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Sex differentiation is determined by a cascade of events proceeding from chromosomal sex to the completion of sexual maturation at puberty. Many factors involved in this cascade have been identified. Here we focus on DAX-1, androgen receptor and cytochrome P450c17, and discuss their functions in sex differentiation. We analyzed the DAX-1 genes of two unrelated Japanese patients with congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism using PCR amplification of genomic DNA and complete exonic sequencing, and established that congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism result from not only inherited but also de novo mutation in the DAX-1 gene. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a good model to clarify the relationship between the structure and function of androgen receptor, the androgen receptor gene mutation and clinical phenotype. We analyzed 15 cases of AIS and demonstrate the structural and functional relationships of the androgen receptor. We have sequenced the CYP17 (P450c17) gene in DNA from several patients with 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, reconstructed the mutations in a human P450c17 cDNA and expressed the mutant P450c17 in COSl cells to characterize the kinetic properties of 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. The molecular bases of cases clinically reported as 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency have turned out to be complete or partial combined deficiencies of 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase. PMID:8864743
Nawata, H; Takayanagi, R; Yanase, T; Ikuyama, S; Okabe, T
We evaluated the relationship between the baseline sacroiliac joint (SIJ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the development of radiographic sacroiliitis and tested their prognostic significance in cases of ankylosing spondylitis. Patients who had undergone an SIJ MRI at the rheumatology department were identified. Individuals for whom pelvic X-rays were available after at least 1 year of MRI were included in the analysis. All radiographs and MRI examinations were scored by two independent readers. Medical records of the patients were reviewed to obtain potentially relevant demographic and clinical data. We identified 1,069 SIJ MRIs, and 328 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Reliability analysis revealed moderate to good inter- and intra-observer agreement. On presentation data, 14 cases were excluded because they had unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis at baseline. After a mean of 34.8 months of follow-up, 24 patients developed radiographic sacroiliitis. The presence of active sacroiliitis (odds ratio (OR) 15.1) and structural lesions on MRI (OR 8.3), male sex (OR 4.7), fulfillment of Calin's inflammatory back pain criteria (P?=?0.001), and total MRI activity score (P?0.001) were found to be related to the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. By regression modeling, the presence of both active inflammatory and structural damage lesions on MRI and male sex were found to be predictive factors for the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. Our present results suggest that the occurrence of both active inflammatory and structural lesions in SIJs revealed by MRI is a significant risk factor for radiographic sacroiliitis, especially in male patients with early inflammatory back pain. PMID:23765093
BACKGROUND: Chromosomal abnormalities are an important cause of spontaneous abortion and recurrent mis- carriage (RM). Therefore, we have analysed the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and embryo development in patients with RM. METHODS: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was performed on 71 couples with RM and 28 couples undergoing PGD for sex-linked diseases (control group). Chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X
C. Rubio; C. Simon; F. Vidal; L. Rodrigo; T. Pehlivan; J. Remohi; A. Pellicer
Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common presentation of a disorder of sexdevelopment (DSD) in genetic females. A report of prenatal growth retardation in cases of 46,XY DSD, coupled with observations of below-optimal final height in both males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, prompted us to investigate prenatal growth in the latter group. Additionally, because girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia are exposed to increased levels of androgens in the absence of a male sex-chromosome complement, the presence or absence of typical sex differences in growth of newborns would support or refute a hormonal explanation for these differences. Methods In total, 105 newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were identified in our database. Gestational age (weeks), birth weight (kg), birth length (cm) and parental heights (cm) were obtained. Mid-parental height was considered in the analyses. Results Mean birth weight percentile for congenital adrenal hyperplasia was 49.26%, indicating no evidence of a difference in birth weight from the expected standard population median of 50th percentile (P > 0.05). The expected sex difference in favor of heavier males was not seen (P > 0.05). Of the 105 subjects, 44 (27%; 34 females, 10 males) had birth length and gestational age recorded in their medical chart. Mean birth length for this subgroup was 50.90 cm (63rd percentile), which differed from the expected standard population median of 50th percentile (P = 0.0082). The expected sex difference in favor of longer males was also not seen (P > 0.05). Conclusion The prenatal growth retardation patterns reported in cases of 46,XY disorders of sexdevelopment do not generalize to people with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Sex differences in body weight and length typically seen in young infants were not seen in the subjects who participated in this study. We speculate that these differences were ameliorated in this study because of increased levels of prenatal androgens experienced by the females infants.
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) occur in 1–2\\/10,000 live births, with a specific molecular diagnosis only possible in 20% of cases. Presentation is usually at birth, and gender assignment must be avoided before review by an expert multidisciplinary team. Initial investigations allow a working diagnosis to be made within 48 hours. In 46,XY DSD, surgery may be necessary to correct
Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common presentation of a disorder of sexdevelopment\\u000a (DSD) in genetic females. A report of prenatal growth retardation in cases of 46,XY DSD, coupled with observations of below-optimal\\u000a final height in both males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, prompted us to\\u000a investigate prenatal growth in
Laura J Chalmers; Paul Doherty; Claude J Migeon; Kenneth C Copeland; Brianna C Bright; Amy B Wisniewski
Declines in amphibian populations, and amphibians with gross malformations, have prompted concern regarding the biological status of many anuran species. A survey of bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, and green frogs, Rana clamitans, conducted in central and southern New Hampshire showed malformed frogs at 81% of the sites sampled (13 of 16 sites). Brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the synthesis of androgens and estradiol, hormones essential to reproductive processes, were measured from limb-malformed and normal (no limb malformation) frogs. Normal frogs had significantly higher concentrations (nearly 3-fold) of in vitro produced androgens and of brain GnRH than malformed frogs. Because most malformations are thought to occur during development, we propose that environmental factors or endocrine-disrupting chemicals that may cause developmental abnormalities also act during early development to ultimately cause abnormally reduced GnRH and androgen production in adult frogs. The consequences of reduced GnRH and androgens on anuran reproductive behavior and population dynamics are unknown but certainly may be profound and warrant further research.
In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of
Excerpt from "The Roots of Love" (Helene S. Arnstein, 1975). Book is concerned with feelings that are part of child's developmental stages. Included in excerpt are: genital self-discovery, masturbation, discovery of sex differences, and birth fantasies. Stresses importance of parent's feelings which are communicated to child.
Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…
The molecular steps in normal sexual development were largely discovered by studying patients and animal models with disorders of sexual development (DSD). Although several types of DSD have been reported in the cat and dog, which are often strikingly similar to human DSD, these have been infrequently utilized to contribute to our knowledge of mammalian sexual development. Canine and feline cases of DSD with sufficient evidence to be considered as potential models are summarized in this report. The consensus DSD terminology, and reference to previous terminology, is used to foster adoption of a common nomenclature that will facilitate communication and collaboration between veterinarians, physicians, and researchers. To efficiently utilize these unique resources as molecular tools continue to improve, it will be helpful to deposit samples from valuable cases into repositories where they are available to contribute to our understanding of sexual development, and thus improve human and animal health.
The molecular steps in normal sexual development were largely discovered by studying patients and animal models with disorders of sexual development (DSD). Although several types of DSD have been reported in the cat and dog, which are often strikingly similar to human DSD, these have been infrequently utilized to contribute to our knowledge of mammalian sexual development. Canine and feline cases of DSD with sufficient evidence to be considered as potential models are summarized in this report. The consensus DSD terminology, and reference to previous terminology, is used to foster adoption of a common nomenclature that will facilitate communication and collaboration between veterinarians, physicians, and researchers. To efficiently utilize these unique resources as molecular tools continue to improve, it will be helpful to deposit samples from valuable cases into repositories where they are available to contribute to our understanding of sexual development, and thus improve human and animal health. PMID:22005097
Research has indicated that gender constancy and categorization are achieved in childhood and that autonomous sex-role integration occurs during adulthood, well after a secure sense of gender identity is established. To examine developmental sex-role identification, college students rated themselves on a "current" Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and…
Nineteen patients associated with sexual anomalies were studied for chromosome abnormalities. Five cases (26.3 per cent) were found to be chromosomally abnormal. They were one case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with an XY/XO mosaicism, two cases of Klinefel...
TO COUNTERACT THE NEGATIVE ATTITUDES AND ABNORMAL ATMOSPHERE AMONG DEAF CHILDREN IN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS, A SEX EDUCATION CURRICULUM WAS DEVELOPED BY A STUDY GROUP COMPOSED OF TEAHCERS OF THE DEAF, SOCIAL HYGIENE PERSONNEL, AND A SOCIOLOGIST. A CONTROL GROUP WAS OBTAINED FROM THE INDIANA SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF MATCHING FACTORS SUCH AS AGE, SEX,…
According to cytogenetic analysis, about 50% of Turner individuals are 45,X. The remaining cases have a structurally abnormal X chromosome or are mosaics with a second cell line containing a normal or abnormalsex chromosome. In these mosaics, approximately 20% have a sex marker chromosome whose identity cannot usually be determined by classical cytogenetic methods, requiring the use of molecular techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), primed in situ labeling (PRINS), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed in 8 patients with Turner syndrome and 45,X mosaic karyotypes to determine the origin and structure of the marker chromosome in the second cell line. Our data showed that markers were Y-derived in 2 patients and X-derived in the remaining 6 patients. We were also able to determine the breakpoints in the two Y chromosomes. The use of cytogenetic and molecular techniques allowed us to establish unequivocally the origin, X or Y, of the marker chromosomes in the 8 patients with Turner phenotype. This study illustrates the power of resolution and utility of combined cytogenetic and molecular approaches in some clinical cases. PMID:11903342
Cervantes, A; Guevara-Yáñez, R; López, M; Monroy, N; Aguinaga, M; Valdez, H; Sierra, C; Canún, S; Guízar, J; Navarrete, C; Zafra, G; Salamanca, F; Kofman-Alfaro, S
... disorder catalog Conditions > 46,XX testicular disorder of sexdevelopment On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... 2008 What is 46,XX testicular disorder of sexdevelopment? 46,XX testicular disorder of sexdevelopment ...
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) rarely present prenatally but, as they are very complex conditions, management should be directed by highly specialised medical teams to allow consideration of all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and ethical issues. In this brief review, we present an overview of the prenatal presentation and management of DSD, including the sonographic appearance of normal genitalia and methods of determining genetic sex, the prenatal management of pregnancies with the unexpected finding of genital ambiguity on prenatal ultrasound and a review of the prenatal management of pregnancies at high risk of DSD. As this is a rapidly developing field, management options will change over time, making the involvement of clinical geneticists, paediatric endocrinologists and urologists, as well as fetal medicine specialists, essential in the care of these complex pregnancies. The reader should also bear in mind that local social, ethical and legal aspects may also influence management. PMID:23131529
Background The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. Methods MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. Results A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years). Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL). Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23), and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR=5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81). A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. Conclusions The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among MSM to protect them from the development of HPV-associated diseases. Additional studies are needed to determine whether and how screening for anal cancer precursor lesions should be performed in younger MSM.
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) among 46,XY individuals are rare and challenging conditions. Abnormalities of karyotype, gonadal formation, androgen synthesis, and androgen action are responsible for the multiple disorders that result in undervirilization during development. Phenotypic appearance and timing of presentation are quite variable. The focus of treatment has shifted from early gender assignment and corrective surgery to careful diagnosis, proper education of patients and their families, and individualized treatment by a multi-disciplinary team. The modern management of these patients is difficult and controversial. Conflicting data on long-term outcomes of these individuals have been reported in the literature. The various etiologies of 46,XY DSD, current approaches to diagnosis and treatment, and reported long-term results are reviewed. PMID:23276787
Massanyi, Eric Z; Dicarlo, Heather N; Migeon, Claude J; Gearhart, John P
Endosulfan sulphate is the transformation product of endosulfan and it is the most frequent form of surface water contamination with endosulfan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects promoted by endosulfan sulphate in changes on the life cycle, embryo development and sex differentiation of Daphnia magna. The endpoints used were moulting frequency, fecundity, growth, developmentally abnormalities
P. Palma; V. L. Palma; R. M. Fernandes; A. M. V. M. Soares; I. R. Barbosa
Social robots recognize and respond to hu- man social cues with appropriate behaviors. Social robots, and the technology used in their construction, can be unique tools in the study of abnormal social development. Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that is char- acterized by social and communicative im- pairments. Based on three years of integra- tion and immersion with a
This review covers the relationship between chromosome abnormalities, morphological abnormalities and embryonic development. The baseline of chromosome abnormalities in human embryos produced by assisted reproduction is higher than 50%, regardless of maternal age. While aneuploidy increases with maternal age, abnormalities arising post-meiotically, such as mosaicism, chaoticism, polyploidy and haploidy, have similar incidence in all age groups (about 33%). Post-meiotic abnormalities
Countries with better health, as indexed by life expectancy, score higher on subjective well-being (SWB). It was predicted\\u000a that deviations from the average sex difference in life expectancy (reflecting reproductive competition among males and discrimination\\u000a against females) would be inversely related to happiness. Regression analysis of SWB for 178 countries found that deviations\\u000a from the average sex difference in life
During male meiosis, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced, a process termed meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Recent studies have shown that the sex chromosomes remain substantially transcriptionally repressed after meiosis in round spermatids, but the mechanisms involved in this later repression are poorly understood. Mice with deletions of the Y chromosome long arm (MSYq-) have increased spermatid expression of multicopy X and Y genes, and so represent a model for studying post-meiotic sex chromosome repression. Here, we show that the increase in sex chromosome transcription in spermatids from MSYq- mice affects not only multicopy but also single-copy XY genes, as well as an X-linked reporter gene. This increase in transcription is accompanied by specific changes in the sex chromosome histone code, including almost complete loss of H4K8Ac and reduction of H3K9me3 and CBX1. Together, these data show that an MSYq gene regulates sex chromosome gene expression as well as chromatin remodelling in spermatids. PMID:19861498
80 undergraduate females participated in a study investigating the relation of sex-role identity and sex-stereotyped tasks to the development of learned helplessness in women. Half of the Ss from 4 sex-role identity groups received bogus feedback and were forced to fail on a concept formation task described to them as either a male- or female-stereotyped task; the other 40 Ss
A comprehensive literature review examines a wide variety of topics concerned with sex role formation as a means of determining the relative contributions of biologic and social forces. The fundamental nature of the gender variable is noted and an analysis is conducted of factors which contribute to sex role formation from birth to adulthood. These factors include the home environment,
Frequent or severe abnormal behavior may be associated with the release of endorphins that positively reinforce the behavior with an opiate euphoria or analgesia. One line of research exploring this association involves the superhormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The products of POMC appear to be dysregulated in some human subjects who exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB). Macaque monkeys have POMC very similar to
Carolyn M. Crockett; Gene P. Sackett; Curt A. Sandman; Aleksandra Chicz-DeMet; Kathleen L. Bentson
Background Early pregnancy loss (EPL) is a frustrating clinical problem, whose mechanisms are not completely understood. DNA methylation, which includes maintenance methylation and de novo methylation directed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), is important for embryo development. Abnormal function of these DNMTs may have serious consequences for embryonic development. Methods To evaluate the possible involvement of DNA methylation in human EPL, the expression of DNMT proteins and global methylation of DNA were assessed in villous or decidua from EPL patients. The association of maintenance methylation with embryo implantation and development was also examined. Results We found that DNMT1 and DNMT3A were both expressed in normal human villous and decidua. DNMT1 expression and DNA global methylation levels were significantly down-regulated in villous of EPL. DNMT3A expression was not significantly changed in the EPL group compared to controls in either villous or decidua. We also found that disturbance of maintenance methylation with a DNMT1 inhibitor may result in a decreased global DNA methylation level and impaired embryonic development in the mouse model, and inhibit in vitro embryo attachment to endometrial cells. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that defects in DNA maintenance methylation in the embryo, not in the mother, are associated with abnormal embryonic implantation and development. The findings of the current study provide new insights into the etiology of EPL.
Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined "disorders of sexdevelopment" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis) compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions.
This paper discusses sex discrimination as a judicial issue. Cases addressing differential treatment of men and women in the following areas are explored: student admissions practices, student athletic programs, employee pregnancy benefits and maternity leave policies, employee retirement benefits programs, and prerequisites to employment. Also…
|The author of this article proposes a critical approach to sexuality as a pedagogical agenda. The author offers a brief appraisal of sexology as a developmental science, and of the academic notion of developingsex. First, the author locates sexuality education in terms of its conventional curricular organization, arguing that that sex…
|The premise of this paper is that teacher behavior and attitudes which uphold traditional sex stereotypes of masculinity and femininity, in which the male is always aggressive and unfeeling and the female is always passive and sensitive, are harmful to the psychological development of children. A positive sex role identification would include a…
|The International Planned Parenthood Federation meeting report places priority on the development of sex education programs in Latin America. While regional and national circumstances clearly differ, it was felt that the steps described provide valuable guidelines on how a sex education program can be evolved while utilizing formal and non-formal…
The International Planned Parenthood Federation meeting report places priority on the development of sex education programs in Latin America. While regional and national circumstances clearly differ, it was felt that the steps described provide valuable guidelines on how a sex education program can be evolved while utilizing formal and non-formal…
Preference for and play with same-sex-stereotyped toys is one of the earliest manifestations of sex role development in young children. In this study, naturalistic observations of the play of 52 toddlers with a set of socially stereotyped masculine, feminine, and neutral toys were made in a day care setting over 14 months. In addition, two potential influences on toy choice
Congenital ataxia and mental retardation are mainly caused by variations in the genes that affect brain development. Recent reports have shown that mutations in the CA8 gene are associated with mental retardation and ataxia in humans and ataxia in mice. The gene product, carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARP VIII), is predominantly present in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where it interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, a calcium channel. In this study, we investigated the effects of the loss of function of CARP VIII during embryonic development in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against the CA8 gene. Knockdown of CA8 in zebrafish larvae resulted in a curved body axis, pericardial edema and abnormal movement patterns. Histologic examination revealed gross morphologic defects in the cerebellar region and in the muscle. Electron microscopy studies showed increased neuronal cell death in developing larvae injected with CA8 antisense morpholinos. These data suggest a pivotal role for CARP VIII during embryonic development. Furthermore, suppression of CA8 expression leads to defects in motor and coordination functions, mimicking the ataxic human phenotype. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of CARP VIII in brain development and introduces a novel zebrafish model in which to investigate the mechanisms of CARP VIII-related ataxia and mental retardation in humans. PMID:23087022
Aspatwar, Ashok; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Jokitalo, Eija; Parikka, Mataleena; Ortutay, Csaba; Harjula, Sanna-Kaisa E; Rämet, Mika; Vihinen, Mauno; Parkkila, Seppo
Summary A line of mice, designated as the T1 stock, which has been derived from a single male whose father was X-rayed, is characterised by the production of about 4·6\\u000a per cent. of abnormal embryos, and of a somewhat smaller percentage of abnormal young at term.\\u000a \\u000a The abnormality consists of a failure of the neural groove to close throughout a portion
Although youthful homoeroticism has been documented by artisans, poets, and historians for thousands of years, it was not\\u000a until the early 1970s that American scientists—primarily medical researchers and mental health professionals—began systematically\\u000a studying a newly recognized clinical group they classified as “gay youth.” Casting doubt on earlier interpretations that adolescent\\u000a same-sex encounters were experimental events that were temporary derailments from
BACKGROUND: Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined \\
Paul-Martin Holterhus; Jan-Hendrik Bebermeier; Ralf Werner; Janos Demeter; Annette Richter-Unruh; Gunnar Cario; Mahesh Appari; Reiner Siebert; Felix Riepe; James D Brooks; Olaf Hiort
Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth.
Development of the primary and secondary lymphoid organs is a tightly controlled process. These tissues are highly organized to maximize efficiency of the immune response. Spontaneous and targeted mutations in laboratory mice have led to better understanding of the molecular interactions and signaling pathways essential to the development and organization of lymphoid tissues, and the functional consequences of loss or disruption of the normal structures. On the basis of studies of mutations in mice and other species, it has been determined that a wild-type allele of the Foxn1 gene is required for normal thymic development and function. The Tlx1, Bapx1, Tcf21, Wt1 and Dh genes are essential for development of the spleen, while mutations of Nkx2-3, Lta, Ltb, Ltbr, Map3k14, Relb, Tnf, Tnfrsf1a, Cxcl13, Blr1 (Cxcr5), or cpdm genes result in disruption of normal splenic microarchitecture. The requirements for organized lymph nodes vary according to anatomic location, but most rely on Id2 (Idb2) and Rorc, in addition to lymphotoxins and Tnfrsf11a, Tnfsf11, Relb, Map3k14, Cxcl13, and Blr1 genes. Development of Peyer's patches is dependent on Id2 and Rorc genes, lymphotoxins, and Relb, Map3k14, Il7r, and cpdm genes. Less is known about the requirements for nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT), but Id2 is a requirement. Here we review abnormalities of lymphoid organ development in immunodeficient mutant mice, including spontaneous and targeted mutations of Id2, Rorc, Tnf, Tnfrsf1a, Lta, Ltb, Ltbr, Tnfrsf11a, Tnfsf11, Relb, Map3k14, IL7r, Blr1, and Cxcl13 genes. PMID:16846982
|Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. A prospective study was made of the early development of 42 children with sex chromosome aberrations. (Author)|
Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary.
Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR
Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexingdeveloping embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.
Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian
Microglia are the resident immune cells within the brain and their production of immune molecules such as cytokines and chemokines is critical for the processes of normal brain development including neurogenesis, axonal migration, synapse formation, and programmed cell death. Notably, sex differences exist in many of these processes throughout brain development; however, it is unknown whether a sex difference concurrently exists in the colonization, number, or morphology of microglia within the developing brain. We demonstrate for the first time that the number and morphology of microglia throughout development is dependent upon the sex and age of the individual, as well as the brain region of interest. Males have overall more microglia early in postnatal development [postnatal day (P) 4], whereas females have more microglia with an activated/amoeboid morphology later in development, as juveniles and adults (P30-60). Finally, gene expression of a large number of cytokines, chemokines and their receptors shifts dramatically over development, and is highly dependent upon sex. Taken together, these data warrant further research into the role that sex-dependent mechanisms may play in microglial colonization, number, and function, and their potential contribution to neural development, function, or potential dysfunction. PMID:22182318
Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Sholar, Paige W; Bilbo, Staci D
Structural MRI studies provide evidence for sex differences in the human brain. Differences in surface area and the proportion of gray to white matter volume are observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge, there are no studies examining sex differences of parietal lobe structure in younger populations or in the context of development. The current study evaluated sex difference in the structure of the parietal lobe in children (7-17 years of age). Also, by adding the cohort of previously studied adults (18-50 years of age), sex differences of parietal lobe morphology were examined across the age span of 7-50 years. In the youth sample, we found that, similar to adults, the ratio of parietal lobe cortex to white matter was greater in females. Unlike the adult sample, there were no sex differences in surface area. When examining effects of age, surface area had a significant sex-by-age interaction. Males had essentially no decrease in surfaces area over time, but females had a significant decrease in surface area over time. These findings support the notion of structural sex differences in the parietal lobe, not only in the context of cross sectional assessment, but also in terms of differences of developmental trajectories.
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSDs) are congenital conditions with discrepancies between the chromosomal, gonadal, and phenotypic sex of the individual. Such disorders have historically been difficult to diagnose and cause great stress to patients and their families. Genetic analysis of human samples has been instrumental in elucidating the molecules and pathways involved in the development of the bipotential gonad into a functioning testis or ovary. However, many DSD patients still do not receive a genetic diagnosis. New genetic and genomic technologies are expanding our knowledge of the underlying mechanism of DSDs and opening new avenues for clinical diagnosis. We review the genetic technologies that have elucidated the genes that are well established in sex determination in humans, discuss findings from more recent genomic technologies, and propose a new paradigm for clinical diagnosis of DSDs. PMID:23875799
In insects, the boundary between the embryonic head and thorax is formed by the dorsal ridge, a fused structure composed of portions of the maxillary and labial segments. However, the mechanisms that promote development of this unusual structure remain a mystery. In Drosophila, mutations in the Hox genes Sex combs reduced and Deformed have been reported to cause abnormal dorsal ridge formation, but the significance of these abnormalities is not clear. We have identified three mutant allele classes of Cephalothorax, the Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) ortholog of Sex combs reduced, each of which has a different effect on dorsal ridge development. By using Engrailed expression to monitor dorsal ridge development in these mutants, we demonstrate that Cephalothorax promotes the fusion and subsequent dorsolateral extension of the maxillary and labial Engrailed stripes (posterior compartments) during dorsal ridge formation. Molecular and genetic analysis of these alleles indicates that the N terminus of Cephalothorax is important for the fusion step, but is dispensable for Engrailed stripe extension. Thus, we find that specific regions of Cephalothorax are required for discrete steps in dorsal ridge formation. PMID:16849608
Shippy, Teresa D; Rogers, Carmelle D; Beeman, Richard W; Brown, Susan J; Denell, Robin E
PurposeDisorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions characterized by an atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex. Particularly at the time of expected puberty, adolescents with DSD may become aware of being different from peers. This study explores the effect of DSD on psychosocial well-being and sexual development.
Eva Kleinemeier; Martina Jürgensen; Anke Lux; Pia-Marie Widenka; Ute Thyen
|This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…
Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.
To investigate whether the proportion of males to females employed as educational organizational development (OD) practitioners is equitable, sex distribution data from three recent sources are presented in female-male ratios, in categories that define the available talent pool for educational leadership, educational leadership positions, and OD…
This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…
Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.
|The authors investigate MacDonald's (1969) hypothesis that a sex by birth order interaction should be observed in measures related to sex typing. Since first borns are more thoroughly socialized, MacDonald reasons, and since parental expectations differ according to the child's sex, then first born boys and girls on sex typed variables.…
The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus is highly sensitive to oil pollution. Experiments were performed in winter, spring and summer over periods of 15 to 45 days. Experimental urchins were kept in water with hydrocarbon concentrations of 10 to 30 mg l-1, and control urchins in pure sea water. Thermal stimulation by Evdokimov's method was applied to obtain mature sexual products during winter and spring tests. Summer investigations were conducted at temperatures of 17 to 18 °C. The gonads were studied histologically and morphometrically, and the sexual cells obtained were analyzed at the embryological level. No histological and morphometrical differences were recorded between sexual cells of controls and experimentals. However, marked hydrocarbon effects were observed in the embryonic development of artificially fertilized cells from experimental urchins. Control embryos developed normally. Embryogenesis of artificially fertilized gametes from control females and experimental males, and vice versa, was found to be distinctly abnormal. Many abnormalities were identified at the first cleavage stage, as well as in blastula, gastrula and pluteus. Fertilization of experimental eggs with experimental sperm resulted in serious disturbances of embryos, followed by the development of non-viable larvae. On the whole, embryogenesis of sexual cells from experimental urchins was characterized by prominent delay, asynchronism and presence of abnormal non-viable larvae. Consequently, long-term effects of sublethal hydrocarbon concentrations resulted in the formation of defective sex cells and high larval mortality.
Objective: The availability of non-invasive brain imaging permits the study of normal and abnormal brain development in childhood and adolescence. This paper summarizes current knowledge of brain abnormalities of two conditions, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS), and illustrates how such findings are bringing clinical and preclinical perspectives closer together.Method: A selected review is presented of
Judith L. Rapoport; Xavier F. Castellanos; Nitin Gogate; Kristin Janson; Shawn Kohler; Phillip Nelson
In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway. In individuals harbouring heterozygous mutations in MAP3K1, dysregulation of MAPK signalling was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, suggesting a causal role for these mutations in disrupting XY sexual development. Mice lacking the cognate gene, Map3k1, are viable and exhibit the eyes open at birth (EOB) phenotype on a mixed genetic background, but on the C57BL/6J genetic background most mice die at around 14.5 dpc due to a failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. However, no systematic examination of sexual development in Map3k1-deficient mice has been described, an omission that is especially relevant in the case of C57BL/6J, a genetic background that is sensitized to disruptions to testis determination. Here, we report that on a mixed genetic background mice lacking Map3k1 are fertile and exhibit no overt abnormalities of testis development. On C57BL/6J, significant non-viability is observed with very few animals surviving to adulthood. However, an examination of development in Map3k1-deficient XY embryos on this genetic background revealed no significant defects in testis determination, although minor abnormalities were observed, including an increase in gonadal length. Based on these observations, we conclude that MAP3K1 is not required for mouse testis determination. We discuss the significance of these data for the functional interpretation of sex-reversing MAP3K1 mutations in humans.
MAMLD1 (mastermind-like domain containing 1) is a recently discovered causative gene for 46,XY disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD), with hypospadias as the salient clinical phenotype. To date, microdeletions involving MAMLD1 have been identified in six patients, and definitive mutations (nonsense and frameshift mutations that are predicted to undergo nonsense mediated mRNA decay [NMD]) have been found in six patients. In addition, specific MAMLD1 cSNP(s) and haplotype may constitute a susceptibility factor for hypospadias. Furthermore, in vitro studies have revealed that (1) the mouse homolog is expressed in fetal Sertoli and Leydig cells around the critical period for sexdevelopment; (2) transient Mamld1 knockdown results in significantly reduced testosterone production primarily because of compromised 17?-hydroxylation and Cyp17a1 expression in Murine Leydig tumor cells; (3) MAMLD1 localizes to the nuclear bodies and transactivates the promoter activity of a non-canonical Notch target gene hairy/enhancer of split 3, without demonstrable DNA-binding capacity; and (4) MAMLD1 is regulated by steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1). These findings suggest that the MAMLD1 mutations cause 46,XY DSD primarily because of compromised testosterone production around the critical period for sexdevelopment. Further studies will provide useful information for the molecular network involved in fetal testosterone production. PMID:23044878
The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232
Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas
Rationale Prenatal exposure to infection is a notable environmental risk factor in the development of schizophrenia. One prevalent hypothesis\\u000a suggests that infection-induced disruption of early prenatal brain development predisposes the organism to long-lasting structural\\u000a and functional brain abnormalities. Many of the prenatal infection-induced functional brain abnormalities appear to be closely\\u000a associated with imbalances in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system in adult life,
Microglia and astrocytes are the primary immune cells within the central nervous system. Microglia influence processes including neural development, synaptic plasticity and cognition; while their activation and production of immune molecules can induce stereotyped sickness behaviors or pathologies including cognitive dysfunction. Given their role in health and disease, we propose that glia may also be a critical link in understanding the etiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders that present with a strong sex-bias in their symptoms or prevalence. Specifically, males are more likely to be diagnosed with disorders that have distinct developmental origins such as autism or schizophrenia. In contrast, females are more likely to be diagnosed with disorders that present later in life, after the onset of adolescence, such as depression and anxiety disorders. In this review we will summarize the evidence suggesting that sex differences in the colonization and function of glia within the normal developing brain may contribute to distinct windows of vulnerability between males and females. We will also highlight the current gaps in our knowledge as well as the future directions and considerations of research aimed at understanding the link between neuroimmune function and sex differences in mental health disorders. PMID:22387107
|Describes the benefits and drawbacks of teaching a course outside one's area of expertise. Claims this enhances faculty development and alleviates burnout. Finds the positive aspects, personal and institutional, outweigh the negative. Results show favorable student evaluations. (Author/NL)|
Aims Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are among the major medical problems afflicting both men and women. While men display a higher prevalence for alcoholism, it is women who suffer a much greater risk for alcoholism-associated bodily damage. Although women generally consume less alcohol compared to men, females usually suffer more severe brain and other organ damage following binge or chronic alcohol abuse. Main methods and key findings: Although many biological (i.e., genetic risk and neurological abnormalities) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact men and women equally. These factors especially social and environmental, physiological, genetic and neurobiological ones have been demonstrated to contribute to the sex difference in response to alcohol intake, as well as the development of alcoholic complications. A number of neurotransmitters and growth factors may be partially involved in these differences between men and women. The mesolimbic dopamine system is implicated in the development of addictive behaviors. Differences in dopamine receptor density are found between sexes where gonadal steroid hormones may play a role. Inhibitory GABAergic and stimulatory glutamatergic systems also act as neuromodulators in the brain and differences in their specific receptors have been identified between men and women (particularly GABAA receptors and NMDA receptors). Significance Given the variety of factors contributing to the sex difference in response to alcohol intake, alcoholism treatment should take sex dimorphism into consideration. Furthermore, future research needs to be directed towards a better understanding of the mechanism of action of alcohol in both men and women.
