critical review of sex differences in: several peer-relationship processes, including behavioral and social-cognitive styles, stress and coping, and relationship provisions. Based on this review, a speculative peer-socialization model is presented that considers the implications of these sex differences for girls’ and boys’ emotional and behavioral development. Central to this model is the idea that sex-linked relationship processes have costs and benefits for girls’ and boys’ adjustment. Finally, we present recent research testing certain model components and propose approaches for testing understudied aspects of the model. PMID:16435959
Yoshida, Midori; Takenaka, Akiko; Katsuda, Shin-ichi; Kurokawa, Yuji; Maekawa, Akihiko
In the present study, we investigated immunohistochemically the time-course alterations in estrogen receptor alpha (ER) expression and cell proliferating activity in the developing uteri of Donryu rats exposed neonatally to a high dose p-tert-octylphenol (OP), an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). OP-treatment (sc injections of 100 mg/kg, every other day from postnatal days 1 to 15) induced an early and enhanced ER expression in the luminal epithelium compared with age-matched controls from postnatal day (PND) 10, and increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells up to PND21. At PND28, ER expression in the luminal epithelium of the OP-treated group was decreased, in association with decline in the luminal epithelial areas. PND14, the second week of life, is coincident with the normal time for differentiation when the luminal epithelium invaginates into the stroma to form uterine glands. OP-treatment, however, delayed and inhibited gland-formation, and suppressed ER expression in the invaginated-luminal and glandular epithelium at this time. These results indicate that ER expression in these sites is strongly linked with cell proliferating activity. In stromal cells, ER was expressed from PND6 in both groups without any PCNA positive cells, but significantly lower values were noted in the OP-treated group up to PND10. Our immunohistochemical investigation did not reveal any abnormalities in expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos, mitotic inhibitor p21, or epidermal growth factor antigen, although the apoptotic index in the luminal epithelium was slightly increased in the OP-treated group. These results demonstrate neonatal effects of a high dose of OP, already detectable at PND10, with early and enhanced ER expression, resulting in increase of cell proliferative activity in the luminal epithelium, though expression in the glandular epithelium was suppressed in relation to inhibited gland-genesis. The present study thus suggests that neonatal exposure to high doses of EDCs with estrogenic activity can induce abnormal differentiation in the developing rat uteri via abnormal ER expression and subsequent alteration of cell proliferating activity. PMID:12051553
Nikiforov, S V; Mamaev, V B
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about why males have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates than do females. An important factor that has hampered efforts in this regard is the lack of clarity about whether male excess mortality from CVD has existed throughout history. To answer this question, an investigation was conducted of trends in CVD mortality differences between the sexes from the time when data first became available until the present, including the full range of age groups. METHODS: Mortality statistics for CVD in England and Wales from 1861 through 1992 and in the United States from 1900 through 1991 were used. RESULTS: Three stages in the relationship between male and female CVD mortality were found: (1) An early stage of equal male and female mortality, (2) a stage of the appearance of sex differences in mortality, and (3) a stage with consistently present male excess mortality. CONCLUSION: Male excess mortality from CVD has not always been present in the historical record. Further research is needed to elucidate the causes of this excess mortality. PMID:9736875
Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; Lausch, Ekkehart; Unger, Sheila; Campos-Xavier, Ana Belinda; Gilissen, Christian; Rossi, Antonio; Del Rosario, Marisol; Venselaar, Hanka; Knoll, Ute; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Nair, Mohandas; Spranger, Jürgen; Brunner, Han G.; Bonafé, Luisa; Veltman, Joris A.; Zabel, Bernhard; Superti-Furga, Andrea
We used whole-exome sequencing to study three individuals with a distinct condition characterized by short stature, chondrodysplasia with brachydactyly, congenital joint dislocations, cleft palate, and facial dysmorphism. Affected individuals carried homozygous missense mutations in IMPAD1, the gene coding for gPAPP, a Golgi-resident nucleotide phosphatase that hydrolyzes phosphoadenosine phosphate (PAP), the byproduct of sulfotransferase reactions, to AMP. The mutations affected residues in or adjacent to the phosphatase active site and are predicted to impair enzyme activity. A fourth unrelated patient was subsequently found to be homozygous for a premature termination codon in IMPAD1. Impad1 inactivation in mice has previously been shown to produce chondrodysplasia with abnormal joint formation and impaired proteoglycan sulfation. The human chondrodysplasia associated with gPAPP deficiency joins a growing number of skeletoarticular conditions associated with defective synthesis of sulfated proteoglycans, highlighting the importance of proteoglycans in the development of skeletal elements and joints. PMID:21549340
Roisman, Glenn I.; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle
This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships…
Hines, Melissa; Kaufman, Francine R.
Examined the rough-and-tumble play and gender of preferred playmates in three- to eight-year olds with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)--hypothesized to masculinize behaviors that show sex differences--and in unaffected three- to eight-year-old relatives. Found that CAH girls did not exhibit increased levels of masculine behavior when compared…
Simmonds, Daniel; Hallquist, Michael N.; Asato, Miya; Luna, Beatriz
White matter (WM) continues to mature through adolescence in parallel with gains in cognitive ability. To date, developmental changes in human WM microstructure have been inferred using analyses of cross-sectional or two time-point follow-up studies, limiting our understanding of individual developmental trajectories. The aims of the present longitudinal study were to characterize the timing of WM growth and investigate how sex and behavior are associated with different developmental trajectories. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 128 individuals ages 8-28, who received annual scans for up to 5 years and completed motor and cognitive tasks. Flexible nonlinear growth curves indicated a hierarchical pattern of WM development. By late childhood, posterior cortical-subcortical connections were similar to adults. During adolescence, WM microstructure reached adult levels, including frontocortical, frontosubcortical and cerebellar connections. Later to mature in adulthood were major corticolimbic association tracts and connections at terminal gray matter sites in cortical and basal ganglia regions. These patterns may reflect adolescent maturation of frontal connectivity supporting cognitive abilities, particularly the protracted refinement of corticolimbic connectivity underlying cognition-emotion interactions. Sex and behavior also played a large role. Males showed continuous WM growth from childhood through early adulthood, whereas females mainly showed growth during mid-adolescence. Further, earlier WM growth in adolescence was associated with faster and more efficient responding and better inhibitory control whereas later growth in adulthood was associated with poorer performance, suggesting that the timing of WM growth is important for cognitive development. PMID:24384150
Bhatia, Aruna; Sekhon, Harmandeep Kaur; Kaur, Gurpreet
The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed. PMID:25478584
Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim
A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405
Raman, Lakshmi; Georgieff, Michael K.; Rao, Raghavendra
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common pulmonary morbidity in preterm infants and is associated with chronic hypoxia. Animal studies have demonstrated structural, neurochemical and functional alterations due to chronic hypoxia in the developing brain. Long-term impairments in visual-motor, gross and fine motor, articulation, reading,…
Social and economic factors determine the extent of the sex industry in societies. Despite AIDS, the sex industry will continue to thrive. Accordingly, health promotion strategies aimed at sex workers and their clients should not stem from the belief that the industry should cease to exist. This paper offers advice in developing and implementing programs to promote safer sex among sex workers. The social context is 1 element to consider in planning successful campaigns. Interventions must be combined with well-planned prevention campaigns aimed at entire populations. The opinions and participation of those involved in the industry should also be sought, while worker discussion and action upon other community issues should not be discouraged. Care should be given to target the numerous and diverse sex worker audiences in addition to other persons related to and involved in the industry. Programs should address the main obstacles to practicing safer sex, and attention should be given to ensure the provision of an adequate and regular supply of cheap or free condoms through varied distribution channels. In the area of service provision, sex workers need easy access to social support and health care services from which they are often excluded. Activities conducted around the world include the marketing of safer sex, distributing printed information on HIV and AIDS to clients, training sex workers to pass designated constructive ideas to others involved in the sex industry, referring sex workers to sex businesses supportive of safer sex practices, and developing street theater and cabaret shows in bars. PMID:12284682
Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.
In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665
T. Rhen; K. Metzger; A. Schroeder; R. Woodward
Modes of sex determination are quite variable in vertebrates. The developmental decision to form a testis or an ovary can be influenced by one gene, several genes, environmental variables, or a combination of these factors. Nevertheless, certain morphogenetic aspects of sex determination appear to be conserved in amniotes. Here we clone fragments of nine candidate sex-determining genes from the snapping
L'Angelle, David, Comp.; Williams, Sarah, Comp.
Intended to serve as a guide to selected current resources promoting sex equity in vocational education and to the legal regulations which mandate equitable programs, this reference guide is organized into two major sections: Sex Fairness Resources and The Law. Sex Fairness Resources divides the resources listed into sections that reflect six…
Weber, Daniel N; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Hoke, Elizabeth S; Tanguay, Robert L
Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure is associated with adverse behavioral effects, although underlying modes of action remain unclear. Because BPA is a suspected xenoestrogen, the objective was to identify sex-based changes in adult zebrafish social behavior developmentally exposed to BPA (0.0, 0.1, or 1 ?M) or one of two control compounds (0.1 ?M 17?-estradiol [E2], and 0.1 ?M GSK4716, a synthetic estrogen-related receptor ? ligand). A test chamber was divided lengthwise so each arena held one fish unable to detect the presence of the other fish. A mirror was inserted at one end of each arena; baseline activity levels were determined without mirror. Arenas were divided into three computer-generated zones to represent different distances from mirror image. Circadian rhythm patterns were evaluated at 1-3 (= AM) and 5-8 (= PM) h postprandial. Adult zebrafish were placed into arenas and monitored by digital camera for 5 min. Total distance traveled, percent of time spent at mirror image, and number of attacks on mirror image were quantified. E2, GSK4716, and all BPA treatments dampened male activity and altered male circadian activity patterns; there was no marked effect on female activity. BPA induced nonmonotonic effects (response curve changes direction within range of concentrations examined) on male percent of time at mirror only in AM. All treatments produced increased percent of time at the mirror during PM. Male attacks on the mirror were reduced by BPA exposure only during AM. There were sex-specific effects of developmental BPA on social interactions, and time of day of observation affected results. PMID:25424546
Atsushi Funahashi; Mineko Fujimiya; Hiroshi Kimura; Toshihiro Maeda
The postnatal development of serotonin (5HT)-immunoreactive axons was studied in the visual cortex of the cerebrum in both\\u000a normal and microcephalic rats during early postnatal and young adult stages. Severe microcephaly in rat offspring was induced\\u000a by prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), an anti-mitotic agent, on day 15 of gestation. From postnatal day\\u000a 1 (PND 1) to PND 5,
Hastings, Thomas Worcester
and shales. The important parameters determining the extent of fluid pressure preservation are the geothermal gradient, the thermal loading rate, and the hydraulic diffusivity, K/Ss, of the rock . The highest fluid pressure development is expected... Variation of fluid expansivity and fluid compressibility with depth for a 25C/km geothermal gradient Page 14 Pressure response in different rock types and for various boundary conditions under . constant fluid mass 25 Values of or/Bf as a function...
Wolthuis, D F G J; van Asbeck, E V; Kozicz, T; Morava, E
We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or hyperinsulinism had abnormal fat distribution, while normoglycemic patients showed this feature in 50% of the cases. This statistically significant difference suggests an etiological role of the insulin receptor in developing abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG. PMID:24063868
Geibel, Scott; Tun, Waimar; Tapsoba, Placide; Kellerman, Scott
While male-to-male sexual behavior has been recognized as a primary risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), research targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) in less-developed countries has been limited due to high levels of stigma and discrimination. In response, the Population Council's Horizons Program began implementing research activities in Africa and South America beginning in 2001, with the objectives of gathering information on MSM sexual risk behaviors, evaluating HIV-prevention programs, and informing HIV policy makers. The results of this nearly decade-long program are presented in this article as a summary of the Horizons MSM studies in Africa (Senegal and Kenya) and Latin America (Brazil and Paraguay), and include research methodologies, study findings, and interventions evaluated. We also discuss future directions and approaches for HIV research among MSM in developing countries. PMID:20297760
Meijide, Fernando J; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Guerrero, Graciela A
Although the overall pattern and timing of gonadal sex differentiation have been established in a considerable number of teleosts, the ultrastructure of early stages of gonadal development is not well documented. In this study, gonads from larval and juvenile stages of laboratory-reared Cichlasoma dimerus were examined at the light-microscopic and ultrastructural levels. This freshwater species adapts easily to captivity and spawns with high frequency during 8 months of the year, providing an appropriate model for developmental studies. Larvae and juveniles were kept at a water temperature of 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C and a 12:12 hour photoperiod. Gonadal development was documented from 14-100 days postfertilization, covering the period of histologically discernible sex differentiation. Gonadal tissue was processed according to standard techniques for light and electron microscopy. C. dimerus, a perciform teleost, is classified as a differentiated gonochorist, in which an indifferent gonad develops directly into a testis or ovary. On day 14, the gonadal primordium consists of a few germ cells surrounded by enveloping somatic cells. Ovarian differentiation precedes testicular differentiation, as usual in teleost fishes. The earliest signs of differentiation, detected from day 42 onward, include the onset of meiotic activity in newly formed oocytes, which is soon accompanied by increased oogonial mitotic proliferation and the somatic reorganization of the presumptive ovary. The ovarian cavity is completely formed by day 65. Numerous follicles containing perinucleolar oocytes are observed by day 100. In contrast, signs of morphological differentiation in the presumptive testis are not observed until day 72. By day 100, the unrestricted lobular organization of the testis is evident. The latest stage of spermatogenesis observed by this time of testicular development is spermatocyte II. PMID:15789420
Liu, Dan-Dan; Dong, Qing-Long; Fang, Mou-Jing; Chen, Ke-Qin; Hao, Yu-Jin
It has been well documented that FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) plays important regulatory roles in diverse developmental processes in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is largely unknown how FIE genes function in economically important crops. In this study, MhFIE gene, which was previously isolated from apomictic tea crabapple (Malus hupehensis Redh. var. pingyiensis), was introduced into tomato. The hemizygous transgenic tomato lines produced curly leaves and decreased in seed germination. In addition, the co-suppression of the transgenic MhFIE and endogenous (SlFIE) genes occurred in homozygous transgenic tomatoes. As a result, FIE silencing brought about abnormal phenotypes during reproductive development in tomato, such as increased sepal and petal numbers in flower, a fused ovule and pistil and parthenocarpic fruit formation. A yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that MhFIE interacted with a tomato protein, EZ2 (SlEZ2). Its ectopic expression and SlFIE co-suppression notably influenced the expression of genes associated with leaf, flower, and fruit development. Therefore, together with other PcG proteins, FIE was involved in the regulation of vegetative and reproductive development by modulating the expression of related genes in plants. PMID:23000466
Expression of defensin, cecropin, and transferrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infected with Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), and the abnormal development of nematodes in the mosquito.