Ceylan-Isik, Asli F.; McBride, Shawna M.; Ren, Jun
Tet enzymes (Tet1/2/3) convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in various embryonic and adult tissues. Mice mutant for either Tet1 or Tet2 are viable, raising the question of whether these enzymes have overlapping roles in development. Here we have generated Tet1 and Tet2 double-knockout (DKO) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mice. DKO ESCs remained pluripotent but were depleted of 5hmC and caused developmental defects in chimeric embryos. While a fraction of double-mutant embryos exhibited midgestation abnormalities with perinatal lethality, viable and overtly normal Tet1/Tet2-deficient mice were also obtained. DKO mice had reduced 5hmC and increased 5mC levels and abnormal methylation at various imprinted loci. Nevertheless, animals of both sexes were fertile, with females having smaller ovaries and reduced fertility. Our data show that loss of both enzymes is compatible with development but promotes hypermethylation and compromises imprinting. The data also suggest a significant contribution of Tet3 to hydroxylation of 5mC during development. PMID:23352810
Dawlaty, Meelad M; Breiling, Achim; Le, Thuc; Raddatz, Günter; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Cheng, Albert W; Gao, Qing; Powell, Benjamin E; Li, Zhe; Xu, Mingjiang; Faull, Kym F; Lyko, Frank; Jaenisch, Rudolf
We report two patients with abnormaldevelopment of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral\\u000a hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was\\u000a not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing\\u000a may interfere with the normal
Schizophrenia is referred to as cerebral lateralisation abnormality. In this study the possible relationships among handedness, eye dominance, and crossed and non-congruent hand–eye dominance in patients with schizophrenia are investigated. A total of 88 patients with schizophrenia and 118 controls were included in the study. The patient group included 60 men and 28 women who ranged in age from 17
Sexual development in humans is only partly understood at the molecular level. It is dependent on genetic control primarily induced by the sex chromosomal differences between males and females. This leads to the development of the gonads, whereby afterwards the differentiation of the apparent phenotype is controlled by hormone action. Sex steroids may exert permanent and temporary effects. Their organizational features of inducing permanent changes in phenotype occur through genetic control of downstream genes. In this, androgens are the key elements for the differentiation of male internal and external genitalia as well as other sexual organs and general body composition, acting through a single androgen receptor. The androgen receptor is a nuclear transcription factor modulating DNA transcription of respective target genes and thereby driving development and growth in a stringent manner. The specificity of androgen action seems to be a strictly time-controlled process with the androgen receptor acting in concert with different metabolites and an array of cofactors modulating the cellular response and thereby permanently altering the phenotype of any given individual. For every cell programmed by androgens, a specific 'androgen response index' must be proposed. PMID:23800242
Sexual development in humans is only partly understood at the molecular level. It is dependent on genetic control primarily induced by the sex chromosomal differences between males and females. This leads to the development of the gonads, whereby afterwards the differentiation of the apparent phenotype is controlled by hormone action. Sex steroids may exert permanent and temporary effects. Their organizational features of inducing permanent changes in phenotype occur through genetic control of downstream genes. In this, androgens are the key elements for the differentiation of male internal and external genitalia as well as other sexual organs and general body composition, acting through a single androgen receptor. The androgen receptor is a nuclear transcription factor modulating DNA transcription of respective target genes and thereby driving development and growth in a stringent manner. The specificity of androgen action seems to be a strictly time-controlled process with the androgen receptor acting in concert with different metabolites and an array of cofactors modulating the cellular response and thereby permanently altering the phenotype of any given individual. For every cell programmed by androgens, a specific ‘androgen response index’ must be proposed.
This study presents descriptive analysis of gender differences in the content of adolescents' responses on a measure of identity development in the domain of sex role concepts. Subjects included 66 white, middle-class, high school seniors. Responses on the sex roles section of the Ego Identity Interview were coded to reflect Block's (1973) theory of the stages of development of sex
Gail B. Werrbach; Harold D. Grotevant; Catherine R. Cooper
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSDs) are estimated to be prevalent in 0.1-2% of the global population, although these figures are unlikely to adequately represent non-white patients as they are largely based on studies performed in Europe and the USA. Possible causes of DSDs include disruptions to gene expression and regulation-processes that are considered essential for the development of testes and ovaries in the embryo. Gender dysphoria generally affects between 8.5-20% of individuals with DSDs, depending on the type of DSD. Patients with simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), as well as those with CAH and severe virilization, are less likely to have psychosexual disorders than patients with other types of DSD. Early surgery seems to be a safe option for most of these patients. Male sex assignment is an appropriate alternative in patients with Prader IV or V DSDs. Patients with 5?-reductase 2 (5?-RD2) and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17?-HSD3) deficiencies exhibit the highest rates of gender dysphoria (incidence of up to 63%). Disorders such as ovotesticular DSD and mixed gonadal dysgenesis are relatively rare and it can be difficult to conclusively evaluate patients with these conditions. For all DSDs, it is important that investigators and authors conform to the same nomenclature and definitions to ensure that data can be reliably analysed. PMID:23045263
Furtado, Paulo Sampaio; Moraes, Felipe; Lago, Renata; Barros, Luciana Oliveira; Toralles, Maria Betânia; Barroso, Ubirajara
Two basic problems are confronted in this research: (1) What is sex role differentiation?, and (2) How does one go about measuring it? Both questions revolve around construct validity and the adequacy of sex role measures. Most investigators have used dependent "objective-verbal" tests to measure sex role differentiation. These either involve…
|Although sex differences in research have received considerable attention, few researchers have examined the bias, social context, and process of that research. In analyzing sex differences in academic achievement over the past 10 years, three areas (mathematics, spatial ability, and verbal ability) would appear to establish consistent sex…
Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…
|Accurate descriptions of sex differences in the development of childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency will inform theories of their causes in fundamentally important ways. Using data on 4,572 offspring of a national sample of women, we tested descriptive hypotheses regarding sex differences. As predicted, the magnitude of sex…
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Pedlow, Steven; Rathouz, Paul; Keenan, Kate
Female sex hormones protect against the development of Dahl hypertension mediated by increases in dietary sodium. The role of female sex hormones in the reversal of Dahl hypertension mediated by decreases in dietary sodium is unknown. The goal of this study was to identify sex differences in the reversal of Dahl hypertension and the associated changes in water and electrolyte
Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde; Darrell L. Lange; Joseph R. Haywood
Abstract Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) present in different forms but, in most cases, with visible anomalies of the external genitalia. The diagnosis of DSD can have a vast impact on an individual; in addition to concerns about fertility and a higher risk of neoplasia, it may have severe psychosocial impact on the patient. This report presents two apparently healthy cases referred for operation because of unilateral undescended testis. In these two patients, uterine remnants were found during the operation, and underlying DSD conditions were unexpectedly diagnosed. One patient had a 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype, while the second patient had persistent müllerian duct syndrome, probably due to an anti-müllerian hormone receptor defect. Both conditions are extremely rare, but the findings reinforce that DSD should be considered in patients with cryptorchidism, especially if other clinical signs are present. PMID:23373508
Recently, it has been reported that boys with severe hypospadias are at increased risk for acquired cryptorchidism. The reports suggested that prenatal and postnatal androgen disruption might be correlated with this condition. We experienced a case of ovotesticular disorder of sexdevelopment (DSD), which was ultimately diagnosed at surgery for acquired cryptorchidism. Ascent of the scrotal contents of the left side was detected in a 7-yr-old boy with the 46, XX karyotype, who had a history of perineal hypospadias repair. Intraoperative findings revealed the left gonad consisted of 2 segments, and this was histologically diagnosed as ovotestis by biopsy specimen. Resection of the ovarian segment was performed simultaneously. Exploration of the contralateral gonad showed the same findings. This is the first report of acquired cryptorchidism observed in a patient with DSD presenting with ambiguous genitalia. PMID:23926403
Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening and management strategies for when an abnormality is detected.
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD), ranging in severity from mild genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, represent a major concern for patients and their families. DSD are often due to disruption of the genetic programs that regulate gonad development. Although some genes have been identified in these developmental pathways, the causative mutations have not been identified in more than 50% 46,XY DSD cases. We used the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 to analyse copy number variation in 23 individuals with unexplained 46,XY DSD due to gonadal dysgenesis (GD). Here we describe three discrete changes in copy number that are the likely cause of the GD. Firstly, we identified a large duplication on the X chromosome that included DAX1 (NR0B1). Secondly, we identified a rearrangement that appears to affect a novel gonad-specific regulatory region in a known testis gene, SOX9. Surprisingly this patient lacked any signs of campomelic dysplasia, suggesting that the deletion affected expression of SOX9 only in the gonad. Functional analysis of potential SRY binding sites within this deleted region identified five putative enhancers, suggesting that sequences additional to the known SRY-binding TES enhancer influence human testis-specific SOX9 expression. Thirdly, we identified a small deletion immediately downstream of GATA4, supporting a role for GATA4 in gonad development in humans. These CNV analyses give new insights into the pathways involved in human gonad development and dysfunction, and suggest that rearrangements of non-coding sequences disturbing gene regulation may account for significant proportion of DSD cases.
Non-invasive brain imaging permits the study of normal and abnormal brain development in childhood and adolescence. This paper summarizes current knowledge of brain development for healthy adolescents and for patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), a rare form of the disorder. The implications of these findings are explored. Cross-sectional and longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are reviewed. The pattern
Nitin Gogate; Jay Giedd; Kristin Janson; Judith L. Rapoport
A 29 years old patient, claimed to be a male, presented to us with pubertal gender swing from female to male. Since birth he was reared as a female child. His breasts, axillary hairs and pubic hairs developed at about 11-12 years of age. At that time he also observed the mental and physical changes towards a male. He began to feel sexual attraction towards females due to enlargement of his phallus and he preferred to behave as a male. The patient further noticed deepening of voice as well as appearance of facial hairs at about 15 years of age. He never experienced menstruation. His parents are first degree cousins. On examination, there was facial hairs in upper lip and chin (G3), breasts were in mature stage (B5), pubic hairs were darker, coarser and curlier and spreading sparsely (P3), and stretched dorsal phallic length was 6cm. In perineoscrotal area, there was hypospadias with blind vaginal pouch, partially fused, pigmented & ruggated bilateral labio-scrotal folds and soft palpable ellipsoid gonads measuring about 8 ml (each) in volume within labio-scrotal folds. Ultrasound examination revealed no uterus and karyotyping test found 46XY. Provisionally, he was diagnosed as a case of 46,XY Disorders of SexDevelopment (DSD). On further investigations, serum testosterone was low, serum LH and DHEA were raised and serum electrolytes were normal. From history, physical examination and investigations we diagnosed the case as 46,XY DSD due to 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency. PMID:22314477
This paper describes safety precautions utilized in the development and management of a specialized residential treatment program for adolescent sex offenders. Topics include the screening of admissions, the selection of staff and the development of a separate living unit for sex offenders. Guidelines for both resident and staff safety are presented as critical considerations in developing such a program. A
This research details the development of a new instrument designed to measure attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Participants were 615 heterosexual women and men, drawn from both student and nonstudent adult populations. Four studies were conducted for the purpose of developing the scale and to establish its psychometric properties. The resulting Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM) consists of 17 items,
Administered a questionnaire with closed and open questions on sexual development and sex education to 284 experienced preschool teachers in Greece. Findings indicated that the teachers feel that sexual development constitutes an important aspect of children's personality, and that sex education should start at an early age. (EV)
The sex chromosomes play a highly specialized role in germ cell development in mammals, being enriched in genes expressed in the testis and ovary. Sex chromosome abnormalities (e.g., Klinefelter [XXY] and Turner [XO] syndrome) constitute the largest class of chromosome abnormalities and the commonest genetic cause of infertility in humans. Understanding how sex-gene expression is regulated is therefore critical to our understanding of human reproduction. Here, we describe how the expression of sex-linked genes varies during germ cell development; in females, the inactive X chromosome is reactivated before meiosis, whereas in males the X and Y chromosomes are inactivated at this stage. We discuss the epigenetics of sex chromosome inactivation and how this process has influenced the gene content of the mammalian X and Y chromosomes. We also present working models for how perturbations in sex chromosome inactivation or reactivation result in subfertility in the major classes of sex chromosome abnormalities. PMID:21730045
The sex chromosomes play a highly specialized role in germ cell development in mammals, being enriched in genes expressed in the testis and ovary. Sex chromosome abnormalities (e.g., Klinefelter [XXY] and Turner [XO] syndrome) constitute the largest class of chromosome abnormalities and the commonest genetic cause of infertility in humans. Understanding how sex-gene expression is regulated is therefore critical to our understanding of human reproduction. Here, we describe how the expression of sex-linked genes varies during germ cell development; in females, the inactive X chromosome is reactivated before meiosis, whereas in males the X and Y chromosomes are inactivated at this stage. We discuss the epigenetics of sex chromosome inactivation and how this process has influenced the gene content of the mammalian X and Y chromosomes. We also present working models for how perturbations in sex chromosome inactivation or reactivation result in subfertility in the major classes of sex chromosome abnormalities.
The authors studied sex-typing in the kinds (e.g., sports, handicrafts) and social contexts (same- vs. other-sex companions) of children's free time activities, and the links between sex-typed activities and gender development over 2 years. Participants were 200 White, working- and middle-class children (103 girls, 97 boys; mean age = 10.86 years). In annual home interviews, children rated their self-esteem, gender
Susan M. McHale; Ji-Yeon Kim; Shawn Whiteman; Ann C. Crouter
Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702.
Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.
|In response to Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) conclusion that sex differences in aggression must be biological in origin, we suggest alternative social-learning mechanisms to explain the differences. These mechanisms include: (1) punishment for aggression increases aggression in boys, particularly because boys do not identify with the punisher; (2)…
Sex education is a controversial area of public policy and over the last 20 years it has also been highly politicized. The election of the Labour government in 1997 raised the hopes of children's rights and health campaigners for a move away from the traditional moralistic approach adopted by the previous administration in favour of a more progressive and pragmatic
Background Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood. Results Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high resolution MRI to conduct a brain-wide screen for structural changes and found that the largest reduction in volume occurred in the olfactory bulbs. Next, we tested adult mice in an associative olfactory task and found that fetal alcohol exposure impaired discrimination between similar odors but left odor memory intact. Finally, we investigated olfactory bulb neurogenesis as a potential mechanism by performing an in vitro neurosphere assay, in vivo labeling of new cells using BrdU, and in vivo labeling of new cells using a transgenic reporter system. We found that fetal alcohol exposure decreased the number of neural precursor cells in the subependymal zone and the number of new cells in the olfactory bulbs during the first few postnatal weeks. Conclusions Using a combination of techniques, including structural brain imaging, in vitro and in vivo cell detection methods, and behavioral testing, we found that fetal alcohol exposure results in smaller olfactory bulbs and impairments in odor discrimination that persist into adulthood. Furthermore, we found that these abnormalities in olfactory bulb structure and function may arise from deficits in the generation of new olfactory bulb neurons during early postnatal development.
Tested the hypothesis that the amount of time spent watching TV is significantly related to the strength of traditional sex-role development. Data from 80 kindergartners and 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders support the hypothesis and suggest that this relationship holds equally for both sexes and does not change with increasing age.
|The role of coeducation versus single-sex schooling in the academic, socioemotional, interpersonal, and career development of adolescents is discussed, and arguments and research support for both types of schooling are reviewed. Separate-sex schooling seems to provide potential benefits for at least some students. (Author/SLD)|
Molecular biomarkers for determination of gonadal phenotypic sex in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), will serve as a case study. The medaka has unique features that aid in the development of appropriate molecular biomarkers of gonad phenotype, a) genetic sex can be determin...
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and psychosocial well-being in women with disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD). Design: An open case-control study. Methods: Social and psychiatric information was collected via a structured interview from 70 Danish women diagnosed with DSD, 70 controls matched on sex, age, and school education, and six women with
Trine H Johannsen; Caroline P L Ripa; Erik L Mortensen; Katharina M Main
It is maintained that the provision of a well-balanced comprehensive sex education for a physically disabled child is an essential part of his or her character formation especially in promoting interpersonal relations and self-assurance. It is further maintained that while knowledge of biological sex is an integral facet of this education, it is also vital for these children to develop
Motivated by high and rising sex ratios in countries such as India and China, we formulate a theoretical framework for analyzing the impact of economic development on parental sex choice when sons are culturally prized and children provide old age support. Two key assumptions drive our model. First, the cultural valuation of children vary not only with gender but also
|Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the nature of individual attitudes toward sex offenders. Because the term "sex offender" tends to evoke strong emotions, and given that open-ended self reports tend to be highly subjective, particularly in the context of such pointed terminology, this study sought to develop an attitude…
Church, Wesley T., II; Wakeman, Emily E.; Miller, Sarah L.; Clements, Carl B.; Sun, Fei
Vitamin D status, smoking, and Epstein-Barr virus infection (EBV) may all contribute to explain differences in disease prevalence and incidence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MS affects women more often than men, and recent cross-sectional study assessments provide evidence of increased female to male prevalence in relapsing remitting MS patients, suggesting that sex hormones may exert an active role in disease pathogenesis. Studies in both humans and animal disease models demonstrate a functional synergy for the immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin D3 and 17-? estradiol. Both smoking and EBV infection clearly increase MS risk, and smoking history has also been associated with poorer disease prognosis. However, neither factor can explain the recent trend indicating greater female prevalence. Therefore, large population-based case-control studies from well defined geographic areas with homogeneous populations should be performed, in order to define environmental factor effects, and sex hormone influences, to better understand prevalence and incidence gender differences observed. PMID:23498776
Correale, Jorge; Balbuena Aguirre, María E; Farez, Mauricio F
The assessment of abnormal anatomy in cases of DSD is important to aid diagnosis, understand the aetiology and severity of the condition, guide management and assess the outcomes of treatment. In this paper we present a systematic approach to this assessment which will provide a means by which the multiple disciplines who manage patients with these rare and complex conditions can communicate and thus improve overall care. PMID:22995869
Malone, P S; Hall-Craggs, M A; Mouriquand, P D E; Caldamone, A A
While significant differences in male and female brain structures have commonly been reported, only a few studies have focused on the sex differences in the way the cortex matures over time. Here, we investigated cortical thickness maturation between the age of 6 to 30years, using 209 longitudinally-acquired brain MRI scans. Significant sex differences in the trajectories of cortical thickness change with age were evidenced using non-linear mixed effects models. Similar statistical analyses were computed to quantify the differences between cortical gyrification changes with age in males and females. During adolescence, we observed a statistically significant higher rate of cortical thinning in females compared to males in the right temporal regions, the left temporoparietal junction and the left orbitofrontal cortex. This finding is interpreted as a faster maturation of the social brain areas in females. Concomitantly, statistically significant sex differences in cortical folding changes with age were observed only in one cluster of the right prefrontal regions, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying cortical thickness and gyrification changes with age are quite distinct. Sexual dimorphism in the developmental course of the cortical maturation may be associated with the different age of onset and clinical presentation of many psychiatric disorders between males and females. PMID:23721724
Mutlu, A Kadir; Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Schaer, Marie
In animal and human models, left ventricular (LV) diastolic function has been observed to be highly sensitive to myocardial ischemia. The response of LV diastolic parameters to pharmacologically induced ischemia, however, has not been characterized and might be important in the interpretation of dobutamine stress echocardiography. Eight mongrel dogs, in which were inserted a high-fidelity micromanometer LV catheter, coronary sinus sampling catheter, and ultrasonic coronary artery flow probe, underwent intravenous dobutamine infusion at escalating doses both before (control protocol) and after (ischemia protocol) creation of left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis with a hydraulic cuff occluder adjusted to maintain resting coronary artery flow but attenuate reactive hyperemia. At each dobutamine dose, epicardial short-axis 2-dimensional echocardiographic images and hemodynamic measurements were obtained. LV diastolic function was examined by calculation of peak (-)dP/dt and the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau). The dobutamine infusion protocol was terminated on the earliest recognition of an anterior wall motion abnormality. Peak (+)dP/dt normalized for developed isovolumetric pressure was calculated as a relatively load-independent index of global LV contractile function. Dobutamine infusion with and without ischemia resulted in comparable changes in heart rate and (+)dP/dt/IP, with no change in LV end-diastolic or -systolic pressure. The magnitude of peak (-)dP/dt increased less during the ischemia (1231 +/- 109 to 1791 +/- 200 mm Hg/sec) versus the control (1390 +/- 154 to 2432 +/- 320 mm Hg/sec) protocol (P <.05). Similarly, the observed decrease in tau was less during the ischemia (53 +/- 3 to 38 +/- 4 msec) than the control (51 +/- 5 to 23 +/- 3 msec) protocol, corresponding to a slower rate of relaxation (P <.05). In addition, the smaller decrease in tau was observed at the dobutamine dose before the dose at which an echocardiographic wall motion abnormality was first recognized. Dobutamine-induced ischemia is associated with abnormal LV diastolic function. In addition, these abnormalities seem to occur early in the development of ischemia. These observations extend to pharmacologically induced ischemia prior findings from other models of ischemia, suggesting the high sensitivity of LV diastolic function to the development of myocardial ischemia. PMID:9950970
Miyamoto, M I; Rose, G A; Weissman, N J; Guerrero, J L; Semigran, M J; Picard, M H
In mated or inseminated turkeys, 5 to 15% of eggs set for incubation show only rudimentary development. Most of these embryos die during the first 24 to 48 h of incubation and contain only unorganized sheets of tissue. This abnormaldevelopment is termed "positive development" (PD). Turkey eggs also show incidence of parthenogenesis and the resulting progeny is believed to be always male. As both types of embryos are morphologically similar at the early stage of incubation, it has been speculated that PD embryos may in fact be parthenogens. By identifying the sex at the blastodermal stage with the help of DNA markers, we have differentiated between the PD embryos and parthenogens. Parthenogenetic embryos were obtained from eggs laid by uninseminated or virgin Beltsville Small White (BSW) hens, and the PD embryos were obtained from eggs of inseminated Nicholas and British United Turkeys of America (BUTA) hens. DNA was extracted from blastoderms of parthenogenetic and PD embryos. Turkey W-chromosome specific DNA probe and primers were used to detect females in all samples by Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. No female was detected among the 35 parthenogens examined, whereas there were 3 females among the 11 PD embryos. The presence of both males and females among PD embryos suggests that they are products of fertilization, and that at least these 3 female embryos, if not all the 11 PD embryos, are not of parthenogenetic origin. It is concluded, therefore, that PD embryos result from errors in fertilization or from early embryonic mortality following successful fertilization, and that they are unlikely to be of parthenogenetic origin. PMID:9776051
Cassar, G; Mohammed, M; John, T M; Gazdzinski, P; Etches, R J
XX sex reversal syndromes not involving Sry provide an opportunity to identify and study genes important for sexual development. The polled intersex syndrome (PIS) in goats, which shares some features with blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) in humans, exemplifies such syndromes. BPES is caused by defects in the forkhead transcription factor gene FOXL2, while PIS is caused by a large deletion of goat chromosome 1q43 that affects transcription of the genes Pisrt1 and Foxl2. Pisrt1 is a non-translated gene that has a sexually dimorphic expression pattern in goats. Here, we describe the structure and expression of the mouse Pisrt1 locus, to investigate its likely role in ovarian development more broadly in mammals. This gene showed some sequence similarity, and was found in a similar genomic context, to its goat and human orthologues. Expression analyses indicated that Pisrt1 is transcribed, and its mRNA polyadenylated and exported to the cytoplasm, but no significant open reading frames were found in a 1.5kb mouse genomic region corresponding to goat Pisrt1. Pisrt1 transcripts were expressed very broadly among tissues of the developing mouse embryo, and at similar levels in male and female gonads at each stage examined, as determined by in situ hybridisation and RT-PCR. This profile of expression suggests that Pisrt1 is unlikely to contribute to sex-specific events during gonadal development in mice and that divergent pathways of ovarian development operate among different mammalian species. PMID:16137905
Loffler, Kelly A; Combes, Alexander N; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Beverdam, Annemiek; Bowles, Jo; Koopman, Peter
|Tested the hypothesis that the amount of time spent watching television would be significantly related to the strength of traditional sex role development. Subjects were 80 kindergarten and elementary school children. (SDH)|
The avian embryonic eye is used as a model system for studies on the environmental effects on central nervous system development. Here we present results of qualitative investigation of the eye development in quail embryos incubated in micro-"g" environment. In this study we used eyes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) embryos "flown" onboard biosatellite Kosmos-1129 and on Mir station within the framework of Mir-NASA Program. Eyes obtained from embryos ranging in age from 3-12 days (E3-E12) were prepared histologically and compared with those of the synchronous and laboratory gound controls. Ther most careful consideration was given to finding and analysis of eye developmental abnormalities. Then they were compared with those already described by experimental teratology for birds and mammals. At the stage of the "eye cup" (E3) we found the case of invalid formation of the inner retina. The latter was represented by disorganized neuroblasts occupying whole posterior chamber of the eye. On the 7th day of quail eye development, at the period of cellular growth activation some cases of small eyes with many folds of overgrowing neural and pigmented retinal layers were detected. In retinal folds of these eyes the normal layering was disturbed as well as the formation of aqueous body and pecten oculi. At this time point the changes were also found in the anterior part of the eye. The peculiarities came out of the bigger width of the cornea and separation of its layers, but were found in synchronous control as well. Few embryos of E10 had also eyes with the abnormities described for E7 but this time they were more vivid because of the completion of eye tissue differentiation. At the stage E12 we found the case evaluated as microphthalmia attending by overgrowth of anterior pigmented tissues - iris and ciliary body attached with the cornea. Most, but not all, of abnormalities we found in eye morphogeneses belonged to the birds "flown" aboard Kosmos- 1129 and were likely induced by specific conditions of that flight. All sorts of disturbances we observed in eye development were similar with dom inated types found in birds and mammals on ground and could be induced by factors we intend to discuss in our report.
Grigoryan, E.; Dadheva, O.; Polinskaya, V.; Guryeva, T.
Background EpCAM (CD326) is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM ?/? mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to ?geo. EpCAM +/? mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/? embryos revealed that ?geo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts), eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM ?/? mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM ?/? embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM ?/? placentas. Conclusion EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.
Nagao, Keisuke; Zhu, Jianjian; Heneghan, Mallorie B.; Hanson, Jeffrey C.; Morasso, Maria I.; Tessarollo, Lino; Mackem, Susan; Udey, Mark C.
Lissencephaly is a relatively common brain malformation. Lissencephaly type 1 is characterized by the smooth appearance of the cortex and the presence of four abnormally positioned layers instead of the normal six. Lissencephaly is considered to be an abnormality in neuronal migration. The gene mutated in type 1 lissencephaly was cloned by us and designated LIS1. Recently, several genes involved in cortical development have been cloned in the mouse. In human an additional X-linked lissencephaly gene has been identified. We summarize here our current knowledge on the LIS1 gene and its function. It has been identified as a non-catalytic subunit of PAF-acetylhydrolase, a heterotrimeric enzyme which inactivates the platelet-activating factor (PAF). In addition, we have demonstrated that LIS1 interacts with tubulin, and affects the dynamics properties of microtubles. LIS1 contains seven WD repeats and may structurally resemble the beta-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Interestingly, the catalytic subunit of PAF-acetylhydrolase was found to resemble the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. We raise the possibility that LIS1 is part of an intracellular signaling pathway involved in neuronal migration. PMID:9852306
Many oviparous reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); i.e., the temperature at which the egg is incubated determines the sex of the offspring. In TSD reptiles, yolk steroids not only may influence sex determination, but also may mediate hormonal effects on subsequent growth and behavior, as in some avian species. We investigated changes in the levels of estradiol (E(2)) and testosterone (T) during development in yolks of snapping turtle eggs, examined how incubation temperature affects hormone levels, and determined how hormones in turtle eggs are influenced by individual females (=clutch effects). Results indicate significant decreases in both hormones (>50% decline) by the end of the sex-determining period, when two-thirds of the development is complete. The declines in both E(2) and T were significantly affected by incubation temperature, but in different ways. Eggs incubated at female-producing temperatures maintained high levels, those incubated at male-producing temperatures had low E(2) values, and eggs incubated at pivotal temperatures had intermediate levels of E(2). At all three temperatures, T values underwent significant but approximately equal declines, except during the developmental stages just after the sex-determining period, when T levels decreased more at the male-producing temperature than at either of the other two temperatures. Initially, there were significant clutch effects in both hormones, but such differences, attributable to individual females, were maintained only for E(2) later in development. Here we report for the first time that incubation temperature significantly affects the hormonal environment of the developing embryo of a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. Based on this and related findings, we propose that yolk sex steroids influence sexual differentiation in these TSD species and play a role in sex determination at pivotal temperatures. PMID:12161199
The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research\\u000a in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th\\u000a anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions
Kristina M. Zosuls; Cindy Faith Miller; Diane N. Ruble; Carol Lynn Martin; Richard A. Fabes
The DSM-IV-TR category of Gender Identity Disorder (GID; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is limited to persons with typical somatosexual development who experience “strong and persistent cross-gender identification” as well as a “persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex.” The presence of a concurrent “physical intersex condition” rules out the
A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several Huntington's disease (HD) mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional MRI (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI signals [relative cerebral blood volumes (rCBVs)] and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions, thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [(14)C] 2-deoxyglucose maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models. PMID:22573668
Cepeda-Prado, Efrain; Popp, Susanna; Khan, Usman; Stefanov, Dimitre; Rodríguez, Jorge; Menalled, Liliana B; Dow-Edwards, Diana; Small, Scott A; Moreno, Herman
This paper describes the development and implementation of the Stella Seattle campaign, a media campaign targeting men who have unprotected anal sex with other men. Stella Seattle utilizes a serial cartoon strip format. Scenarios and characters in the strip are derived from local formative research on factors associated with unprotected anal sex in men who have sex with men, including depression, isolation, misinformation, and normative behavior. Weekly strips illustrating the struggles and hopes of gay men who are practicing unprotected anal sex are distributed in postcard form throughout the gay community and are placed in two weekly newspapers. Surveys conducted in the gay community and at an HIV test site indicate that 35% to 45% of men have seen Stella, and of these men about half have discussed it with their friends. PMID:8874646
Disorders related to social functioning including autism and schizophrenia differ drastically in incidence and severity between males and females. Little is known about the neural systems underlying these sex-linked differences in risk and resiliency. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a task involving the visual perception of point-light displays of coherent and scrambled biological motion, we discovered sex differences in the development of neural systems for basic social perception. In adults, we identified enhanced activity during coherent biological motion perception in females relative to males in a network of brain regions previously implicated in social perception including amygdala, medial temporal gyrus, and temporal pole. These sex differences were less pronounced in our sample of school-age youth. We hypothesize that the robust neural circuitry supporting social perception in females, which diverges from males beginning in childhood, may underlie sex differences in disorders related to social processing. PMID:23876243
Anderson, L C; Bolling, D Z; Schelinski, S; Coffman, M C; Pelphrey, K A; Kaiser, M D
This lesson is an inquiry based activity for high school students that allows for hands-on exploration of sea urchin development and the environmental parameters that best suit this process. The students will research the sea urchin, its habitat, and the ideal living and mating conditions for this organism. The lesson lends itself to the study of the effects of pollution on sea urchin development. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to explain the ideal conditions for fertilization and development and the importnace of these conditions and compare and contrast sea urchin development and human development. Students should have some knowledge of cell structure and function, cell division, reproduction, and development. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.
The MARCKS protein is a widely distributed cellular substrate for protein kinase C. It is a myristoylprotein that binds calmodulin and actin in a manner reversible by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation. It is also highly expressed in nervous tissue, particularly during development. To evaluate a possible developmental role for MARCKS, we disrupted its gene in mice by using the techniques of homologous recombination. Pups homozygous for the disrupted allele lacked detectable MARCKS mRNA and protein. All MARCKS-deficient pups died before or within a few hours of birth. Twenty-five percent had exencephaly and 19% had omphalocele (normal frequencies, < 1%), indicating high frequencies of midline defects, particularly in cranial neurulation. Nonexencephalic MARCKS-deficient pups had agenesis of the corpus callosum and other forebrain commissures, as well as failure of fusion of the cerebral hemispheres. All MARCKS-deficient pups also displayed characteristic lamination abnormalities of the cortex and retina. These studies suggest that MARCKS plays a vital role in the normal developmental processes of neurulation, hemisphere fusion, forebrain commissure formation, and formation of cortical and retinal laminations. We conclude that MARCKS is necessary for normal mouse brain development and postnatal survival. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Stumpo, D J; Bock, C B; Tuttle, J S; Blackshear, P J
The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date. PMID:23467072
The morphological development of the embryonic gonads is very similar in birds and mammals, and recent evidence suggests that the genes involved in this process are conserved between these classes of vertebrates. The genetic mechanism by which sex is determined in birds remains to be elucidated, although recent studies have reinforced the contention that steroids may play an important role in the structural development of the testes and ovaries in birds. So far, few genes have been assigned to the avian sex chromosomes, but it is known that the Z and W chromosomes do not share significant homology with the mammalian X and Y chromosomes. The commercial importance of poultry breeding has motivated considerable investment in developing physical and genetic maps of the chicken genome. These efforts, in combination with modern molecular approaches to analyzing gene expression, should help to elucidate the sex-determining mechanism in birds in the near future. PMID:11301602
|This study questions the widely held assumption, particularly in the United States, that coeducation is best. Previous research supports the development of single-sex education for both female and male students. This study examines how the learning climate of the coeducation environment seems to affect the character development of female business…
Davis, James H.; Ruhe, John; Lee, Monle; Rajadhyaksha, Ujvala
Abstract Multiple intravaginal HIV prevention methods, including microbicide gels, barriers, and intravaginal rings, are in clinical development in Africa. Development of intravaginal HIV prevention products requires an understanding of sexual behavior, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and vaginitis prevalences, and sexual and vaginal practices in potential target populations. We assessed these factors in a cohort of Kenyan female sex workers (FSW). Women who reported exchanging sex for money/gifts at least three times in the past month and who were HIV uninfected were enrolled and followed for 6 months. STI prevalence and HIV incidence were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for demographic and behavioral factors. Thirty-seven percent (74/200) reported having had anal sex. Frequency of anal sex was higher with regular and casual partners than with primary partners. Women were less likely to use condoms for anal sex than for vaginal sex with regular or casual partners. Vaginal washing was universal (100%). HIV incidence was 5.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.62, 11.67). HIV incidence was not associated with any demographic or risk behavior. The relatively high rate of anal sex and universal vaginal washing may complicate both safety and efficacy evaluation of intravaginal products and should be taken into account in trial design. This FSW population had significant HIV incidence and needs continued HIV prevention interventions.
Wakasiaka, Sabina; Hoang, Tina D.; Smith, Donna J.; Farah, Bashir; del Rio, Carlos; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah
Proceding from the definition of "severely abnormaldevelopment of the personality that can be regarded as pathological" (SAPEK) as defined by Lange in collaboration with the 5th Penal Senate of the supreme court and with reference to the different forms of maldevelopment as categorized by Szewczyk, the author uses his own catamnestic studie to discuss the bounds and frequencies of such abnormal personality developments and criteria for the "severity of the illness" in the sense of Section 16, paragraph 1 (2nd option) of the Code of Criminal Law. In view of their importance, dissocial and psychosexual maldevelopment is dealt with in greater detail. PMID:6635032
The material is presented particularly for practitioners, but academicians should find the material of help and value, also, for introductory courses to study of clinical psychology, abnormal psychology, and psychopathology. Areas covered include the foll...
Forensic entomologists typically use either succession models for postmortem interval (PMI) estimates or development-based models for minimum PMI (PMI(MIN) estimates. Development-based age estimates are calculated with durations of immature stadia and can also include morphological data such as larval size. For developmental data, the first and second instar stages are typically brief with little variation in larval length. The third instar, a much longer stage by comparison, is prone to considerable variation. This variation is, in part, because of the nonlinear growth during the third instar. There is evidence that genetic and environmental factors influence growth curve divergence during this stage. We chose to investigate one genetic factor, sex, as numerous insect species exhibit sex-specific immature growth patterns. The development rate of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) males and females is considered here. We previously determined the genome sizes of L. sericata and found significant sexually dimorphic genome sizes. This difference can be exploited to identify larval sex to evaluate male and female immature growth curves. A preliminary development study encompassing the third larval instar was conducted to compare larval lengths for each sex. Results showed length (P < 0.0001) and sex (P < 0.01) were statistically significant predictors of age at two temperatures (30 and 33.5 degrees C), and that total male development was significantly shorter (P < 0.001). These results introduce a new tool, assessment of sex-specific growth, that has the potential to reduce noise in PMI(MIN) estimates when using third instar larvae. PMID:23540132
Normal development of a fertilizable female gamete emanates from a follicle containing only one oocyte that becomes haploid after first meiotic division. Binovular follicles including two oocytes and binucleate giant oocytes that are diploid after first meiosis constitute notable exceptions from this rule. Data provided by programmes of human-assisted reproduction on the occurrence of both phenomena have been reviewed to evaluate possible implications for the formation of genetic abnormalities. To exclude confusion with oocytes aspirated from two adjacent individual follicles, true binovularity has been defined as inclusion of two oocytes within a common zona pellucida or their fusion in the zonal region. A total of 18 conjoined oocytes have been reported and one of the oocyte was normally fertilized in seven cases. Simultaneous fertilization of both female gametes occurred only once. No pregnancy was achieved after transfer of an embryo from a binovular follicle. Binucleate giant oocytes have been observed sporadically but a few reports suggest an incidence of up to 0.3% of all gametes retrieved. Extensive studies performed by two independent centres demonstrated that giant oocytes are diploid at metaphase II, can undergo fertilization in vitro with formation of two or three pronuclei and develop into triploid zygotes and triploid or triploid/mosaic embryos. In summary, giant binucleate oocytes may be responsible for the development of digynic triploidy whereas the currently available data do not support a role of conjoined oocytes in producing dizygotic twins, mosaicism, chimaeras or tetraploidy. However, more information on the maturity and fertilizability of oocytes from binovular follicles is needed. Future studies should also evaluate a possible impact of pharmaceutical and environmental oestrogens on the formation of multiovular follicles. PMID:23271027
Background Interneuron deficits are one of the most consistent findings in post-mortem studies of schizophrenia patients and are likely important in the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a strong susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, is involved in neurodevelopment, including that of interneurons. However, the mechanism by which DISC1 regulates interneuron development remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed interneuron histology in the Disc1-L100P single point mutation mouse, that was previously shown to have behavioral abnormalities and cortical developmental defects related to schizophrenia. Results We sought to determine whether a Disc1-L100P point mutation in the mouse would alter interneuron density and location. First, we examined interneuron position in the developing mouse cortex during embryonic days 14–16 as an indicator of interneuron tangential migration, and found striking migration deficits in Disc1-L100P mutants. Further analysis of adult brains revealed that the Disc1-L100P mutants have selective alterations of calbindin- and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the cortex and hippocampus, decreased GAD67/PV co-localization and mis-positioned interneurons across the neocortex when compared to wild-type littermates. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the anomalies seen in post-mortem schizophrenia studies and other Disc1 mutant mouse models. Future research is required to determine the specific mechanisms underlying these cellular deficits. Overall, these findings provide further evidence that DISC1 participates in interneuron development and add to our understanding of how DISC1 variants can affect susceptibility to psychiatric illness.
Mutations in the human SEPN1 gene, encoding selenoprotein N (SepN), cause SEPN1-related myopathy (SEPN1-RM) characterized by muscle weakness, spinal rigidity, and respiratory insufficiency. As with other members of the selenoprotein family, selenoprotein N incorporates selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec). Most selenoproteins that have been functionally characterized are involved in oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, with the Sec residue located at their catalytic site. To model SEPN1-RM, we generated a Sepn1-knockout (Sepn1(-/-)) mouse line. Homozygous Sepn1(-/-) mice are fertile, and their weight and lifespan are comparable to wild-type (WT) animals. Under baseline conditions, the muscle histology of Sepn1(-/-) mice remains normal, but subtle core lesions could be detected in skeletal muscle after inducing oxidative stress. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels showed lower sensitivity to caffeine in SepN deficient myofibers, suggesting a possible role of SepN in RyR regulation. SepN deficiency also leads to abnormal lung development characterized by enlarged alveoli, which is associated with decreased tissue elastance and increased quasi-static compliance of Sepn1(-/-) lungs. This finding raises the possibility that the respiratory syndrome observed in patients with SEPN1 mutations may have a primary pulmonary component in addition to the weakness of respiratory muscles. PMID:23325319
Moghadaszadeh, Behzad; Rider, Branden E; Lawlor, Michael W; Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Gupta, Kushagra; Boukedes, Steve S; Owen, Caroline A; Beggs, Alan H
Iron is essential for organisms. It is mainly utilized in mitochondria for biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, hemes and other cofactors. Mitoferrin 1 and mitoferrin 2, two homologues proteins belonging to the mitochondrial solute carrier family, are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. Mitoferrin 1 is highly expressed in developing erythrocytes which consume a large amount of iron during hemoglobinization. Mitoferrin 2 is ubiquitously expressed, whose functions are less known. Zebrafish with mitoferrin 1 mutation show profound hypochromic anaemia and erythroid maturation arrests, and yeast with defects in MRS3/4, the counterparts of mitoferrin 1/2, has low mitochondrial iron levels and grows poorly by iron depletion. Mitoferrin 1 expression is up-regulated in yeast and mouse models of Fiedreich's ataxia disease and in human cell culture models of Parkinson disease, suggesting its involvement in the pathogenesis of diseases with mitochondrial iron accumulation. In this study we found that reduced mitoferrin levels in C. elegans by RNAi treatment causes pleiotropic phenotypes such as small body size, reduced fecundity, slow movement and increased sensitivity to paraquat. Despite these abnormities, lifespan was increased by 50% to 80% in N2 wild type strain, and in further studies using the RNAi sensitive strain eri-1, more than doubled lifespan was observed. The pathways or mechanisms responsible for the lifespan extension and other phenotypes of mitoferrin RNAi worms are worth further study, which may contribute to our understanding of aging mechanisms and the pathogenesis of iron disorder related diseases.
Presents some data bearing on the relationship between the psychological development or maturity of adolescent women and their sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Data were collected through the American Public Health Association in 1975 from 369 females and 325 males. (Author/RK)
During a 2-year period, Fox Valley Technical College (FVTC) in Wisconsin developed a "New Directions" project, funded by the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), that successfully identified, enrolled, and graduated 30 women in a training program for nontraditional occupations. Project activities included scheduling morning and evening classes to…
This article summarizes the research to date on youths' online sexual activities pertaining to socialization, education, and entertainment. It presents how these activities relate to the overall sexuality and mental health of adolescents and young adults, while situating the findings within a perspective of psychosocial and sexual development. It also provides information relevant to the prevention and treatment of problematic
The feminist movement was involved from its start in the struggle for better healthcare for women. The academic discipline 'Women's studies medical sciences', which developed in the 1980's, supported this struggle. Initial points given special attention in this new discipline were the autonomy of the (female) patient, the importance of the psychosocial context of symptoms and the demedicalisation of women's complaints. The focus of research has now shifted from reproductive health to female health during the entire lifespan. Furthermore, research has developed from female health to gender in relation to health, explicitly including men's health and the social constructions of masculinity. The psychosocial context ofgender-related complaints is of importance. Next, the concept 'gender' was replaced by the concept of'diversity', thus facilitating criticism of the ongoing medical concepts of neutrality and universality. In the future, research should be interdisciplinary, with explicit attention for the differences between men and women and the psychosocial context. PMID:17352305
Contrary to other genetic disorders, the genetic study of sex determination anomalies in humans stumbles over the difficulty in observing large pedigrees. In goats, abnormalities in sex determination are intimately linked to a dominant Mendelian gene coding for the "polled" (hornless) character, which could render this species an interesting animal model for the rare human cases of SRY-negative XX males. In this report, we describe genetic linkage between the polled/intersex synchome (PIS) and four microsatellite markers of the distal region of goat Chromosome 1 (CHI1), quite distinct from the bovine "polled" region. According to comparative mapping data, no sex-determining gene has been described so far in homologous regions in the human. This genetic localization constitutes a first step towards identifying a new autosomal sex-determining gene in mammals. PMID:8835530
Vaiman, D; Koutita, O; Oustry, A; Elsen, J M; Manfredi, E; Fellous, M; Cribiu, E P
Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used environmental contaminant, may exert weak estrogenic, anti-androgenic and anti-thyroidic activities. BPA is suspected to possess aneugenic properties that may affect somatic cells and mammalian oocytes. Oocyte growth and maturation depend upon a complex bi-directional signaling between the oocyte and its companion somatic cells. Consequently, disturbances in oocyte maturation may originate either from direct effects of BPA at the level of the oocyte or from indirect influences at the follicular level, such as alterations in hormonal homeostasis. This study aimed to analyze the effects of chronic BPA exposure (3 nM to 30 microM) on follicle-enclosed growth and maturation of mouse oocytes in vitro. Oocytes were cultured and their spindle and chromosomes were stained by alpha-tubulin immunofluorescence and ethidium homodimer-2, respectively. Confocal microscopy was utilized for subsequent analysis. Only follicles that were exposed to 30 microM BPA during follicular development showed a slightly reduced granulosa cell proliferation and a lower total estrogen production, but they still developed and formed antral-like cavities. However, 18% of oocytes were unable to resume meiosis after stimulation of oocyte maturation, and 37% arrested after germinal vesicle breakdown, significantly different from controls (p<0.05). Only 45% of the oocytes extruded a first polar body (p < 0.05). 30 microM BPA led also to a significant increase in meiosis I-arrested oocytes with unaligned chromosomes and spindle aberrations. Oocytes that were able to progress beyond meiosis I, frequently arrested at an abnormal telophase I. Additionally, in many oocytes exposed to low chronic BPA that matured to meiosis II chromosomes failed to congress at the spindle equator. In conclusion, mouse follicle culture reveals non-linear dose-dependent effects of BPA on the meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes when exposure was chronic throughout oocyte growth and maturation. PMID:18093867
Lenie, Sandy; Cortvrindt, Rita; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Smitz, Johan
The NLRP3 inflammasome complex is responsible for maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1?. Mutations in NLRP3 are responsible for the cryopyrinopathies, a spectrum of conditions including neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). While excessive production of IL-1? and systemic inflammation are common to all cryopyrinopathy disorders, skeletal abnormalities, prominently in the knees, and low bone mass are unique features of patients with NOMID. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying skeletal abnormalities in NOMID, we generated knock-in mice globally expressing the D301N NLRP3 mutation (ortholog of D303N in human NLRP3). NOMID mice exhibit neutrophilia in blood and many tissues, including knee joints, and high levels of serum inflammatory mediators. They also exhibit growth retardation and severe postnatal osteopenia stemming at least in part from abnormally accelerated bone resorption, attended by increased osteoclastogenesis. Histologic analysis of knee joints revealed abnormal growth plates, with loss of chondrocytes and growth arrest in the central region of the epiphyses. Most strikingly, a tissue “spike" was observed in the mid-region of the growth plate in the long bones of all NOMID mice that may be the precursor to more severe deformations analogous to those observed in NOMID patients. These findings provide direct evidence linking a NOMID-associated NLRP3-activating mutation to abnormalities of postnatal skeletal growth and bone remodeling.
McGeough, Matthew D.; Pena, Carla; Chen, Debbie; Grimston, Susan K.; Hickman-Brecks, Cynthia L.; Ravindran, Soumya; McAlinden, Audrey; Novack, Deborah V.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Civitelli, Roberto; Hoffman, Hal M.; Mbalaviele, Gabriel
Genes on the X chromosome are known to be responsible for more than 200 hereditary diseases. After IVF, the simple selection of embryo sex before uterine transfer can prevent the occurrence of affected offspring among couples at risk for these genetic disorders. The aim of this investigation was to develop a rapid method of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) using real-time
CD Martinhago; LD Vagnini; CG Petersen; AL Mauri; RL Baruffi; RM de Oliveira; JG Franco Jr
|This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…
|Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…
Although the genetic basis of human sexual determination and differentiation has advanced considerably in recent years, the fact remains that in most subjects with disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) the underlying genetic cause is unknown. Where pathogenic mutations have been identified, the phenotype can be highly variable, even within families, suggesting that other genetic variants are influencing the expression of
A. Bashamboo; S. Ledig; P. Wieacker; J. C. Achermann; K. McElreavey
HBIGDA members' treatment of persons with disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD), was assessed by questionnaire. The response rate was 71%. Ninety-three members (40% of respondents) provided a variety of clinical services to all ages and to parents of children with a DSD condition. The majority of these 93 had seen just a few such individuals but ten HBIGDA members had
Tom Mazur; Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis; Walter J. Meyer III; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Kenneth J. Zucker
|The purpose of the present study was to assess the explanatory powers of three theories of sex role development: secondary reinforcement through parental nurturance; instrumental conditioning by dating partners; and social learning through observations of outcomes for mothers. Subjects' responses to questionnaire items were utilized to measure…
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of the brain during development leads to sexually dimorphic adult reproductive behavior and other neural sex dimorphisms. Genetic mechanisms independent of steroid hormones produced by the gonads have recently been suggested to partly explain these dimorphisms. RESULTS: Using cDNA microarrays and real-time PCR we found gene expression differences between the male and female embryonic brain (or whole head)
Birger Scholz; Kim Kultima; Anna Mattsson; Jeanette Axelsson; Björn Brunström; Krister Halldin; Michael Stigson; Lennart Dencker
This paper describes a research study which aimed to investigate preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs on certain matters of sexual development and sex education in early years. A questionnaire with closed and open questions was answered by 284 experienced nursery school teachers in Greece, working with children 3+ to 5+ years of age. Answers to closed questions were elaborated by
This longitudinal study examines 92 white middle-class participants' descriptions of their friendship networks from childhood to late adolescence, and their romantic relationships from middle to late adolescence. As expected, having larger other-sex friendship networks in early adolescence is related to the development of affiliative qualities in romantic relationships in middle adolescence and the maintenance of longer relationships in middle and
A comparison was made of heterosexual and homosexual men and women utilizing Loevinger's concept of ego development and focusing on the relationships among ego levels and attitudes toward homosexuality and on personal sex guilt and other sociosexual variables. Previous comparative studies were critically analyzed with respect to the adequacy of definition and description of sampling procedures, and the appropriateness of
Variation in the number of sex chromosomes is a relatively common genetic condition, affecting as many as 1/400 individuals. The sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are associated with characteristic behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, although the degree to which specific individuals are affected can fall within a wide range. Understanding the effects of different dosages of sex chromosome genes on brain development may help to understand the basis for functional differences in affected individuals. It may also be informative regarding how sex chromosomes contribute to typical sexual differentiation. Studies of 47,XXY males make up the bulk of the current literature of neuroimaging studies in individuals with supernumerary sex chromosomes, with a few small studies or case reports of the other SCAs. Findings in 47,XXY males typically include decreased gray and white matter volumes, with most pronounced effects in the frontal and temporal lobes. Functional studies have shown evidence of decreased lateralization. Although the hypogonadism typically found in 47,XXY males may contribute to the decreased brain volume, the observation that 47,XXX females also show decreased brain volume in the presence of normal pubertal maturation suggests a possible direct dosage effect of X chromosome genes. Additional X chromosomes, such as in 49,XXXXY males, are associated with more markedly decreased brain volume and increased incidence of white matter hyperintensities. The limited data regarding effects of having two Y chromosomes (47,XYY) do not find significant differences in brain volume, although there are some reports of increased head size.
Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.
Evidence that gonadal hormones during prenatal and neonatal development influence behavior is reviewed. Several theoretical models of hormonal influences, derived from research in other species, are described. These models are evaluated on the basis of data from humans with either normal or abnormal hormonal exposure. It is concluded that the evidence is insufficient to determine which model best explains the
The 46,XX testicular disorder of sexdevelopment (46,XX testicular DSD) is a rare phenotype associated with disorder of the sex chromosomes. We describe the clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings of a 16- and a 30-year-old male patient with sex-determining region Y (SRY)-positive 46,XX testicular DSD. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SRY region translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome. The presence of the SRY gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay showed that both patients have a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation. This report compares the symptoms and features of the SRY-positive 46,XX testicular DSD patients. PMID:23110663
BACKGROUND: Most studies on risk factors for development of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been based on the clinical outcome of CHD. Our aim was to identify factors that could predict the development of ECG markers of CHD, such as abnormal Q\\/QS patterns, ST segment depression and T wave abnormalities, in 70-year-old men, irrespective of clinical outcome. METHODS: Predictors for
Christina Strom Moller; Liisa Byberg; Johan Sundstrom; Lars Lind
Background Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral\\u000a disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities\\u000a and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Mice drank a 10% ethanol solution throughout pregnancy. When fetal alcohol-exposed offspring reached adulthood, we used high\\u000a resolution MRI to
Katherine G Akers; Steven A Kushner; Ana T Leslie; Laura Clarke; Derek van der Kooy; Jason P Lerch; Paul W Frankland
In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway. In
Nick Warr; Debora Bogani; Pam Siggers; Rachel Brixey; Hilda Tateossian; Asha Dopplapudi; Sara Wells; Michael Cheeseman; Ying Xia; Harry Ostrer; Andy Greenfield; Christoph Winkler
This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development reported high levels of femininity and anxiety symptoms. Youth who reported high levels of masculinity had low levels of anxiety symptoms as reported by both youths and parents. The estimated effects of pubertal development, femininity, and masculinity on youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly moderated by biological sex. Pubertal development and gender role orientation appear to be important in explaining levels of youth anxiety symptoms among clinic referred anxious youth.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Children with medulloblastoma demonstrate post-treat- ment neurocognitive deficits in a number of areas, including memory performance. However, there is no definitive understanding of the neuropathology underlying these functional deficits. Previous literature has reported that hippocampal integrity is crucial to the acquisition of new episodic memories. Therefore, we hypothesized that longitudinal hippocampal volume mea- surements are abnormal in
Bonnie J. Nagel; Shawna L. Palmer; Wilburn E. Reddick; John O. Glass; Kathleen J. Helton; Shengjie Wu; Xiaoping Xiong; Larry E. Kun; Amar Gajjar; Raymond K. Mulhern
Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: (1) a purely regulatory approach, or (2) by a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches.
This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9–13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development
The Fifth World Congress on Family Law and Children’s Rights (Halifax, August 2009) adopted a resolution endorsing a new set of ethical guidelines for the management of infants and children with disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) [www.lawrights.asn.au\\/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=76&Itemid=109]. The ethical principles developed by our group were the basis for the Halifax Resolution. In this paper, we outline these principles and explain
Lynn H. Gillam; Jacqueline K. Hewitt; Garry L. Warne
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) are rare disorders in which there is discordance between chromosomal, gonadal, and phenotypic sex. Only a minority of patients clinically diagnosed with DSD obtains a molecular diagnosis, leaving a large gap in our understanding of the prevalence, management, and outcomes in affected patients. We created a novel DSD-genetic diagnostic tool, in which sexdevelopment genes are captured using RNA probes and undergo massively parallel sequencing. In the pilot group of 14 patients, we determined sex chromosome dosage, copy number variation, and gene mutations. In the patients with a known genetic diagnosis (obtained either on a clinical or research basis), this test identified the molecular cause in 100% (7/7) of patients. In patients in whom no molecular diagnosis had been made, this tool identified a genetic diagnosis in two of seven patients. Targeted sequencing of genes representing a specific spectrum of disorders can result in a higher rate of genetic diagnoses than current diagnostic approaches. Our DSD diagnostic tool provides for first time, in a single blood test, a comprehensive genetic diagnosis in patients presenting with a wide range of urogenital anomalies. PMID:22435390
Arboleda, V A; Lee, H; Sánchez, F J; Délot, E C; Sandberg, D E; Grody, W W; Nelson, S F; Vilain, E
BACKGROUND: The German Network of Disorders of SexDevelopment (DSD)\\/Intersexuality carried out a large scale clinical evaluation study on quality of life, gender identity, treatment satisfaction, coping, and problems associated with diagnoses and therapies in individuals with disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD). DSD are a heterogeneous group of various genetic disorders of sex determination or sex differentiation, all of which
Anke Lux; Siegfried Kropf; Eva Kleinemeier; Martina Juergensen; Ute Thyen
Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention strategies and in the protection of nutritionally vulnerable offspring who are at risk for obesity and diabetes later in life.
People with abnormal posturing almost always have reduced consciousness. Anyone who shows symptoms of abnormal posturing should ... Elsevier; 2008:chap 5. Bleck T. Levels of consciousness and attention. In: Goetz, CG, ed. Textbook of ...
Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Many different types of walking problems occur without ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...
Disorders of sexual development (DSD) include three main groups of patients: (1) The virilised 46,XX DSD essentially represented by congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) ; (2) The undervirilised 46,XY DSD essentially represented by hypospadias; and (3) the chromosomic jigsaws essentially represented by mixed gonadal dysgenesis. It is in this last group that gender assignment remains a difficult decision involving various indicators, which can be split into four categories: (1) the inside sex (i.e., genes, hormones and target tissues); (2) the outside sex (i.e., anatomy of genitalia including size of the genital tubercle, mullerian cavity and potential adult height of the patient); (3) the functional sex (i.e., potential sexuality and fertility); and (4) and the social sex (i.e., the cultural medium in which the child is brought up). The challenge is to outline the future individual identity of the child in the postnatal period using these indicators. Current evolutions of surgical techniques of 'feminisation' and 'masculinisation' are described as well as their outcomes. PMID:20541154
Background Differentiation of the brain during development leads to sexually dimorphic adult reproductive behavior and other neural sex dimorphisms. Genetic mechanisms independent of steroid hormones produced by the gonads have recently been suggested to partly explain these dimorphisms. Results Using cDNA microarrays and real-time PCR we found gene expression differences between the male and female embryonic brain (or whole head) that may be independent of morphological differentiation of the gonads. Genes located on the sex chromosomes (ZZ in males and ZW in females) were common among the differentially expressed genes, several of which (WPKCI-8, HINT, MHM non-coding RNA) have previously been implicated in avian sex determination. A majority of the identified genes were more highly expressed in males. Three of these genes (CDK7, CCNH and BTF2-P44) encode subunits of the transcription factor IIH complex, indicating a role for this complex in neuronal differentiation. Conclusion In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into sexually dimorphic gene expression in the embryonic chicken brain and its possible involvement in sex differentiation of the nervous system in birds.