Magalhaes, Tereza; Oliveira, Ieda F; Melo-Santos, Maria A V; Oliveira, Claudia M F; Lima, Catarina A; Ayres, Constancia F J
The temporal expression of defensin, cecropin and transferrin was assessed in Aedes aegypti naturally refractory to Wuchereria bancrofti upon infection with this worm, in parallel to analysis of filarial development in the insect. Compared to controls, transcription of defensin and cecropin was higher in infected mosquitoes as soon as 2h post infection and peaked before 48h. Transferrin transcription was higher in infected mosquitoes at 24h, and at 48h was almost leveled to controls. At 72h and 7 days post infection, levels of all transcripts in infected insects decreased gradually and were similar to controls in most cases. Worm development in A. aegypti was visually abnormal from the beginning of infection. Here, we report, for the first time, the up-regulation of endogenous immune molecules in A. aegypti infected with W. bancrofti and provide a description of the worm development inside the insect. The specificities of A. aegypti-W. bancrofti model compared to other mosquito-filaria systems are discussed. PMID:18809401
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron
David Heber; N. S. Tchekmedyian
Despite the development of advanced nutritional support technology, malnutrition remains a significant morbid and mortal complication of cancer. A number of metabolic abnormalities have been demonstrated in malnourished cancer patients, including increased protein breakdown, increased glucose production, increased lipolysis, hypogonadism in male patients, and insulin resistance. Previous studies conducted under metabolic ward conditions have demonstrated that metabolic abnormalities interfere with
To elucidate the role of PTHrP in skeletal development, we examined the proximal tibial epiphysis and metaphysis of wild-type (PTHrP-normal) 18- 19-d-old fetal mice and of chondrodystrophic litter mates homozygous for a disrupted PTHrP allele generated via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells (PTHrP-depleted). In the PTHrP-normal epiphysis, immunocytochemistry showed PTHrP to be localized in chondrocytes within the resting zone and at the junction between proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In PTHrP-depleted epiphyses, a diminished [3H]thymidine-labeling index was observed in the resting and proliferative zones accounting for reduced numbers of epiphyseal chondrocytes and for a thinner epiphyseal plate. In the mutant hypertrophic zone, enlarged chondrocytes were interspersed with clusters of cells that did not hypertrophy, but resembled resting or proliferative chondrocytes. Although the overall content of type II collagen in the epiphyseal plate was diminished, the lacunae of these non-hypertrophic chondrocytes did react for type II collagen. Moreover, cell membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate immunoreactivity was evident on these cells. Despite the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity on these nonhypertrophic chondrocytes, the adjacent cartilage matrix did not calcify and their persistence accounted for distorted chondrocyte columns and sporadic distribution of calcified cartilage. Consequently, in the metaphysis, bone deposited on the irregular and sparse scaffold of calcified cartilage and resulted in mixed spicules that did not parallel the longitudinal axis of the tibia and were, therefore, inappropriate for bone elongation. Thus, PTHrP appears to modulate both the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and its absence alters the temporal and spatial sequence of epiphyseal cartilage development and of subsequent endochondral bone formation necessary for normal elongation of long bones. PMID:8089190
Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc
Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345
Spindler, Matthew J.; Burmeister, Brian T.; Huang, Yu; Hsiao, Edward C.; Salomonis, Nathan; Scott, Mark J.; Srivastava, Deepak; Carnegie, Graeme K.; Conklin, Bruce R.
Background A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA) and D (PKD) and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction. Conclusions These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23658642
Young-Biao Liu; Kenneth F. Haynes
Male cabbage looper moths,Trichoplusia ni, from two colonies in which all females express an abnormal sex pheromone production phenotype were evaluated in a laboratory wind tunnel for upwind flight responses to the normal and abnormal sex pheromones. The abnormal sex pheromone blend consisted of 20 times as much (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate and 30-fold less (Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate compared to the normal pheromone
Del Valle, Miguel; Díaz Zorita, María Isabel; Stepansky, Nuria; García Barthe, Mónica; Rodríguez, María Celeste; Sánchez, María Del Pilar; Garra, María Mabel; Cúneo, María Martha; Coglianese, Cristina; Firenze Aldeghi, Lorena; Jaureguizar, María de la Paz; Muraciole, Beatriz; Selinger, Cecilia; Chamorro, Gabriela
Through history, diagnosis and management of sex development disorders has been very difficult due to the significant impact on affected children, their families and care takers, representing a great challenge to healthcare professionals. Nowadays, there is significant debate regarding these children's care and outcome. This discussion is not only a medical issue, but it also includes legal and ethical matters. The Bioethics Committee of the "Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez" has been considering this conflict and discussing its different aspects. Here we share our beliefs and opinions taking into account that they should not be considered the only and whole truth. There is an open debate in which all involved people should participate. PMID:25996326
John C. Mulley; Grant R. Sutherland
PI phenotypes (including subtypes) were determined for 168 individuals with chromosomal abnormalities ascertained in Adelaide. These included patients with mosaicism, trisomy 21, trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and various sex chromosome aberrations (45,X, 47,XXX, 47,XXY, 47,XYY, and 48,XXXY). Data did not support an existing proposition that mildly deficient PI phenotypes predispose to abnormal chromosome segregation during mitosis or meiosis. Phenotypic distributions
Background Many reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). The initial cue in TSD is incubation temperature, unlike genotypic sex determination (GSD) where it is determined by the presence of specific alleles (or genetic loci). We used patterns of gene expression to identify candidates for genes with a role in TSD and other developmental processes without making a priori assumptions about the identity of these genes (ortholog-based approach). We identified genes with sexually dimorphic mRNA accumulation during the temperature sensitive period of development in the Red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a turtle with TSD. Genes with differential mRNA accumulation in response to estrogen (estradiol-17?; E2) exposure and developmental stages were also identified. Results Sequencing 767 clones from three suppression-subtractive hybridization libraries yielded a total of 581 unique sequences. Screening a macroarray with a subset of those sequences revealed a total of 26 genes that exhibited differential mRNA accumulation: 16 female biased and 10 male biased. Additional analyses revealed that C16ORF62 (an unknown gene) and MALAT1 (a long noncoding RNA) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation at the male producing temperature relative to the female producing temperature during embryonic sexual development. Finally, we identified four genes (C16ORF62, CCT3, MMP2, and NFIB) that exhibited a stage effect and five genes (C16ORF62, CCT3, MMP2, NFIB and NOTCH2) showed a response to E2 exposure. Conclusions Here we report a survey of genes identified using patterns of mRNA accumulation during embryonic development in a turtle with TSD. Many previous studies have focused on examining the turtle orthologs of genes involved in mammalian development. Although valuable, the limitations of this approach are exemplified by our identification of two genes (MALAT1 and C16ORF62) that are sexually dimorphic during embryonic development. MALAT1 is a noncoding RNA that has not been implicated in sexual differentiation in other vertebrates and C16ORF62 has an unknown function. Our results revealed genes that are candidates for having roles in turtle embryonic development, including TSD, and highlight the need to expand our search parameters beyond protein-coding genes. PMID:22793670
Sex moderates the relationship between worry and performance monitoring brain activity Sex-differences Biomarkers Research suggests that abnormal performance-monitoring contributes to the etiology and maintenance of anxious pathology. Moreover, the anxietyperformance monitoring relationship
Reinhardt, Vanessa P.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Lord, Catherine
Despite consistent and substantive research documenting a large male to female ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), only a modest body of research exists examining sex differences in characteristics. This study examined sex differences in developmental functioning and early social communication in children with ASD as compared to children with…
Simm, Lynnette Marie Gresham
According to the National Association of Single-Sex Public Education (NASSPE, 2010), an increase of 540 public schools offering single-sex classrooms in the United States has occurred since 2001. Educators who understand the gender differences between boys and girls can inspire students to learn to the best of their ability; however, the problem…
Mehrnaz Maleki-Fischbach; Joanne M Jordan
ABSTRACT: Sex differences in the prevalence, incidence, and severity of osteoarthritis (OA) have long been known. Some differences in the evaluation of this issue across studies may be related to differences in study design, sampling, study size, study populations, targeted joint sites, and definitions of OA. This report highlights recent studies of sex differences in individual joint components imaged by
Guo, Yan-yan; Liu, Shui-bing; Wu, Yu-mei; Li, Xiao-qiang; Zhao, Ming-gao
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a form of inherited mental retardation in humans that results from expansion of a CGG repeat in the Fmr1 gene. Recent studies suggest a role of astrocytes in neuronal development. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation process of astrocytes from FXS remain unclear. In this study, we found that astrocytes derived from a Fragile X model, the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse which lacks FMRP expression, inhibited the proper elaboration of dendritic processes of neurons in vitro. Furthermore, astrocytic conditioned medium (ACM) from KO astrocytes inhibited proper dendritic growth of both wild-type (WT) and KO neurons. Inducing expression of FMRP by transfection of FMRP vectors in KO astrocytes restored dendritic morphology and levels of synaptic proteins. Further experiments revealed elevated levels of the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in KO ACM and the prefrontal cortex of Fmr1 KO mice. However, the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were normal. FMRP has multiple RNA–binding motifs and is involved in translational regulation. RNA–binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) showed the NT-3 mRNA interacted with FMRP in WT astrocytes. Addition of high concentrations of exogenous NT-3 to culture medium reduced the dendrites of neurons and synaptic protein levels, whereas these measures were ameliorated by neutralizing antibody to NT-3 or knockdown of NT-3 expression in KO astrocytes through short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Prefrontal cortex microinjection of WT astrocytes or NT-3 shRNA infected KO astrocytes rescued the deficit of trace fear memory in KO mice, concomitantly decreased the NT-3 levels in the prefrontal cortex. This study indicates that excessive NT-3 from astrocytes contributes to the abnormal neuronal dendritic development and that astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target for FXS. PMID:23300470
Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C.
This study assessed age and sex differences in the prevalence and incidence rates of syndromal social anxiety (SSA), as well as the predictive role of depressive symptoms and stressful life events on the development and persistence of SSA. A sample of 1,439 young people, between 11 and 14 years of age, was assessed twice within a 12-month…
Kerry A. Thuett; Ellen H. Roots; Lisa P. Mitchell; Burnella A. Gentles; Todd Anderson; Ronald J. Kendall; Ernest E. Smith
Thyroid gland hormone levels and histology and sex hormone levels in developing deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ) were measured following in utero and lactational exposure to ammonium perchlorate (AP), a component of rocket fuel and a thyroid toxicant. Breeding pairs were dosed continuously with 0, 1 n M , 1 µ M , or 1 m M concentrations of
L. S. Keir; S. O’Toole; A. L. Robertson; A. M. Wallace; S. F. Ahmed
Background: Late presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a 46,XX disorder of sex development due to 11-? hydroxylase deficiency is uncommon. Such a case raises issues regarding appropriate investigation and management. Case History: A 5-year-old boy who had recently moved to the United Kingdom presented at the endocrinology clinic with recurrent abdominal pain. He was normotensive and had a history
Nadja Chumaeva; Mirka Hintsanen; Markus Juonala; Olli T Raitakari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
BACKGROUND: The syndrome of vital exhaustion (VE), characterized by fatigue and irritability, may contribute to an increased risk of atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to explore sex differences in the interactions of VE with endothelial dysfunction and VE with reduced carotid elasticity, the important contributors to the development of early atherosclerosis, on preclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: The participants were
Scutt, C P; Li, T; Robertson, S E; Willis, M E; Gilmartin, P M
We have embarked on a molecular cloning approach to the investigation of sex determination in Silene latifolia Poiret, a dioecious plant species with morphologically distinguishable sex chromosomes. One of our key objectives was to define a range of genes that are up-regulated in male plants in response to Y chromosome sex-determination genes. Here we present the characterization of eight male-specific cDNA sequences and classify these according to their expression dynamics to provide a range of molecular markers for dioecious male flower development. Genetically female S. latifolia plants undergo a partial sex reversal in response to infection by the parasitic smut fungus Ustilago violacea. This phenomenon has been exploited in these studies; male-specific cDNAs have been further categorized as inducible or noninducible in female plants by smut fungus infection. Analysis of the organ-specific expression of male-specific probes in male and female flowers has also identified a gene that is regulated in a sex-specific manner in nonreproductive floral tissues common to both male and female plants. This observation provides, to our knowledge, the first molecular marker for dominant effect of the Y chromosome in nonreproductive floral organs. PMID:9232878
Kaufman, Michelle R.; Harman, Jennifer J.; Shrestha, Deepti Khati
The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of conducting a sexual health intervention for women in Nepal, a country with high political and economic instability and strong patriarchal systems. Of the 88 women enrolled, 100% retention was obtained over three sessions, and 85% completed a 1-month follow-up. Recruitment was so…
This case study examines the learning, identity and language development experienced by "overage" 8th-grade students who have been left behind two or more years in their New York City middle school and are participating in an extended-day video documentary program. The students practise a range of literacy skills naturally embedded in the…
McAloney, Kareena; McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew
Young people's participation in sexual risk behaviours is commonly linked with participation in a range of other risky behaviours, and in particular with substance use behaviours. This cross-sectional analysis of the sixth sweep of the Belfast Youth Development Study aimed to examine associations between substance use and sexual activity and…
Mason, Robert T.
snakes, kidney mass was not a reliable indicator of hormone treatment, whereas tubule diameter, epithelial height and number of sexual granules responded to hormone treatment. In male water snakes, either diameter. Garter snakes initiated sexual granule development in response to hormone treatment with males
Jorge Gato; Anne Marie Fontaine
The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects
Silversides, David W.; Benoit, Jean-Marc; Collard, Fabien; Gilson, Catherine
A female French bulldog was presented with an enlarged clitoris. Abdominal surgery revealed a normal uterus and gonads resembling testes. Histologically, the gonads contained seminiferous tubules. The karyotype was XX, and the SRY gene was not detected. A diagnosis of XX male, SRY negative disorder of sexual development was made. PMID:22131587
Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Klein, Daniel N.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Derbidge, Christina; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa
Although antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more common among males and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more common among females, some (e.g., Paris, 1997) have suggested that the two disorders reflect multifinal outcomes of a single etiology. This assertion is based on several overlapping symptoms and features, including trait impulsivity, emotional lability, high rates of depression and suicide, and a high likelihood of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Furthermore, rates of ASPD are elevated in the first degree relatives of those with BPD, and concurrent comorbidity rates for the two disorders are high. In this article, we present a common model of antisocial and borderline personality development. We begin by reviewing issues and problems with diagnosing and studying personality disorders in children and adolescents. Next, we discuss dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms of trait impulsivity as predisposing vulnerabilities to ASPD and BPD. Finally, we extend shared risk models for ASPD and BPD by specifying genetic loci that may confer differential vulnerability to impulsive aggression and mood dysregulation among males and impulsive self-injury and mood dysregulation among females. Although the precise mechanisms of these sex-moderated genetic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood, they appear to interact with environmental risk factors including adverse rearing environments to potentiate the development of ASPD and BPD. PMID:19583882
Barr, Murray L.
The recent emergence of human cytogenetics has a firm foundation in studies on other forms of life. Historical highlights are Mendel's studies on the garden pea (published in 1865 but lost in an obscure journal until 1900); formulation of cytogenic postulates by Sutton and Boveri (1902-1903); Bridges' discovery of chromosome abnormalities in Drosophila (1916), followed by numerous similar studies in plants; and demonstration of the chromosomal basis of the syndromes of Down, Klinefelter and Turner in man (1959). The sex chromosomes (XX and XY) evolved from a pair of undifferentiated autosomes of a premammalian ancestor, the X chromosome changing less than the Y as they evolved. Eleven numerical abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are known in man, and knowledge of their effects on development is accumulating. The abnormal complexes range in size from the XO error of Turner's syndrome to the XXXXY error of a variant of Klinefelter's syndrome. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4224254
Callens, Nina; van der Zwan, Yvonne G.; Drop, Stenvert L. S.; Cools, Martine; Beerendonk, Catharina M.; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.; Dessens, Arianne B.