Aciclovir (synonym: acyclovir) causes abnormal thymus development in rats. After treatment on day 10 of gestation a weight reduction of the organ is obvious in 21-day-old fetuses which persists postnatally. Adult male rats exposed in utero to one or three injections of 100 mg aciclovir\\/kg body wt given to the dam on day 10 of pregnancy showed a reduction of
Ralf Stahlmannl; Maria Kortel; Henk Van Loveren; Joseph G. Vos; Renate Thiel; Diether Neubertl
Little is known about the hormonal effects of puberty on the anatomy of the developing human brain. In a voxel-based morphometry study, sex-related differences in gray matter (GM) volume were examined in 46 subjects aged 8--15 years. Males had larger GM volumes in the left amygdala, whereas females had larger right striatal and bilateral hippocampal GM volumes than males. Sexually
ObjectiveTo assess clinical management of disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) subsequent to recommendations issued in the 2006 Consensus Statement.DesignOnline questionnaire and audit of DSD literature.SettingInvitation to complete a 28-item online questionnaire and a 12-item follow-up questionnaire, both assessing current clinic statistics and clinical management of DSD.ParticipantsPaediatric endocrinologists from 60 medical centres representing 23 European countries.Main outcome measuresClinic activity, multidisciplinary team
. The morphological development of the embryonic gonads is very similar in birds and mammals, and recent evidence suggests\\u000a that the genes involved in this process are conserved between these classes of vertebrates. The genetic mechanism by which\\u000a sex is determined in birds remains to be elucidated, although recent studies have reinforced the contention that steroids\\u000a may play an important
The present study was designed to examine the association of positive youth development with the likelihood of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, hard drug, and sex initiation between 5th and 10th grades. A national, largely middle-class sample of 5,305 adolescents, participating in a longitudinal study funded by the National 4-H Council (although not all participants were enrolled in 4-H or other after-school
Seth J. Schwartz; Erin Phelps; Jacqueline V. Lerner; Shi Huang; C. Hendricks Brown; Selva Lewin-Bizan; Yibing Li; Richard M. Lerner
In this paper, I apply Michel Foucault’s analysis of normalization to the 2006 announcement by the US and European Endocrinological\\u000a Societies that variations on the term “hermaphrodite” and “intersex” would be replaced by the term, “Disorders of SexDevelopment”\\u000a or DSD. I argue that the change should be understood as normalizing in a positive sense; rather than fighting for the
|This study examined the nature of cognitive and behavioral sex differences in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and two comparison groups: a group of typically developing (TD) children and a group of unaffected siblings of ASD children. Sex differences in core autistic symptoms, co-occurring behavioral symptoms, and cognitive styles…
Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong
Summary Background Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider’s prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. Methods We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA’s EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Results Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility’s “test” EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. Conclusion To address the factors involved in missed test results, we developed a software prototype to account for technical, usability, organizational, and workflow needs. Our evaluation has shown the feasibility of the prototype as a means of facilitating better follow-up for cancer-related abnormal test results.
Smith, M.; Murphy, D.; Laxmisan, A.; Sittig, D.; Reis, B.; Esquivel, A.; Singh, H.
We developed an extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber models to handle a complex mark-recapture problem in which (a) the sex of birds cannot be determined prior to first moult, but can be predicted on the basis of body measurements, and (b) a significant portion of captured birds appear to be transients (i.e. are captured once but leave the area or otherwise become ' untrappable'). We applied this methodology to a data set of 4184 serins (Serinus serinus) trapped in northeastern Spain during 1985-96, in order to investigate age-, sex-, and time-specific variation in survival rates. Using this approach, we were able to successfully incorporate the majority of ringings of serins. Had we eliminated birds not previously captured (as has been advocated to avoid the problem of transience) we would have reduced our sample sizes by >2000 releases. In addition, we were able to include 1610 releases of birds of unknown (but predicted) sex; these data contributed to the precision of our estimates and the power of statistical tests. We discuss problems with data structure, encoding of the algorithms to compute parameter estimates, model selection, identifiability of parameters, and goodness-of-fit, and make recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies facing similar problems.
Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Hines, J.E.; Domenech, J.
We developed an extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber models to handle a complex mark-recapture problem in which (a) the sex of birds cannot be determined prior to first moult, but can be predicted on the basis of body measurements, and (b) a significant portion of captured birds appear to be transients (i.e. are captured once but leave the area or otherwise become 'untrappable'). We applied this methodology to a data set of 4184 serins (Serinus serinus) trapped in northeastern Spain during 1985-96, in order to investigate age-, sex-, and time-specific variation in survival rates. Using this approach, we were able to successfully incorporate the majority of ringings of serins. Had we eliminated birds not previously captured (as has been advocated to avoid the problem of transience) we would have reduced our sample sizes by >2000 releases. In addition, we were able to include 1610 releases of birds of unknown (but predicted) sex; these data contributed to the precision of our estimates and the power of statistical tests. We discuss problems with data structure, encoding of the algorithms to compute parameter estimates, model selection, identifiability of parameters, and goodness-of-fit, and make recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies facing similar problems.
Conroy, M. J.; Senar, J. C.; Hines, J. E.; Domenech, J.
Experiments in animals leave no doubt that androgens, including testosterone, produced by the testes in fetal and/or neonatal life act on the brain to induce sex differences in neural structure and function. In human beings, there is evidence supporting a female superiority in the ability to read nonverbal signals, specific language-related skills, and theory of mind. Even more striking than the sex differences seen in the typical population is the elevated occurrence of social and communicative difficulties in human males. One such condition, autism, occurs four times more frequently in boys than in girls. Recently, a novel theory known as the "extreme male brain" has been proposed. It suggests that the behaviors seen in autism are an exaggeration of typical sex differences and that exposure to high levels of prenatal testosterone might be a risk factor. In this article, we argue that prenatal and neonatal testosterone exposures are strong candidates for having a causal role in sexual dimorphism in human behavior, including social development, and as risk factors for conditions characterized by social impairments, particularly autism spectrum conditions. PMID:17005117
Male development in mammals is normally initiated by the Y-linked gene Sry, which activates expression of Sox9, leading to a cascade of gene activity required for testis formation. Although defects in this genetic cascade lead to human disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD), only a dozen DSD genes have been identified, and causes of 46,XX DSD (XX maleness) other than SRY translocation are almost completely unknown. Here, we show that transgenic expression of Sox10, a close relative of Sox9, in gonads of XX mice resulted in development of testes and male physiology. The degree of sex reversal correlated with levels of Sox10 expression in different transgenic lines. Sox10 was expressed at low levels in primordial gonads of both sexes during normal mouse development, becoming male-specific during testis differentiation. SOX10 protein was able to activate transcriptional targets of SOX9, explaining at a mechanistic level its ability to direct male development. Because over-expression of SOX10 alone is able to mimic the XX DSD phenotypes associated with duplication of human chromosome 22q13, and given that human SOX10 maps to 22q13.1, our results functionally implicate SOX10 in the etiology of these DSDs. PMID:19933217
Polanco, Juan Carlos; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Knight, Deon; Koopman, Peter
The male germ cell-specific fatty acid-binding protein 9 (FABP9/PERF15) is the major component of the murine sperm perforatorium and perinuclear theca. Based on its cytoskeletal association and sequence homology to myelin P2 (FABP8), it has been suggested that FABP9 tethers sperm membranes to the underlying cytoskeleton. Furthermore, its upregulation in apoptotic testicular germ cells and its increased phosphorylation status during capacitation suggested multiple important functions for FABP9. Therefore, we investigated specific functions for FABP9 by means of targeted gene disruption in mice. FABP9(-/-) mice were viable and fertile. Phenotypic analysis showed that FABP9(-/-) mice had significant increases in sperm head abnormalities (~8% greater than their WT cohorts); in particular, we observed the reduction or absence of the characteristic structural element known as the "ventral spur" in ~10% of FABP9(-/-) sperm. However, deficiency of FABP9 affected neither membrane tethering to the perinuclear theca nor the fatty acid composition of sperm. Moreover, epididymal sperm numbers were not affected in FABP9(-/-) mice. Therefore, we conclude that FABP9 plays only a minor role in providing the murine sperm head its characteristic shape and is not absolutely required for spermatogenesis or sperm function. PMID:20920498
Selvaraj, Vimal; Asano, Atsushi; Page, Jennifer L; Nelson, Jacquelyn L; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Foster, James A; Brenna, J Thomas; Weiss, Robert S; Travis, Alexander J
Myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) abnormalities are characterized by constitutively activated FGFR1 kinase and rapid transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Molecular targeted therapies have not been widely used for stem cell leukemia/lymphoma (SCLL). Ponatinib (AP24534), which potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL, also targets the FGFR family. Using murine BaF3 cells, stably transformed with six different FGFR1 fusion genes, as well as human KG1 cells expressing activated chimeric FGFR1 and five newly established murine SCLL cell lines, we show that ponatinib (<50 nM) can effectively inhibit phosphoactivation of the fusion kinases and their downstream effectors, such as PLC?, Stat5 and Src. Ponatinib also significantly extended survival of mice transplanted with different SCLL cell lines. Ponatinib administered at 30 mg/kg daily also significantly delayed, or even prevented, tumorigenesis of KG1 cells in xenotransplanted mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ponatinib specifically inhibits cell growth and clonogenicity of normal human CD34+ progenitor cells transformed by chimeric FGFR1 fusion kinases. Overall, our data provide convincing evidence to suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR1 fusion kinases with ponatinib is likely to be beneficial for patients with SCLL and perhaps for other human disorders associated with dysregulated FGFR1 activity. PMID:22781593
Myeloid and lymphoid malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities are characterized by constitutive activated FGFR1 kinase and rapid transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Molecular targeted therapies have not been widely used for SCLL. Ponatinib (AP24534), that potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL, also targets the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. Using murine BaF3 cells stably transformed with six different FGFR1 fusion genes, as well as human KG1 cells expressing activated chimeric FGFR1 and five newly established murine SCLL cell lines, we show that Ponatinib (< 50 nM) can effectively inhibit phosphoactivation of the fusion kinases and their downstream effectors, such as PLC?, Stat5 and Src. Ponatinib also significantly extended survival of mice transplanted with different SCLL cell lines. Ponatinib administered at 30 mg/kg daily also significantly delayed, or even prevented, tumorigenesis of KG1 cells in xenotransplanted mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ponatinib specifically inhibits cell growth and clonogenicity of normal human CD34+ progenitor cells transformed by chimeric FGFR1 fusion kinases. Overall, our data provide convincing evidence to suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR1 fusion kinases with Ponatinib is likely to be beneficial for patients with SCLL and perhaps for other human disorders associated with dysregulated FGFR1 activity.
Ren, Mingqiang; Qin, Haiyan; Ren, Ruizhe; Cowell, John K.
Strength of lateralization for processing facial emotion becomes more right hemisphere lateralized throughout childhood, but sex differences in this development are not currently understood. This study examines patterns of lateralization for emotion discrimination in 185 6-10-year-olds. Strength of right hemisphere lateralization was stronger in the older children, and right hemisphere dominance emerged at around age 8. Children who were more strongly lateralized performed with greater accuracy on a behavioral test of emotion discrimination and this relationship was significant for boys but not girls, demonstrating that there is a relationship between lateralization and performance (particularly, the discrimination of emotions). PMID:24138218
Adolescence is a complex transitional period in human development, composing physical maturation, cognitive and social behavioral changes. The objective of this study is to investigate sex differences in white matter development and the associations between intelligence and white matter microstructure in the adolescent brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In a cohort of 16 typically-developing adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, longitudinal DTI data were recorded from each subject at two time points that were one year apart. We used TBSS to analyze the diffusion indices including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Our results suggest that boys (13–18 years) continued to demonstrate white matter maturation, whereas girls appeared to reach mature levels earlier. In addition, we identified significant positive correlations between FA and full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus when both sexes were looked at together. Only girls showed significant positive correlations between FA and verbal IQ in the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus. The preliminary evidence presented in this study supports that boys and girls have different developmental trajectories in white matter microstructure.
Wang, Yingying; Adamson, Chris; Yuan, Weihong; Altaye, Mekibib; Rajagopal, Akila; Byars, Anna W.; Holland, Scott K.
Sex differences in human social behaviors and abilities have long been a question of public and scientific interest. Females are usually assumed to be more socially oriented and skilful than males. However, despite an extensive literature, the very existence of sex differences remains a matter of discussion while some studies found no sex differences whereas others reported differences that were either congruent or not with gender stereotypes. Moreover, the magnitude, consistency and stability across time of the differences remain an open question, especially during childhood. As play provides an excellent window into children's social development, we investigated whether and how sex differences change in social play across early childhood. Following a cross-sectional design, 164 children aged from 2 to 6 years old, divided into four age groups, were observed during outdoor free play at nursery school. We showed that sex differences are not stable over time evidencing a developmental gap between girls and boys. Social and structured forms of play emerge systematically earlier in girls than in boys leading to subsequent sex differences in favor of girls at some ages, successively in associative play at 3–4 years, cooperative play at 4–5 years, and social interactions with peers at 5–6 years. Preschool boys also display more solitary play than preschool girls, especially when young. Nevertheless, while boys catch up and girls move on towards more complex play, sex differences in social play patterns are reversed in favor of boys at the following ages, such as in associative play at 4–5 years and cooperative play at 5–6 years. This developmental perspective contributes to resolve apparent discrepancies between single-snapshot studies. A better understanding of the dynamics of sex differences in typical social development should also provide insights into atypical social developments which exhibit sex differences in prevalence, such as autism.
Barbu, Stephanie; Cabanes, Guenael; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaid
PURPOSE To study the pattern of facilitatory and suppressive binocular interactions in stereo-deficient patients with strabismus and in normal controls. METHODS Visual Evoked Potentials were recorded in response to a vernier onset/offset pattern presented to one eye, either monocularly or paired dichoptically with a straight vertical square-wave grating, which when fused with the target in the other eye gave rise to a percept of a series of bands appearing in depth from an otherwise uniform plane or with a grating that contained offsets that produced a standing disparity and the appearance of a constantly segmented image, portions of which moved in depth. RESULTS Participants with normal stereopsis showed facilitative and suppressive binocular interactions that depended on which dichoptic target was presented. Patients with long-standing, constant strabismus lacked normal facilitative binocular interactions. The response to a normally facilitative stimulus was reduced below the monocular level when it was presented to the dominant eye of patients without anisometropia, consistent with classical strabismic suppression of the non dominant eye. The dominant eye of strabismic patients without anisometropia retained a suppressive input from crossed but not uncrossed disparity stimuli presented to the non-dominant eye. CONCLUSIONS Abnormal disparity processing can be detected with the dichoptic VEP method we describe. Our results suggest that suppression in stereoblind, non-amblyopic observers is determined by a binocular mechanism responsive to disparity. In some cases, the sign of the disparity is important and this suggests a mechanism that can explain diplopia in patients made exotropic after surgery for esotropia.
Norcia, Anthony M.; Hale, Julia; Pettet, Mark W.; McKee, Suzanne P.; Harrad, Richard A.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by marked elevation of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations and premature coronary artery disease (CHD). In addition to impaired LDL receptor-mediated clearance of LDL particles, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that hepatic oversecretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B may contribute to the hypercholesterolemia in FH. This may be due to an effect of the expanded hepatic pool of cholesterol (a consequence of increased receptor-independent uptake of LDL) and/or a direct effect of the LDL receptor on apoB secretion. Hepatic oversecretion of apoB may depend on the type and severity of the genetic mutation causing FH. FH can also increase plasma Lp(a) concentration by an undefined mechanism that may not directly involve the LDL receptor pathway. Decreased catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins could also be due to deficient LDL receptor function, accounting for postprandial dyslipidemia in FH. The metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in FH is poorly understood, but preliminary data suggest abnormal HDL composition and functionality, as well as altered transport of apoA-I. Beyond effects related to specific genetic defects in the LDL pathway, co-existing secondary causes, particularly obesity and insulin resistance, and other genetic variants may also perturb lipoprotein metabolism in individuals with FH. Furthermore, residual risk remains high in statin-treated FH. Knowledge of an extended metabolic framework will, therefore, provide the basis for judiciously selecting new pharmacotherapies to treat FH, including apoB antisense oligonucleotides, microsomal transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. PMID:23907036
Ooi, Esther M M; Barrett, P Hugh R; Watts, Gerald F
Genes on the X chromosome are known to be responsible for more than 200 hereditary diseases. After IVF, the simple selection of embryo sex before uterine transfer can prevent the occurrence of affected offspring among couples at risk for these genetic disorders. The aim of this investigation was to develop a rapid method of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the sexing of human embryos, and to compare it to the fluorescence in-situ hybridization technique, considered to be the gold standard. After biopsies were obtained from 40 surplus non-viable embryos for transfer, a total of 98 blastomeres were analysed. It was possible to analyse 24 embryos (60%) by both techniques, generating a total of 70 blastomeres (35 per technique), while 28 blastomeres from 16 embryos (40%) were analysed only by real-time PCR. A rapid and safe method was developed in the present study for the sexual diagnosis of a single human cell (blastomere and buccal cell) using the emerging technology of real-time PCR. PMID:20158991
This article traces the shifts in the conception and delivery of sex education in British schools during the 1990s, drawing upon policy documents, teaching handbooks and teachers’ schemes of work. Two distinctive forms of sex education emerged during this period: a mandatory sex education focussed on the risks of HIV\\/AIDS and, later, teenage pregnancy; and a non-curricular sex education based
... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...
... only. Girls may carry the abnormal gene that causes these disorders but not show the actual disease. (Examples of this problem include hemophilia, color blindness, and the common forms of muscular ...
In response to the primary sex determination signal, X chromosome dose, the Sex-lethal gene controls all aspects of somatic sex determination and differentiation, including X chromosome dosage compen- sation. Two complementary classes of mutations have been identified that differentially affect Sxl somatic functions: (1) those impairing the \\
SUMMARY Sex determination in Drosophila is commonly thought to be a cell-autonomous process, where each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution (XX versus XY). This is in contrast to sex determination in mammals, which largely acts nonautonomously through cell- cell signaling. Here we examine how sexual dimor- phism is created in the Drosophila gonad
Tony DeFalco; Nicole Camara; Stéphanie Le Bras; Mark Van Doren
Background Considerable progress has been made on genetic mechanisms involved in disorders of sexdevelopment and on tumor formation\\u000a in dysgenetic gonads. Clinical and psychological outcome of patients are, as far as evaluated, unsatisfactory at present.\\u000a Guidelines are emerging in order to optimize long-term outcome in the future.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Data sources The information obtained in this review is based on recent original publications
Martine Cools; Leendert H. J. Looijenga; Katja P. Wolffenbuttel; Sten L. S. Drop
Despite continued high HIV risk among Hispanic men who have sex with men (HMSM), culturally tailored, theoretically based interventions have yet to be developed and tested. As a first step toward intervention development, we collected quantitative and qualitative data on sociocultural and psychological factors associated with drug use and risky sex among 566 HMSM recruited from community and Internet venues. Participants reported high rates of drug use (43%), unprotected anal sex (45%), and multiple sex partners (median 4) in the past 6 months. In multivariate analyses, use of drugs was associated with HIV seropositivity, less orientation to the Hispanic community, stronger attachment to the gay community, lower levels of homophobia, higher numbers of sex partners and more unprotected anal sex. The need for acceptance and desire to please partners emerged as core drivers of HIV risk in the qualitative data. Findings were used to guide development of Proyecto SOL, a theoretically grounded intervention that targets core determinants of HIV risk, builds on protective cultural influences, and strengthens positive social connections. PMID:19824834
Fernández, M Isabel; Jacobs, Robin J; Warren, Jacob C; Sanchez, Jesus; Bowen, G Stephen
We hypothesize that low systemic redox potential (GSH/GSSG; cysteine/cystine) reflects a vulnerability phenotype that is associated with regressive autism and is predictive of the risk of developing autism. The redox vulnerability phenotype is associated ...
We hypothesize that low systemic redox potential (GSH/GSSG; cysteine/cystine) reflects a vulnerability phenotype that is associated with regressive autism and is predictive of the risk of developing autism. The redox vulnerability phenotype is associated ...
We hypothesize that low systemic redox potential (GSH/GSSG; cysteine/cystine) reflects a vulnerability phenotype that is associated with regressive autism and is predictive of the risk of developing autism. The redox vulnerability phenotype is associated ...
The goals of our work are to develop means of identifying cells, and individuals, that present with a more basal oxidized redox state and to identify molecular mechanisms that functionally integrate such an oxidized state with observations that the multip...
Neurologic development follows orderly patterns that can be severely disturbed when thyroid hormones are deficient or excessive. Should this occur at appropriate development periods, irreversible neurologic damage can result. The nature of the deficits depends upon the specific development period and the severity of the thyroid disturbance. PCBs and dioxins are structurally similar to the thyroid hormones. Their binding characteristics are similar to those of thyroid hormones and all three groups bind to the cytosolic Ah receptor, the thyroid hormone receptor and the serum thyroid hormone binding protein transthyretin. Depending upon the dose of toxin and the congener used, the toxins either decrease or mimic the biological action of the thyroid hormones. Either effect, if occurring during brain development, can have disastrous consequences. Children and animals exposed to PCBs or dioxins in utero and/or as infants can exhibit varying degrees of behavioral disorders. These disorders resemble those seen in children exposed to thyroid hormone deficiencies in utero and/or in infancy. The mechanism of developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs and dioxins is not known but data suggest it could be partially or entirely mediated by alterations in availability and action of thyroid hormones during neurological development. It is possible that transient exposure of the mother to doses of toxins presently considered nontoxic to the mother could have an impact upon fetal or perinatal neurological development. If the toxins act via their effect on thyroid hormone action, it is possible that doses of toxins that would normally not alter fetal development, could become deleterious if superimposed on a pre-existing maternal/or fetal thyroid disorder.
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) impose substantial health and financial burdens in the United States and in many parts of the world. Women are disproportionately affected by many of these disorders, which often contribute to lifelong disabilities. While the number of patients with some ADs appears to be rising, the complexities of conducting epidemiological studies prevent a thorough understanding of the prevalence and incidence of these various conditions. Research on environmental influences of these illnesses is limited, although they are generally hypothesized to result from the interaction of environmental agents in genetically susceptible individuals. Further, there is little known regarding the role of sex and gender in the environmentally influenced mechanisms leading to the development of AD. To address these issues, particularly the roles of environment and sex and gender in ADs and the factors that contribute to the rise in ADs, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary roundtable of experts from academia, medicine, and government agencies to share their expertise, address knowledge gaps in research, and propose future research recommendations. PMID:23829184
To better understand the short and long-term effects of stress on the developing cerebral cortex, it is necessary to understand how early stress response genes protect or permanently alter cells. One family of highly conserved, stress response genes is the growth arrest and DNA damage-45 (Gadd45) genes. The expression of these genes is induced by a host of genotoxic, drug, and environmental stressors. Here we examined the impact of altering the expression of Gadd45alpha (Gadd45a), a member of the Gadd45 protein family that is expressed throughout the developing cortices of mice and humans. To manipulate levels of Gadd45a protein in developing mouse cortex, we electroporated cDNA plasmids encoding either Gadd45a or Gadd45a shRNA to either overexpress or knockdown Gadd45a levels in the developing cortices of mice, respectively. The effects of these manipulations were assessed by examining the fates and morphologies of the labeled neurons. Gadd45a overexpression both in vitro and in vivo significantly impaired the morphology of neurons, decreasing neurite complexity, inducing soma hypertrophy and increasing cell death. Knockdown of Gadd45a partially inhibited neuronal migration and reduced neurite complexity, an effect that was reversed in the presence of an shRNA-resistant Gadd45a. Finally, we found that shRNA against MEKK4, a direct target of Gadd45a, also stunted neurite outgrowth. Our findings suggest that the expression of Gadd45a in normal, developing brain is tightly regulated and that treatments or environmental stimuli that alter its expression could produce significant changes in neuronal circuitry development.
Background Genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions are linked to higher likelihood of developing schizophrenia\\u000a in accordance with the neurodevelopmental model of disease; little is known about risk factors and early development in early-onset\\u000a schizophrenia (EOS) and very early-onset schizophrenia (VEOS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We present a case-control study of a sample of 21 patients with EOS\\/VEOS and a control group of
Francesco Margari; Maria G Petruzzelli; Paola A Lecce; Orlando Todarello; Andrea De Giacomo; Elisabetta Lucarelli; Domenico Martinelli; Lucia Margari
|Increasing attention has been devoted to the maturation of sensory processing in the first year of life. While the development of cortical visual function has been thoroughly studied, much less information is available on auditory processing and its early disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the assessment techniques for…
Brain overgrowth in early developmental stages of children with autism is well documented. This paper explores the possibility that increases in propagation delays of stimuli and the signals triggered by them, resulting from this overgrowth, may be conducive to the development of poorly structured cortical maps, which may in turn be associated with autistic characteristics. We use a framework based
Mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 chain of laminin-5 (alpha3beta3gamma2, 332), develop a blistering skin disease similar to junctional epidermolysis bullosa in humans. These animals also developabnormalities in glomerulogenesis. In both wild-type and mutant animals (lama3(-/-)), podocytes secrete glomerular basement membrane and develop foot processes. Endothelial cells migrate into this scaffolding and secrete a layer of basement membrane that fuses with the one formed by the podocyte. In lama3(-/-) animals, glomerular maturation arrests at this stage. Endothelial cells do not attenuate, develop fenestrae, or form typical lumens, and mesangial cells (MCs) were not identified. LN alpha3 subunit (LAMA3) protein was identified in the basement membrane adjacent to glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) in normal rats and mice. In developing rat glomeruli, the LAMA3 subunit was first detectable in the early capillary loop stage, which corresponds to the stage at which maturation arrest was observed in the mutant mice. Lama3 mRNA and protein were identified in isolated rat and mouse glomeruli and cultured rat GEnCs, but not MC. These data document expression of LAMA3 in glomeruli and support a critical role for it in GEnC differentiation. Furthermore, LAMA3 chain expression and/or another product of endothelial cells are required for MC migration into the developing glomerulus. PMID:16850021
Abrass, C K; Berfield, A K; Ryan, M C; Carter, W G; Hansen, K M
We previously generated a transgenic mouse model for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) by expressing the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)–retinoic acid receptor (RAR?) cDNA in early myeloid cells. This fusion protein causes a myeloproliferative disease in 100% of animals, but only 15–20% of the animals develop acute leukemia after a long latency period (6–13 months). PML-RAR? is therefore necessary, but not sufficient, for APL development. The coexpression of a reciprocal form of the fusion, RAR?-PML, increased the likelihood of APL development (55–60%), but did not shorten latency. Together, these results suggested that additional genetic events are required for the development of APL. We therefore evaluated the splenic tumor cells from 18 transgenic mice with APL for evidence of secondary genetic events, by using spectral karyotyping analysis. Interstitial or terminal deletions of the distal region of one copy of chromosome 2 [del(2)] were found in 1/5 tumors expressing PML-RAR?, but in 11/13 tumors expressing both PML-RAR? and RAR?-PML (P < 0.05). Leukemic cells that contained a deletion on chromosome 2 often contained additional chromosomal gains (especially of 15), chromosomal losses (especially of 11 or X/Y), or were tetraploid (P ? 0.001). These changes did not commonly occur in nontransgenic littermates, nor in aged transgenic mice that did not develop APL. These results suggest that expression of RAR?-PML increases the likelihood of chromosome 2 deletions in APL cells. Deletion 2 appears to predispose APL cells to further chromosomal instability, which may lead to the acquisition of additional changes that provide an advantage to the transformed cells.
Zimonjic, Drazen B.; Pollock, Jessica L.; Westervelt, Peter; Popescu, Nicholas C.; Ley, Timothy J.
Background Partial loss of function of the transcription factor FOXL2 leads to premature ovarian failure in women. In animal models, Foxl2 is required for maintenance, and possibly induction, of female sex determination independently of other critical genes, e.g., Rspo1. Here we report expression profiling of mouse ovaries that lack Foxl2 alone or in combination with Wnt4 or Kit/c-Kit. Results Following Foxl2 loss, early testis genes (including Inhbb, Dhh, and Sox9) and several novel ovarian genes were consistently dysregulated during embryonic development. In the absence of Foxl2, expression changes affecting a large fraction of pathways were opposite those observed in Wnt4-null ovaries, reinforcing the notion that these genes have complementary actions in ovary development. Loss of one copy of Foxl2 revealed strong gene dosage sensitivity, with molecular anomalies that were milder but resembled ovaries lacking both Foxl2 alleles. Furthermore, a Foxl2 transgene disrupted embryonic testis differentiation and increased the levels of key female markers. Conclusion The results, including a comprehensive principal component analysis, 1) support the proposal of dose-dependent Foxl2 function and anti-testis action throughout ovary differentiation; and 2) identify candidate genes for roles in sex determination independent of FOXL2 (e.g., the transcription factors IRX3 and ZBTB7C) and in the generation of the ovarian reserve downstream of FOXL2 (e.g., the cadherin-domain protein CLSTN2 and the sphingomyelin synthase SGMS2). The gene inventory is a first step toward the identification of the full range of pathways with partly autonomous roles in ovary development, and thus provides a framework to analyze the genetic bases of female fertility.
Garcia-Ortiz, Jose Elias; Pelosi, Emanuele; Omari, Shakib; Nedorezov, Timur; Piao, Yulan; Karmazin, Jesse; Uda, Manuela; Cao, Antonio; Cole, Steve W; Forabosco, Antonino; Schlessinger, David; Ottolenghi, Chris
The B6.Y(TIR) mouse fails to develop normal testes despite transcription of Sry, the primary testis-determining gene on the Y chromosome. Consequently, B6.Y(TIR) fetuses with bilateral ovaries develop into apparently normal but infertile females. This infertility can be mainly attributed to oocyte incompatibility for postfertilization development. In addition, abnormality in preovulatory follicles and rapid loss of oocytes have been observed in XY ovaries. This study examined the effect of gonadotropins on follicular development and atresia in B6.Y(TIR) prepubertal females. The results show that untreated XY females had fewer late preantral follicles and their frequency of atresia was lower. No other difference was found when they were compared with XX females. After treatment with gonadotropins for 24 h, frequency of atresia decreased in both XX and XY ovaries. After 48 h, most preovulatory follicles in XY ovaries were nonatretic, but the oocytes often were denuded. Immunocytochemical staining for connexin 43 detected punctate foci along the oocyte plasma membrane. The density of these foci changed during follicular development, which was similar in XX and XY ovaries. In conclusion, follicular development and atresia under the control of gonadotropins is not influenced by defective oocytes until the preovulatory phase. PMID:10952917
Wong, J; Luckers, L; Okawara, Y; Pelletier, R; Taketo, T
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the abnormal prion protein isoform (PrP(res)) are indispensable for diagnosing chronic wasting disease (CWD). In this study, eight mAbs were developed by immunizing PrP knockout mice with recombinant elk PrP and an immunogenic PrP peptide. The reactivity of the mAbs to recombinant PrP and the PrP peptide was measured, and their isotypes were subsequently determined. Among them, four mAbs (B85-05, B85-08, B85-12, and B77-75) were shown by Western blotting to recognize proteinase K-treated brain homogenate derived from an elk suffering from CWD. PMID:23271186
Jeong, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Dong-Woon; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, In-Soo
Tissue cultures and regenerant plants from cell lines producing palms with normal and abnormal flowers were analyzed for cytokinin\\u000a content and compared with zygotic embryos and seedlings. Immature inflorescences at the critical stage of flower development\\u000a dissected from normal and abnormal palms were also analyzed. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)\\/radioimmunoassay\\u000a and HPLC\\/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used over a period
A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen. Images
While there are many recent examples of single gene deletions that lead to defects in cortical development, most human cases of cortical disorganization can be attributed to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Elucidating the cellular or developmental basis of teratogenic exposures in experimental animals is an important approach to understanding how environmental insults at particular developmental junctures can lead to complex brain malformations. Rats with prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol (MAM) reproduces many anatomical features seen in epilepsy patients. Previous studies have shown that heterotopic clusters of neocortically-derived neurons exhibit hyperexcitable firing activity and may be a source of heightened seizure susceptibility, however the events that lead to the formation of these abnormal cell clusters is unclear. Here, we used a panel of molecular markers and birthdating studies to show that in MAM-exposed rats, the abnormal cell clusters (heterotopia) first appear postnatally in the hippocampus (P1–P2) and that their appearance is preceded by a distinct sequence of perturbations in neocortical development: (i) disruption of the radial glial scaffolding with premature astroglial differentiation and (ii) thickening of the marginal zone with redistribution of Cajal-Retzius neurons to deeper layers. These initial events are followed by disruption of the cortical plate and appearance of subventricular zone nodules. Finally, we observed the erosion of neocortical subventricular zone nodules into the hippocampus around parturition followed by migration of nodules to hippocampus. We conclude that prenatal MAM exposure disrupts critical developmental processes and prenatal neocortical structures ultimately resulting in neocortical disorganization and hippocampal malformations.
Paredes, Mercedes; Pleasure, Samuel J.; Baraban, Scott C.
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B is a major housekeeping complex that governs the rate of global protein synthesis under normal and stress conditions. Mutations in any of its five subunits lead to leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter, an inherited chronic-progressive fatal brain disease with unknown aetiology, which is among the most prevalent childhood white matter disorders. We generated the first animal model for the disease by introducing a point mutation into the mouse Eif2b5 gene locus, leading to R132H replacement corresponding to the clinically significant human R136H mutation in the catalytic subunit. In contrast to human patients, mice homozygous for the mutant Eif2b5 allele (Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice) enable multiple analyses under a defined genetic background during the pre-symptomatic stages and during recovery from a defined brain insult. Time-course magnetic resonance imaging revealed for the first time the delayed development of the brain white matter due to the mutation. Electron microscopy demonstrated a higher proportion of small-calibre nerve fibres. Immunohistochemistry detected an abnormal abundance of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the brain of younger animals, as well as an abnormal level of major myelin proteins. Most importantly, mutant mice failed to recover from cuprizone-induced demyelination, reflecting an increased sensitivity to brain insults. The anomalous development of white matter in Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice underscores the importance of tight translational control to normal myelin formation and maintenance. PMID:20826436
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare disorder characterized by congenital pure red cell aplasia. Mutations in ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19) have been identified in 25% of DBA patients. More recently, mutations in other ribosomal protein genes, namely RPS7, RPS15, RPS24, RPS17, RPS27A, RPL35a, RPL36, RPL11, and RPL5, have also been found in patients with DBA. Approximately 30-40% of affected patients have various associated physical anomalies, mostly craniofacial and at the extremities, but also cardiac or urogenital malformations. Anomalies of the urogenital tract in DBA patients comprise changes in the kidney (dysplasia, agenesis, duplication, horseshoe kidney) and genitalia (hypospadias). To date, disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) have only been described once in association with DBA. We report here four DBA patients who exhibited DSD. PMID:20358230
Although the genetic basis of human sexual determination and differentiation has advanced considerably in recent years, the fact remains that in most subjects with disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) the underlying genetic cause is unknown. Where pathogenic mutations have been identified, the phenotype can be highly variable, even within families, suggesting that other genetic variants are influencing the expression of the phenotype. This situation is likely to change, as more powerful and affordable tools become widely available for detailed genetic analyses. Here, we describe recent advances in comparative genomic hybridisation, sequencing by hybridisation and next generation sequencing, and we describe how these technologies will have an impact on our understanding of the genetic causes of DSD.
Bashamboo, A.; Ledig, S.; Wieacker, P.; Achermann, J.; McElreavey, K.
This paper investigates the features of GSCs in the process of the gonad development of sex reversal in Monopterus albus by the histological methods and the histological immunochemical techniques. In Monopterus albus, the GSCs are located in the gonadal lamellae,which are scattered or accumulated during the female phase. In the intersex and the male,the GSCs are distinguished by two types A and B, both of them differ from the GSCs at the female stage in ultrastructure. It shows that the GSCs existing in the gonadal lamellae are the unique germ family, which owns the capability of mitosis in the differential gonads. The GSCs represent the ovogonia in the female phase, while the spermagonia in the intersex and the male phases. CD49 is the molecular marker for the GSCs at the female stage and the GSCs of type A. PMID:17674771
Xiao, Ya Mei; Chen, Li Li; Cheng, Song; Liu, Jiao; Zhao, Ru Rong
A greater understanding of cerebrovascular health and disease requires the consideration of recent neuroscience advances concerning neuroplasticity in the context of classical developmental neurology principles. Consideration of the ontogenetic interplay of nature and nurture influencing brain development during prenatal and early postnatal time periods should consider the concept of the developmental origins of neurological health and disease. Adaptive and maladaptive effects of neuroplasticity require a systems biology approach integrating molecular, receptor, cellular, neural network, and behavioral perspectives, culminating in the structural and functional cerebrovascular phenotypes that express health or disease across the lifespan. Cognizance of the interrelationships among maternal, placental, fetal, and neonatal factors requires an interdisciplinary appreciation of genetic/epigenetic forces of neuroplasticity during early life that incrementally influence cerebrovascular health or disease throughout childhood and adulthood. Knowledge of the systemic effects of multiorgan function on cerebrovascular development further broadens the systems biology approach to general plasticity of the individual as a whole organism. Short- and long-term consequences of the positive and negative effects of neuroplasticity must consider ongoing gene-environment interactions with maturation and aging, superimposed on earlier fetal/neonatal experiences that sustain neurological health or contribute to disease during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23622309
SUMMARY Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10) decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50) decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes.
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in common bean is associated with the presence of a 3-kb unique mitochondrial sequence designated pvs. The pvs sequence encodes at least two open reading frames (297 and 720 bp in length) with portions derived from the chloroplast genome. Fertility restoration by the nuclear restorer gene Fr results in the loss of this transcriptionally active unique region. We examined the effect of CMS (pvs present) and fertility restoration by Fr (pvs absent) on the pattern of pollen development in bean. In the CMS line, pollen aborted in the tetrad stage late in microgametogenesis. Microspores maintained cytoplasmic connections throughout pollen development, indicating aberrant or incomplete cytokinesis. Pollen-specific events associated with pollen abortion and fertility restoration imply that a gametophytic factor or event may be involved in CMS. In situ hybridization experiments suggested that significant reduction or complete loss of the mitochondrial sterility-associated sequence occurred in fertile pollen of F2 populations segregating for fertility. These observations support a model of fertility restoration by the loss of a mitochondrial DNA sequence prior to or during microsporogenesis/gametogenesis.
Increasing attention has been devoted to the maturation of sensory processing in the first year of life. While the development of cortical visual function has been thoroughly studied, much less information is available on auditory processing and its early disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the assessment techniques for early auditory processing. While otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses are well-established tools for neonatal screening of hearing loss, there have been less consistent results for neurophysiological assessments of central auditory processing in clinical practice. Early auditory event-related potentials could provide valuable diagnostic information, but their use as a possible clinical screening method is still limited and should be further assessed. Behavioural tests are few and are greatly needed in young infants as they could provide a more easily used tool for detecting the preconditions of early cerebral auditory impairment. PMID:21838818
An example of alternative male strategies is seen in diandric protogynous (female first) hermaphrodites, where individuals either mature directly as male (primary males) or first reproduce as female and then change sex to male (secondary males). In some sex-changing fishes, the testes of primary males appear anatomically similar to those of non-sex-changing species, whereas the testes of secondary males have
Philip L. Munday; J. Wilson White; Robert R. Warner
Examined factors influencing sex-differentiated responses to selected interests and interpersonal traits by young people in 3 age groups: 516 in late childhood (Grades 4–6), 398 in early adolescence (Grades 7–9), and 337 in late adolescence (Grades 10–12). There was limited evidence for same-sex bias during late childhood, varying by sex and race in its pervasiveness or clarity. Interpersonal traits were
The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556
Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content of these CNVs for enrichment in pathways of pathogenesis. Several important findings emerged. First, the gene content was enriched for the gene regulatory network involved in ventral forebrain development. Second, genes in pathways of synaptic function were overrepresented, significantly those involved in synaptic vesicle transport. Evidence also suggested roles for GABAergic synapses and the postsynaptic density. Third, we confirm the association of ISS with duplication of 14q12 and maternally inherited duplication of 15q11q13, and report the association with duplication of 21q21. We also present a patient with ISS and deletion 7q11.3 not involving MAGI2. Finally, we provide evidence that ISS in deletion 1p36 may be associated with deletion of KLHL17 and expand the epilepsy phenotype in that syndrome to include early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Several of the identified pathways share functional links, and abnormalities of forebrain synaptic growth and function may form a common biologic mechanism underlying both ISS and autism. This study demonstrates a novel approach to the study of gene content in subjects with ISS and copy number variation, and contributes further evidence to support specific pathways of pathogenesis.
Paciorkowski, Alex R; Thio, Liu Lin; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Gajecka, Marzena; Gurnett, Christina A; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Chung, Wendy K; Marsh, Eric D; Gentile, Mattia; Reggin, James D; Wheless, James W; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Kumar, Ravinesh; Christian, Susan L; Marini, Carla; Guerrini, Renzo; Maltsev, Natalia; Shaffer, Lisa G; Dobyns, William B
Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects in humans. TGF? signaling, which is mediated by Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways, plays a crucial role in regulating craniofacial development and patterning, particularly in palate development. However, it remains largely unknown whether the Smad-independent pathway contributes to TGF? signaling function during palatogenesis. In this study, we investigated the function of TGF? activated kinase 1 (Tak1), a key regulator of Smad-independent TGF? signaling in palate development. We show that Tak1 protein is expressed in both the epithelium and mesenchyme of the developing palatal shelves. Whereas deletion of Tak1 in the palatal epithelium or mesenchyme did not give rise to a cleft palate defect, inactivation of Tak1 in the neural crest lineage using the Wnt1-Cre transgenic allele resulted in failed palate elevation and subsequently the cleft palate formation. The failure in palate elevation in Wnt1-Cre;Tak1(F/F) mice results from a malformed tongue and micrognathia, resembling human Pierre Robin sequence cleft of the secondary palate. We found that the abnormal tongue development is associated with Fgf10 overexpression in the neural crest-derived tongue tissue. The failed palate elevation and cleft palate were recapitulated in an Fgf10-overexpressing mouse model. The repressive effect of the Tak1-mediated noncanonical TGF? signaling on Fgf10 expression was further confirmed by inhibition of p38, a downstream kinase of Tak1, in the primary cell culture of developing tongue. Tak1 thus functions to regulate tongue development by controlling Fgf10 expression and could represent a candidate gene for mutation in human PRS clefting. PMID:23460641
Exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) in early development can lead to long-term changes in brain function and behavior although little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. Perinatal exposure to GCs alters adult anxiety and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of either late gestational or neonatal exposure to the GC receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX), on apoptosis within the amygdala, a region critical for emotional regulation. DEX was administered to timed-pregnant rat dams from gestational day 18 until parturition, or postnatal day 4-6. Offspring were sacrificed the day following the last DEX treatment and tissue was processed for immunohistochemical detection of cleaved caspase-3, a marker for apoptotic cells. Prenatal DEX treatment significantly increased the number of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells in the amygdala of both sexes, largely due to increases within the medial and basomedial sub-regions. Postnatal DEX treatment also increased cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity within the amygdala, although effects reached significance only in the central nucleus of females. Overall, DEX induction of cleaved caspase-3 in the amygdala was greater following prenatal compared to postnatal treatment, yet in both instances elevations in cleaved caspase-3 correlated with an increase in pro-apoptotic Bax mRNA expression. Dual-label immunohistochemistry of cleaved caspase-3 and the neuronal marker NeuN confirmed that virtually all cleaved caspase-3 positive cells in the amygdala were neurons and a subset of these cells (primarily following postnatal treatment) expressed a GABAergic calcium binding protein phenotype (calbindin or calretinin). Together these results indicate that early developmental GC exposure induces neuronal apoptosis within the amygdala in an age, sex, and region dependent manner.
Zuloaga, Damian G.; Carbone, David L.; Hiroi, Ryoko; Chong, David L.; Handa, Robert J.
Objective: In 2006, the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society (LWPES) and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) published a consensus statement on management of intersex disorders. The aim of our study was to determine the etiological distribution of disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) according to the new DSD classification system and to evaluate the clinical features of DSDs in our patient cohort. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients followed up during the past three years. The subjects were divided into three etiologic groups according to their karyotypes. The definite diagnosesin each subgroup were established by clinical and laboratory investigations including abdominopelvic imaging as well as basal and stimulated hormone measurements. Molecular genetic testing, except for CYP21A2 gene, could not be performed. Results: Out of a total of 95 patients, 26 had sex chromosome DSD, 45 had 46,XY DSD and 24 had 46,XX DSD. The most common causes of DSDs were Turner’s syndrome (TS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). There was a wide variation in age of presentation ranging from 1 day to 17.5 years with a mean of 6.5±6.5 years. The most frequent complaints at presentation were ambiguous genitalia, isolated perineal hypospadias and short stature. Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate that the new DSD classification system leads to a major change in the distribution of etiological diagnoses of DSDs, which is exemplified by the significant frequencies of TS and vanishing testes syndrome. This alteration expands the clinical spectrum and increases the mean age at diagnosis. However, the most common causes of ambiguous genitalia, such as CAH and AIS, remain unchanged. Further studies using molecular genetic analyses are needed to give a more precise distribution of etiologies of DSDs, especially in 46,XY patients. Conflict of interest:None declared.
Erdogan, Sema; Kara, Cengiz; Ucakturk, Ahmet; Ayd?n, Murat
Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5(th)) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5(th) instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP. PMID:23734251
Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5th) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP.
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities
Sylvia H Ley; Deborah L O'Connor; Ravi Retnakaran; Jill K Hamilton; Mathew Sermer; Bernard Zinman; Anthony J Hanley
International sex trafficking into the United States appears to be a serious and growing problem, although the evidence regarding prevalence, risk, and consequences is incomplete. Nonetheless, human service providers are increasingly being asked to offer services to sex trafficking survivors. Consequently, providers need information to guide services and program development in this emerging practice area. To address this knowledge need, we systematically reviewed and synthesized 20 documents addressing the needs of and services for international survivors of sex trafficking into the United States. The main finding from the review shows the importance of a continuum of aftercare services to address survivors' changing needs as they move from initial freedom to recovery and independence. Based on our synthesis of the reviewed literature, we present a service delivery framework to guide providers' development of services for survivors. PMID:21196435
|Variation in the number of sex chromosomes is a relatively common genetic condition, affecting as many as 1/400 individuals. The sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are associated with characteristic behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, although the degree to which specific individuals are affected can fall within a wide range. Understanding the…
Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.
|Legal provisions for sex equity are found in Title II of the Education Amendments of 1976 and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Although occupational opportunities for women expanded beyond the traditionally sex-segregated occupations during the World War II era, in the seventies legislators decided to require further changes. State…
This study examines several factors affecting reactions to persons identified as homosexual. Reactions are operationalized in terms of expressed rejection of the homosexual as indicated by responses to a social distance scale. The major variables examined are sex of homosexual, sex of reactor, and acceptance of two commonly held stereotypes. These stereotypes—perceived danger and psychological disturbance—both suggest that a sense
This article chronicles the treatment of same-sex couples in England and the Republic of Ireland in recent years in order to ascertain (i) the impact that incorporation of the European Convention into the domestic law of each State has had on the rights of same-sex couples, (ii) what the introduction of civil partnership legislation might mean for the future of
White male and female predominantly suburban students in grades 7, 9, 11, and college were given questionnaires that assessed sex-role stereotyping, prejudice against gay males and lesbians, persons with the HIV or AIDS virus, and African Americans. On all measures at all ages, males were more prejudiced and sex-role stereotyped than females. Gay and lesbian prejudice declined with increasing age;
An intersexual agile wallaby (Macropus agilis) with a penis, a pouch and four teats had a sex-chromosome constitution of XXY in lymphocytes and cultured fibroblasts; the sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene was present, consistent with the presence of a testis. An intersexual eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) with a small empty scrotum and no penis, and an abnormal red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with no penis, pouch or teats, both had XX sex-chromosome complements; the SRY gene was not present, consistent with testis absence. The agile wallaby and grey kangaroo described here provide further evidence that scrotal development in marsupials is independent of the Y chromosome. The cause of the abnormalities in the XX individuals cannot be determined until candidate genes are identified. These animals provide a basis for further genetic studies into marsupial intersexuality and sex differentiation. PMID:9208434
Watson, C M; Johnston, P G; Rodger, K A; McKenzie, L M; O'Neill, R J; Cooper, D W
The objectives of the present study are to elucidate the effects of rearing temperatures on early larval development and the occurrence of metamorphosis-related morphological abnormalities in hatchery-reared brown sole Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini. Newly hatched larvae were reared through metamorphosis at different temperatures (6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 °C). Growth and development of larvae were accelerated concomitant with higher
Gilligan's work, which focuses on sex differences in moral reasoning, the perception of violence, the resolution of sexual dilemmas and abortion decisions, poses a major challenge to Kohlberg's theory by introducing a feminist perspective of moral development. Kohlberg had shown that the average female attained a moral judgment rating of stage three (good boy-nice girl), while adolescent males score at level four (law and order) and are more likely to move on to postconventional levels. Gilligan suggests that these findings reveal a gender bias, not that females are less mature than boys. Men and women follow different voices. Men tend to organize social relationships in a hierarchical order and subscribe to a morality of rights. Females value interpersonal connectedness, care, sensitivity, and responsibility to people. Kohlberg's scoring criteria give the interpersonal care orientations of females lower ratings than the principled justice orientation. Hence, Gilligan identifies different developmental stages for females. However, she does not claim that one system is better; both are equally valid. Only by integrating these complementary male (justice) and female (care) orientations will we be able to realize our full human potential in moral development. PMID:3381683
Disorder of sexdevelopment (DSD) patients in Indonesia most often do not receive a proper diagnostic evaluation and treatment. This study intended to categorize 88 Indonesian patients in accordance with the new consensus DSD algorithm. Diagnostic evaluation including clinical, hormonal, genetic, imaging, surgical, and histological parameters was performed. Fifty-three patients were raised as males, and 34 as females. Of 22 patients with 46, XX DSD, 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia, while in one patient, an ovarian Leydig cell tumor was found. In all 58 46, XY DSD patients, 29 were suspected of a disorder of androgen action (12 with an androgen receptor mutation), and in 9, gonadal dysgenesis was found and, in 20, severe hypospadias e.c.i. Implementation of the current consensus statement in a resource-poor environment is very difficult. The aim of the diagnostic workup in developing countries should be to end up with an evidence-based diagnosis. This is essential to improve treatment and thereby to improve the patients' quality of life. PMID:22253624
Juniarto, A Zulfa; van der Zwan, Yvonne G; Santosa, Ardy; Hersmus, Remko; de Jong, Frank H; Olmer, Renske; Bruggenwirth, Hennie T; Themmen, Axel P N; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Faradz, Sultana M H; Drop, Stenvert L S
Presented is a brief description of the process involved in the effort of the Washtenaw County Health Department in Michigan to allay the fears of school administrators and to motivate each school district to take the 1st steps to implement the new legislation that permitted birth control instructions in public schools. In the spring of 1978, the Family Planning staff sent letters to 80 school administrators identifying the new legislation and asking if the schools wanted the assistance of the Health Department in developingsex education programs. 30 administrators phoned or wrote confirming that their schools needed and wanted help. Consequently, a conference, Sexuality with Responsibility: Developing a School Program, was scheduled tentatively for the fall. After the mail contact, the health educator visited each school district in the county. A total of 150 people attended the conference, representing a "team" from each school district. 4 months following the initial conference, 50 teachers and nurses from 9 school districts participated in the health department's 1st teacher-education program in human sexuality. 8 months later an additional group of 70 educators enrolled in the program. 10 months following the conference, 8 school districts had appointed advisory committees, 1 district expected to create 1 during the upcoming school year, and 1 district was waiting to see what the other school districts would do. PMID:6908936
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD), previously known as intersex, refer to congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Patients with specific variants of this disorder have an elevated risk for the development of so-called type II germ cell cancers, i.e., the seminomatous and nonseminatous tumors, referred to as germ cell tumors (GCTs). Specifically DSD
Remko Hersmus; Bertie H. C. G. M. de Leeuw; Katja P. Wolffenbuttel; Stenvert L. S. Drop; J. Wolter Oosterhuis; Martine Cools; Leendert H. J. Looijenga
Three infants with ambiguous genitalia and suspected ovotestes were given recombinant FSH to induce ovarian follicular development. The development of follicles in the gonadal tissue suggested the presence of ovarian tissue in two of the three infants. This method may provide a means to better characterize gonadal anatomy in patients affected by disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD). Sonographic information poststimulation provided parents with earlier and more specific education and support concerning the possible need for confirmative gonadal biopsy treatment options.
Although clinical features in Turner syndrome have been well defined, underlying genetic factors have not been clarified. To deduce the factors leading to the development of clinical features, we took the following four steps: (1) assessment of clinical features in classic 45,X Turner syndrome; (2) review of clinical features in various female sex chromosome aberrations (karyotype-phenotype correlations); (3) assessment of
The first genetic sexing system for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), based on pupal color was developed. This system permits the separation of males (wild-type brown pupae) from females (mutant white pupae). Egg hatch averaged 42% for flies 2-5 weeks old, with higher rates (ca. 50%...
|This article describes the development of a community-based sex offender treatment programme for learning disabled clients (CB-SOTP-LD), the Keep Safe Programme (KSP), by the Learning Disabilities Team of County Durham and Darlington Priority Services (CDDPS) NHS Trust. The aim of this paper, by the treatment lead, is to share experiences of…
Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have sex were found to be part of a pathway
The incorporation of stilbene-derived optical brighteners into baculovirus formulations can substantially enhance virus infectivity and persistence of inoculum in the field. We evaluated the effect of the optical brightener Tinopal UNPA-GX (Sigma Chemical Co.) on the weight, development time, adult emergence and sex ratio of the principal pest of maize in the Americas, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
Ana-mabel Martínez; Primitivo Caballero; Trevor Williams
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD), like gender dysphoria, are conditions with major effects on child sexuality and identity, as well as sexual orientation. Each may in some cases lead to change of gender from that assigned neonatally. These similarities—and the conditions’ differences—provide a context for reviewing the articles in this issue about clinical approaches to children with gender dysphoria, in
The Sex Check is a brief, telephone-delivered, HIV-prevention intervention tailored for individuals who are at high risk of HIV infection or transmission but who are neither reducing their risk on their own nor seeking support for this purpose. Because the intervention is delivered on a one-to-one basis, permits anonymity, is marketed to “men who have sex with men,” and is brief, it may be particularly responsive to cultural, structural, and attitudinal barriers to serving Latino MSM. Because many Latino MSM continue to engage in high risk sexual behaviors, developing and testing prevention interventions with this population is a public health priority.
Katz, Jennifer L.; Orellana, E. Roberto; Walker, Denise D.; Viquez, Luis; Picciano, Joseph F.; Roffman, Roger A.
Age-related changes in ovarian development characteristics and plasma sex steroids in female Murray cod were examined throughout their second, third and fourth years of life to better understand the physiological and endocrine processes associated with puberty in this species in captivity. Spawning performance of 2+ and 3+ year old females was also assessed to identify ontogenetic differences in egg fertility. Puberty was acquired in 38% of 1+ year old females and 100% of age 2+ females. By age 3+, all females had developed full (adult) reproductive function. Ovarian development in pubertal fish was characterised by a rapid transition between cortical alveoli and lipid droplet oogenic phases, coinciding with significantly lower plasma 17beta-oestradiol in age 2+ females (p<0.05). Mean mature oocyte diameter (2.44 mm), post-fertilisation viability (30.80%) and hatchability (0.99%) of eggs from age 2+ females were significantly reduced relative to age 3+ adults (2.81 mm, 84.89% and 23.58%, respectively). Ovaries of pubertal Murray cod exhibited both vitellogenic and ovulatory capacities, yet functional abnormalities during secondary oocyte growth are likely to have contributed to poor egg fertility and consequently, evaluations of age-at-first maturity based on the presence of advanced ovarian stages may overestimate the reproductive potential of younger broodstock populations. PMID:18562230
Maternal behavior in rodents has been proposed to vary as a function of the external environment and, in turn, adjust offspring's stress and fear responses. Early handling (brief periods of maternal separation during the first two weeks of life) studies and analyses of spontaneously high-caring rat mothers converge to indicate that increased levels of maternal care may reduce offspring emotionality in adulthood. However, the hypothesis that environment-dependent reduction in maternal care correlates with increased offspring vulnerability to pathology has been scarcely investigated. To test this hypothesis we studied maternal care and offspring development in young, adolescent and young-adult Sprague-Dawley rats reared in a communal nursing situation, characterized by two dams delivering their offspring four days apart and communally caring for them until weaning. We show that dams of the first-born litter show increased aggression towards the pregnant female and that offspring belonging to the second-born litter receive less maternal care compared to older cage-mates. Additionally, second-born rats show increased anxiety-related behavior in a plus-maze test in adolescence and adulthood and abnormal developmental trajectories in terms of social interaction and BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus compared to both the first-born litter and to animal facility reared controls. This is the first indication that adverse environments, not requiring experimenter handling, may reduce maternal care and in turn increase offspring's emotionality and modify social behavior and BDNF developmental trajectories. PMID:19762157
Macrì, Simone; Laviola, Giovanni; Leussis, Melanie P; Andersen, Susan L
We assessed whether the nuclear localization sequences (NLS) and C terminus of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) play critical roles in brain development and function. We used histology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry, Western blots and electrophysiological recordings to compare the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, neuronal hippocampal synaptic transmission, and brain phenotypes including shape and structures, in Pthrp knock-in mice, which express PTHrP (1–84), a truncated form of the protein that is missing the NLS and the C-terminal region of the protein, and their wild-type littermates. Results showed that Pthrp knock-in mice display abnormal brain shape and structures; decreased neural cell proliferative capacity and increased apoptosis associated with up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16, p21, p27 and p53 and down-regulation of the Bmi-1 oncogene; delayed neural cell differentiation; and impaired hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. These findings provide in vivo experimental evidence that the NLS and C-terminus of PTHrP are essential not only for the regulation of neural cell proliferation and differentiation, but also for the maintenance of normal neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity.
Background In human embryogenesis, loss of SRY (sex determining region on Y), SOX9 (SRY-related HMG box 9) or SF1 (steroidogenic factor 1) function causes disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD). A defining event of vertebrate sex determination is male-specific upregulation and maintenance of SOX9 expression in gonadal pre-Sertoli cells, which is preceded by transient SRY expression in mammals. In mice, Sox9 regulation is under the transcriptional control of SRY, SF1 and SOX9 via a conserved testis-specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES). Regulation of SOX9 in human sex determination is however poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that a human embryonal carcinoma cell line (NT2/D1) can model events in presumptive Sertoli cells that initiate human sex determination. SRY associates with transcriptionally active chromatin in NT2/D1 cells and over-expression increases endogenous SOX9 expression. SRY and SF1 co-operate to activate the human SOX9 homologous TES (hTES), a process dependent on phosphorylated SF1. SOX9 also activates hTES, augmented by SF1, suggesting a mechanism for maintenance of SOX9 expression by auto-regulation. Analysis of mutant SRY, SF1 and SOX9 proteins encoded by thirteen separate 46,XY DSD gonadal dysgenesis individuals reveals a reduced ability to activate hTES. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate how three human sex-determining factors are likely to function during gonadal development around SOX9 as a hub gene, with different genetic causes of 46,XY DSD due a common failure to upregulate SOX9 transcription.
Knower, Kevin C.; Kelly, Sabine; Ludbrook, Louisa M.; Bagheri-Fam, Stefan; Sim, Helena; Bernard, Pascal; Sekido, Ryohei; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Harley, Vincent R.
The amygdala is a sexually dimorphic brain region critical for the regulation of social, cognitive, and emotional behaviors, but both the nature and the source of sex differences in the amygdala are largely unknown. We have identified a unique sex difference in the developing rat medial amygdala (MeA) that is regulated by cannabinoids. Newborn females had higher rates of cell proliferation than males. Treatment of neonates with the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2 (WIN), reduced cell proliferation in females to that of males and a wide range of WIN doses had no effect on cell proliferation in males. The effect of WIN on cell proliferation in the MeA was prevented by coinfusions of a CB2 but not CB1 receptor antagonist. Females had higher amygdala content of the endocannabinoid degradation enzymes, fatty acid amid hydrolase, and monoacylglycerol lipase than males, and lower amounts of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and N-arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide). Inhibition of the degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in females occluded the sex difference in cell proliferation. Analyses of cell fate revealed that females had significantly more newly generated glial cells but not more newly generated neurons than males, and treatment with WIN significantly decreased glial cell genesis in females but not males. Finally, early exposure to cannabinoids masculinized juvenile play behavior in females but did not alter this behavior in males. Collectively, our findings suggest that sex differences in endocannabinoids mediate a sex difference in glial cell genesis in the developing MeA that impacts sex-specific behaviors in adolescence. PMID:21059913
Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L; Hill, Matthew N; Hillard, Cecilia J; McCarthy, Margaret M
Amygdala dysfunction and abnormal fear and stress reactivity are common features of several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, little is known about the exact role the amygdala plays in the development of threat detection and emotional modulation. The current study examined the effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on defensive, emotional, and neuroendocrine reactivity of infant rhesus monkeys reared with their mothers in large species-typical social groups. Monkeys received either bilateral MRI-guided ibotenic acid amygdala (Neo-A; n = 16) or sham (Neo-C; n = 12) lesions at 24.8 ± 1.2 days of age, or served as behavioral control (Neo-BC; n = 3). Defensive and emotional responses were assessed using the Human Intruder paradigm as infants and as juveniles (2.5 and 12 months of age, respectively), whereas neuroendocrine reactivity was only examined during the juvenile period. As infants, Neo-A animals expressed similar levels of freezing and hostile behaviors as compared to controls, whereas during the juvenile period Neo-A animals expressed significantly less freezing compared to controls. Interestingly, the sex of the infant modulated the behavioral effects of neonatal amygdalectomy, leading to different patterns of behavior depending on the sex and lesion status of the infant. Unlike controls, Neo-A infants did not modulate their behavioral responses based on the salience of the threat. The impact of neonatal amygdalectomy increased with age, such that Neo-A juveniles exhibited fewer emotional behaviors and increased cortisol response to the stressor as compared to controls. These data indicate that the amygdala plays a critical role in the development of both emotional and neuroendocrine reactivity as well as the expression of sexually dimorphic emotional expression. PMID:23380162
Raper, Jessica; Wallen, Kim; Sanchez, Mar M; Stephens, Shannon B Z; Henry, Amy; Villareal, Trina; Bachevalier, Jocelyne
North Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta L.) populations respond to the integrated effects of multiple environmental stressors. Environmental stressors often occur in spatially distinct frameworks and affect distinct age classes, sexes, and subpopulations differentia...