Clinical practice developed to promote psychosexual well-being in DSD is under scrutiny. Although techniques for genital surgery have much improved lately, long-term studies on psychosexual functioning and cosmetic outcome on which to base treatment and counseling are scarce. We studied 91 women with a DSD. Feminizing surgery was performed in 64% of the women; in 60% of them, resurgery in puberty was needed after a single-stage procedure. Both patients and gynecologists were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance of the genitalia. However, forty percent of these females experienced sexuality-related distress and 66% was at risk for developing a sexual dysfunction, whether they had surgery or not. Recognizing the difficulty of accurate assessment, our data indicate that feminizing surgery does not seem to improve nor hamper psychosexual outcome, especially in patients with severe virilization. PMID:22462013
Uran, S L; Gómez-Casati, M E; Guelman, L R
Sound is an important part of man's contact with the environment and has served as critical means for survival throughout his evolution. As a result of exposure to noise, physiological functions such as those involving structures of the auditory and non-auditory systems might be damaged. We have previously reported that noise-exposed developing rats elicited hippocampal-related histological, biochemical and behavioral changes. However, no data about the time lapse of these changes were reported. Moreover, measurements of auditory pathway function were not performed in exposed animals. Therefore, with the present work, we aim to test the onset and the persistence of the different extra-auditory abnormalities observed in noise-exposed rats and to evaluate auditory pathway integrity. Male Wistar rats of 15 days were exposed to moderate noise levels (95-97 dB SPL, 2 h a day) during one day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or during 15 days (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal biochemical determinations as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) behavioral assessments were performed. In addition, histological and functional evaluations of the auditory pathway were carried out in exposed animals. Our results show that hippocampal-related behavioral and biochemical changes (impairments in habituation, recognition and associative memories as well as distortion of anxiety-related behavior, decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increases in antioxidant enzymes activities) induced by noise exposure were almost completely restored by PND 90. In addition, auditory evaluation shows that increased cochlear thresholds observed in exposed rats were re-established at PND 90, although with a remarkable supra-threshold amplitude reduction. These data suggest that noise-induced hippocampal and auditory-related alterations are mostly transient and that the effects of noise on the hippocampus might be, at least in part, mediated by the damage on the auditory pathway. However, we cannot exclude that a different mechanism might be responsible for the observed hippocampal-related changes. PMID:24911434
Ribeiro, Daniel A; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Marques, Mariângela E A
4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis is a useful model for studying oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of bcl-2 and bax during tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4NQO. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution through their drinking water for 4, 12 or 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. Although no histological changes were induced in the epithelium after 4 weeks of carcinogen exposure, bcl-2 and bax were over-expressed (P < 0.01) in all layers of the ‘normal’ epithelium. The expression levels were the same in all layers of epithelium for both the antibodies used (bcl-2 or bax). In dysplastic lesions at 12 weeks following carcinogen administration, the levels of bcl-2 and bax expression did not increase when compared to negative control with the immunoreactivity for bcl-2 being restricted to the superficial layer of epithelium. In well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma induced after 20 weeks of treatment with 4NQO, bcl-2 was expressed in some cells of tumour islands. On the other hand, immunostaining for bax was widely observed at the tumour nests. The labelling index for bcl-2 and bax showed an increase (P < 0.05) after only 4 weeks of 4NQO administration. In conclusion, our results suggest that abnormalities in the apoptosis pathways are associated with the development of persistent clones of mutated-epithelial cells in the oral mucosa. Bcl-2 and bax expression appears to be associated with a risk factor in the progression of oral cancer. PMID:16309543
Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart
Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 ?m) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were <0.60%, and the average recoveries ranged from 99.39% to 104.85%. Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227
Ahmadi, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Shirzad, Mahdi; Kamali, Koorosh; Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Behjati-Ardakani, Zohreh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi
Background Gender preference is prevalent in some communities and using medical techniques to choose the baby's sex may cause the gender discrimination and gender imbalance in communities. Therefore, evaluating the gender preferences and attitudes towards using sex selection technologies seems to be necessary. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Avicenna Fertility Center. Participants were 100 women with one child who were referred for sex selection. Data were collected through self-developed questionnaires. The questions were designed by the researchers at the experts’ panel. To determine the validity of the questionnaire, the viewpoints of professors specialized in these issues were obtained. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software (Version 11.5), and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Tendency toward the male was more than female sex (55.5% male, 15.5% female and 28.5% no tendency). Majority of participants agreed with sex selection with medical reason and sex selection in order to balance the family. Women's level of education had positive effect on agreements to fetal sex selection with medical and non-medical reasons (p < 0.001). Conclusion Although gender preferences were toward the male sex but this preference was not very strong. Most participants agreed with non-medical sex selection for balancing the sex composition of their children. It doesn't seem that non-medical sex selection for family balancing causes severe sex imbalance in Iran. PMID:25717434
Claudio De Felice; Giorgio Bianciardi; Stefano Parrini; Ricardo N. Laurini; Giuseppe Latini
Objective: The pathogenesis and clinical significance of true umbilical cord knots remain controversial. Here, we tested the hypothesis of the presence of congenital oral mucosal changes in newborns with true umbilical cord knots. Study design: Seven consecutive infants with true umbilical cord knots and 50 gestational age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. The proportion of oral frenulum abnormalities and the
Schober, Justine; Nordenström, Anna; Hoebeke, Piet; Lee, Peter; Houk, Christopher; Looijenga, Leendert; Manzoni, Gianantonio; Reiner, William; Woodhouse, Christopher
Existing outcomes for DSD individuals are inadequate because reports are based upon information collected retrospectively. This paper is presented to review existing data emphasizing information needed to lead to better future care, is based on presentations and discussions at a multi-disciplinary meeting on DSD held in Annecy in 2012, and is not intended to define the present status of management of each of the various DSD diagnoses. Rather it is intended to provide information needed to do studies regarding outcome data from the treatment of children with DSD by providing a summary of recommendations of 'patient-centered' topics that need investigation. The hope is that by being concerned with what is not known, new protocols will be developed for improving both early management and transition to adult life. PMID:23182771
Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B
We have evaluated laboratory and clinical manifestations of renal disease in 96 patients with leprosy, looking for a sensitive and early marker for detection and possibly follow-up of nephropathy in these patients. Microscopic hematuria was observed in 21.9% of the cases (with dysmorphic erythrocytes in 71.4% of them). Abnormal microalbuminuria and urinary beta 2-microglobulin were found in 15.8 and 19.8% of the cases, respectively. We have observed a high frequency of hematuria, abnormal microalbuminuria and elevation of urinary beta 2-microglobulin in these patients still with normal serum creatinine. PMID:8289988
Rönn, Minttu; White, Peter J.; Hughes, Gwenda; Ward, Helen
Background.?Seroadaptive behaviors are strategies employed by men who have sex with men (MSM) to reduce the transmission risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been suggested that they contribute to the increasing diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-diagnosed MSM. To understand the context in which the reemerging sexually transmitted infections appear, we developed a social epidemiological model incorporating the multiple factors influencing seroadaptive behaviors. Methods.?A literature review of seroadaptive behaviors in HIV-diagnosed MSM was conducted. The literature was synthesized using a social epidemiological perspective. Results.?Seroadaptive behaviors are adopted by MSM in high-income countries and are a way for HIV-diagnosed men to manage and enjoy their sexual lives. Influences are apparent at structural, community, interpersonal, and intrapersonal levels. There is little evidence of whether and when the behavior forms part of a premeditated strategy; it seems dependent on the social context and on time since HIV diagnosis. Social rules of HIV disclosure and perception of risk depend on the setting where partners are encountered. Conclusions.?Seroadaptive behaviors are strongly context dependent and can reduce or increase transmission risk for different infectious diseases. Further data collection and mathematical modeling can help us explore the specific conditions in more detail. PMID:25381379
Sex Offender Registration Information Sex Offender Registration In accordance to the "Campus Sex Police Sex Offender Registry. This act requires institutions of higher education to issue a statement sex offenders may be obtained. It also requires sex offenders already required to register in a State
Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys
The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…
Richard Frankham; Jonathan Wilcken
Inbreeding is reputed to distort sex-ratios by reducing the proportion of the homogametic sex. However, many data sets do not show such an effect, and there is a known selective publication bias. To resolve the issue, we (a) developed detailed theoretical expectations for the effects of inbreeding on sex-ratios for autosomal and sex-linked loci with sex-limited effects or with equal
Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)
There are many diseases that humans can contract through sexual contact with each other. Humans can lower their risk of contracting these diseases by practicing safe sex techniques if they choose to participate in those kinds of actions.
David E. Sandberg; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Thomas J. Yager; Terry W. Hensle; Selwyn B. Levitt; Stanley J. Kogan; Edward F. Reda
Fetal testicular androgens in several mammalian species are responsible for the sexual differentiation of both the genitalia and the brain, the latter effect being related to behavioral sex-dimorphisms. Because prenatal endocrine abnormalities can be inferred from genital defects, studies of individuals born with anomalies potentially elucidate the contribution of androgens to the development of gender-related variation in human behavior. This
1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology
Ude-Koeller, Susanne; Sinnecker, Gernot H. G.; Thyen, Ute
Abstract The medical management of differences of sex development (DSD)/intersex in early childhood has been criticized by patients’ advocates as well as bioethicists from an ethical point of view. Some call for a moratorium of any feminizing or masculinizing operations before the age of consent except for medical emergencies. No exhaustive ethical guidelines have been published until now. In particular, the role of the parents as legal representatives of the child is controversial. In the article, we develop, discuss, and present ethical principles and recommendations for the medical management of intersex/DSD in children and adolescents. We specify three basic ethical principles that have to be respected and substantiate them. The article includes a critical discussion of the best interest of the child and of family privacy. The argumentation draws upon recommendations by the working group “Bioethics and Intersex” within the German Network DSD/Intersex, which are presented in detail. Unlike other recommendations with regard to intersex, these guidelines represent a comprehensive view of the perspectives of clinicians, patients, and their families. Conclusion The working group identified three leading ethical principles that apply to DSD management: (1) to foster the well-being of the child and the future adult, (2) to uphold the rights of children and adolescents to participate in and/or self-determine decisions that affect them now or later, and (3) to respect the family and parent–child relationships. Nine recommendations for the management of DSD indicate how these ethical principles can spelled out and balanced against each other in the clinical setting. PMID:19841941
Trego, Lori; Wilson, Candy; Steele, Nancy
Women in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines are serving in complex occupational specialties that sustain national policy and ensure combat effectiveness of our forces. Their roles have evolved from supportive roles during early conflicts to active roles in combat support and counterinsurgency operations today. Although women have received military health care over the past three decades, sex- and gender-specific care has been limited to reproductive needs and has rarely addressed military-specific health risks and outcomes. The complexity of military jobs and increased deployments to combat operations has led to increased occupational and health risks for women. As differences have been noted between men and women's deployment-related health outcomes, it is incumbent on the Military Health Care System (MHS) to create an evidence base that addresses sex and gender differences in the health of its service members. A working group of military women's health advanced practice nurses (APN) and research experts proposes to address this gap in knowledge and practices through sex- and gender-specific research. A sex-and gender-based research agenda for military women's health will be a valuable instrument to those who are dedicated to the health of this population, including members of the Army, Navy, and Air Force military nursing community. Using the knowledge that the research agenda generates, military health care providers can develop clinical practice guidelines, influence policy, and participate in program development to improve the health of servicewomen. Shaping a sex- and gender-specific military women's health research agenda will create the foundation for future evidence-based care. PMID:20798161
Tree of Sex: A database of sexual systems The Tree of Sex Consortium1 The vast majority. Here, we describe a database developed to facilitate access to sexual system and sex chromosome of eukaryotic organisms reproduce sexually, yet the nature of the sexual system and the mechanism of sex
Judith F. DAugelli; Herbert J. Cross
Used the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory, the Sex Experience Inventory, and Kohlberg's Moral Dilemmas Questionnaire in Exp I to assess 119 unmarried college women with regard to sex behavior, sex guilt, and moral reasoning. Categories of sexual expression were developed which were useful in predicting behavior. Guilt was a better predictor of sex than morality. Maintaining virginity and losing it
Robert O. Knauz; Steven A. Safren; Conall O’Cleirigh; Benjamin D. Capistrant; Jeff R. Driskell; Daniel Aguilar; Liz Salomon; Jeremy Hobson; Kenneth H. Mayer
Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent the largest group with HIV in the U.S. (CDC 2005). Interventions for prevention with HIV-infected MSM are urgently needed, and integrating prevention into HIV care represents\\u000a one opportunity for this advancement. This article describes the development and results of initial pilot testing of a behavioral\\u000a intervention to reduce HIV sexual risk transmission
Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben
To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. PMID:25433561
Koch, F R; Wagner, C L; Jenkins, D D; Caplan, M J; Perkel, J K; Rollins, L G; Katikaneni, L D; Mulvihill, D M
Objective: Sex is an important determinant of neonatal outcomes and may have a significant role in the physiologic response to maternal chorioamnionitis. Our goal was to determine cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters by sex and subsequent neurodevelopment in healthy term infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Study Design: CBF by Doppler ultrasound in anterior and middle cerebral (ACA, MCA) and basilar arteries were analyzed for time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMX) and corrected resistive index in 52 term control and chorioamnionitis-exposed infants between 24 and 72?h after birth. Placental pathology confirmed histologic evidence of chorioamnionitis (HC). Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III were administered at 12 months. Result: HC male infants had significantly greater TAMX in the MCA and lower mean MCA and ACA resistance than HC females. Abnormal CBF correlated negatively with neurodevelopmental outcome. Conclusion: CBF is altered in term infants with histologically confirmed chorioamnionitis compared with control infants with sex-specific differences. PMID:24457257
Rosen, M.; And Others
Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)
Dumond, Helene; Maufroid, Jean-Pierre; Ko, Chia-I; Chardard, Dominique; Chesnel, Amand; Flament, Stephane
Wild type embryos of the newt Pleurodeles waltl were used to realize parabiosis, a useful model to study the effect of endogenous circulating hormones on gonad development. The genotypic sex of each parabiont (ZZ male or ZW female) was determined early from the analysis of the sex chromosome borne marker peptidase-1. In ZZ/ZZ and ZW/ZW associations, gonads develop according to genetic sex. In ZZ/ZW associations, the ZZ gonads differentiate as normal testes while ZW gonads development shows numerous alterations. At the beginning of sex differentiation, these ZW gonads possess a reduced number of germ cells and a reduced expression of steroidogenic factor 1 and P450-aromatase mRNAs when compared to gonads from ZW/ZW associations. During gonad differentiation, conversely to the control situation, these germ cells do not enter meiosis as corroborated by chromatin status and absence of the meiosis entry marker DMC1; the activity of the estradiol-producing enzyme P450-aromatase is as low as in ZZ gonads. At adulthood, no germ cells are observed on histological sections, consistently with the absence of VASA expression. At this stage, the testis-specific marker DMRT1 is expressed only in ZZ gonads, suggesting that the somatic compartment of the ZW gonad is not masculinized. So, when exposed to ZZ hormones, ZW gonads reach the undifferentiated status but the ovary differentiation does not occur. This gonad is inhibited by a process affecting both somatic and germ cells. Additionally, the ZW gonad inhibition does not occur in the case of an exogenous estradiol treatment of larvae. PMID:18008317
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Sheri A. Berenbaum; Elizabeth Snyder
Early hormones have been hypothesized to influence both sexual orientation and related childhood sex-typed behaviors. This study examined hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) age 2.5 to 12 years (24 girls, 19 boys) and their relatives (16 girls, 25 boys). CAH girls preferred boys' toys and activities. They also had greater preference
Sheri A. Berenbaum; Elizabeth Snyder
Early hormones have been hypothesized to influence both sexual orientation and related childhood sex-typed behaviors. This study examined hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) age 2.5 to 12 years (24 girls, 19 boys) and their relatives (16 girls, 25 boys). CAH girls preferred boys' toys and activities. They also had greater preference
Dianne F. Harrison; R. Clark Pennell
This article reviews various social influences and their effects on adolescent sex role development, including parents, peers, media, schools, race, social class and religion. The authors conclude that teens may experience sex role strain based on pressures to conform to gender expectations. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
Okal, Jerry; Luchters, Stanley; Geibel, Scott; Chersich, Matthew F; Lango, Daniel; Temmerman, Marleen
Knowledge about sexual practices and life experiences of men having sex with men in Kenya, and indeed in East Africa, is limited. Although the impact of male same-sex HIV transmission in Africa is increasingly acknowledged, HIV prevention initiatives remain focused largely on heterosexual and mother-to-child transmission. Using data from ten in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions (36 men), this analysis explores social and behavioural determinants of sexual risks among men who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Analysis showed a range and variation of men by age and social class. First male same-sex experiences occurred for diverse reasons, including love and pleasure, as part of sexual exploration, economic exchange and coercion. Condom use is erratic and subject to common constraints, including notions of sexual interference and motivations of clients. Low knowledge compounds sexual risk taking, with a widespread belief that the risk of HIV transmission through anal sex is lower than vaginal sex. Traditional family values, stereotypes of abnormality, gender norms and cultural and religious influences underlie intense stigma and discrimination. This information is guiding development of peer education programmes and sensitisation of health providers, addressing unmet HIV prevention needs. Such changes are required throughout Eastern Africa. PMID:19484638
This discussion of sex education for individuals with intellectual disabilities outlines Delys Sergeant's "coat hanger theory," which involves three coats or phases of sexuality: a physiological stimulus response coat; a reproductive coat; and a coat of attitudes, values, and self-esteem. Influences acting on individuals' sexuality include family,…
Hough, Josh; Immler, Simone; Barrett, Spencer C H; Otto, Sarah P
Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex ratio, but biased sex ratios are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex ratios, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X- and Y-bearing pollen and the sex ratio is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex ratios evolve toward 1:1. When we also consider haploid selection acting on deleterious mutations, however, we find that biased sex ratios can be stably maintained, reflecting a balance between the advantages of purging deleterious mutations via haploid selection, and the disadvantages of haploid selection on the sex ratio. Our results provide a plausible evolutionary explanation for biased sex ratios in dioecious plants, given the extensive gene expression that occurs across plant genomes at the haploid stage. PMID:23815649
Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu
Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).
... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ... frequently asked questions about sex during pregnancy. Can sex harm my baby? No. Your baby is fully ...
Lise Aksglaede; Anders Juul; Henrik Leffers; Niels E. Skakkebæk; Anna-Maria Andersson
The current trends of increasing incidences of testis, breast and prostate cancers are poorly understood, although it is assumed that sex hormones play a role. Disrupted sex hormone action is also believed to be involved in the increased occurrence of genital abnormalities among newborn boys and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent litera- ture on sex steroid levels
Jocelyn G. Millar; Kent M. Daane; J. Steven Mcelfresh; Jardel A. Moreira; Raksha Malakar-Kuenen; Marta Guillén; Walt J. Bentley
J. Econ. Entomol. 95(4): 706Ð714 (2002) ABSTRACT The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identiÞed as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of
Phone Se by Flamingo art by KOZ PrmtedinUSA $SJ fS wv) p?l iSI PHCNE %t\\ By flamingo Illustrated by KOZ Editors: Tosya Stohn La Gavia Text & Titles: Jazz Printer: Kinko's ofGrand Rapids, MI Authorized Distributor TbGavia Flamingo Layout & Binding: Tosya Stohn Publisher: Bodacious Press PHONE SEX by Flamingo Copyright? May 1995. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without...
Mounia Tannour-Louet; Shuo Han; Sean T. Corbett; Jean-Francois Louet; Svetlana Yatsenko; Lindsay Meyers; Chad A. Shaw; Sung-Hae L. Kang; Sau Wai Cheung; Dolores J. Lamb; Syed A. Aziz
Disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging in severity from genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, are among the most common human birth defects with incidence rates reaching almost 3%. Although causative alterations in key genes controlling gonad development have been identified, the majority of DSD cases remain unexplained. To improve the diagnosis, we screened 116 children born with idiopathic DSD
Makrythanasis, Periklis; Bernard, Pascal; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Vannier, Anne; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Borel, Christelle; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Rolland, Antoine; Desdoits-Lethimonier, Christèle; Guipponi, Michel; Zimmermann, Céline; Stévant, Isabelle; Kuhne, Françoise; Conne, Béatrice; Santoni, Federico; Lambert, Sandy; Huet, Frederic; Mugneret, Francine; Jaruzelska, Jadwiga; Faivre, Laurence; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Jégou, Bernard; Trainor, Paul A.; Resh, Marilyn D.; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Nef, Serge
The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins act as morphogens to control embryonic patterning and development in a variety of organ systems. Post-translational covalent attachment of cholesterol and palmitate to Hh proteins are critical for multimerization and long range signaling potency. However, the biological impact of lipid modifications on Hh ligand distribution and signal reception in humans remains unclear. In the present study, we report a unique case of autosomal recessive syndromic 46,XY Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) with testicular dysgenesis and chondrodysplasia resulting from a homozygous G287V missense mutation in the hedgehog acyl-transferase (HHAT) gene. This mutation occurred in the conserved membrane bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) domain and experimentally disrupted the ability of HHAT to palmitoylate Hh proteins such as DHH and SHH. Consistent with the patient phenotype, HHAT was found to be expressed in the somatic cells of both XX and XY gonads at the time of sex determination, and Hhat loss of function in mice recapitulates most of the testicular, skeletal, neuronal and growth defects observed in humans. In the developing testis, HHAT is not required for Sertoli cell commitment but plays a role in proper testis cord formation and the differentiation of fetal Leydig cells. Altogether, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of action of Hh proteins. Furthermore, they provide the first clinical evidence of the essential role played by lipid modification of Hh proteins in human testicular organogenesis and embryonic development. PMID:24784881
Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif
The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909
Kiesler, Joseph; Ricer, Rick
The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median time of closure is 13.8 months. The most common causes of a large anterior fontanel or delayed fontanel closure are achondroplasia, hypothyroidism, Down syndrome, increased intracranial pressure, and rickets. A bulging anterior fontanel can be a result of increased intracranial pressure or intracranial and extracranial tumors, and a sunken fontanel usually is a sign of dehydration. A physical examination helps the physician determine which imaging modality, such as plain films, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, or magnetic resonance imaging, to use for diagnosis. PMID:12825844
Background There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. Methods We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS). Results The frequency of congential anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Conclusions Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary. PMID:21080921
V. C. Shah; D. S. Krishna Mutiny; Sabita K. Murthy
The present study describes the cytogenetic findings in cases suspected with chromosomal abnormalities, in cases of mental\\u000a retardation, multiple congenital malformations, clinical features of Down’s syndrome, Klinefelters’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome,\\u000a ambiguous sex, sterility, amenorrhea and history of repeated spontaneous abortions in couples. Cytogenetic studies were done\\u000a in 144 of the total 205 cases. In all, 57 (39.58%) were shown to
Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J
Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.
Zhang, Jisen; Boualem, Adnane; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Ming, Ray
Sex determination is a major switch in the evolutionary history of angiosperm, resulting 11% monoecious and dioecious species. The genomic sequences of papaya sex chromosomes unveiled the molecular basis of recombination suppression in the sex determination region, and candidate genes for sex determination. Identification and analyses of sex determination genes in cucurbits and maize demonstrated conservation of sex determination mechanism in one lineage and divergence between the two systems. Epigenetic control and hormonal influence of sex determination were elucidated in both plants and animals. Intensive investigation of potential sex determination genes in model species will improve our understanding of sex determination gene network. Such network will in turn accelerate the identification of sex determination genes in dioecious species with sex chromosomes, which are burdensome due to no recombination in sex determining regions. The sex determination genes in dioecious species are crucial for understanding the origin of dioecy and sex chromosomes, particularly in their early stage of evolution. PMID:24682067
Gustavsson, Carolina; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Wahlström, Erik; Vesterlund, Mattias; Azimi, Alireza; Norstedt, Gunnar; Tollet-Egnell, Petra
Male Zucker diabetic fatty (mZDF) rats spontaneously develop type 2 diabetes, whereas females only become diabetic when fed a diabetogenic high-fat diet (high-fat-fed female ZDF rat, HF-fZDF). The aim of this study was to investigate if differences in liver functions could provide clues to this sex difference. Non-diabetic obese fZDF rats were compared with either mZDF or HF-fZDF regarding hepatic molecular profiles, to single out those components that might be protective in the females. High-fat feeding in fZDF led to enhanced weight gain, increased blood glucose and insulin levels, reduced insulin sensitivity and a trend towards reduced glucose tolerance, indicative of a prediabetic state. mZDF rats were diabetic, with low levels of insulin, high levels of glucose, reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired glucose tolerance. Transcript profiling and capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to indentify hepatic transcripts and metabolites that might be related to this. Many diet-induced alterations in transcript and metabolite levels in female rats were towards a 'male-like' phenotype, including reduced lipogenesis, increased fatty acid (FA) oxidation and increased oxidative stress responses. Alterations detected at the level of hepatic metabolites, indicated lower capacity for glutathione (GSH) production in male rats, and higher GSH turnover in females. Taken together, this could be interpreted as if anabolic pathways involving lipogenesis and lipid output might limit the degree of FA oxidation and oxidative stress in female rats. Together with a greater capacity to produce GSH, these hepatic sex differences might contribute to the sex-different development of diabetes in ZDF rats. PMID:21673048
McGill, Megan L.; Devinsky, Orrin; Wang, Xiuyuan; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Carlson, Chad; Butler, Tracy; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Thesen, Thomas
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA) measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE. PMID:25383319
New Hampshire, University of
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Charles L. Gruder; Thomas D. Cook
Examined whether the difference in the helping behavior of males and females is due to the sex of the person giving help or the sex of the person receiving it. In an experiment with 52 male and 52 female undergraduates, dependency, sex of potential helper, and sex of dependent person were all varied factorially. An interaction of dependency and sex
Brown, S B; Docherty, J C
The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385
Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.
Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.
Idkowiak, Jan; Randell, Tabitha; Dhir, Vivek; Patel, Pushpa; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Taylor, Norman F.; Krone, Nils
Context: Isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency is commonly defined by apparently normal 17?-hydroxylase activity but severely reduced 17,20 lyase activity of the bifunctional enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme 17A1 (CYP17A1), resulting in sex steroid deficiency but normal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid reserve. Cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) is thought to selectively enhance 17,20 lyase activity by facilitating the allosteric interaction of CYP17A1 with its electron donor P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Objective: We investigated a large consanguineous family including three siblings with 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) presenting with isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency. Design: We investigated the clinical and biochemical phenotype, conducted genetic analyses, and functionally characterized the identified CYB5A mutation in cell-based CYP17A1 coexpression assays. Results: All three siblings presented with 46,XY DSD, sex steroid deficiency, normal mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, and a urine steroid metabolome suggestive of isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency. CYP17A1 and POR sequences were normal, but we detected a homozygous CYB5A missense mutation (g.28,400A?T; p.H44L). Functional in vitro analysis revealed normal CYP17A1 17?-hydroxylase activity but severely impaired 17,20 lyase activity. In silico analysis suggested the disruption of CYB5A heme binding by p.H44L. Conclusion: We have identified the first human CYB5A missense mutation as the cause of isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency in three individuals with 46,XY DSD. Detailed review of previously reported cases with apparently isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency due to mutant CYP17A1 and POR reveals impaired 17?-hydroxylase activity as assessed by steroid metabolome analysis and short cosyntropin testing. This suggests that truly isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency is observed only in individuals with inactivating CYB5A mutations. PMID:22170710
Robert W. Moore; Thomas A. Rudy; Tien-Min Lin; Kinarm Ko; Richard E. Peterson
Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lacta- tional exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley
Ighovwerha Ofotokun; Susan K. Chuck; Jane E. Hitti
Background: Emerging evidence suggests that female sex may be associated with increased risk of developing antiretroviral toxicities. Although the mechanisms of sex-related antiretroviral pharmacodynamic differences remain poorly understood and may be multifactorial, they appear to be mediated through a common pathway of pharmacokinetic variability between the sexes.Objective: This article reviews sex differences in the pharmacokinetics of the major classes of
van der Kuy, A; van den Bemd, A A; Beysens, A J
An overview of the sex hormones is presented. Testosterone is a natural androgen produced in the testes, adrenal glands, and ovaries. It has anabolic as well as androgenic effects. Testosterone is used to treat inoperable breast cancer and osteoporosis, and to stimulate erythropoesis. Androgens are absolutely counterindicated in cases of prostate cancer. Estrone, estradiol, and estriol are natural estrogens produced in the ovaries, placenta, testes, and adrenal glands. These hormones also influence the production of gonadotropins by the pituitary gland. Estrogens are used to treat menopausal disorders, ovarial insufficiency, estrogen-independent breast cancer, prostate cancer, and in some cases pregnancy disorders. Estrogens and progestagens are 2 components used in oral contraceptives. Progesterone, a natural progestagen, is produced by the corpus luteum. It promotes the proliferation phase of the endometrium, fertilization, and nidation, and it works to maintain pregnancy. Progesterone is used to treat spontaneous abortion, corpus luteum insufficiency, and endometrial cancer. PMID:242426
... Pain Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Sex and Arthritis Sex and Arthritis PRINT Download PDF Description Sexuality is ... sensation Erectile dysfunction or impotence Begin overcoming barriers Sex is not simply about reaching rapid orgasm with ...
Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...
Guyot, Gary W.; Vollemaere, Erik
Self-actualization, which involves the ultimate development of one's abilities regardless of external influences, is the basis for many personality theories. To assess the relationship between biological sex, sex role, and self-actualization, the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) were administered to 129…
Janet P. Boldizar
A measure of sex typing and androgyny in children was developed based on the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974). The Children's Sex Role Inventory (CSRI) was correlated with the BSRI in an adult sample to establish the equivalence of the two inventories for use in developmental research spanning middle childhood and adulthood. Ss were 145 third, fourth, sixth,
Celina C. C. Cohen-Bendahan; Cornelieke van de Beek; Sheri A. Berenbaum
There is now good evidence that human sex-typed behavior is influenced by sex hormones that are present during prenatal development, confirming studies in other mammalian species. Most of the evidence comes from clinical populations, in which prenatal hormone exposure is atypical for a person's sex, but there is increasing evidence from the normal population for the importance of prenatal hormones.