The ideal timing and nature of surgical reconstruction in individuals with Disorders of SexDevelopment (DSD) is highly controversial. Despite the increasing number of publications on this topic, evidence-based recommendations still cannot be made. However it is generally accepted that optimal care for DSD requires an experienced multidisciplinary team. This means that surgical decisions are now made within the context of a multidisciplinary team and all members of the team - and not just specialist surgeons - may be called upon to discuss choices for surgery with patients and parents. To do this well, every clinician in the team should have an understanding of the range of techniques available for genital surgery, the risks and benefits of procedures and the controversies surrounding timing of surgery. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the variety of surgical procedures in current use and in what situation a particular technique would be indicated. The short-term risks and benefits are described and where available long-term outcome data is discussed. To date, discussions surrounding genital surgery have been led primarily by surgeons. Some non-surgical clinicians have expressed unease about decision making in genital surgery but have felt ill equipped to comment on an area with which they are unfamiliar. This review gives a detailed explanation of current surgical practice offered in a specialized center for DSD and such information should facilitate a more balanced discussion. PMID:23146296
There is an urgent need for early sex identification to support field planting in Ginkgo biloba L., due to the different economic and medicinal values between male and female trees. An easy, rapid and reliable molecular\\u000a method for sex type determination of G. biloba was reported in the paper. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR)
Liqin Liao; Jun Liu; Yanxia Dai; Qian Li; Ming Xie; Qijiong Chen; Huaqun Yin; Guanzhou Qiu; Xueduan Liu
64 preschool children (aged 27–70 mo) with nearly equal numbers of boys and girls at each of 4 levels of gender constancy were observed during free-play sessions at their preschools to examine relationships among gender constancy, preferences for same- or opposite-sex playmates, and sex-typed activities. Each S's play was rated 40 times on a point-time schedule for type of activity
SUMMARY Sex determination in Drosophila is commonly thought to be a cell-autonomous process, where each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution (XX vs. XY). This is in contrast to sex determination in mammals, which largely acts non-autonomously through cell-cell signaling. Here we examine how sexual dimorphism is created in the Drosophila gonad. We have identified a novel male-specific cell type in the embryonic gonad, the pigment cell precursors. Surprisingly, using sexually mosaic embryos, we find that sex determination in both the pigment cell precursors and the male-specific somatic gonadal precursors is non-cell autonomous. Male-specific expression of Wnt2 in the embryonic gonad is necessary and sufficient for pigment cell precursor formation. Our results indicate that non-autonomous sex determination is important for creating sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila gonad, similar to the manner in which sex-specific gonad formation is controlled in mammals.
DeFalco, Tony; Camara, Nicole; Le Bras, Stephanie; Van Doren, Mark
Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss, osteoarthritis and HME. PMID:23958822
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as flame retardants and now become ubiquitous in the global environment. Using zebrafish as a model, we tested the hypothesis that PBDEs may affect the reproduction and development of fish. Zebrafish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DE-71 (a congener of PBDE commonly found in the environment) throughout their whole life cycle, and the effects of DE-71 on gonadal development, gamete quality, fertilization success, hatching success, embryonic development and sex ratio were investigated. Despite gonadal development was enhanced, reductions in spawning, fertilization success, hatching success and larval survival rate were evident, while significant increases in malformation and percentage of male were also observed in the F1 generation. Our laboratory results suggest that PBDEs may pose a risk to reproductive success and alter the sex ratio of fish in environments highly contaminated with PBDEs. PMID:23906559
The way disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) are viewed and managed in different cultures varies widely. They are complex conditions and even well-educated lay people find them difficult to understand, but when families are very poor and lacking in basic education, and the health system is starved of resources, traditional beliefs, folk remedies and prejudice combine to make the lives of children and adults with DSD extremely difficult and sad. Rumour and discrimination isolate them from their communities and they become devalued. People with DSDs desire the same things in life as everyone else-to find someone who will love them, to be valued as human beings, to feel at home in their own bodies, to be able to have satisfactory sexual relations should these be desired, to be able to trust their medical advisers and to be integrated into the general community. Long term outcome studies have been published from many countries, but these studies have not necessarily been critical of the values that underpinned the type of treatment given to the patients. There is a need for standardized instruments that would allow a true comparison of the quality of outcomes from the patients' perspective. Much could be done to improve equity between rich and poor countries for the benefit of people with DSDs. A focus on developing cheap, robust diagnostic tests, making essential medicines available for all, training surgeons to do better operations, educating health professionals, families and the general community in order to break down prejudice against people with DSDs, and training mental health workers in this specialized field, would do much to alleviate the burden of the condition. PMID:18633712
This article summarizes the current state of research on Sexual Quality of Life (SexQoL) of adults with 46,XY Disorders of SexDevelopment (DSD)\\/Intersexuality. An extensive literature search yield 21 studies published between 1974–2007, examining sexual aspects in individuals with 46,XY DSD. However, many of them lack methodological quality. The results are inconsistent but overall indicate that SexQoL of individuals with
|This report on comic books, designed to overcome sex stereotyping in elementary school children by exposing them to new role models, includes: (1) a discussion of sex-role learning, stereotyped sex-role characteristics, and comic books; (2) summaries of the story lines of three comic books developed to depict new role models; (3) a black and…
Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury.
This paper reports on findings from an evaluation of a pilot accreditation scheme for teachers of sex and relationships education (SRE) in England. The scheme was introduced as part of national measures to reduce rates of teenage conception. Illuminative and participatory methods were used to elicit stakeholder accounts from primary, secondary and…
In this study a matched intervention-control site design in 14 urban health centers with random selection of 160 participants (80 in each of intervention and control) was used to evaluate a sex education program in Iran. Qualitative methods were used in a needs assessment that also set the content and method of delivery of the program. The…
|This article investigates the role of interpersonal relationships in shaping sex differences in the manifestation, etiology, and developmental course of conduct problems and their treatment needs. The review examines whether: (1) Girls' conduct problems are more likely than boys' to manifest as a function of disrupted relationships with…
Differing from the Freudian position, this paper takes the view that a girl's early closeness to her mother gives her an initial advantage in forming sex identification. This is soon overcome, however, by the many cultural privileges and the prestige offered males. Boys must shift from an initial identification with mother, but get cultural rewards for the new role. 4
This paper reports on findings from an evaluation of a pilot accreditation scheme for teachers of sex and relationships education (SRE) in England. The scheme was introduced as part of national measures to reduce rates of teenage conception. Illuminative and participatory methods were used to elicit stakeholder accounts from primary, secondary and special school teachers enrolled in the scheme, their
Growth of four variables of the femur (diapyseal length, diaphyseal length plus distal epiphysis, maximum length and vertical diameter of the head) was analyzed by polynomial regression for the purpose of evaluating its significance and capacity for age and sex determination throughout the entire life continuum. Materials included in analysis consisted of 346 specimens ranging from birth to 97 years
The mammalian Y chromosome carries the SRY gene, which determines testis formation. Here we review data on individuals who are XX but exhibit male characteristics: some have SRY; others do not. We have analyzed three families containing more than one such individual and show that these individuals lack SRY. Pedigree analysis leads to the hypothesis that they carry recessive mutations (in a gene termed Z) that allow expression of male characteristics. We propose that wild-type Z product is a negative regulator of male sex determination and is functional in wild-type females. In males, SRY product represses or otherwise negatively regulates Z and thereby allows male sex determination. This hypothesis can also explain other types of sex reversal in mammals, in particular, XY females containing SRY. Some of these individuals may have mutations at the Z locus rendering them insensitive to SRY. Recessive mutations (such as the polled mutation of goats) leading to sex reversal are known in a variety of animals and might be used to map and ultimately clone the human Z gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5
McElreavey, K; Vilain, E; Abbas, N; Herskowitz, I; Fellous, M
Young people engaged as peer educators are increasingly important in sex and relationship education (SRE) programmes in a variety of settings and are particularly valued in the APAUSE programme (Rees et al., 1997). The increase in popularity of peer education raises a need to value the inputs of young people and to give formal recognition to peers. An assessment process
Examined the effect of race on degree of stereotyping. 20 1st- and 20 3rd-grade girls (half from each grade were black and half were white) answered 20 questions about characteristics usually considered typical of one or the other of the sexes. Both races gave equally stereotyped responses to questions about children, but blacks gave fewer stereotyped responses than whites to
Testicular development in the captive male dojo loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus was examined monthly in relation to the levels of plasma sex steroids [testosterone (T), 11-ketotestostrone (11-KT), and\\u000a 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP)]. On the basis of testicular histology, the annual gonadal cycle was found to be divisible\\u000a into 3 periods: the recovery and proliferation period, which mainly consists of early spermatogenic testis from
\\u000a Abstract The medical management of differences of sexdevelopment (DSD)\\/intersex in early childhood has been criticized by patients’\\u000a advocates as well as bioethicists from an ethical point of view. Some call for a moratorium of any feminizing or masculinizing\\u000a operations before the age of consent except for medical emergencies. No exhaustive ethical guidelines have been published\\u000a until now. In particular, the
Claudia Wiesemann; Susanne Ude-Koeller; Gernot H. G. Sinnecker; Ute Thyen
Deletion of the distal segment of 9p causes a syndrome comprising trigonocephaly, minor anomalies, and intellectual disability. Patients with this condition also frequently present with genitourinary abnormalities including cryptorchidism, hypospadias, ambiguous genitalia, or 46,XY testicular dysgenesis. The region responsible for the gonadal dysgenesis has been localized to 9p24.3 with the likely responsible gene identified as DMRT1. Similar to patients with other molecular causes of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, patients with partial del 9p have an increased risk of gonadoblastoma. We present two patients with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis due to partial 9p monosomy. Both patients were also diagnosed with gonadoblastoma following gonadectomy at an early age. Chromosomal microarray analyses refined the cytogenetic abnormalities and allowed potential genotype-phenotype relationships to be determined. We also review the literature as it pertains to partial 9p monosomy, genital abnormalities and gonadoblastoma and note that a large percentage of affected patients present with two copy number variations. We propose that a two-hit mechanism may be involved in the incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity of partial 9p monosomy and an abnormal genital phenotype. The significant percentage of gonadoblastoma in patients with 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis due to partial 9p monosomy also continues to support the necessity of gonadectomy in this patient population. PMID:23824832
Quinonez, Shane C; Park, John M; Rabah, Raja; Owens, Kailey M; Yashar, Beverly M; Glover, Thomas W; Keegan, Catherine E
Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.
Drosophila adult females but not males contain high levels of the steroid hormone ecdysone, however, the roles played by steroid signaling during Drosophila gametogenesis remain poorly understood. Drosophila germ cells in both sexes initially follow a similar pathway. After germline stem cells are established, their daughters form interconnected cysts surrounded by somatic escort (female) or cyst (male) cells and enter meiosis. Subsequently, female cysts acquire a new covering of somatic cells to form follicles. Knocking down expression of the heterodimeric ecdysteroid receptor (EcR/Usp) or the E75 early response gene in escort cells disrupts 16-cell cyst production, meiotic entry and follicle formation. Escort cells lose their squamous morphology and unsheath germ cells. By contrast, disrupting ecdysone signaling in males does not perturb cyst development or ensheathment. Thus, sex-specific steroid signaling is essential for female germ cell development at the time male and female pathways diverge. Our results suggest that steroid signaling plays an important sex-specific role in early germ cell development in Drosophila, a strategy that may be conserved in mammals.
Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls' and boys' development. This article provides a critical review of sex differences in several peer relationship processes, including behavioral and social-cognitive styles, stress and coping, and relationship provisions. The authors present a
The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…
Background: Neuropathic pain after injury to the nervous system is a difficult clinical problem. Sex differences in the development of neuropathic pain have not been well established experimentally or clinically.Objective: Rats were used to examine sex differences in localized and spread mechanical hypersensitivity after partial injury to their infraorbital or sciatic nerves in a model of neuropathic pain.Methods: In adult
Cecilia A. Dominguez; Poli Francois Kouya; Wei-Ping Wu; Jing-Xia Hao; Xiao-Jun Xu; Zsuzsanna Wiesenfeld-Hallin
|The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…
Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...
Objective: Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown reduced cortical thickness (CT) in individuals with ADHD, but this abnormality disappears with age, suggesting developmental delay. However, cross-sectional MRI studies have shown reduced CT, suggesting abnormaldevelopment. The aim of this study was to compare whole-brain CT in male and female children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD with whole-brain CT in matched control participants. Method: MRI scans were performed on ADHD and control participants. Results: CT data revealed differences in right hemisphere (RH) only. Reduced CT was observed predominantly in the frontoparietal region. However, increased CT was observed predominantly in the occipital lobe. The CT differences were correlated with severity of ADHD. Analysis of sex differences revealed that location, number, and magnitude of CT differences were different between males and females in each age group. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that anatomical abnormalities in ADHD represent abnormaldevelopment rather than developmental delay. PMID:22392552
Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Prado Alcántara, Hugo; Martínez García, Reyna Beatriz; De La Torre, Lázaro Barajas; Avila Acosta, David; Duarte, Martín Gallegos
The developmental environment can have lasting effects on posthatching phenotype in oviparous animals. Innate immune response is one important component of fitness in vertebrates because it provides a generalized defense against infection. In addition, because male vertebrates are at a higher risk of infection than females, males may benefit more from increased innate immunity than females. We determined the effects of incubation temperature on the innate immune response of hatchling map turtles (Graptemys) by incubating eggs at a range of male and female producing-temperatures and assessing plasma complement activity in the resulting hatchlings. We found a significant effect of incubation environment on circulating complement in hatchling Graptemys ouachitensis, with male-producing temperatures yielding the highest innate immune response. Most important, these results demonstrate that immune response is affected by developmental environment in a species with environmental sex determination, potentially resulting in sex differences in the ability to fend off pathogens.
Freedberg, Steven; Greives, Timothy J.; Ewert, Michael A.; Demas, Gregory E.; Beecher, Nancy; Nelson, Craig E.
This study investigated occupational sex-role stereotypes of nursery school, kindergarten, third-grade, and sixth-grade children, and the effects of their acquiring gender constancy, specifically the concept of gender stability. Two types of occupational attitudes were assessed: (1) personal aspirations (PA) and (2) ideas about jobs men and women do. The latter were determined using the Occupations Survey (OS). Children chose stereotyped
BACKGROUND: Partial loss of function of the transcription factor FOXL2 leads to premature ovarian failure in women. In animal models, Foxl2 is required for maintenance, and possibly induction, of female sex determination independently of other critical genes, e.g., Rspo1. Here we report expression profiling of mouse ovaries that lack Foxl2 alone or in combination with Wnt4 or Kit\\/c-Kit. RESULTS: Following
José Elias Garcia-Ortiz; Emanuele Pelosi; Shakib Omari; Timur Nedorezov; Yulan Piao; Jesse Karmazin; Manuela Uda; Antonio Cao; Steve W Cole; Antonino Forabosco; David Schlessinger; Chris Ottolenghi
Many xenobiotics released in the aquatic environment exhibit a genotoxic potential toward organisms. Long term exposure to such compounds is expected to lead to multigenerational reproductive defects, further influencing the recruitment rate and hence, the population dynamics. Paternal exposure to genotoxicants was previously shown to increase abnormaldevelopment in the progeny of mammalian or aquatic species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between DNA damage in sperm of the fish three-spined stickleback and progeny developmental defects. Spermatozoa were exposed ex vivo to an alkylating agent (methyl methanesulfonate) before in vitro fertilization and DNA damage was assessed by the alkaline comet assay. A significant relationship between abnormaldevelopment and sperm DNA damage was underlined. This study illustrates the interest to use germ cell DNA damage after ex vivo exposure to evaluate the impact of genotoxic compounds on progeny fitness in aquatic organisms. PMID:23178896
Santos, R; Palos-Ladeiro, M; Besnard, A; Porcher, J M; Bony, S; Sanchez, W; Devaux, A
Sperm abnormalities are one of the main factors responsible for male infertility; however, their pathogenesis remains unclear. The role of microRNAs in the development of sperm abnormalities in infertile men has not yet been investigated. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate the influence of miR-122 expression on the differentiation of these cells into spermatozoa-like cells in vitro. After induction, mutant miR-122-transfected cells formed spermatozoa-like cells. Flow cytometry of DNA content revealed a significant increase in the haploid cell population in spermatozoa-like cells derived from mutant miR-122-transfected cells as compared to those derived from miR-122-transfected cells. During induction, TNP2 and protamine mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in mutant miR-122-transfected cells than in miR-122-transfected cells. High-throughput isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification were used to identify and quantify the different protein expression levels in miR-122- and mutant miR-122-transfected cells. Among all the proteins analyzed, the expression of lipoproteins, for example, APOB and APOA1, showed the most significant difference between the two groups. This study illustrates that miR-122 expression is associated with abnormal sperm development. MiR-122 may influence spermatozoa-like cells by suppressing TNP2 expression and inhibiting the expression of proteins associated with sperm development. PMID:23327642
58 2nd-grade boys, 29 with fathers present and 29 with fathers absent, were given the Draw-A-Person and the Drawing Completion Tests to measure sex role orientation, the Drake Preference Test to measure sex role performance, and the Vroegh Test to measure sex role adoption. Results show that father absence had significant effects on sex role orientation.
In birds and mammals, differences in development between the sexes arise from the differential actions of genes that are encoded on the sex chromosomes. These genes are differentially represented in the cells of males and females, and have been selected for sex-specific roles. The brain is a sexually dimorphic organ and is also shaped by sex-specific selection pressures. Genes on
Young black men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. Rapid expansion of mobile technologies, including smartphone applications (apps), provides a unique opportunity for outreach and tailored health messaging. We collected electronic daily journals and conducted surveys and focus groups with 22 black MSM (age 18-30) at three sites in North Carolina to inform the development of a mobile phone-based intervention. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically using NVivo. Half of the sample earned under $11,000 annually. All participants owned smartphones and had unlimited texting and many had unlimited data plans. Phones were integral to participants' lives and were a primary means of Internet access. Communication was primarily through text messaging and Internet (on-line chatting, social networking sites) rather than calls. Apps were used daily for entertainment, information, productivity, and social networking. Half of participants used their phones to find sex partners; over half used phones to find health information. For an HIV-related app, participants requested user-friendly content about test site locators, sexually transmitted diseases, symptom evaluation, drug and alcohol risk, safe sex, sexuality and relationships, gay-friendly health providers, and connection to other gay/HIV-positive men. For young black MSM in this qualitative study, mobile technologies were a widely used, acceptable means for HIV intervention. Future research is needed to measure patterns and preferences of mobile technology use among broader samples. PMID:23565925
Muessig, Kathryn E; Pike, Emily C; Fowler, Beth; LeGrand, Sara; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Bull, Sheana S; Wilson, Patrick A; Wohl, David A; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B
The epidemiology of HIV infection in the US in general, and in the southeast, in particular, has shifted dramatically over the past two decades, increasingly affecting women and minorities. The site for our intervention was an infectious diseases clinic based at a university hospital serving over 1,300 HIV-infected patients in North Carolina. Our patient population is diverse and reflects the trends seen more broadly in the epidemic in the southeast and in North Carolina. Practicing safer sex is a complex behavior with multiple determinants that vary by individual and social context. A comprehensive intervention that is client-centered and can be tailored to each individual’s circumstances is more likely to be effective at reducing risky behaviors among clients such as ours than are more confrontational or standardized prevention messages. One potential approach to improving safer sex practices among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is Motivational Interviewing (MI), a non-judgmental, client-centered but directive counseling style. Below, we describe: (1) the development of the Start Talking About Risks (STAR) MI-based safer sex counseling program for PLWHA at our clinic site; (2) the intervention itself; and (3) lessons learned from implementing the intervention.
Golin, Carol E.; Patel, Shilpa; Tiller, Katherine; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Boland, Maureen
It is now generally agreed that there are inherent sex differences in healthy individuals across a number of neurobiological domains (including brain structure, neurochemistry, and cognition). Moreover, there is a burgeoning body of evidence highlighting sex differences within neuropsychiatric populations (in terms of the rates of incidence, clinical features/progression, neurobiology and pathology). Here, we consider the extent to which attention and impulsivity are sexually dimorphic in healthy populations and the extent to which sex might modulate the expression of disorders characterised by abnormalities in attention and/or impulsivity such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism and addiction. We then discuss general genetic mechanisms that might underlie sex differences in attention and impulsivity before focussing on specific positional and functional candidate sex-linked genes that are likely to influence these cognitive processes. Identifying novel sex-modulated molecular targets should ultimately enable us to develop more effective therapies in disorders associated with attentional/impulsive dysfunction.
The metabolic syndrome is basically a maturity-onset disease. Typically, its manifestations begin to flourish years after the initial dietary or environmental aggression began. Since most hormonal, metabolic, or defense responses are practically immediate, the procrastinated response do not seem justified. Only in childhood, the damages of the metabolic syndrome appear with minimal delay. Sex affects the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, but this is more an effect of timing than absolute gender differences, females holding better than males up to menopause, when the differences between sexes tend to disappear. The metabolic syndrome is related to an immune response, countered by a permanent increase in glucocorticoids, which keep the immune system at bay but also induce insulin resistance, alter the lipid metabolism, favor fat deposition, mobilize protein, and decrease androgen synthesis. Androgens limit the operation of glucocorticoids, which is also partly blocked by estrogens, since they decrease inflammation (which enhances glucocorticoid release). These facts suggest that the appearance of the metabolic syndrome symptoms depends on the strength (i.e., levels) of androgens and estrogens. The predominance of glucocorticoids and the full manifestation of the syndrome in men are favored by decreased androgen activity. Low androgens can be found in infancy, maturity, advanced age, or because of their inhibition by glucocorticoids (inflammation, stress, medical treatment). Estrogens decrease inflammation and reduce the glucocorticoid response. Low estrogen (infancy, menopause) again allow the predominance of glucocorticoids and the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is postulated that the equilibrium between sex hormones and glucocorticoids may be a critical element in the timing of the manifestation of metabolic syndrome-related pathologies. PMID:22649414
Sex in birds is determined genetically, as in mammals. However, in birds, female is the heterogametic sex (ZW), while the male is homogametic (ZZ). Although the exact mechanism of avian sex determination is still unclear, genes on one or both of the sex chromosomes must control sexual differentiation of the embryonic gonads into testes or ovaries, and eventually all other sexually dimorphic features. In this review of disorders of sexual development in poultry, we focus upon the gonads and external dimorphisms. Abnormalities of sexual development in poultry can be broadly divided into 2 types: those due to disturbances in sex hormone production by the gonads, and those due to abnormal inheritance of sex chromosomes. Recent studies on gynandromorphic chickens (half male, half female) point to the importance of genetic over hormonal factors in controlling sexual development in fowl. PMID:22094263
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) are defined as a congenital condition in which development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical. DSD patients with gonadal dysgenesis or hypovirilization, containing part of the Y chromosome (GBY), have an increased risk for malignant type II germ cell tumors (GCTs: seminomas and nonseminomas). DSD may be diagnosed in newborns (e.g., ambiguous genitalia), or later in life, even at or after puberty. Here we describe three independent male patients with a GCT; two were retrospectively recognized as DSD, based on the histological identification of both carcinoma in situ and gonadoblastoma in a single gonad as the cancer precursor. Hypospadias and cryptorchidism in their history are consistent with this conclusion. The power of recognition of these parameters is demonstrated by the third patient, in which the precursor lesion was diagnosed before progression to invasiveness. Early recognition based on these clinical parameters could have prevented development of (metastatic) cancer, to be treated by systemic therapy. All three patients showed a normal male 46,XY karyotype, without obvious genetic rearrangements by high-resolution whole-genome copy number analysis. These cases demonstrate overlap between DSD and the so-called testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of significant relevance for identification of individuals at increased risk for development of a malignant GCT. PMID:22315593
Hersmus, Remko; Stoop, Hans; White, Stefan J; Drop, Stenvert L S; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Incrocci, Luca; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Looijenga, Leendert H J
A prominent interspecific pattern of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is Rensch's rule, according to which male body size is more variable or evolutionarily divergent than female body size. Assuming equal growth rates of males and females, SSD would be entirely mediated, and Rensch's rule proximately caused, by sexual differences in development times, or sexual bimaturism (SBM), with the larger sexdeveloping for a proportionately longer time. Only a subset of the seven arthropod groups investigated in this study exhibits Rensch's rule. Furthermore, we found only a weak positive relationship between SSD and SBM overall, suggesting that growth rate differences between the sexes are more important than development time differences in proximately mediating SSD in a wide but by no means comprehensive range of arthropod taxa. Except when protandry is of selective advantage (as in many butterflies, Hymenoptera, and spiders), male development time was equal to (in water striders and beetles) or even longer than (in drosophilid and sepsid flies) that of females. Because all taxa show female-biased SSD, this implies faster growth of females in general, a pattern markedly different from that of primates and birds (analyzed here for comparison). We discuss three potential explanations for this pattern based on life-history trade-offs and sexual selection. PMID:17211807
Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Dixon, Anthony F G; Fairbairn, Daphne J; Foellmer, Matthias W; Gibert, Patricia; van der Linde, Kim; Meier, Rudolf; Nylin, Sören; Pitnick, Scott; Schoff, Christopher; Signorelli, Martino; Teder, Tiit; Wiklund, Christer
Disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) are defined as a congenital condition in which development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical. DSD patients with gonadal dysgenesis or hypovirilization, containing part of the Y chromosome (GBY), have an increased risk for malignant type II germ cell tumors (GCTs: seminomas and nonseminomas). DSD may be diagnosed in newborns (e.g., ambiguous genitalia), or later in life, even at or after puberty. Here we describe three independent male patients with a GCT; two were retrospectively recognized as DSD, based on the histological identification of both carcinoma in situ and gonadoblastoma in a single gonad as the cancer precursor. Hypospadias and cryptorchidism in their history are consistent with this conclusion. The power of recognition of these parameters is demonstrated by the third patient, in which the precursor lesion was diagnosed before progression to invasiveness. Early recognition based on these clinical parameters could have prevented development of (metastatic) cancer, to be treated by systemic therapy. All three patients showed a normal male 46,XY karyotype, without obvious genetic rearrangements by high-resolution whole-genome copy number analysis. These cases demonstrate overlap between DSD and the so-called testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of significant relevance for identification of individuals at increased risk for development of a malignant GCT.
Hersmus, Remko; Stoop, Hans; White, Stefan J.; Drop, Stenvert L. S.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter; Incrocci, Luca; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.
ABSTRACT Purpose The clinical and molecular genetic classification of syndromes with congenital limitation of eye movements and evidence of cranial nerve dysgenesis continues to evolve. This monograph details clinical and molecular genetic data on a number of families and isolated patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) and related disorders, and presents an overview of the mechanisms of abnormal patterns of motor and sensory cranial nerve development in these rare syndromes. Methods Clinical examination of one patient with CFEOM1, one family with clinical features of CFEOM2, one family with recessive CFEOM3, one family with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), and four patients with various combinations of congenital cranial nerve abnormalities. Genotyping of families with CFEOM and HGPPS for polymorphic markers in the regions of the three known CFEOM loci and in the HGPPS region, and mutation analysis of the ARIX and KIF21A genes in patients with CFEOM were performed according to standard published protocols. Results The patient with CFEOM1 had the second most common mutation in KIF21A, a 2861 G>A mutation that resulted in an R954Q substitution. The family with CFEOM2 phenotype did not map to the CFEOM2 locus. The family with recessive CFEOM3 did not map to any of the known loci. The HGPPS family mapped to 11q23–q25. One patient had optic nerve hypoplasia and fifth nerve dysfunction. Two patients had the rare combination of Möbius syndrome and CFEOM. One patient had Möbius syndrome and fifth nerve dysfunction. Conclusions There is genetic heterogeneity in CFEOM2 and CFEOM3. Abnormalities in sensory nerves can also accompany abnormalities of motor nerves, further substantiating the effect of individual mutations on developing motor as well as sensory cranial nerve nuclei.
Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) is a nuclear receptor encoded by the NR5A1 gene. SF1 affects both sexual and adrenal development through the regulation of target gene expression. Genotypic male and female SF1 knockout mice have adrenal and gonadal agenesis with persistent Müllerian structures and early lethality. There have been several reports of NR5A1 mutations in individuals with 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD) or other disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) with or without an adrenal phenotype. To date microdeletions involving NR5A1 have been reported in only two patients with DSDs. We report a novel microdeletion encompassing NR5A1 in a patient with 46,XY DSD and developmental delay. The phenotypically female patient initially presented with mild developmental delay and dysmorphisms. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. A 1.54 Mb microdeletion of chromosome 9q33.3 including NR5A1 was detected by array CGH and confirmed by FISH. Normal maternal FISH results indicated that this was most likely a de novo event. Since most NR5A1 mutations have been ascertained through gonadal or adrenal abnormalities, the additional findings of developmental delay and minor facial dysmorphisms are possibly related to haploinsufficiency of other genes within the 1.54 Mb deleted region. This report further confirms the role of NR5A1 deletions in 46,XY DSD and reinforces the utility of aCGH in the work up of DSDs of unclear etiology. PMID:24056159
To describe trajectories of aggressive behaviors for adolescents living in rural areas, we compared the patterns, timing and\\u000a sex differences in development of physical and social aggression using five waves of data collected from youth in school surveys\\u000a administered over 2.5 years. The sample (N?=?5,151) was 50.0% female, 52.1% Caucasian and 38.2% African-American. Multilevel growth curve models showed that physical\\u000a and
Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe; Vangie A. Foshee; Susan T. Ennett; Chirayath Suchindran
New prevention options are urgently needed for African-Americans in the United States given the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on this group. This combined with recent evidence supporting the efficacy of computer technology-based interventions in HIV prevention led our research group to pursue the development of a computer-delivered individually tailored intervention for heterosexually active African-Americans—the tailored information program for safer sex (TIPSS). In the current article, we discuss the development of the TIPSS program, including (i) the targeted population and behavior, (ii) theoretical basis for the intervention, (iii) design of the intervention, (iv) formative research, (v) technical development and testing and (vi) intervention delivery and ongoing randomized controlled trial. Given the many advantages of computer-based interventions, including low-cost delivery once developed, they offer much promise for the future of HIV prevention among African-Americans and other at-risk groups.
Noar, Seth M.; Webb, Elizabeth M.; Van Stee, Stephanie K.; Redding, Colleen A.; Feist-Price, Sonja; Crosby, Richard; Troutman, Adewale
|Examined the rough-and-tumble play and gender of preferred playmates in three- to eight-year olds with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)--hypothesized to masculinize behaviors that show sex differences--and in unaffected three- to eight-year-old relatives. Found that CAH girls did not exhibit increased levels of masculine behavior when…
|This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships…
Throughout development, numerous biological events occur that differentially affect males and females. Specifically, sex-determining genes that are triggered by the sex-chromosome complement initiate a series of events that determine an organism’s sex and lead to the differentiation of the body in sex-specific ways. Such events contribute to many unique sex differences, including the susceptibility to different diseases. Although it was
A laboratory procedure for sex identification of monomorphic birds was developed using modern cytological methods of detecting chromosome abnormalities in human amniotic fluid samples. A pin feather is taken from a pre-fledging bird for tissue culture and karyotype analysis. Through this method, the sex was identified and the karyotype described of the whooping crane (Grus americana) and the Mississippi sandhill crane (G. canadensis pulla). Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these species showed an identical chromosome constitution with 2n = 78 + 2. However, differences in the amount of centromeric heterochromatin were observed in the Mississippi sandhill crane when compared to the whooping crane C-banded karyotype.
Background Liver function tests (LFTs) are routinely performed in primary care, and are often the gateway to further invasive and/or expensive investigations. Little is known of the consequences in people with an initial abnormal liver function (ALF) test in primary care and with no obvious liver disease. Further investigations may be dangerous for the patient and expensive for Health Services. The aims of this study are to determine the natural history of abnormalities in LFTs before overt liver disease presents in the population and identify those who require minimal further investigations with the potential for reduction in NHS costs. Methods/Design A population-based retrospective cohort study will follow up all those who have had an incident liver function test (LFT) in primary care to subsequent liver disease or mortality over a period of 15 years (approx. 2.3 million tests in 99,000 people). The study is set in Primary Care in the region of Tayside, Scotland (pop approx. 429,000) between 1989 and 2003. The target population consists of patients with no recorded clinical signs or symptoms of liver disease and registered with a GP. The health technologies being assessed are LFTs, viral and auto-antibody tests, ultrasound, CT, MRI and liver biopsy. The study will utilise the Epidemiology of Liver Disease In Tayside (ELDIT) database to determine the outcomes of liver disease. These are based on hospital admission data (Scottish Morbidity Record 1), dispensed medication records, death certificates, and examination of medical records from Tayside hospitals. A sample of patients (n = 150) with recent initial ALF tests or invitation to biopsy will complete questionnaires to obtain quality of life data and anxiety measures. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility Markov model analyses will be performed from health service and patient perspectives using standard NHS costs. The findings will also be used to develop a computerised clinical decision support tool. Discussion The results of this study will be widely disseminated to primary care, as well as G.I. hospital specialists through publications and presentations at local and national meetings and the project website. This will facilitate optimal decision-making both for the benefit of the patient and the National Health Service.
Donnan, Peter T; McLernon, David; Steinke, Douglas; Ryder, Stephen; Roderick, Paul; Sullivan, Frank M; Rosenberg, William; Dillon, John F
Abnormalities in MANETs can be malicious attacks or selfish nodes which can affect network architecture and network operation significantly. Clearly, there are two distinct objectives: 1) To design/examine attacks and develop countermeasures and 2) design...
We describe a patient with the co-occurrence of a familial 9;11 reciprocal translocation and an XX sex reversal. The patient had cryptorchidism, delayed development, dysmorphic features and attention deficiency hyperactive disorder (ADHD). The proband's karyotype was 46,XX,t(9;11)(p22;p15.5) and he was positive for SRY gene. The father was found to be the carrier of the similar translocation. The co-occurrence of XX sex reversal and autosomal reciprocal translocation has not been described previously. The possible reasons for the manifestation of features other than those found in XX sex reversal is described. PMID:15083697
Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls’ and boys’ development. This paper provides a critical review of sex differences in: several peer-relationship processes, including behavioral and social-cognitive styles, stress and coping, and relationship provisions. Based on this review, a speculative peer-socialization model is presented that considers the implications of these sex differences for girls’ and boys’ emotional and behavioral development. Central to this model is the idea that sex-linked relationship processes have costs and benefits for girls’ and boys’ adjustment. Finally, we present recent research testing certain model components and propose approaches for testing understudied aspects of the model.
Self-rated degree of femininity and masculinity across development were evaluated for 40 adults affected by 46,XY disorders of sexdevelopment (DSDs) who presented at birth with a small phallus and perineoscrotal hypospadias, raised either male (n = 22) or female (n = 18). Most participants were confirmed or presumed to be affected by partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (n = 14), partial gonadal dysgenesis (n = 11), or were considered to have a poorly defined case of 46,XY DSD including ambiguous external genitalia (n = 15). Participants retrospectively evaluated their degree of masculinity and femininity during their childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and in the past 12 months of filling out a questionnaire pertaining to their psychosexual development. Participants raised male reported more masculinity than those raised female due to an increase in masculinization during adolescence and adulthood. Participants raised male also reported less femininity than those raised female throughout development. Participants raised female reported more femininity than those raised male due to an increase in feminization during adolescence and adulthood. Participants raised female also reported less masculinity than those raised male throughout development. These data support the proposition that some aspects of gender role (GR), such as masculinity and femininity, are capable of proceeding along female- or male-typic patterns depending on sex of rearing among individuals affected by specific types of 46,XY DSD. Furthermore, regardless of male or female rearing, GR increasingly corresponds with assigned sex as individuals proceed through sexual maturity and into adulthood. These results are consistent with the idea that socialization/learning contributes to GR development in humans in addition to data from others demonstrating endocrine influences. PMID:18780596
Pappas, Kara B; Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J
Sex differences in human social behaviors and abilities have long been a question of public and scientific interest. Females are usually assumed to be more socially oriented and skilful than males. However, despite an extensive literature, the very existence of sex differences remains a matter of discussion while some studies found no sex differences whereas others reported differences that were
Stéphanie Barbu; Guénaël Cabanes; Gaïd Le Maner-Idrissi
Modes of sex determination are quite variable in vertebrates. The developmental decision to form a testis or an ovary can be influenced by one gene, several genes, environmental variables, or a combination of these factors. Nevertheless, certain morphogenetic aspects of sex determination appear to be conserved in amniotes. Here we clone fragments of nine candidate sex-determining genes from the snapping
Normal synthesis and action of androgens is essential for normal male sex differentiation. 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSD) and 5?-reductase isoenzymes play essential roles in normal androgen biosynthesis. We hypothesized that differences in expression of these enzymes in genital skin could contribute to the pathogenesis of 46,XY disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD). We investigated the mRNA transcription patterns of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isoenzymes type
U. Hoppe; L. Wünsch; P.-M. Holterhus; D. Jocham; A. Richter-Unruh; O. Hiort
Two studies were conducted to develop scales for assessing self-efficacy to disclose HIV status to sex partners and negotiate safer sex practices among people living with HIV\\/AIDS. Elicitation research was used to derive 4 sets of scenarios with graduated situational demands that serve as stimulus materials in assessing self-efficacy. Two studies demonstrated that the self-efficacy scales for effective disclosure and
Seth C. Kalichman; David Rompa; Kari DiFonzo; Dolores Simpson; Florence Kyomugisha; James Austin; Webster Luke
Human cortical malformations, including lissencephaly, polymicrogyria and other diseases of neurodevelopment, have been associated with mutations in microtubule subunits and microtubule-associated proteins. Here we report our cloning of the brain dimple (brdp) mouse mutation, which we recovered from an ENU screen for recessive perinatal phenotypes affecting neurodevelopment. We identify the causal mutation in the tubulin, beta-2b (Tubb2b) gene as a missense mutation at a highly conserved residue (N247S). Brdp/brdp homozygous mutants have significant thinning of the cortical epithelium, which is markedly more severe in the caudo-lateral portion of the telencephalon, and do not survive past birth. The cortical defects are largely due to a major increase in apoptosis and we note abnormal proliferation of the basal progenitors. Adult brdp/+ mice are viable and fertile but exhibit behavioral phenotypes. This allele of Tubb2b represents the most severely affected mouse tubulin phenotype reported to date and this is the first report of a tubulin mutation affecting neuronal proliferation and survival. PMID:23727838
Stottmann, R W; Donlin, M; Hafner, A; Bernard, A; Sinclair, D A; Beier, D R
THE calculation made by Mr. J. H. Hodd in last week's NATURE (p. 53) of the numerical proportion of the sexes of Mr. Poulton's race of extra-toed cats, in relation to the recurrence of the abnormity, is very interesting as an inferrable deduction from the premises of Mr. Poulton's elaborate tabulation of his observations; but it is, I think, doubtful
A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.
Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)
The goal of the present study is to examine cross-sectional information on the growth of the humerus based on the analysis of four measurements, namely, diaphyseal length, transversal diameter of the proximal (metaphyseal) end of the shaft, epicondylar breadth and vertical diameter of the head. This analysis was performed in 181 individuals (90 ? and 91 ?) ranging from birth to 25 years of age and belonging to three documented Western European skeletal collections (Coimbra, Lisbon and St. Bride). After testing the homogeneity of the sample, the existence of sexual differences (Student's t- and Mann-Whitney U-test) and the growth of the variables (polynomial regression) were evaluated. The results showed the presence of sexual differences in epicondylar breadth above 20 years of age and vertical diameter of the head from 15 years of age, thus indicating that these two variables may be of use in determining sex from that age onward. The growth pattern of the variables showed a continuous increase and followed first- and second-degree polynomials. However, growth of the transversal diameter of the proximal end of the shaft followed a fourth-degree polynomial. Strong correlation coefficients were identified between humeral size and age for each of the four metric variables. These results indicate that any of the humeral measurements studied herein is likely to serve as a useful means of estimating sub-adult age in forensic samples. PMID:22588220
Rissech, Carme; López-Costas, Olalla; Turbón, Daniel
Context Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1/AdBP4/FTZF1, NR5A1) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that plays a key role in regulating adrenal and gonadal development, steroidogenesis, and reproduction. Targeted deletion of Nr5a1 (Sf1) in the mouse results in adrenal and gonadal agenesis, XY sex-reversal, and persistent Müllerian structures in males. Consistent with the murine phenotype, human mutations in SF1 were described initially in two 46,XY individuals with female external genitalia, Müllerian structures (uterus) and primary adrenal failure. Objective Given recent case reports of haploinsufficiency of SF1 affecting testicular function in humans, we aimed to identify SF1 mutations in a cohort of individuals with a phenotypic spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis/impaired androgenization (now termed 46,XY Disorders of SexDevelopment, DSD) with normal adrenal function. Methods & Patients Mutational analysis of NR5A1 in 30 individuals with 46,XY DSD, followed by functional studies of SF1 activity. Results Heterozygous missense mutations in NR5A1 were found in four individuals (4/30, 13%) with this phenotype. These mutations (V15M, M78I, G91S, L437Q) were shown to impair transcriptional activation through abnormal DNA binding (V15M, M78I, G91S), altered sub-nuclear localization (V15M, M78I), or through disruption of the putative ligand-binding pocket (L437Q). Two mutations appeared to be de novo or germline changes. The other two mutations appeared to be inherited in a sex-limited dominant manner, as the mother is heterozygous for the change. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that SF1 mutations are more frequent than previously suspected causes of impaired fetal and postnatal testicular function in 46,XY individuals.
Lin, Lin; Philibert, Pascal; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Kelberman, Daniel; Homfray, Tessa; Albanese, Assunta; Molini, Veruska; Sebire, Neil J.; Einaudi, Silvia; Conway, Gerard S.; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Jameson, J. Larry; Sultan, Charles; Dattani, Mehul T.; Achermann, John C.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) comprise a wide range of neurological deficits that result from fetal exposure to ethanol (EtOH), and are the leading cause of environmentally related birth defects and mental retardation in the western world. One aspect of diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategies that could substantially improve our ability to combat this significant problem would be to facilitate earlier detection of the disorders within individuals. Light microscopy-based investigations performed by several laboratories have previously shown that morphological development of neurons within the early-developing cerebral cortex is abnormal within the brains of animals exposed to EtOH during fetal development. We and others have recently demonstrated that diffusion MRI can be of utility for detecting abnormal cellular morphological development in the developing cerebral cortex. We therefore assessed whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be used to distinguish the developing cerebral cortices of ex vivo rat pup brains born from dams treated with EtOH (EtOH; 4.5g/kg, 25%) or calorie-matched quantities of maltose/dextrin (M/D) throughout gestation. Water diffusion and tissue microstructure were investigated using DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA) and histology (anisotropy index, AI), respectively. Both FA and AI decreased with age, and were higher in the EtOH than the M/D group at postnatal ages (P)0, P3, and P6. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between FA and AI measurements. These findings provide evidence that disruptions in cerebral cortical development induced by EtOH exposure can be revealed by water diffusion anisotropy patterns, and that these disruptions are directly related to cerebral cortical differentiation. PMID:23921100
Leigland, Lindsey A; Budde, Matthew D; Cornea, Anda; Kroenke, Christopher D
Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…
A biopsy dart, that can be shot from a gun or crossbow, was developed to obtain skin samples of whales at sea. Determination of sex was found possible by staining and locating sex chromatin bodies in the nuclei of female skin cells. This procedure will be...
Presents evidence supporting claim that sex and gender are important to the explanatory as well as the descriptive goals of developmental psychology. Maintains that studying psychosocial and biological components of gender and sex helps one to develop hypotheses about causal mechanisms for developmental outcomes more generally. Introduces the…
The legume podborer, Maruca vitrata (syn. M. testulalis) (F.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pantropical pest of legume crops. Sex pheromone was collected by gland extraction or trapping of volatiles from virgin female moths originating in India, West Africa, or Taiwan. Analysis by GC-EAG and GC-MS confirmed previously published findings that (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal is the most abundant EAG-active component with 2-5% of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol also present. At least one other EAG response was detected at retention times typical of monounsaturated hexadecenals or tetradecenyl acetates, but neither could be detected by GC-MS. Laboratory wind-tunnel bioassays and a field bioassay of blends of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal with (E,E )-10,12-hexadecadienol and a range of monounsaturated hexadecenal and tetradecenyl acetate isomers indicated greatest attraction of males was to those including (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol and (E)-10-hexadecenal as minor components. In subsequent trapping experiments in cowpea fields in Benin, traps baited with a three-component blend of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal and these two minor components in a 100:5:5 ratio caught significantly more males than traps baited with the major component alone, either two-component blend, or virgin female moths. Further blend optimization experiments did not produce a more attractive blend. No significant differences in catches were found between traps baited with polyethylene vials or rubber septa, or between lures containing 0.01 and 0.1 mg of synthetic pheromone. Significant numbers of female M. vitrata moths, up to 50% of total catches, were trapped with synthetic blends but not with virgin females. At present there is no clear explanation for this almost unprecedented finding, but the phenomenon may improve the predictive power of traps for population monitoring. PMID:12775157
Downham, M C A; Hall, D R; Chamberlain, D J; Cork, A; Farman, D I; Tamò, M; Dahounto, D; Datinon, B; Adetonah, S
Down syndrome is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation, having an incidence of 1 in 700 live births. In the present study we used a transgenic mouse in vivo library consisting of 4 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic mouse lines, each bearing a different fragment of the Down syndrome critical region 1 (DCR-1), implicated in brain abnormalities characterizing this pathology. The 152F7 fragment, in addition to genes also located on the other DCR-1 fragments, bears the DYRK1A gene, encoding for a serine-threonine kinase. The neurobehavioral analysis of these mouse lines showed that DYRK1A overexpressing 152F7 mice but not the other lines display learning impairment and hyperactivity during development. Additionally, 152F7 mice display increased brain weight and neuronal size. At a biochemical level we found DYRK1A overexpression associated with a development-dependent increase in phosphorylation of the transcription factor FKHR and with high levels of cyclin B1, suggesting for the first time in vivo a correlation between DYRK1A overexpression and cell cycle protein alteration. In addition, we found an altered phosphorylation of transcription factors of CREB family. Our findings support a role of DYRK1A overexpression in the neuronal abnormalities seen in Down syndrome and suggest that this pathology is linked to altered levels of proteins involved in the regulation of cell cycle. PMID:15198122
Branchi, Igor; Bichler, Zoë; Minghetti, Luisa; Delabar, Jean Maurice; Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Gonzalez, Marie-Claude; Chettouh, Zoubidda; Nicolini, Alessia; Chabert, Caroline; Smith, Desmond J; Rubin, Edward M; Migliore-Samour, Danièle; Alleva, Enrico
Determination of postnatal AMH levels in circulation has been used for decades when evaluating a child with ambiguous genitalia. We describe the age- and gender-specific changes of postnatal AMH serum levels to enable an appropriate clinical use of AMH assessment in pediatric endocrinology. In males, cord blood AMH is measurable at high levels (mean 148 (53-340) pmol/L), whereas AMH is undetectable (54%) or very low (95% CI: < 2-16 pmol/L) in female infants. AMH is constant through childhood in both sexes, boys having approximately 35 times higher levels than girls with no overlapping between the sexes until puberty. Ambiguous genitalia due to impaired androgen secretion or action may be a result of various conditions with low, normal or high AMH. Furthermore, low AMH is a marker of premature ovarian failure in Turner Syndrome girls. Measurement of AMH is an important tool in assessing gonadal function in children. In this context, detailed normative data are essential. PMID:22423510
Phenotype analysis of female mice lacking androgen receptor (AR) deficient ( AR ? \\/ ? ) indicates that the development of mammary glands is retarded with reduced ductal branching in the pre- pubertal stages, and fewer Cap cells in the terminal end buds, as well as decreased lobuloalveolar development in adult females, and fewer milk-producing alveoli in the lactating glands.
Preimplantation developmental plasticity has evolved in order to offer the best chances of survival under changing environments. Conversely, environmental conditions experienced in early life can dramatically influence neonatal and adult biology, which may result in detrimental long-term effects. Several studies have shown that small size at birth, which is associated with a greater risk of metabolic syndrome, is largely determined before the formation of the blastocysts because 70%-80% of variation in bodyweight at birth has neither a genetic nor environmental component. In addition, it has been reported that adult bodyweight is programmed by energy-dependent process during the pronuclear stage in the mouse. Although the early embryo has a high developmental plasticity and adapts and survives to adverse environmental conditions, this adaptation may have adverse consequences and there is strong evidence that in vitro culture can be a risk factor for abnormal fetal outcomes in animals systems, with growing data suggesting that a similar link may be apparent for humans. In this context, male and female preimplantation embryos display sex-specific transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, which, in the case of bovine blastocysts, expands to one-third of the transcripts detected through microarray analysis. This sex-specific bias may convert the otherwise buffered stochastic variability in developmental networks in a sex-determined response to the environmental hazard. It has been widely reported that environment can affect preimplantation development in a sex-specific manner, resulting in either a short-term sex ratio adjustment or in long-term sex-specific effects on adult health. The present article reviews current knowledge about the natural phenotypic variation caused by epigenetic mechanisms and the mechanisms modulating sex-specific changes in phenotype during early embryo development resulting in sex ratio adjustments or detrimental sex-specific consequences for adult health. Understanding the natural embryo sexual dimorphism for programming trajectories will help understand the early mechanisms of response to environmental insults. PMID:23244827
Laguna-Barraza, R; Bermejo-Álvarez, P; Ramos-Ibeas, P; de Frutos, C; López-Cardona, A P; Calle, A; Fernandez-Gonzalez, R; Pericuesta, E; Ramírez, M A; Gutierrez-Adan, A
Sex steroids participate in the regulation of reproduction in female chickens. In this work, we determined the content of androgen receptor (AR), intracellular progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), membrane progesterone receptor ? (mPR?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to 1-month-old chickens by western blot analysis. A marked difference in the morphological characteristics of the left and the right ovaries during development was observed. Results show a higher content of AR in the left ovary than in the right one in all ages. In the left ovary, the highest content of AR was observed on day 13 of embryonic development, and diminished with age. In the right ovary, AR was expressed from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old, and became undetectable at 1-week and 1-month-old. In the left ovary, PR isoforms were not detected on day 13 of embryonic development, but they presented a marked expression after hatching. In the right ovary, the highest expression of both PR isoforms was found on 1-day-old, and significantly decreased with age. PR-B was the predominant isoform on 1-day and 1-month old in the left ovary, whereas PR-A was the predominant one on day 13 of embryonic development in the right ovary. Interestingly, mPR? was detected at 1-week and 1-month-old in the left ovary meanwhile in the right ovary, it was detected from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old. ER-? was only detected in the left ovary from day 13 to 1-week-old, while in 1-month-old chickens, it was expressed in both ovaries. In the left ovary, ER-? content was lower from 1-day to 1-month-old as compared with day 13 of embryonic development. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between the left growing and the right regressing ovary, and throughout chickens' age; and this is the first report about mPR expression in birds. PMID:23660445
González-Morán, María Genoveva; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio
Hydroides elegans, a worldwide fouling polychaete, can spawn throughout the year, but its recruitment drops during summer when hypoxia prevails. Here, the influence of hypoxia on larval development and settlement of H. elegans was investigated. Results showed that larval development was compromised at 1mg O2 l(-1) with a lower proportion of competent larvae and a higher proportion of malformed larvae, probably due to reduction in clearance rate. Regarding larval settlement, although most of the larvae were reluctant to settle at 1mg O2 l(-1), regardless of the biofilm nature, they settled quickly within 24h in response to the resumption of dissolved oxygen. Furthermore, only about 5% of the larvae settled on the biofilms developed under hypoxia, regardless of dissolved oxygen levels of the seawater. The delayed larval development and potential alteration of biofilm nature owing to hypoxia explained why the recruitment of H. elegans declines during summer. PMID:24050126
Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G
Background Many reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). The initial cue in TSD is incubation temperature, unlike genotypic sex determination (GSD) where it is determined by the presence of specific alleles (or genetic loci). We used patterns of gene expression to identify candidates for genes with a role in TSD and other developmental processes without making a priori assumptions about the identity of these genes (ortholog-based approach). We identified genes with sexually dimorphic mRNA accumulation during the temperature sensitive period of development in the Red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a turtle with TSD. Genes with differential mRNA accumulation in response to estrogen (estradiol-17?; E2) exposure and developmental stages were also identified. Results Sequencing 767 clones from three suppression-subtractive hybridization libraries yielded a total of 581 unique sequences. Screening a macroarray with a subset of those sequences revealed a total of 26 genes that exhibited differential mRNA accumulation: 16 female biased and 10 male biased. Additional analyses revealed that C16ORF62 (an unknown gene) and MALAT1 (a long noncoding RNA) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation at the male producing temperature relative to the female producing temperature during embryonic sexual development. Finally, we identified four genes (C16ORF62, CCT3, MMP2, and NFIB) that exhibited a stage effect and five genes (C16ORF62, CCT3, MMP2, NFIB and NOTCH2) showed a response to E2 exposure. Conclusions Here we report a survey of genes identified using patterns of mRNA accumulation during embryonic development in a turtle with TSD. Many previous studies have focused on examining the turtle orthologs of genes involved in mammalian development. Although valuable, the limitations of this approach are exemplified by our identification of two genes (MALAT1 and C16ORF62) that are sexually dimorphic during embryonic development. MALAT1 is a noncoding RNA that has not been implicated in sexual differentiation in other vertebrates and C16ORF62 has an unknown function. Our results revealed genes that are candidates for having roles in turtle embryonic development, including TSD, and highlight the need to expand our search parameters beyond protein-coding genes.
Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities. Gene profiling analysis shows that the expression of several genes is deregulated including PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) gene, encoding a receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. In angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphomas molecular abnormalities are found in follicular helper T-cell (TFH) that express some distinctive markers such as CD10, PD-1, CXCR5 and the CXCL13 chemokine. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a paradigme of T-cell lymphoma since it is associated with an X-ALK oncogenic fusion protein due to a translocation involving ALK gene at 2p23. ALK tyrosine kinase activates downstream pathways (Stat3/5b, Src kinases, PLC?, PI3 kinase) implicated in lymphomagenesis, proliferation and protection against apoptosis. Specific ALK inhibitors are currently in clinical evaluation. Lastly several lymphomas are associated with infectious agents that play a direct (EB virus, HTLV1) or indirect role (e.g. Helicobacter pylori in MALT lymphoma) in lymphomagenesis. PMID:21084243
Yolk steroid hormones have been documented to have growth and behavior effects on hatchlings in several avian species. The purpose of these investigations was to determine initial levels of androstenedione (A), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E(2)), and testosterone (T), and document any changes in those hormones during the course of embryonic development in the Leghorn chicken, Gallus domesticus. Eggs were collected, labeled for hen of origin and egg sequence, incubated at 37.8 degrees C, and sacrificed at predetermined times during development. The embryos were staged, the yolk material collected, homogenized and hormones extracted. A, DHT, E(2), and T were separated via column chromatography and hormone levels determined using radioimmunoassays (RIAs). Results indicate a significant decrease in A and T during embryonic development, similar to that reported by our laboratory for the alligator, with A levels being significantly greater initially than levels of all other hormones. Changes in DHT mirrored changes in T levels. Chicken E(2) yolk content dynamics differ from those we have measured in both the turtle and the alligator. After an initial decline, E(2) in the yolks of chicken eggs undergoes a significant increase at the end of development, between embryonic stages 40 and 45 (days 14 and 20 of development). As the increase is much larger than could be accounted for by hormones present in the yolk material, this may represent early embryonic production of steroid hormones by the developing gonads. PMID:12410608
As a group, people with the sex chromosome aneuploidy 49,XXXXY have characteristic physical and cognitive/behavioral tendencies, although there is high individual variation. In this study we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain morphometry in 14 youth with 49,XXXXY compared to 42 age-matched healthy controls. Total brain size was significantly smaller (t = 9.0, p < .001), and rates of brain abnormalities such as colpocephaly, plagiocephaly, periventricular cysts, and minor craniofacial abnormalities were significantly increased. White matter lesions were identified in 50% of subjects, supporting the inclusion of 49,XXXXY in the differential diagnosis of small multifocal white matter lesions. Further evidence of abnormaldevelopment of white matter was provided by the smaller cross sectional area of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that increased dosage of genes on the X chromosome has adverse effects on white matter development.
Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Baker, Eva H.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wade, Benjamin; Clasen, Liv S.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.
Measurement of tissue spin lattice relaxation time (T1) has been used to characterize brain development in healthy children. Here we report the first study of brain T1 in young children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The T1 in 10 tissue samples was measured by established techniques; 46 SCD patients under the age of 4 years were compared to 267 controls,
R. Grant Steen; Michael Hunte; Elfreides Traipe; Peter Hurh; Shengjie Wu; Larissa Bilaniuk; John Haselgrove
Phenotype analysis of female mice lacking androgen receptor (AR) deficient (AR?/?) indicates that the development of mammary glands is retarded with reduced ductal branching in the prepubertal stages, and fewer Cap cells in the terminal end buds, as well as decreased lobuloalveolar development in adult females, and fewer milk-producing alveoli in the lactating glands. The defective development of AR?/? mammary glands involves the defects of insulin-like growth factor I–insulin-like growth factor I receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signals as well as estrogen receptor (ER) activity. Similar growth retardation and defects in growth factor–mediated Ras/Raf/MAPK cascade and ER signaling are also found in AR?/? MCF7 breast cancer cells. The restoration assays show that AR NH2-terminal/DNA-binding domain, but not the ligand-binding domain, is essential for normal MAPK function in MCF7 cells, and an AR mutant (R608K), found in male breast cancer, is associated with the excessive activation of MAPK. Together, our data provide the first in vivo evidence showing that AR-mediated MAPK and ER activation may play important roles for mammary gland development and MCF7 breast cancer cell proliferation.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common pulmonary morbidity in preterm infants and is associated with chronic hypoxia. Animal studies have demonstrated structural, neurochemical and functional alterations due to chronic hypoxia in the developing brain. Long-term impairments in visual-motor, gross and fine motor, articulation, reading,…
Raman, Lakshmi; Georgieff, Michael K.; Rao, Raghavendra
|Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common pulmonary morbidity in preterm infants and is associated with chronic hypoxia. Animal studies have demonstrated structural, neurochemical and functional alterations due to chronic hypoxia in the developing brain. Long-term impairments in visual-motor, gross and fine motor, articulation, reading,…
Raman, Lakshmi; Georgieff, Michael K.; Rao, Raghavendra
Background Prior studies on the course of alcohol use disorders have reported a “telescoping” effect with women progressing from drinking initiation to alcohol dependence faster than men. However, there is a paucity of population-based analyses that have examined progression to alcohol dependence comparing race/ethnicity subgroups, and little is known about whether the telescoping effect for women varies by race/ethnicity. We examined whether a telescoping effect is present in the general population comparing race/ethnicity subgroups and comparing men and women stratified by race. Methods This study uses data from Wave I of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to compare a nationally representative sample of White, Black and Hispanic adults 18–44 years of age (n = 21,106). Time to event analyses compare the risk of alcohol initiation, onset of alcohol dependence, and the transition from initial use to onset of alcohol dependence in the three race/ethnicity groups and for males and females in each race/ethnicity group. Results Whites were younger than Blacks and Hispanics of the same sex at drinking onset and progressed to alcohol dependence at a faster rate than both Blacks and Hispanics. In addition, we found no evidence of a telescoping effect in women for any race/ethnicity group. Conclusions The present study illustrates differences in the course of transition from alcohol initiation to the development of dependence by race/ethnicity but not sex. Our findings highlight the need for additional study of factors resulting in race/ethnicity differences in order to inform culturally relevant prevention and intervention initiatives.
Storr, Carla L.; La Flair, Lareina; Green, Kerry M.; Wagner, Fernando A.; Crum, Rosa M.
Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. Abnormally shaped teeth can result from many different conditions. Specific diseases can have a profound effect ...
... ocular problem. What are some of the ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Eye misalignment: Sometimes when ... asymmetry. What are some of the non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the ...