Sexual development has long been the target of study and despite great advances in our understanding of the composition and regulation of the gene network underlying gonadogenesis, our knowledge remains incomplete. Of particular interest is the relative role that the environment and the genome play in directing gonadal formation, especially the effect of environmental temperature in directing this process in vertebrates. Comparative analyses in closely related taxa with contrasting sex-determining mechanisms should help fill this gap. Here I present a multivariate study of the regulation of the gene network underlying sexual development in turtles with temperature-dependent (TSD; Chrysemys picta) and genotypic sex determination (GSD; Apalone mutica). I combine novel data on SOX9 and DMRT1 from these species with contrasting sex-determining mechanisms for the first time with previously reported data on DAX1, SF-1 (NR5A1), WT1, and aromatase (CYP19A1) from these same taxa. Comparative expression analyses of SOX9 and DMRT1 from these and other species indicate additional elements whose expression has diverged among TSD taxa, further supporting the notion that significant evolutionary changes have accrued in the regulation of the TSD gene network in reptiles. A non-parametric MANOVA revealed that temperature had a significant effect in multivariate gene expression in C. picta that varied during embryonic development, whereas the covariation of gene expression in A. mutica was insensitive to temperature. A phenotypic trajectory analysis (PTA) of gene expression comparing both species directly indicated that the relative covariation in gene expression varied between temperatures in C. picta. Furthermore, the 25 degrees C trajectory of C. picta differed from that of A. mutica in the magnitude of gene expression change. Additional analyses revealed a stronger covariation in gene expression and a more interconnected regulatory network in A. mutica, consistent with the hypothesis that sexual development is a more canalized process in A. mutica, as would be expected if GSD evolved in this lineage through directional selection from its TSD ancestor. PMID:20110645
Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola
Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415
Li, Wen-Hsien; Karna, Sunil K; Hsu, Han; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Sankar, Raman; Cheng Chou, Fang
The general picture established so far for the links between superconductivity and magnetic ordering in iron chalcogenide Fe1+y(Te1-xSex) is that the substitution of Se for Te directly drives the system from the antiferromagnetic end into the superconducting regime. Here, we report on the observation of a ferromagnetic component that developed together with the superconducting transition in Fe-excess Fe1.12Te1-xSex crystals using neutron and x-ray diffractions, resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements. The superconducting transition is accompanied by a negative thermal expansion of the crystalline unit cell and an electronic charge redistribution, where a small portion of the electronic charge flows from around the Fe sites toward the Te/Se sites. First-principles calculations show consistent results, revealing that the excess Fe ions play a more significant role in affecting the magnetic property in the superconducting state than in the normal state and the occurrence of an electronic charge redistribution through the superconducting transition. PMID:26077466
The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.
Hall, David S.
Describes the development of the Family Life and Sex Education Project in Los Angeles County and demonstrates that a government agency can provide the leadership necessary to develop a community sex education program. (Author/RK)
Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M
We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development. PMID:10441191
--------------------------------------------------------Context Dependent Manufacturers Regulatory Agencies Company (Management, Dispatch, Maintenance) Flight and Cabin Crews ATC #12;Economic and Regulatory Pressures Philosophies Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Taxonomy of the Domain Economic and Regulatory Pressures Pertaining to Dealing with and Training
Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824
... of tooth development can cause changes in the color and hardness of the enamel. ... temporarily stain the teeth, such as tea or coffee Genetic ... overuse of fluoride rinses, toothpaste, and fluoride supplements
Meng, Zhongji; Ma, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ejuan; Kosinska, Anna D; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Tianlun; Wu, Jun; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Yang, Dongliang; Roggendorf, Michael; Lu, Mengji
The woodchuck model is an informative model for studies on hepadnaviral infection. In this study, woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) transgenic (Tg) mouse models based on C57BL/6 mice were established to study the pathogenesis associated with hepadnaviral infection. Two lineages of WHV Tg mice, harboring the WHV wild-type genome (lineage 1217) and a mutated WHV genome lacking surface antigen (lineage 1281), were generated. WHV replication intermediates were detected by Southern blotting. DNA vaccines against WHV proteins were applied by intramuscular injection. WHV-specific immune responses were analyzed by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The presence of WHV transgenes resulted in liver-specific but sex- and age-dependent WHV replication in Tg mice. Pathological changes in the liver, including hepatocellular dysplasia, were observed in aged Tg mice, suggesting that the presence of WHV transgenes may lead to liver diseases. Interestingly, Tg mice of lineage 1281 spontaneously developed T- and B-cell responses to WHV core protein (WHcAg). DNA vaccination induced specific immune responses to WHV proteins in WHV Tg mice, indicating a tolerance break. The magnitude of the induced WHcAg-specific immune responses was dependent on the effectiveness of different DNA vaccines and was associated with a decrease in WHV loads in mice. In conclusion, sex- and age-dependent viral replication, development of autoimmune responses to viral antigens, pathological changes in the liver in WHV Tg mice, and the possibility of breaking immune tolerance to WHV transgenes will allow future studies on pathogenesis related to hepadnaviral infection and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24257601
Meng, Zhongji; Ma, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ejuan; Kosinska, Anna D.; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Tianlun; Wu, Jun; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Yang, Dongliang; Roggendorf, Michael
The woodchuck model is an informative model for studies on hepadnaviral infection. In this study, woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) transgenic (Tg) mouse models based on C57BL/6 mice were established to study the pathogenesis associated with hepadnaviral infection. Two lineages of WHV Tg mice, harboring the WHV wild-type genome (lineage 1217) and a mutated WHV genome lacking surface antigen (lineage 1281), were generated. WHV replication intermediates were detected by Southern blotting. DNA vaccines against WHV proteins were applied by intramuscular injection. WHV-specific immune responses were analyzed by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The presence of WHV transgenes resulted in liver-specific but sex- and age-dependent WHV replication in Tg mice. Pathological changes in the liver, including hepatocellular dysplasia, were observed in aged Tg mice, suggesting that the presence of WHV transgenes may lead to liver diseases. Interestingly, Tg mice of lineage 1281 spontaneously developed T- and B-cell responses to WHV core protein (WHcAg). DNA vaccination induced specific immune responses to WHV proteins in WHV Tg mice, indicating a tolerance break. The magnitude of the induced WHcAg-specific immune responses was dependent on the effectiveness of different DNA vaccines and was associated with a decrease in WHV loads in mice. In conclusion, sex- and age-dependent viral replication, development of autoimmune responses to viral antigens, pathological changes in the liver in WHV Tg mice, and the possibility of breaking immune tolerance to WHV transgenes will allow future studies on pathogenesis related to hepadnaviral infection and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24257601
Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Olsson, Per-Erik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger
The synthetic estrogen 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) disturbs reproduction and causes gonadal malformation in fish. Effects on the transcription of genes involved in gonad development and function that could serve as sensitive biomarkers of reproductive effects in the field is, however, not well known. We have studied mRNA expression in testes and liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males treated with 0, 5 or 25 ng/L EE2for 14 days. qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of four genes linked to zebrafish male sex determination and differentiation, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Double sex and mab-related protein, Sry-related HMG box-9a and Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group number 1b were significantly decreased by 25 ng/L, but not 5 ng/L EE2 compared with the levels in untreated fish. The decreased transcription was correlated with a previously shown spawning failure in these males (Reyhanian et al., 2011. Aquat Toxicol 105, 41-48), suggesting that decreased mRNA expression of genes regulating male sexual function could be involved in the functional sterility. The mRNA level of Cytochrome P-45019a, involved in female reproductive development, was unaffected by hormone treatment. The transcription of the female-specific Vitellogenin was significantly induced in testes. While testicular Androgen Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA levels were unchanged, Estrogen receptor-beta was significantly decreased by 25 ng/L EE2. Hepatic Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA was significantly increased by both exposure concentrations, while Estrogen Receptor-beta transcription was unaltered. The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment. PMID:24747828
Lee, Peter; Schober, Justine; Nordenström, Anna; Hoebeke, Piet; Houk, Christopher; Looijenga, Leendert; Manzoni, Gianantonio; Reiner, William; Woodhouse, Christopher
This paper is a review of some of the recent publications regarding outcome of DSD patients, with an emphasis upon surgical and sexual outcomes. Currently available outcome studies of patients with DSDs have limitations because of multiple factors, including lack of representative patient sampling, and lack of adequate information concerning both medical and surgical care, and psychological, social and family support. The most frequent reports involve females with 21-?-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This most common form of DSD, if one excludes hypospadias and cryptorchidism, is an excellent example of a form of DSD in which all aspects of outcome, regarding surgery, sexual functionality and sensitivity, psychological input and endocrine hormonal therapy, carry a major role. The goals of therapy include a surgical outcome with a good cosmetic appearance and functionality with potential for sexual intercourse with sufficient sensitivity for satisfactory responsiveness. Endocrine replacement therapy should provide a normal adrenal hormonal milieu, while sex steroid therapy may be indicated. Psychological care should be provided from birth with gradual transition primarily to the patient, including basic counseling with full disclosure, although adjustment depends upon the patient's personality and parents' abilities and acceptance. Among forms of DSD involving gonadal insufficiency, hormonal replacement therapy should provide physiologic levels. Among females, estrogen therapy enhances healing after feminizing surgery and is required from puberty throughout adult life to maintain femininity, sexual organs and bone health, and enhance gender and sexuality. Among males, appropriate testosterone therapy maintains stamina, muscle tone, bone health, libido, sexual potency and general well-being, while benefit for healing after genital surgery is unclear. Further, outcome is clearly related to predominant cultural factors. Outcome studies should include evaluation of all of these factors. PMID:23158651
Nicola A. Grzeschik; Nancy Amin; Julie Secombe; Anthony M. Brumby; Helena E. Richardson
In homozygous mutants of Drosophila lethal-2-giant larvae (lgl), tissues lose apico-basal cell polarity and exhibit ectopic proliferation. Here, we use clonal analysis in the developing eye to investigate the effect of lgl null mutations in the context of surrounding wild-type tissue. lgl? clones in the larval eye disc exhibit ectopic expression of the G1–S regulator, Cyclin E, and ectopic proliferation,
Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nakamoto, Mika; Honda, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Hirai, Hisamaru; Narumiya, Shuh; Kakizuka, Akira
Skeletal formation is a fundamental element of body patterning and is strictly regulated both temporally and spatially by a variety of molecules. Among these, retinoic acid (RA) has been shown to be involved in normal skeletal development. However, its pleiotropic effects have caused difficulty in identifying its crucial target cells and molecular mechanisms for each effect. Development of cartilage primordia is an important process in defining the skeletal structures. To address the role of RA in skeletal formation, we have generated mice expressing a dominant-negative retinoic acid receptor (RAR) in chondrogenic cells by using the type II collagen ?1 promoter, and we have analyzed their phenotypes. These mice exhibited small cartilage primordia during development and retarded skeletal formation in both embryonic and postnatal periods. They also showed selective degeneration in their cervical vertebrae combined with homeotic transformations, but not in their extremities. The cervical phenotypes are reminiscent of phenotypes involving homeobox genes. We found that the expression of Hoxa-4 was indeed reduced in the cartilage primordia of cervical vertebrae of embryonic day 12.5 embryos. These observations demonstrate that endogenous RA acts directly on chondrogenic cells to promote skeletal growth in both embryonic and growing periods, and it regulates the proper formation of cervical vertebrae. Furthermore, RA apparently specifies the identities of the cervical vertebrae through the regulation of homeobox genes in the chondrogenic cells. Great similarities of the phenotypes between our mice and reported RAR knockout mice revealed that chondrogenic cells are a principal RA target during complex cascades of skeletal development. PMID:9636177
Kishi, Satoru; Reis, Jared P.; Venkatesh, Bharath A.; Gidding, Samuel S.; Armstrong, Anderson C.; Jacobs, David R.; Sidney, Stephen; Wu, Colin O.; Cook, Nakela L.; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Isogawa, Akihiro; Liu, Kiang; Lima, João A. C.
Background We investigated race–ethnic and sex?specific relationships of left ventricular (LV) structure and LV function in African American and white men and women at 43 to 55 years of age. Methods and Results The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study enrolled African American and white adults, age 18 to 30 years, from 4 US field centers in 1985–1986 (Year?0) who have been followed prospectively. We included participants with echocardiographic assessment at the Year?25 examination (n=3320; 44% men, 46% African American). The end points of LV structure and function were assessed using conventional echocardiography and speckle?tracking echocardiography. In the multivariable models, we used, in addition to race–ethnic and gender terms, demographic (age, physical activity, and educational level) and cardiovascular risk variables (body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, presence of diabetes, use of antihypertensive medications, number of cigarettes/day) at Year?0 and ?25 examinations as independent predictors of echocardiographic outcomes at the Year?25 examination (LV end?diastolic volume [LVEDV]/height, LV end?systolic volume [LVESV]/height, LV mass [LVM]/height, and LVM/LVEDV ratio for LV structural indices; LV ejection fraction [LVEF], Ell, and Ecc for systolic indices; and early diastolic and atrial ratio, mitral annulus early peak velocity, ratio of mitral early peak velocity/mitral annulus early peak velocity; ratio, left atrial volume/height, longitudinal peak early diastolic strain rate, and circumferential peak early diastolic strain rate for diastolic indices). Compared with women, African American and white men had greater LV volume and LV mass (P<0.05). For LV systolic function, African American men had the lowest LVEF as well as longitudinal (Ell) and circumferential (Ecc) strain indices among the 4 sex/race–ethnic groups (P<0.05). For LV diastolic function, African American men and women had larger left atrial volumes; African American men had the lowest values of Ell and Ecc for diastolic strain rate (P<0.05). These race/sex differences in LV structure and LV function persisted after adjustment. Conclusions African American men have greater LV size and lower LV systolic and diastolic function compared to African American women and to white men and women. The reasons for these racial?ethnic differences are partially but not completely explained by established cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25770024
Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are described. PMID:21274069
Úbeda, Francisco; Patten, Manus M; Wild, Geoff
Most animals and many plants make use of specialized chromosomes (sex chromosomes) to determine an individual's sex. Best known are the XY and ZW sex-determination systems. Despite having evolved numerous times, sex chromosomes present something of an evolutionary puzzle. At their origin, alleles that dictate development as one sex or the other (primitive sex chromosomes) face a selective penalty, as they will be found more often in the more abundant sex. How is it possible that primitive sex chromosomes overcome this disadvantage? Any theory for the origin of sex chromosomes must identify the benefit that outweighs this cost and enables a sex-determining mutation to establish in the population. Here we show that a new sex-determining allele succeeds when linked to a sex-specific meiotic driver. The new sex-determining allele benefits from confining the driving allele to the sex in which it gains the benefit of drive. Our model requires few special assumptions and is sufficiently general to apply to the evolution of sex chromosomes in outbreeding cosexual or dioecious species. We highlight predictions of the model that can discriminate between this and previous theories of sex-chromosome origins. PMID:25392470
Grzeschik, Nicola A; Amin, Nancy; Secombe, Julie; Brumby, Anthony M; Richardson, Helena E
In homozygous mutants of Drosophila lethal-2-giant larvae (lgl), tissues lose apico-basal cell polarity and exhibit ectopic proliferation. Here, we use clonal analysis in the developing eye to investigate the effect of lgl null mutations in the context of surrounding wild-type tissue. lgl- clones in the larval eye disc exhibit ectopic expression of the G1-S regulator, Cyclin E, and ectopic proliferation, but do not lose apico-basal cell polarity. Decreasing the perdurance of Lgl protein in larval eye disc clones, by forcing extra proliferation of lgl- tissue (using a Minute background), leads to a loss in cell polarity and to more extreme ectopic cell proliferation. Later in development at the pupal stage, lgl mutant photoreceptor cells show aberrant apico-basal cell polarity, but this is not associated with ectopic proliferation, presumably because cells are differentiated. Thus in a clonal context, the ectopic proliferation and cell polarity defects of lgl- mutants are separable. Furthermore, lgl- mosaic eye discs have alterations in the normal patterns of apoptosis: in larval discs some lgl- and wild-type cells at the clonal boundary undergo apoptosis and are excluded from the epithelia, but apoptosis is decreased elsewhere in the disc, and in pupal retinas lgl- tissue shows less apoptosis. PMID:17870065
Grzeschik, Nicola A.; Amin, Nancy; Secombe, Julie; Brumby, Anthony M.; Richardson, Helena E.
In homozygous mutants of Drosophila lethal-2-giant larvae (lgl), tissues lose apico-basal cell polarity and exhibit ectopic proliferation. Here, we use clonal analysis in the developing eye to investigate the effect of lgl null mutations in the context of surrounding wild-type tissue. lgl? clones in the larval eye disc exhibit ectopic expression of the G1-S regulator, Cyclin E, and ectopic proliferation, but do not lose apico-basal cell polarity. Decreasing the perdurance of Lgl protein in larval eye disc clones, by forcing extra proliferation of lgl? tissue (using a Minute background), leads to a loss in cell polarity and to more extreme ectopic cell proliferation. Later in development at the pupal stage, lgl mutant photoreceptor cells show aberrant apico-basal cell polarity, but this is not associated with ectopic proliferation, presumably because cells are differentiated. Thus in a clonal context, the ectopic proliferation and cell polarity defects of lgl? mutants are separable. Furthermore, lgl? mosaic eye discs have alterations in the normal patterns of apoptosis: in larval discs some lgl? and wild-type cells at the clonal boundary undergo apoptosis and are excluded from the epithelia, but apoptosis is decreased elsewhere in the disc, and in pupal retinas lgl? tissue shows less apoptosis. PMID:17870065
Krasimir Slanchev; Jürg Stebler; Guillermo de La Cueva-Méndez; Erez Raz
The progenitors of the gametes, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are typically specified early in the development in positions, which are distinct from the gonad. These cells then migrate toward the gonad where they differentiate into sperms and eggs. Here, we study the role of the germ cells in somatic development and particularly the role of the germ line in
Toi, Ants; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan
Prenatal ultrasound has concentrated on readily visible cerebral structures including head size, shape, ventricles, CSP (cavum septi pellucidi), cerebellar size/vermian presence and cisterna magna. However, apart from these easily visible structures it is important to evaluate the brain itself. Patients who initially appear to have mild isolated findings such as borderline ventriculomegaly in fact can have many more subtle findings that significantly alter prognosis and management that can be detected on detailed examination of the brain. There has been rapid evolution in imaging these foetuses, especially with neurosonography and MRI, and a revolution in understanding the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms. There is increasing emphasis to detect cortical abnormalities as early as possible. This article reviews development of the cerebral cortex, the classification, aetiologies and clinical manifestations of cortical disorders, normal and abnormal appearances at ultrasound and MRI, and approaches to investigation. PMID:19235759
Bridge, J.A.; Sanger, W.G.; Seemayer, T. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others
Gonadal abnormalities are characteristically seen in patients with sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Morphologically these abnormalities can be variable and are hypothesized to be dependent on the sex chromosomal consititution of the gonad (independent of the chromosomal complement of other tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes). In this study, the gonadal sex chromosome complement was evaluated for potential mosaicism and correlated with the histopathology from 5 patients with known sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders. FISH techniques using X and Y chromosome specific probes were performed on nuclei extracted from paraffin embedded tissue. Gonadal tissue obtained from case 1 (a true hemaphroditic newborn) consisted of ovotestes and epididymis (left side) and ovary with fallopian tube (right side). Cytogenetic and FISH studies performed on blood, ovotestes and ovary revealed an XX complement. Cytogenetic analysis of blood from case 2, a 4-year-old with suspected Turner syndrome revealed 45,X/46,X,del(Y)(q11.21). FISH analysis of the resected gonads (histologically = immature testes) confirmed an X/XY mosaic complement. Histologically, the gonadal tissue was testicular. Severe autolysis prohibited successful analysis in the 2 remaining cases. In summary, molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gonadal tissue from individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders did not reveal tissue-specific anomalies which could account for differences observed pathologically.
Elkind, Y; Edwards, R; Mavandad, M; Hedrick, S A; Ribak, O; Dixon, R A; Lamb, C J
Biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid natural products in tobacco was perturbed by introduction of a heterologous (bean) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, EC 184.108.40.206) gene, modified by inclusion of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S enhancer sequences in its promoter. These transgenic plants can exhibit a series of unusual phenotypes including localized fluorescent lesions, altered leaf shape and texture, reduced signification in xylem, stunted growth, reduced pollen viability, and altered flower morphology and pigmentation. Genetic analysis of a transformant with severe symptoms showed that symptom development was inherited as a single, partially dominant trait and cosegregated with reduced levels of PAL activity and soluble phenylpropanoid products. Accumulation of transcripts encoded by the endogenous tobacco PAL genes was suppressed. We conclude that the transgene disrupts PAL regulation and that some of the phenotypes reflect interference with putative signals dependent on phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Images PMID:11607118
Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.
Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334
Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo
Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489
Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Gonzales, Felisa A; Arroyo, Juan C; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J
Using the structural-environmental conceptual framework, this study employed mixed methods to address the question of whether sex with female sex workers contributes to HIV risk among male immigrant Latino day laborers in suburban Maryland. Because contextual factors can greatly affect HIV risk for both sex workers and their clients, this study investigated the organizational structure of sex work, factors that predicted men's hiring of sex workers, sexual behaviors performed with sex workers, and the use of condoms. Qualitative research was conducted to inform the development of a quantitative survey, but also provided crucial descriptions about the motivations, locations, arrangements, and sexual activities related to sex work. Key informant interviews (N = 10), in-depth interviews with day laborers (N = 10) and Latina female sex workers (N = 4), and two focus groups with day laborers (N = 11) were conducted, and a quantitative survey administered via Audio-enhanced Computer-assisted Self-interviewing (N = 174). Condom use was nearly universal in encounters with female sex workers, thus indicating that the sex workers were not an important source of HIV transmission in this context. Logistic regression was performed to test a model predicting sex with sex workers. Latino day laborers who reported more immigrant stress and who did not have a partner in the U.S. were more likely to have had sex with a sex worker, as were men who reported binge drinking. Structural and social conditions influenced the hiring of sex workers. Further research is warranted to better understand the interrelationships among these circumstances and to inform the development of programs to address them. PMID:23070528
Aldo Celentano; Olga Vaccaro; Paolo Tammaro; Maurizio Galderisi; Marina Crivaro; Michele Oliviero; Giuseppina Imperatore; Vittorio Palmieri; Vincenzo Iovino; Gabriele Riccardi; Oreste de Divitiis
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of diabetes and minor abnormalities of glucose homeostasis, such as impaired glucose tolerance, as determinants of cardiac function and structure in a working population. We studied a population-based sample of 64 telephone company employees (both sexes, mean age 58 years): 25 with normoglycemia, 15 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 24
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Triploidy and other chromosomal abnormalities in a selected line of chickens MH Thorne, RK Collins-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) triploid / chicken / meiosis / diploid ova Triploidy has been reported in the chicken in both embryos and adults (de Boer et al, 1984). Triploid chick embryos with ZWW sex chromosomes
Jonas von Hofsten; Per-Erik Olsson
Sex determination is the process deciding the sex of a developing embryo. This is usually determined genetically; however it is a delicate process, which in many cases can be influenced by environmental factors. The mechanisms controlling zebrafish sex determination and differentiation are not known. To date no sex linked genes have been identified in zebrafish and no sex chromosomes have
Ramôa, Carolina P; Doyle, Susan E; Naim, Diana W; Lynch, Wendy J
Women progress more rapidly after initial cocaine use to addiction as compared with men. Similarly, female rats appear to require less cocaine exposure before developing an addicted phenotype with evidence implicating estradiol as a potential mechanism. The goals of this study were to determine whether there are sex differences in the magnitude of the addicted phenotype under optimized conditions that induce its development in both males and females and to determine the role of estradiol in this effect. Following acquisition, intact male and intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with and without estradiol replacement were given access to cocaine (1.5?mg/kg per infusion) under either extended access (ExA; discrete trial procedure, 4 trials/h, 24?h/day, 10 days) or short access (ShA) conditions (20 infusions maximum/day, 3 days). Motivation to obtain cocaine (0.5?mg/kg/infusion), as assessed under a progressive-ratio schedule, was then examined following a 2-week abstinence period. Results showed that following ExA self-administration, both males and females developed an addicted phenotype, with 9 of 11 males and 8 of 10 females showing a greater than 15% increase in levels of motivation to obtain cocaine as compared with ShA controls. In contrast, within the OVX groups, responding was enhanced from control levels after ExA self-administration in estradiol-replaced rats only. These results suggest that while females may have an enhanced vulnerability to developing an addicted phenotype, they may be similar to males once addiction has developed. These results also suggest that estradiol is critically involved in the development of an addicted phenotype in females. PMID:23481437
Simopoulos, Artemis P
Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654
Preserved fertility in a patient with a 46,XY disorder of sex development due to a new heterozygous mutation in the NR5A1/SF-1 gene: evidence of 46,XY and 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis phenotype variability in multiple members of an affected kindred.
Ciaccio, Marta; Costanzo, Mariana; Guercio, Gabriela; De Dona, Valeria; Marino, Roxana; Ramirez, Pablo C; Galeano, Jessica; Warman, Diana Monica; Berensztein, Esperanza; Saraco, Nora; Baquedano, Maria Sonia; Chaler, Eduardo; Maceiras, Mercedes; Lazzatti, Juan Manuel; Rivarola, Marco A; Belgorosky, Alicia
In humans, steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF-1) mutations have been reported to cause gonadal dysgenesis, with or without adrenal failure, in both 46,XY and 46,XX individuals. We have previously reported extreme within-family variability in affected 46,XY patients. Even though low ovarian reserve with preserved fertility has been reported in females harboring NR5A1 gene mutations, fertility has only been observed in one reported case in affected 46,XY individuals. A kindred with multiple affected members presenting gonadal dysgenesis was studied. Four 46,XY individuals presented severe hypospadias at birth, one of them associated with micropenis and cryptorchidism. The other 3 developed spontaneous male puberty, and 1 has fathered 5 children. Four 46,XX patients presented premature ovarian failure (one of them was not available for the study) or high follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Mutational analysis of the NR5A1 gene revealed a novel heterozygous mutation, c.938G?A, predicted to cause a p.Arg313Hys amino acid change. A highly conserved amino acid of the ligand-binding domain of the mature protein is affected, predicting abnormal protein function. We confirm that preserved fertility can be observed in patients with a 46,XY disorder of sex development due to heterozygous mutations in the NR5A1 gene. PMID:22907560
Jillian H. Broadbear; Lisa C. Hutton; Iain J. Clarke; Benedict J. Canny
Rationale Depression is more prevalent in women than in men, and therapeutic responses may also differ between the sexes. In addition, abnormal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is more common in depressed women. Objectives To further examine these phenomena, the present study was designed to investigate whether sex differences exist in the HPA axis responses of male and female
Park, Susan Y; Lee, Eun-Jig; Emge, Donna; Jahn, Carolyn L; Jameson, J Larry
Nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (Nr0b1; hereafter referred to as Dax1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates adrenal and gonadal development. Dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (Dax1) mutations in the mouse are sensitive to genetic background. In this report, a spectrum of impaired gonadal differentiation was observed as a result of crossing the Dax1 knockout on the 129SvIm/J strain onto the C57BL/6J strain over two generations of breeding. Dax1-mutant XY mice of a mixed genetic background (129;B6Dax1(-/Y) [101 total]) developed gonads that were predominantly testislike (n = 61), ovarianlike (n = 27), or as intersex (n = 13). During embryonic development, Sox9 expression in the gonads of 129;B6Dax1(-/Y) mutants was distributed across a wide quantitative range, and a threshold level of Sox9 (>0.4-fold of wild-type) was associated with testis development. Germ cell fate also varied widely, with meiotic germ cells being more prevalent in the ovarianlike regions of embryonic gonads, but also observed within testicular tissue. Ptgds, a gene associated with Sox9 expression and Sertoli cell development, was markedly downregulated in Dax1(-/Y) mice. Stra8, a gene associated with germ cell meiosis, was upregulated in Dax1(-/Y) mice. In both cases, the changes in gene expression also occurred in pure 129 mice but were amplified in the B6 genetic background. Sertoli cell apoptosis was prevalent in 129;B6Dax1(-/Y) gonads. In summary, Dax1 deficiency on a partial B6 genetic background results in further modulation of gene expression changes that affect both Sertoli cell and germ cell fate, leading to a phenotypic spectrum of gonadal differentiation. PMID:18633137
Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.
Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have…
Zdena Krištofiková; Veronika Platilová; Jan Klaschka
Vulnerability of hippocampal hemicholinium-3 (HC-3)-sensitive carriers to ethanol was evaluated in vitro during rat postnatal development. The high-affinity uptake of [3H]choline (HACU) and the specific binding of [3H]HC-3 were measured on synaptosomes from 7-, 14-, and 60-day- and 3-month-old male and female Wistar rats. Marked increases of basal (between 7 and 60 days of age) and of stimulated HACU levels
Rhen, Turk; Jangula, Adam; Schroeder, Anthony; Woodward-Bosh, Rikki
The platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgf) signaling system is known to play a significant role during embryonic and postnatal development of testes in mammals and birds. In contrast, genes that comprise the Pdgf system in reptiles have never been cloned or studied in any tissue, let alone developing gonads. To explore the potential role of PDGF ligands and their receptors during embryogenesis, we cloned cDNA fragments of Pdgf-A, Pdgf-B, and receptors PdgfR-alpha and PdgfR-beta in the snapping turtle, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). We then compared gene expression profiles in gonads from embryos incubated at a male-producing temperature to those from embryos at a female-producing temperature, as well as between hatchling testes and ovaries. Expression of Pdgf-B mRNA in embryonic gonads was significantly higher at a male temperature than at a female temperature, but there was no difference between hatchling testes and ovaries. This developmental pattern was reversed for Pdgf-A and PdgfR-alpha mRNA: expression of these genes did not differ in embryos, but diverged in hatchling testes and ovaries. Levels of PdgfR-beta mRNA in embryonic gonads were not affected by temperature and did not differ between testes and ovaries. However, expression of both receptors increased at least an order of magnitude from the embryonic to the post-hatching period. Finally, we characterized expression of these genes in several other embryonic tissues. The brain, heart, and liver displayed unique expression patterns that distinguished these tissues from each other and from intestine, lung, and muscle. Incubation temperature had a significant effect on expression of PdgfR-alpha and PdgfR-beta in the heart but not other tissues. Together, these findings demonstrate that temperature has tissue specific effects on the Pdgf system and suggest that Pdgf signaling is involved in sex determination and the ensuing differentiation of testes in the snapping turtle. PMID:19523392
Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S
The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. PMID:25247662
Vodola, Thomas M.
As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children in grades 4 through 12 with postural abnormalities. An introductory chapter covers definitions and…
Xinpeng Zhang; Shuozhong Wang; Kaiwen Zhang
A novel steganographic scheme is proposed which avoids asymmetry inherent in conventional LSB embedding techniques so that abnormality in the image histogram is kept minimum. The proposed technique is capable of re- sisting the ?2 test and RS analysis, as well as a new steganalytic method named GPC analysis as introduced in this paper. In the described steganographic tech- nique,
The research that has been conducted on single-sex schools and classes, has for the most part, been done in the private school and college realm, primarily because very few public schools established single-sex programs. One of the consistent findings has been that with so much emphasis having been placed on the development of girls, that boys are…
To examine the development of sex-role stereotyping in Malaysia, 80 children were tested with the Sex Stereotype Measurement II. Results revealed that stereotyping increases with age, that the male stereotype is more easily recognized than the female, and that boys are more familiar with the male stereotype than are girls. (KH)
The sexual differentiation of germ cells into spermatozoa or oocytes is strictly regulated by their gonadal environment, testis or ovary, which is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome, respectively. Hence, in normal mammalian development, male germ cells differentiate in the presence of X and Y chromosomes, and female germ cells do so in the presence of two X chromosomes. However, gonadal sex reversal occurs in humans as well as in other mammalian species, and the resultant XX males and XY females can lead healthy lives, except for a complete or partial loss of fertility. Germ cells carrying an abnormal set of sex chromosomes are efficiently eliminated by multilayered surveillance mechanisms in the testis, and also, though more variably, in the ovary. Studying the molecular basis for sex-specific responses to a set of sex chromosomes during gametogenesis will promote our understanding of meiotic processes contributing to the evolution of sex determining mechanisms. This review discusses the fate of germ cells carrying various sex chromosomal compositions in mouse models, the limitation of which may be overcome by recent successes in the differentiation of functional germ cells from embryonic stem cells under experimental conditions. PMID:25578929
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... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Practice safer sex Related information Men's health Screening tests and vaccines ... Return to top More information on Practice safer sex Explore other publications and websites Addressing HIV, Other ...
Manion, Patrick J.; Hanson, Lee H.
Sea lampreys en route to their spawning grounds have been captured at mechanical or electrical structures that have been in operation for 1 to 27 spawning seasons (1949-75) on some 167 tributaries of the upper Great Lakes; more than 750,000 were taken in 1949-70 (Smith 1971). Among these lampreys (all of which were routinely examined at the time of capture) was one female (length, 434 mm; weight, 130 g) with markedly underdeveloped teeth. It was captured in May 1968 at an electrical barrier in the Ocqueoc River, a Michigan tributary of Lake Huron
Tawfik, Linda; Watkins, Susan Cotts
This paper compares three interpretations of women and the transmission of HIV in rural Malawi. One is disseminated world-wide by institutions with a global reach such as the World Health Organization in Geneva and United States Agency for International Development (USAID); the second is provided by urban Malawians situated in the capital of Lilongwe, the seat of government and the site of the many international and national non-governmental agencies; the third is articulated by rural women and men in Balaka District, Malawi. We focus on women's motivations for extramarital sex, using qualitative interview data. We find that whereas in Geneva and Lilongwe women from rural Malawi are said to engage in sexual relationships outside of marriage because they need money for survival, in Balaka they are said to be motivated not only by money for survival but also for attractive consumer goods as well as by passion and by revenge for a husband's infidelity. We also find that data collection procedures influence explanations for women's affairs, as does the respondent's gender. An implication of this study is that AIDS-prevention policies based on the view from Geneva and Lilongwe need modification for Balaka, and by implication for rural Africa more generally. PMID:17123678
Joseph, Vincent; Behan, Mary; Kinkead, Richard
Progesterone and corticosterone are key modulators of the respiratory control system. While progesterone is widely recognized as an important respiratory stimulant in adult and newborn animals, much remains to be described regarding the underlying mechanisms. We review the potential implication of nuclear and membrane progesterone receptors in adults and in newborns. This raises intriguing questions regarding the contribution of progesterone as a protective factor against some respiratory control disorders during early life. We then discuss our current understanding of the central integration of stressful stimuli and the responses they elicit. The fact that this system interacts with the respiratory control system, either because both share some common neural pathways in the brainstem and hypothalamus, or because corticosterone directly modulates the function of the respiratory control network, is a fascinating field of research that has emerged over the past few years. Finally, we review the short- and long-term consequences of disruption of stress circuitry during postnatal development on these systems. PMID:22781657
She, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Wan-Xi
Sex determination refers to the developmental decision that directs the bipotential genital ridge to develop as a testis or an ovary. Genetic studies on mice and humans have led to crucial advances in understanding the molecular fundamentals of sex determination and the mutually antagonistic signaling pathway. In this review, we summarize the current molecular mechanisms of sex determination by focusing on the known critical sex determining genes and their related signaling pathways in mammalian vertebrates from mice to humans. We also discuss the underlying delicate balance between testis and ovary sex determination pathways, concentrating on the antagonisms between major sex determining genes. PMID:24928207
God, sex, and economics are all intertwined. The trafficking of people for sex intensifies each year. The sex trade crosses a spectrum from ‘high class’ escorts to sex slaves. The sex industry includes toys, pornography, and the exchange of sex between buyers, sellers, and managers. In this market exists sexual poverty caused by injustice, the imbalance of sexual power between
How common is painful sex? Pain during intercourse is very common—nearly 3 out of 4 women have pain during intercourse at some time during ... a long-term problem. What causes pain during sex? Pain during sex may be a sign of ...
Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…
Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Linkous, Carolyn Maddy
This partially annotated bibliography is one of a series designed to help educational personnel increase sex equality in vocational guidance and counseling programs. Its purpose is to help counselors and other educators to identify and eliminate sex bias and sex stereotyping, both factors which constrict career options and consequently the choice…
In recent years, some universities have allowed student organizations to hire sex workers, pornography producers and performers, and sex toy sales representatives to provide sex education on their campuses. Yet these individuals are not medical professionals, and the sexual health information they provide to students, if any, can sometimes be wrong. In addition, students attending these workshops can face additional
L. Christine Turtzo; Louise D. McCullough
Increasing evidence suggests that sex differences exist in the etiology, presentation, treatment, and outcome from stroke. The reasons for these sex disparities are becoming increasingly explored, but large gaps still exist in our knowledge. Experimental studies over the past several years have demonstrated intrinsic sex differences both in vivo and in animal models which may have relevance to our understanding
Bien, Cedric H.; Cai, Yong; Emch, Michael E.; Parish, William; Tucker, Joseph D.
Background Thirty-four countries worldwide have abnormally high sex ratios (>102 men per 100 women), resulting in over 100 million missing women. Widespread sex selective abortion, neglect of young girls leading to premature mortality, and gendered migration have contributed to these persistent and increasing distortions. Abnormally high adult sex ratios in communities may drive sexually transmitted disease (STD) spread where women are missing and men cannot find stable partners. We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual behaviors. Methods and Findings Seven databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Sociological Abstracts, and PopLINE) were searched without restrictions on time or location. We followed PRISMA guidelines and evaluated quality according to STROBE criteria. 1093 citations were identified and six studies describing 57,054 individuals were included for review. All six studies showed an association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual risk behaviors. In high sex ratio communities, women were more likely to have multiple sex partners and men were more likely to delay first sexual intercourse and purchase sex. Only two studies included STD outcomes. Conclusions High community sex ratios were associated with increased individual sexual risk behavior among both men and women. However, none of the studies examined unprotected sex or appropriately adjusted for gendered migration. Further studies are needed to understand the effect of community sex ratios on sexual health and to inform comprehensive STD control interventions. PMID:23967223
Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja
Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…
Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.
This collection of fifty objectives, related sample items, and directions for administering and scoring, is divided into three sections. The first, growth and development, deals with basic factual information relating to sex education; both animal and human biology are included. The second section, social and emotional growth, deals with the…
Gelfand, Amy A; Goadsby, Peter J
Primary headache associated with sexual activity is a rare headache disorder that has only been reported twice previously in adolescents. Although it can mimic life-threatening causes of thunderclap-onset headache, primary sex headache is benign, self-limited, and highly responsive to indomethacin. Given the sensitive nature of sexual development in adolescents, it is important that pediatric providers know when to ask about this symptom and how to proceed with diagnostics and therapy when it arises. We report 2 new adolescent cases and review the semiology, epidemiology, and treatment of primary sex headache. PMID:22753551
Kopytova, Daria V.; Krasnov, Aleksey N.; Kopantceva, Marina R.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Nikolenko, Julia V.; Maksimenko, Oksana; Kurshakova, Maria M.; Lebedeva, Lubov A.; Yerokhin, Maksim M.; Simonova, Olga B.; Korochkin, Leonid I.; Tora, Laszlo; Georgiev, Pavel G.; Georgieva, Sofia G.
The Drosophila TATA box-binding protein (TBP)-related factor 2 (TRF2 or TLF) was shown to control a subset of genes different from that controlled by TBP. Here, we have investigated the structure and functions of the trf2 gene. We demonstrate that it encodes two protein isoforms: the previously described 75-kDa TRF2 and a newly identified 175-kDa version in which the same sequence is preceded by a long N-terminal domain with coiled-coil motifs. Chromatography of Drosophila embryo extracts revealed that the long TRF2 is part of a multiprotein complex also containing ISWI. Both TRF2 forms are detected at the same sites on polytene chromosomes and have the same expression patterns, suggesting that they fulfill similar functions. A study of the manifestations of the trf2 mutation suggests an essential role of TRF2 during embryonic Drosophila development. The trf2 gene is strongly expressed in germ line cells of adult flies. High levels of TRF2 are found in nuclei of primary spermatocytes and trophocytes with intense transcription. In ovaries, TRF2 is present both in actively transcribing nurse cells and in the transcriptionally inactive oocyte nuclei. Moreover, TRF2 is essential for premeiotic chromatin condensation and proper differentiation of germ cells of both sexes. PMID:17015475
There is evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during early life stages can alter sex differentiation in fishes. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish species in endocrine disruption studies. However, limited knowledge...
McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael
Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status. PMID:24671729
Lim, Sol; Han, Cheol E; Uhlhaas, Peter J; Kaiser, Marcus
Human brain maturation is characterized by the prolonged development of structural and functional properties of large-scale networks that extends into adulthood. However, it is not clearly understood which features change and which remain stable over time. Here, we examined structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 121 participants between 4 and 40 years of age. DTI data were analyzed for small-world parameters, modularity, and the number of fiber tracts at the level of streamlines. First, our findings showed that the number of fiber tracts, small-world topology, and modular organization remained largely stable despite a substantial overall decrease in the number of streamlines with age. Second, this decrease mainly affected fiber tracts that had a large number of streamlines, were short, within modules and within hemispheres; such connections were affected significantly more often than would be expected given their number of occurrences in the network. Third, streamline loss occurred earlier in females than in males. In summary, our findings suggest that core properties of structural brain connectivity, such as the small-world and modular organization, remain stable during brain maturation by focusing streamline loss to specific types of fiber tracts. PMID:24343892
Sussman, D.; Leung, R.C.; Vogan, V.M.; Lee, W.; Trelle, S.; Lin, S.; Cassel, D.B.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Lerch, J.P.; Anagnostou, E.; Taylor, M.J.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous, neurodevelopmental condition, whose underlying causes have yet to be fully determined. A variety of studies have investigated either cortical, subcortical, or cerebellar anatomy in ASD, but none have conducted a complete examination of all neuroanatomical parameters on a single, large cohort. The current study provides a comprehensive examination of brain development of children with ASD between the ages of 4 and 18 years who are carefully matched for age and sex with typically developing controls at a ratio of one-to-two. Two hundred and ten magnetic resonance images were examined from 138 Control (116 males and 22 females) and 72 participants with ASD (61 males and 11 females). Cortical segmentation into 78 brain-regions and 81,924 vertices was conducted with CIVET which facilitated a region-of-interest- (ROI-) and vertex-based analysis, respectively. Volumes for the cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum, pallidum, and thalamus and many associated subregions were derived using the MAGeT Brain algorithm. The study reveals cortical, subcortical and cerebellar differences between ASD and Control group participants. Diagnosis, diagnosis-by-age, and diagnosis-by-sex interaction effects were found to significantly impact total brain volume but not total surface area or mean cortical thickness of the ASD participants. Localized (vertex-based) analysis of cortical thickness revealed no significant group differences, even when age, age-range, and sex were used as covariates. Nonetheless, the region-based cortical thickness analysis did reveal regional changes in the left orbitofrontal cortex and left posterior cingulate gyrus, both of which showed reduced age-related cortical thinning in ASD. Our finding of region-based differences without significant vertex-based results likely indicates non-focal effects spanning the entirety of these regions. The hippocampi, thalamus, and globus pallidus, were smaller in volume relative to total cerebrum in the ASD participants. Various sub-structures showed an interaction of diagnosis-by-age, diagnosis-by-sex, and diagnosis-by-age-range, in the case where age was divided into childhood (age < 12) and adolescence (12 < age < 18). This is the most comprehensive imaging-based neuro-anatomical pediatric and adolescent ASD study to date. These data highlight the neurodevelopmental differences between typically developing children and those with ASD, and support aspects of the hypothesis of abnormal neuro-developmental trajectory of the brain in ASD.
Very little is known about Filipino adolescents. Professional opinion varies enormously as to what is to be considered normal and abnormal. 1 aspect of adolescence which is agreed upon is that it is a period of great change. What brings on puberty is a controversial topic. Nutrition and genetic inheritance have been found to affect the age at which menstruation begins. Environment plays a large role in emotional and social growth. Filipino sex education is rather haphazard. A study of over 5000 adolescents in 1972-73 showed that sexual information was gained principally from pornographic literature, movies, television and friends. Boys also watched strip-tease acts and went to houses of prostitution. 2/3 of males and 3/4 of females had had crushes, while over 1/2 of both sexes had "gone steady" by age 16. Boys fell in love more often and less seriously than did girls. Girls generally have more adjustment problems in adolescence than do boys. Among Filipino adolescents, dating is the top ranking sex-related problem. Both sexes are concerned with what is the proper behavior in dating. Dating is an erotic as well as a social experience for Filipino adolescents. Premarital sexual activity is now receiving more tolerance. Urban males are less concerned with the virginity of their brides, but adults are still intolerant. Perhaps the present generation of adolescents is the harbinger of a new sexual morality. Fertility rates for 15-19 year olds have been declining since the 1960s. However, among adolescents with problems, pregnancy ranks high. Homosexuals are more visible in the Philippines now, as they are being more tolerated. Adolescent fertility is the last great challenge in the family planning field. Problems are unwillingness of counselors to participate in studies and a paucity of basic research. 3 studies are now being conducted in the Metro Manila area. Peer counseling and multiservice centers which provide relative anonymity are 2 approaches which shoul d be furthered. More general sex education, including rational discussions between adults and adolescents, is also needed. PMID:12337009
Hanamura, Ichiro; Iida, Shinsuke
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells which develops through genetic aberrations, epigenetic changes and the bone marrow microenvironment interaction. Despite recent tremendous progress in treatments for MM, a complete cure remains elusive. Further development of more effective therapeutic strategies is needed. The International Staging System (ISS) reported in 2005 has been used widely as the most simple and powerful prognostic classification in MM, but genetic abnormalities affecting prognosis were not considered in this model. In the past decade, non-random chromosomal aberrations such as t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), amp1q21 and del17p have shown to be poor prognostic value, and moreover, recent progress in genome-wide deep sequencing studies has revealed novel mutations and intra-tumor subclonal heterogeneity which may explain clinical phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Here we review the current understanding of genetic abnormalities in MM for developing better prognostic classification and molecular targeted therapies leading to the stratified or personalized medicine. PMID:25626298
Cavaco, Sara; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Mendes, Alexandre; Vila-Chã, Nuno; Moreira, Inês; Fernandes, Joana; Damásio, Joana; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Bastos Lima, António
Introduction. A possible association between olfactory dysfunction and Parkinson's disease (PD) severity has been a topic of contention for the past 40 years. Conflicting reports may be partially explained by procedural differences in olfactory assessment and motor symptom evaluation. Methods. One hundred and sixty-six nondemented PD patients performed the Brief-Smell Identification Test and test scores below the estimated 20th percentile as a function of sex, age, and education (i.e., 80% specificity) were considered demographically abnormal. Patients underwent motor examination after 12?h without antiparkinsonian medication. Results. Eighty-two percent of PD patients had abnormal olfaction. Abnormal performance on the Brief-Smell Identification Test was associated with higher disease severity (i.e., Hoehn and Yahr, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III, Freezing of Gait questionnaire, and levodopa equivalent dose), even when disease duration was taken into account. Conclusions. Abnormal olfaction in PD is associated with increased severity and faster disease progression. PMID:26136625
Normal Female Phenotype and Ovarian Development Despite the Ovarian Expression of the Sex-Determining Region of Y Chromosome (SRY) in a 46,XX\\/69,XXY Diploid\\/Triploid Mosaic Child Conceived after in Vitro Fertilization-Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection
Ozgur Oktem; Darius A. Paduch; KangPu Xu; Anna Mielnik; Kutluk Oktay
Context: Diploid\\/triploid mosaicism (mixoploidy) is a rare chromo- somal abnormality characterized by mental and growth retardation, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features such as facial asymmetry, low- set ears, and syndactyly. All 46,XX\\/69,XXY cases fall into three phe- notypic groups: male with testicular development, ovotestis disorder ofsexdevelopment(DSD),orundervirilizedmaleDSD.Allphenotypic females with diploid\\/triploid mosaic reported so far had 46,XX\\/ 69,XXX karyotype. Patient: We report an
R. B. J. Glass; D. K. Yousefzadeh; N. J. Roizen
Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected\\u000a children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality\\u000a may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child’s hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors\\u000a which are important
Hans Liebl; Thomas M. Link
\\u000a The following chapter illustrates cartilage abnormalities and provides semiquantitative scores for these lesions. The focus\\u000a of this chapter is on the most frequently used Recht (modified Noyes and Stabler) score [1, 2] and Whole-Organ-MRI-Score (WORMS)\\u000a . These scores have been used in a number of previous studies and have been found helpful in assessing the grade of cartilage\\u000a lesions, in
Jessica K. Wickenheisser; Jan M. McAllister
Androgen excess, theca, granulosa, polycystic ovary syndrome, steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, estrogen, insulin sensitivity,\\u000a signaling defect. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, clinically heterogeneous disorder that affects approximately\\u000a 6–10% of premenopausal women [1, 2]. Hyperandrogenemia is the biochemical hallmark of PCOS. Reproductive and endocrine abnormalities\\u000a include disordered gonadotropin secretion, oligomenorrhea and anovulatory infertility, and endometrial hyperplasia. Obesity,\\u000a hirsutism, acne, and alopecia
Grady, Walteen; And Others
This publication contains lesson plans and classroom activities to assist K-12 teachers develop sex equity themes. It supplements the "Sex Equity Resource Directory" (SO 013 579) which is a guide to sex equity resources available through the District of Columbia Public Schools. The "Ideabook" has several major sections each containing materials…
Studied sex differences among high school students (N=318) in career development process to determine whether sex differences exist in way six independent variables interact in career maturity causal model of career maturity and to compare each variable's effect on career maturity. Results suggest significant sex differences consistent with…
Larry J. Young; John Godwin; Mike Grammer; Manfred Gahr; David Crews
Sex steroid hormones secreted by the gonads play a central role in the reproduction of all vertebrates. In addition to direct effects on gametogenesis, sex steroid hormones are important in sexual development, brain organization, and sexual behavior. The actions of sex steroid hormones are mediated primarily by ligand-dependent transcription factors, or receptors which bind to specific sequences of the DNA
Johnsen, Hanne; Tveiten, Helge; Torgersen, Jacob S; Andersen, Øivind
The factors of the Sox9-Amh-Cyp19a1 cascade play a crucial role in the complex process of sex differentiation in mammals. The involvement of Sox9 and Cyp19a1 paralogs and the single Amh ortholog in sex differentiation and development of the gonads and the brain in Atlantic cod was examined by analyzing bimodal and sex-dimorphic gene expression patterns, respectively, during early stages and in maturing males and females. Expression of sox9a and sox9b were initiated at blastulation, and both paralogs were expressed in chondrogenic tissue in the hatched larvae. The male-specific expression of sox9a in the adult gonads supports a conserved role in testis function, while sox9b was expressed in the maturing testes and ovaries at similar levels. Amh was expressed at low, but variable, levels from late gastrulation prior to the onset of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b expression. Male-biased amh expression was found in the maturing gonads, but the increased ovarian levels during maturation suggest a role also in females. The larval expression of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b increased at the expected time of sex differentiation, but showed large individual variation. The ovarian expression of cyp19a1a and amh increased concomitant with increased plasma estradiol levels during vitellogenesis. The testis-specific cyp19a1b expression supports the importance of estrogen in the spermatogenesis, while abundant expression in the male and female brain is probably related to the continuous neurogenesis in fish. These divergent and sex-dimorphic expression patterns of the cod sox9 and cyp19a1 paralogs demonstrate the complexity of the genetic network regulating sexual development in fish. PMID:23504922
Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes Differentiation Between Different Sexes Occurs Even Determination Some of these Genes are on the Sex Chromosomes but Others are ____________ . In Multi Chromosome) = Male Sex Chromosomes The role of in Sex Determination was Initially Discovered Early in the 20
1425 Introduction Sex determination is the process by which cells, tissues and indeed animals to coordinate the overall development of an animal into one sex or the other. In mammals, primary sex are directed to develop as one of two sexes. The gonad must be specialized to support different modes
Women are approximately twice as likely as men to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma exposure. Mechanisms underlying this difference are not well understood. Although sleep is recognized to have a critical role in PTSD and physical and psychological health more generally, research into the role of sleep in PTSD sex differences has been only recent. In this article, we review both animal and human studies relevant to sex differences in sleep and PTSD with an emphasis on the roles of sex hormones. Sleep impairment including insomnia, trauma-related nightmares, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep fragmentation has been observed in individuals with chronic and developing PTSD, suggesting that sleep impairment is a characteristic of PTSD and a risk factor for its development. Preliminary findings suggested sex specific patterns of sleep alterations in developing and established PTSD. Sleep maintenance impairment in the aftermath of trauma was observed in women who subsequently developed PTSD, and greater REM sleep fragmentation soon after trauma was associated with developing PTSD in both sexes. In chronic PTSD, reduced deep sleep has been found only in men, and impaired sleep initiation and maintenance with PTSD have been found in both sexes. A limited number of studies with small samples have shown that sex hormones and their fluctuations over the menstrual cycle influenced sleep as well as fear extinction, a process hypothesized to be critical to the pathogenesis of PTSD. To further elucidate the possible relationship between the sex specific patterns of PTSD-related sleep alterations and the sexually dimorphic risk for PTSD, future studies with larger samples should comprehensively examine effects of sex hormones and the menstrual cycle on sleep responses to trauma and the risk/resilience for PTSD utilizing various methodologies including fear conditioning and extinction paradigms and animal models. PMID:23272647
Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography Mohamed Hachama, Agn`es Desolneux (e.g. lesions) in mammography are solved separately, although the solutions of these problems 2006 #12;Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography 179 The definition
Mayta A. Caldwell; Letitia Anne Peplau
Two studies examined sex differences in the same-sex friendships of college men and women. In a questionnaire study, self-reports were obtained of number of friends and frequency of interaction, typical and preferred kinds of interactions with friends, and emotional intimacy. A role-play study provided more direct information about conversations between friends. Men and women did not differ in quantitative aspects
Weingartner, L A; Delph, L F
Neo-sex chromosomes, which form through the major restructuring of ancestral sex chromosome systems, have evolved in various taxa. Such restructuring often consists of the fusion of an autosome to an existing sex chromosome, resulting in novel sex chromosome formations (e.g. X1X2Y or XY1Y2.). Comparative studies are often made between restructured sex chromosome systems of closely related species, and here we evaluate the consequences of variable sex chromosome systems to hybrids. If neo-sex chromosomes are improperly inherited across species, this could lead to aberrant development and reproductive isolation. In this study, we examine the fate of neo-sex chromosomes in hybrids of the flowering plants Silene diclinis and Silene latifolia. Silene diclinis has a neo-sex chromosome system (XY1Y2) that is thought to have evolved from an ancestral XY system that is still present in S. latifolia. These species do not hybridize naturally, and improper sex chromosome inheritance could contribute to reproductive isolation. We investigated whether this major restructuring of sex chromosomes prevents their proper inheritance in a variety of hybrid crosses, including some F2 - and later-generation hybrids, with sex chromosome-linked, species-specific, polymorphic markers and chromosome squashes. We discovered that despite the differences in sex chromosomes that exist between these two species, proper segregation had occurred in hybrids that made it to flowering, including later-generation hybrids, indicating that neo-sex chromosome formation alone does not result in complete reproductive isolation between these two species. Additionally, hybrids with aberrant sex expression (e.g. neuter, hermaphrodite) also inherited the restructured sex chromosomes properly, highlighting that issues with sexual development in hybrids can be caused by intrinsic genetic incompatibility rather than improper sex chromosome inheritance. PMID:24739043
Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a group of disorders with progressive language impairment. Abnormal behaviour may develop in PPA as the disease evolves, but the clinical features and brain basis of behavioural change in PPA have not been fully defined. 33 PPA patients (9 semantic dementia, SD, 14 progressive nonfluent aphasia, PNFA, 7 logopenic/phonological aphasia, LPA and 3 patients with a PPA syndrome in association with progranulin mutations, GRN-PPA) were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory to record behavioural changes, as well as volumetric MR imaging. The most common abnormal behaviours in SD were irritability, disinhibition, depression and abnormal appetite, in PNFA apathy, agitation and depression, in LPA anxiety, irritability, agitation and apathy, and in GRN-PPA apathy and irritability. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed greater atrophy of right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in PPA patients with anxiety, apathy, irritability/lability and abnormal appetite/eating disorders, and greater atrophy of left OFC in those with disinhibition. Areas involved beyond OFC included right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (apathy), right cingulate (irritability/lability) and left anterior superior and medial temporal lobe (disinhibition). Behavioural abnormalities may be clinically significant in PPA, and these abnormalities are underpinned by atrophy of overlapping frontotemporal networks centred on OFC. PMID:20400120
Kim, Woojun; Kim, Su-Hyun; Huh, So-Young; Kim, Ho Jin
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON) and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD. Due to the growing recognition of brain abnormalities in NMOSD, these have been included in the NMO and NMOSD diagnostic criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced. PMID:23259063
Phonrat, Benjaluck; Ruengkris, Tosaporn; Naksrisook, Supa; Intalapaporn, Kaewta; Jirakorbchaipong, Phuit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee
This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the psychosocial burden of women with abnormal Pap-smear results during the 3 months after recruitment into the study. Seventy-five women negative for intraepithelial lesions and 76 women with epithelial cell abnormalities were recruited. The two study groups did not differ in baseline demographic characteristics or gynecological history. However, the mean Health Impact Profile (HIP) scores were higher for the women negative for intraepithelial lesions [68.18 +/- 14.22 and 57.74 +/- 16.29, respectively (p < 0.001)], who were mostly concerned about getting cancer, pain during the visit to the gynecologist, and that having sex with their partner may give them an infection (p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Work Productivity and Activity Impairement Questionnaire (WPAI), Health Utilities Index (HUI), Health State Score (HSS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS), between the two study groups. However, there was a significant difference in mean scores for HSS within the younger age group (18-28 years) [(75.00 +/- 13.64, n = 19 and 59.72 +/- 19.13, n = 18, respectively)] (p = 0.008). The provision of information, counseling, and advice, support services and clinician consultation times, need strengthening, to help alleviate women's concerns about infection, and their worries, anxiety or depression, following an abnormal Pap result. PMID:19842448
Liew, Woei Chang
In this review, we provide a detailed overview of studies on the elusive sex determination (SD) and gonad differentiation mechanisms of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We show that the data obtained from most studies are compatible with polygenic sex determination (PSD), where the decision is made by the allelic combinations of several loci. These loci are typically dispersed throughout the genome, but in some teleost species a few of them might be located on a preferential pair of (sex) chromosomes. The PSD system has a much higher level of variation of SD genotypes both at the level of gametes and the sexual genotype of individuals, than that of the chromosomal sex determination systems. The early sexual development of zebrafish males is a complicated process, as they first develop a ‘juvenile ovary’, that later undergoes a transformation to give way to a testis. To date, three major developmental pathways were shown to be involved with gonad differentiation through the modulation of programmed cell death. In our opinion, there are more pathways participating in the regulation of zebrafish gonad differentiation/transformation. Introduction of additional powerful large-scale genomic approaches into the analysis of zebrafish reproduction will result in further deepening of our knowledge as well as identification of additional pathways and genes associated with these processes in the near future. PMID:24148942
Akinori Ito; Akihito Aiba; Masashi Ito; Shozo Makino
We developed a system that detects abnormal sound from sound signal observed by a surveillance microphone. Our system learns the ldquonormal soundrdquo from observation of the microphone, and then detects sounds never observed before as ldquoabnormal sounds.rdquo To this end, we developed a technique that uses multiple GMMs for modeling different levels of sound events efficiently. We also consider how
Data are presented on the attitudes of mothers from the entire social class spectrum toward content and timing of sex education for children (CT-Attitudes), and also toward sex education in school (S-Attitudes) in two California communities in 1969. Findings underscore the necessity to consider these two attitudinal variables separately. As a result of their separation for study purposes, it was possible to arrive at a four-fold typology or grouping of mothers: 1) CT liberals in favor, and 2) CT liberals opposed to sex education in schools, 3) CT conservatives in favor, and 4) CT conservatives opposed to school programs of sex education. It is inferred that educational planners need to pay due regard to the sentiments of all four maternal groups and all social classes in developing sex education programs for families and for school children. PMID:474847
Malcom, Jacob W.; Kudra, Randal S.; Malone, John H.
Frog sex chromosomes offer an ideal system for advancing our understanding of genome evolution and function because of the variety of sex determination systems in the group, the diversity of sex chromosome maturation states, the ease of experimental manipulation during early development. After briefly reviewing sex chromosome biology generally, we focus on what is known about frog sex determination, sex chromosome evolution, and recent, genomics-facilitated advances in the field. In closing we highlight gaps in our current knowledge of frog sex chromosomes, and suggest priorities for future research that can advance broad knowledge of gene dose and sex chromosome evolution. PMID:25031658
Loutfi, Issa; Collier, B David; Mohammed, Ahmed M
Although bone scanning is a test primarily concerned with skeletal abnormalities, important nonosseous findings are occasionally present on the images. To gauge the significance of such nonosseous uptake and, in particular, to determine whether these findings contain useful diagnostic information, the technical and medical staff in nuclear medicine must recognize the various patterns of nonbony uptake and understand their causes. The objectives of this article are to demonstrate the appearances of nonosseous uptake on bone scans, to categorize the forms of soft-tissue uptake, to emphasize technical artifacts leading to soft-tissue uptake, and to highlight the clinical significance of pathologic soft-tissue uptake. PMID:12968045
Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.
The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.
Gallagher, Patrick G
Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.
Bayne, Keith; Buckley-Daum, Deborah
This guide is intended for use in conducting a two-day inservice program to train school administrators, counselors, and teachers in identifying and eliminating sex bias and stereotyping. Lesson plans are provided for addressing the following objectives: develop an awareness of personal values related to sex bias and stereotyping, identify…
David J. Allsop; Stuart A. West
Sex allocation theory is often able to make clear predictions about when individuals should facultatively adjust their offspring sex ratio (proportion male) in response to local conditions, but not the consequences for the overall population sex ratio. A notable exception to this is in sex changing organisms, where theory predicts that: (1) organisms should have a sex ratio biased toward
Hay, Meredith; Xue, Baojian; Johnson, Alan Kim
The role of the brain in hypertension between the sexes is known to be important especially with regards to the effects of circulating sex hormones. A number of different brain regions important for regulation of sympathetic outflow and blood pressure express estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?). Estradiol, acting predominantly via the ER?, inhibits angiotensin II activation of the area postrema and subfornical organ neurons and inhibits reactive oxygen generation that is required for the development of Angiotensin II-induced neurogenic hypertension. Estradiol activation of ER? within the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla inhibits these neurons and inhibits angiotensin II, or aldosterone induced increases in sympathetic outflow and hypertension. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying ER? and ER? actions within key brain regions regulating blood pressure will be essential for the development of "next generation" selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) that can be used clinically for the treatment of neurogenic hypertension. PMID:24929952