Provisional estimates from the 2001 census of India, which showed unusually high sex ratios for young children, have sparked renewed concern about the growing use of sex-selective abortions to satisfy parental preferences for sons. According to the 1998-99 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2), in recent years the sex ratio at birth in India has been abnormally high (107-121 males per
Inherited disorders of sexual development are important to identify as a cause of inherited infertility or sterility in humans and animals. Investigation of these disorders in dogs and cats can identify new mutations, allowing us to eliminate inherited disorders from breeding populations, while contributing to the understanding of mammalian sexual development and differentiation. This review updates an overview of normal mammalian sexual development while discussing disorders of sexual development at three consecutive levels, as errors in sex chromosome constitution, gonadal sex determination or phenotypic sexual development. The molecular mechanisms controlling sexual development and current molecular methods to identify causative mutations are illustrated in three specific examples of abnormal sexual development reported in small animals: XX sex reversal, Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome and cryptorchidism. Identification of causative mutations and development of practical tests to identify carrier and affected animals will provide effective mechanisms to reduce the prevalence of these disorders in small animals. PMID:19754534
The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) plays an important age- and sex-specific role in control of clonic seizures. Its involvement in control of tonic-clonic seizures is contradictory. We investigated the role of the SNR in the tonic-clonic seizures induced in male, female and neonatally castrated male rats using flurothyl. In adult female rats, vaginal impedance determined the changes in progesterone/estrogen ratio. Rats at various postnatal ages received infusions of muscimol or vehicle in the SNRanterior or SNRposterior. Furthermore, in 15-day-old (P15) and adult male rats, ZAPA (a GABA(A) receptor agonist) or AP7 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) was infused. The developmental profile of tonic-clonic seizure threshold differed between male and female rats possibly due to early postnatal testosterone surge in male rats. On the other hand, changing estrogen/progesterone ratio in cycling adult female rats had no effect on seizure threshold. Intranigral muscimol had proconvulsant effects on tonic-clonic seizures only in immature rats, and this effect was dependent on the perinatal testosterone surge. ZAPA had anticonvulsant effects in P15 rats but was not effective in adult rats. Only AP7 had anticonvulsant effects in both adult and P15 rats. Results indicate that thresholds for flurothyl-induced tonic-clonic seizures develop under the control of postnatal testosterone. Although GABAergic inhibition in the SNR affects tonic-clonic seizures in developing rats, only the NMDA antagonist had consistent anticonvulsant effects throughout development. PMID:16730708
Velísek, Libor; Velísková, Jana; Giorgi, Filippo S; Moshé, Solomon L
|Young people's participation in sexual risk behaviours is commonly linked with participation in a range of other risky behaviours, and in particular with substance use behaviours. This cross-sectional analysis of the sixth sweep of the Belfast Youth Development Study aimed to examine associations between substance use and sexual activity and…
McAloney, Kareena; McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew
This paper describes some of the activities of the Women's Action Alliance, a technical assistance organization designed to establish a teacher/parent consciousness raising program, and to develop an early childhood nonsexist curriculum program. Included is a list of a variety of nonsexist instructional materials (children's toys, pictures,…
A female French bulldog was presented with an enlarged clitoris. Abdominal surgery revealed a normal uterus and gonads resembling testes. Histologically, the gonads contained seminiferous tubules. The karyotype was XX, and the SRY gene was not detected. A diagnosis of XX male, SRY negative disorder of sexual development was made.
Silversides, David W.; Benoit, Jean-Marc; Collard, Fabien; Gilson, Catherine
The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after
Hyun-Na Koo; Seung-Hwan Yun; Changmann Yoon; Gil-Hah Kim
THE int-1 proto-oncogene was first identified as a gene activated in virally induced mouse mammary tumours1,2. Expression studies, however, suggest that the normal function of this gene may be in spermatogenesis and in the development of the central nervous system3-5. Genes sharing sequence similarity with int-1 have been found throughout the animal kingdom. For example, int-1 has 54% amino-acid identity
|According to the National Association of Single-Sex Public Education (NASSPE, 2010), an increase of 540 public schools offering single-sex classrooms in the United States has occurred since 2001. Educators who understand the gender differences between boys and girls can inspire students to learn to the best of their ability; however, the problem…
Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD.
Although the pubertal surge of estrogen is the immediate stimulus to mammary development, the action of estrogen depends upon\\u000a the presence of pituitary growth hormone and the ability of GH to stimulate production of IGF-I in the mammary gland. Growth\\u000a hormone binds to its receptor in the mammary fat pad, after which production of IGF-I mRNA and IGF-I protein occurs.
Sepsis/endotoxemia causes platelet dysfunctions, abnormalities in coagulation and hemostatic mechanisms leading to organ dysfunctions and mortality. Choline prevents organ injury and improves survival during endotoxemia. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of choline or cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on endotoxin-induced activation of coagulation and development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Dogs were treated intravenously (i.v.) with saline, choline (20 mg/kg), or CDP-choline (70 mg/kg) three times with 4-h intervals starting 5 min before i.v. injection of endotoxin (1 mg/kg). Platelet counts and functions, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, coagulation factors, D-dimer and antithrombin (AT) were measured before and at 0.5-96 h after endotoxin. Circulating platelet, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and AT were decreased, whereas PT and aPTT were prolonged and serum D-dimer levels were elevated after endotoxin. Endotoxin-induced reductions in platelet counts and functions, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and AT were attenuated or blocked by choline or CDP-choline. Choline or CDP-choline blocked endotoxin-induced prolongation in PT and aPTT and enhancement in D-dimer. Elevated DIC scores were attenuated by choline and blocked by CDP-choline. Choline administration increased serum choline concentrations and caused bradycardia. Choline also increased choline and acetylcholine contents of circulating mononuclear cells and inhibited radioligand binding to their cholinergic receptors. These data show that choline administration, as choline chloride or CDP-choline, restores the abnormalities in the primary, secondary, and tertiary hemostasis and prevents the development of DIC during experimental endotoxemia in dogs probably by increasing both neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic activity. PMID:20410813
Nolz-1, as a murine member of the NET zinc-finger protein family, is expressed in post-mitotic differentiating neurons of striatum during development. To explore the function of Nolz-1 in regulating the neurogenesis of forebrain, we studied the effects of ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors. We generated the Cre-loxP dependent conditional transgenic mice in which Nolz-1 was ectopically expressed in proliferative neural progenitors. Ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors by intercrossing the Nolz-1 conditional transgenic mice with the nestin-Cre mice resulted in hypoplasia of telencephalon in double transgenic mice. Decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells were found in the telencephalon, as evidenced by the reduction of BrdU-, Ki67- and phospho-histone 3-positive cells in E11.5-12.5 germinal zone of telencephalon. Transgenic Nolz-1 also promoted cell cycle exit and as a consequence might facilitate premature differentiation of progenitors, because TuJ1-positive neurons were ectopically found in the ventricular zone and there was a general increase of TuJ1 immunoreactivity in the telencephalon. Moreover, clusters of strong TuJ1-expressing neurons were present in E12.5 germinal zone. Some of these strong TuJ1-positive clusters, however, contained apoptotic condensed DNA, suggesting that inappropriate premature differentiation may lead to abnormal apoptosis in some progenitor cells. Consistent with the transgenic mouse analysis in vivo, similar effects of Nozl-1 over-expression in induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of neuronal differentiation were also observed in three different N18, ST14A and N2A neural cell lines in vitro. Taken together, our study indicates that ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors promotes cell cycle exit/premature neuronal differentiation and induces abnormal apoptosis in the developing telencephalon. PMID:24073229
Nolz-1, as a murine member of the NET zinc-finger protein family, is expressed in post-mitotic differentiating neurons of striatum during development. To explore the function of Nolz-1 in regulating the neurogenesis of forebrain, we studied the effects of ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors. We generated the Cre-loxP dependent conditional transgenic mice in which Nolz-1 was ectopically expressed in proliferative neural progenitors. Ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors by intercrossing the Nolz-1 conditional transgenic mice with the nestin-Cre mice resulted in hypoplasia of telencephalon in double transgenic mice. Decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells were found in the telencephalon, as evidenced by the reduction of BrdU?, Ki67? and phospho-histone 3-positive cells in E11.5–12.5 germinal zone of telencephalon. Transgenic Nolz-1 also promoted cell cycle exit and as a consequence might facilitate premature differentiation of progenitors, because TuJ1-positive neurons were ectopically found in the ventricular zone and there was a general increase of TuJ1 immunoreactivity in the telencephalon. Moreover, clusters of strong TuJ1-expressing neurons were present in E12.5 germinal zone. Some of these strong TuJ1-positive clusters, however, contained apoptotic condensed DNA, suggesting that inappropriate premature differentiation may lead to abnormal apoptosis in some progenitor cells. Consistent with the transgenic mouse analysis in vivo, similar effects of Nozl-1 over-expression in induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of neuronal differentiation were also observed in three different N18, ST14A and N2A neural cell lines in vitro. Taken together, our study indicates that ectopic expression of Nolz-1 in neural progenitors promotes cell cycle exit/premature neuronal differentiation and induces abnormal apoptosis in the developing telencephalon.
Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) complexes participate in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, transcription, signal transduction and development. Serving as the scaffold protein, cullins are crucial for the assembly of ligase complexes, which recognize and target various substrates for proteosomal degradation. Mutations in human CUL4B, one of the eight members in cullin family, are one of the major causes of X-linked mental retardation. We here report the generation and characterization of Cul4b knockout mice, in which exons 3 to 5 were deleted. In contrast to the survival to adulthood of human hemizygous males with CUL4B null mutation, Cul4b null mouse embryos show severe developmental arrest and usually die before embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5). Accumulation of cyclin E, a CRL (CUL4B) substrate, was observed in Cul4b null embryos. Cul4b heterozygotes were recovered at a reduced ratio and exhibited a severe developmental delay. The placentas in Cul4b heterozygotes were disorganized and were impaired in vascularization, which may contribute to the developmental delay. As in human CUL4B heterozygotes, Cul4b null cells were selected against in Cul4b heterozygotes, leading to various degrees of skewed X-inactivation in different tissues. Together, our results showed that CUL4B is indispensable for embryonic development in the mouse.
This editorial reviews 2 studies, the William Marsiglio and Frank Mott study, and the Deborah Dawson study. Both studies examine the relationship of sex education to sexual initiation, contraceptive usage and pregnancy among teenagers. Though the studies lack certain data, both suggest that sex education as it is taught now has little if any effect on the decision of young people to begin sex. Half of teenagers who become sexually active do not take a sex education course before starting intercourse. Dawson finds that young women who have had formal instruction about contraception are more likely to have used a method, and those who have had instruction prior to 1st intercourse are more likely to use effective methods than those who have never taken a course. Both researchers find that having taken a course is the only variable that is a significant predictor of effective contraceptive use. Neither study finds a statistically significant impact of sex education on subsequent premarital pregnancy, although the direction of the findings in both studies is negative, i.e., teenagers who have had sex education are less likely to later become premaritally pregnant. Because of the gross underreporting of abortions in both studies, pregnancies are considerably underestimated. The 2 studies differ in significant ways. 1 analysis is cross-sectional; the other is longitudinal. 1 study asks about "formal instruction" on specific topics in various settings and the other about "a course relating to sex education." The sex education topics identified are overlapping but not identical. Other research than that cited here provides some idea about what kinds of programs and policies make a difference as far as teenage pregnancy is concerned. A study of 37 developed countries has found that a greater openness about sex-related matters in the society is correlated with low levels of teenage pregnancy. If 1 goal of sex education is to prevent unplanned adolescent pregnancies, then it is necessary to evaluate schools that offer programs that have such a stated goal (most do not) and compare them with schools that do have such programs. Marsiglio and Mott maintain that nothing the schools do will "substantially alter teenage sexual behavior...until the American public resolves its ambivalence over what sex education in the schools should and should not do." PMID:3792527
|This article uses findings from several previous studies to define the kinds of sex stereotyping present in our society. The author considers sex roles as dealt with in children's literature, public schools, advertising, and vocational counseling. He describes, in particular, the situation at an unnamed state university, and cites the woman's…
This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…
|Notes that no single theory of psychotherapy dominates the field of sex therapy. On one hand, sex therapy is not subject to the rigid dogmas of many areas of psychotherapy. But on the other hand, many techniques are invented at the whim of clinicians with no basis in theory. (Author/AM)|
People have always attempted to influence the sex of their children. Until recently, prenatal screening followed by abortion of the undesired fetus was the only effective method, and most people who used that method did it to avoid the birth of girls. Today, preconception sex selection is becoming available, and people in the West are more likely to want to
Disorders of Sexual Development (DSDs) are a group of rare to very rare congenital anomalies of the genito-urinary tract of genetic and endocrine causes. Recently, an international database I-DSD was successfully implemented to register patients with DSD and to provide the basis for epidemiologic, genetic, and clinical research. This tool needs to be adjusted and supplemented with additional modules in order to better assess the anatomical basis of DSD as well as to monitor risk factors such as gonadal histology. A proposal for the additional information to be obtained is discussed. PMID:23059375
Hiort, Olaf; Wünsch, Lutz; Cools, Martine; Looijenga, Leendert; Cuckow, Peter
Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder leading to expansion of the cerebral ventricles and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most neonatal cases are of unknown etiology and are likely to display complex inheritance involving multiple genes and environmental factors. Identifying molecular mechanisms for neonatal hydrocephalus and developing non-invasive treatment modalities are high priorities. Here we employ a hydrocephalic mouse model of the human ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) and identify a role for neural progenitors in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus. We found that hydrocephalus in this mouse model is caused by aberrant PDGFR? signaling, resulting in increased apoptosis and impaired proliferation of NG2+PDGFR?+ neural progenitors. Targeting this pathway with lithium treatment rescued NG2+PDGFR?+ progenitor cell proliferation in BBS mutant mice, reducing ventricular volume. Our findings demonstrate that neural progenitors are critical in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus and we identify novel therapeutic targets for this common neurological disorder.
Carter, Calvin S.; Vogel, Timothy W.; Zhang, Qihong; Seo, Seongjin; Swiderski, Ruth E.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Cassell, Martin D.; Thedens, Daniel R.; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Nishimura, Darryl Y.; Searby, Charles C.; Bugge, Kevin; Sheffield, Val C.
Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen dysplasia (DMC) and Smith-McCort dysplasia (SMC) are similar, rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasias. The radiographic features and cartilage histology in DMC and SMC are identical. However, patients with DMC exhibit significant developmental delay and mental retardation, the major features that distinguish the two conditions. Linkage studies localized the SMC and DMC disease genes to chromosome 18q12-21.1, providing evidence suggesting that they are allelic disorders. Sequence analysis of the coding exons of the FLJ90130 gene, a highly evolutionarily conserved gene within the recombination interval defined in the linkage study, identified mutations in SMC and DMC patients. The affected individuals in two consanguinous DMC families were homozygous for a stop codon mutation and a frameshift mutation, respectively, demonstrating that DMC represents the FLJ90130-null phenotype. The data confirm the hypothesis that SMC and DMC are allelic disorders and identify a gene necessary for normal skeletal development and brain function. PMID:12491225
Cohn, Daniel H; Ehtesham, Nadia; Krakow, Deborah; Unger, Sheila; Shanske, Alan; Reinker, Kent; Powell, Berkley R; Rimoin, David L
Although antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more common among males and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more common among females, some (e.g., Paris, 1997) have suggested that the two disorders reflect multifinal outcomes of a single etiology. This assertion is based on several overlapping symptoms and features, including trait impulsivity, emotional lability, high rates of depression and suicide, and a high likelihood of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Furthermore, rates of ASPD are elevated in the first degree relatives of those with BPD, and concurrent comorbidity rates for the two disorders are high. In this article, we present a common model of antisocial and borderline personality development. We begin by reviewing issues and problems with diagnosing and studying personality disorders in children and adolescents. Next, we discuss dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms of trait impulsivity as predisposing vulnerabilities to ASPD and BPD. Finally, we extend shared risk models for ASPD and BPD by specifying genetic loci that may confer differential vulnerability to impulsive aggression and mood dysregulation among males and impulsive self-injury and mood dysregulation among females. Although the precise mechanisms of these sex-moderated genetic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood, they appear to interact with environmental risk factors including adverse rearing environments to potentiate the development of ASPD and BPD.
Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Klein, Daniel N.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Derbidge, Christina; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa
In this paper we describe a custody case that centred on allegations of child sexual abuse. A pair of preschool-aged sisters accused their biological father of various sexual acts, though their allegations were made under problematic conditions and were contradicted by other statements they made. In an affidavit written by one of us (MB), we describe the relevant memory development research in the course of presenting the court with a scientific analysis. We find compelling evidence of multiple risk factors in the way the daughters' recollections were elicited. Although the "ultimate question" of guilt is beyond our purview, our identification of risks was instrumental in the legal system's decision that the children's allegations were not valid. We put this analysis forward as an example of evidence-based testimony in which scientific findings from the memory literature can be used to frame an expert's analysis. PMID:23437847
Existing outcomes for DSD individuals are inadequate because reports are based upon information collected retrospectively. This paper is presented to review existing data emphasizing information needed to lead to better future care, is based on presentations and discussions at a multi-disciplinary meeting on DSD held in Annecy in 2012, and is not intended to define the present status of management of each of the various DSD diagnoses. Rather it is intended to provide information needed to do studies regarding outcome data from the treatment of children with DSD by providing a summary of recommendations of 'patient-centered' topics that need investigation. The hope is that by being concerned with what is not known, new protocols will be developed for improving both early management and transition to adult life. PMID:23182771
Dysregulation of the transcription factor CRTC1 by a t(11;19) chromosomal rearrangement mediates the formation of mucoepidermoid salivary gland carcinoma (MEC). Although the Crtc1 promoter is consistently active in fusion-positive MEC and low levels of Crtc1 transcripts have been reported in normal adult salivary glands, the distribution of CRTC1 protein in the normal salivary gland is not known. The aim of this study was to determine if CRTC1, like many known oncogenes, is expressed during early submandibular salivary gland (SMG) development and re-expressed in an experimental tumor model. Our results indicate that CRTC1 protein is expressed in SMG epithelia during early stages of morphogenesis, disappears with differentiation, and reappears in initial tumor-like pathology. This stage-dependent expression pattern suggests that CRTC1 may play a role during embryonic SMG branching morphogenesis but not for pro-acinar/acinar differentiation, supporting a precursor cell origin for MEC tumorigenesis. Moreover, the coincident expression of CRTC1 protein and cell proliferation markers in tumor-like histopathology suggests that CRTC1-mediated cell proliferation may contribute, in part, to initial tumor formation.
Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder that leads to expansion of the cerebral ventricles and is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Most neonatal cases are of unknown etiology and are likely to have complex inheritance involving multiple genes and environmental factors. Identifying molecular mechanisms for neonatal hydrocephalus and developing noninvasive treatment modalities are high priorities. Here we use a hydrocephalic mouse model of the human ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) and identify a role for neural progenitors in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus. We found that hydrocephalus in this mouse model is caused by aberrant platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR-?) signaling, resulting in increased apoptosis and impaired proliferation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (also known as neuron-glial antigen 2 or NG2)(+)PDGFR-?(+) neural progenitors. Targeting this pathway with lithium treatment rescued NG2(+)PDGFR-?(+) progenitor cell proliferation in BBS mutant mice, reducing their ventricular volume. Our findings demonstrate that neural progenitors are crucial in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus, and we identify new therapeutic targets for this common neurological disorder. PMID:23160237
Carter, Calvin S; Vogel, Timothy W; Zhang, Qihong; Seo, Seongjin; Swiderski, Ruth E; Moninger, Thomas O; Cassell, Martin D; Thedens, Daniel R; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Nopoulos, Peggy; Nishimura, Darryl Y; Searby, Charles C; Bugge, Kevin; Sheffield, Val C
We compared standard (0.6 mg/h) versus low-dose (0.05 mg/h) transdermal nitroglycerin (TGTN) on acute hemodynamic parameters, the development of tolerance, and endothelial function. Study 1 randomized six healthy volunteers to receive 0.6 mg/h or 0.05 mg/h TGTN in a crossover design study (6-day washout period) with measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, radial artery waveforms, and aortic augmentation index taken at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 hours after initial TGTN application. Study 2 enrolled 24 healthy volunteers to receive 400 ?g of sublingual nitroglycerin spray followed by 400 ?g of inhaled salbutamol 90 minutes later. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, radial artery waveforms as well as aortic augmentation index were taken at baseline and at 5, 10, and 20 minutes after each treatment. They were randomized to either 0.6 mg/h or 0.05 mg/h of TGTN, and the same measurements were repeated after 6 days. In Study 1, there was no significant difference in the response to both doses (analysis of variance, P < 0.05). In Study 2, the decrease in aortic augmentation index in response to sublingual nitroglycerin and salbutamol was attenuated after sustained therapy with 0.6 mg/h of TGTN (versus 0.05 mg/h, P < 0.05). This investigation documents that 0.05 mg/h TGTN has identical acute hemodynamic effects compared with 0.6-mg/h dose without causing tolerance or endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20588187
Uxa, Amar; Thomas, George R; Gori, Tommaso; Parker, John D
Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1, officially NR5A1) is a nuclear receptor involved in adrenal and gonadal development. NR5A1 mutations have been identified in patients with various forms of 46,XY disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD), including complete gonadal dysgenesis with or without adrenal insufficiency, mild testicular dysgenesis with ambiguous external genitalia or female external genitalia with clitoromegaly, and penoscrotal hypospadias. We developed
M. Barbaro; M. Cools; L. H. J. Looijenga; S. L. S. Drop; A. Wedell
Many individuals born with genital ambiguity and related conditions (recently recategorized as disorders of sexdevelopment [DSD]) experience gender uncertainty or gender dysphoria, and some may undergo self-initiated gender change. Whether these phenomena are sufficiently similar to the presentations of gender identity variants (GIVs) in non-DSD persons (gender identity disorder [GID] in current psychiatric terminology) to warrant the application of
Background: Late presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a 46,XX disorder of sexdevelopment due to 11-? hydroxylase deficiency is uncommon. Such a case raises issues regarding appropriate investigation and management. Case History: A 5-year-old boy who had recently moved to the United Kingdom presented at the endocrinology clinic with recurrent abdominal pain. He was normotensive and had a history
L. S. Keir; S. O’Toole; A. L. Robertson; A. M. Wallace; S. F. Ahmed
Background: Although a karyotype represents the first objective evidence of investigating a case of suspected disorder of sexdevelopment (DSD), the factors that influence the clinician’s decision to initiate investigations are unclear. Methods: Cases of suspected DSD in Scotland were identified through the Scottish Genital Anomaly Network (SGAN) Register. The timing as well as other factors that influence the decision
M. Rodie; R. McGowan; A. Mayo; P. Midgley; C. P. Driver; M. Kinney; D. Young; S. F. Ahmed
|Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more than half of all new HIV infections in the United States. Utilizing a collaborative, community-based approach, a brief risk reduction intervention was developed and pilot tested among newly HIV-diagnosed MSM receiving HIV care in a primary care setting. Sixty-five men, within 3 months of diagnosis,…
Investigations of humans with disorders of sexdevelopment (DSDs) resulted in the discovery of many of the now-known mammalian sex-determining genes, including SRY, RSPO1, SOX9, NR5A1, WT1, NR0B1, and WNT4. Here, the locus for an autosomal sex-determining gene was mapped via linkage analysis in two families with 46,XY DSD to the long arm of chromosome 5 with a combined, multipoint parametric LOD score of 6.21. A splice-acceptor mutation (c.634-8T>A) in MAP3K1 segregated with the phenotype in the first family and disrupted RNA splicing. Mutations were demonstrated in the second family (p.Gly616Arg) and in two of 11 sporadic cases (p.Leu189Pro, p.Leu189Arg)—18% prevalence in this cohort of sporadic cases. In cultured primary lymphoblastoid cells from family 1 and the two sporadic cases, these mutations altered the phosphorylation of the downstream targets, p38 and ERK1/2, and enhanced binding of RHOA to the MAP3K1 complex. Map3k1 within the syntenic region was expressed in the embryonic mouse gonad prior to, and after, sex determination. Thus, mutations in MAP3K1 that result in 46,XY DSD with partial or complete gonadal dysgenesis implicate this pathway in normal human sex determination.
The Caenorhabditis elegans gene gld-1 is essential for oocyte development; in gld-1 (null) hermaphrodites, a tumor forms where oogenesis would normally occur. We use genetic epistasis analysis to demonstrate that tumor formation is dependent on the sexual fate of the germline. When the germline sex determination pathway is set in the female mode (terminal fem/fog genes inactive), gld-1 (null) germ cells exit meiotic prophase and proliferate to form a tumor, but when the pathway is et in the male mode, they develop into sperm. We conclude that the gld-1 (null) phenotype is cell-type specific and that gld-1(+) acts at the end of the cascade to direct oogenesis. We also use cell ablation and epistasis analysis to examine the dependence of tumor formation on the glp-1 signaling pathway. Although glp-1 activity promotes tumor growth, it is not essential for tumor formation by gld-1 (null) germ cells. These data also reveal that gld-1(+) plays a nonessential (and sex nonspecific) role in regulating germ cell proliferation before their entry into meiosis. Thus gld-1(+) may negatively regulate proliferation at two distinct points in germ cell development: before entry into meiotic prophase in both sexes (nonessential premeiotic gld-1 function) and during meiotic prophase when the sex determination pathway is set in the female mode (essential meiotic gld-1 function). 46 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.
Francis, R.; Schedl, T. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Maine, E. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)
In contrast to disorders of sexual differentiation caused by lack of androgen production or inhibited androgen action, defects affecting development of the bipotent genital anlagen have rarely been investigated in humans. We have previously documented that the transcription factor FOXF2 is highly expressed in human foreskin. Moreover, Foxf2 knockout mice present with cleft palate in combination with hypoplasia of the genital tubercle. We hypothesized that humans with disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD) in combination with cleft palate could have mutations in the FOXF2 gene. Eighteen children with DSD and cleft palate were identified in the Lübeck DSD database (about 1,500 entries). Genomic DNA sequence analysis of the FOXF2 gene was performed and compared with 10 normal female and 10 normal male controls, respectively. Two heterozygous DNA sequence variations were solely present in one single patient each but in none of the 20 normal controls: a duplication of GCC (c.97GCC+) resulting in an extra alanine within exon 1 and a 25?G>A substitution in the 3?-untranslated region. Two patients carried a c.262G>A sequence variation predicting for an Ala88Thr exchange which was also detected in 2 normal controls. Two silent mutations, c.1272C>T (Ser424Ser) and c.1284T>C (Tyr428Tyr), respectively, occurred in the coding region of exon 2, again in both patients and normal controls. In conclusion, the majority of the detected sequence alterations were polymorphisms without obvious functional relevance. However, it cannot be excluded that the 2 unique DNA sequence alterations could have affected FOXF2 on the mRNA or protein level thus contributing to the observed disturbances in genital and palate development.
Recurrent apneas are important causes of hospitalization and morbidity in newborns. Gestational stress (GS) compromises fetal brain development. Maternal stress and anxiety during gestation are linked to respiratory disorders in newborns; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that repeated activation of the neuroendocrine response to stress during gestation is sufficient to disrupt the development of respiratory control and augment the occurrence of apneas in newborn rats. Pregnant dams were displaced and exposed to predator odor from days 9 to 19 of gestation. Control dams were undisturbed. Experiments were performed on male and female rats aged between 0 and 4 d old. Apnea frequency decreased with age but was consistently higher in stressed pups than controls. At day 4, GS augmented the proportion of apneas with O(2) desaturations by 12%. During acute hypoxia (12% O(2)), the reflexive increase in breathing augmented with age; however, this response was lower in stressed pups. Instability of respiratory rhythm recorded from medullary preparations decreased with age but was higher in stressed pups than controls. GS reduced medullary serotonin (5-HT) levels in newborn pups by 32%. Bath application of 5-HT and injection of 8-OH-DPAT [(±)-8-hydroxy-2-di-(n-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide; 5-HT(1A) agonist; in vivo] reduced respiratory instability and apneas; these effects were greater in stressed pups than controls. Sex-specific effects were observed. We conclude that activation of the stress response during gestation is sufficient to disrupt respiratory control development and promote pathological apneas in newborn rats. A deficit in medullary 5-HT contributes to these effects. PMID:23303936
Sexual reproduction is a salient aspect of plants, and elaborate structures, such as the flowers of angiosperms, have evolved that aid in this process. Within the flower the corresponding sex organs, the anther and the ovule, form the male and female sporangia, the pollen sac and the nucellus, respectively. However, despite their central role for sexual reproduction little is known about the mechanisms that control the establishment of these important structures. Here we present the identification and molecular characterization of the NOZZLE (NZZ) gene in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In several nzz mutants the nucellus and the pollen sac fail to form. It indicates that NZZ plays an early and central role in the development of both types of sporangia and that the mechanisms controlling these processes share a crucial factor. In addition, NZZ may have an early function during male and female sporogenesis as well. The evolutionary aspects of these findings are discussed. NZZ encodes a putative protein of unknown function. However, based on sequence analysis we speculate that NZZ is a nuclear protein and possibly a transcription factor.
Sexually mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) of both sexes were exposed to two doses (100 and 1000?g\\/l) of the widely used herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) for a period of 21 days and effects on the concentrations of gonad and plasma sex steroids (testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)), plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and gonad histo-morphology assessed. Atrazine did not show any obvious
Laura Spanò; Charles R. Tyler; Ronny van Aerle; Pierre Devos; S. N. M. Mandiki; Frédéric Silvestre; Jean-Pierre Thomé; Patrick Kestemont
Since a long time, sex preselection has been a goal of the dairy and meat industry to increase the rate of response to selection,\\u000a to reduce the cost of progeny testing for elite males and to produce desired specialized and genetically superior offsprings.\\u000a Over the past 10 years, the technology has been further developed and proven effective for sex preselection
R. Renaville; V. Haezebroeck; I. Parmentier; M. Pirard; S. Fontaine; D. Portetelle
Sexually active teenagers are at increased risk of developing cervical abnormalities. It is therefore important to screen them with an annual Pap smear. The techniques of this test are reviewed, as are the importance of sexually transmitted diseases in the development of cytologic abnormalities, the pathophysiology of virus-induced changes, and the terminology of reporting.
There are many diseases that humans can contract through sexual contact with each other. Humans can lower their risk of contracting these diseases by practicing safe sex techniques if they choose to participate in those kinds of actions.
The impact of early exposure to endocrine disruptor mixtures on mammary gland development is poorly known. Here, we identify the effects of a conception to weaning exposure of rats to the phytoestrogen genistein (G) and/or the antiandrogen vinclozolin (V) at 1mg/kg-d, alone or in association. Using several approaches, we found that G- and GV-exposed rats displayed significantly greater epithelial branching and proliferation, wider terminal end buds than controls at PND35, as well as ductal hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis. Focal branching defects were present in V-exposed rats. An increased ER and AR expression was observed in G- and GV- as compared to V-exposed rats at PND35. Surprisingly, a significant number of GV- and to a lesser extent, V-exposed animals displayed abnormal hyperplasic alveolar structures at PND50. Thus, gestational and lactational exposure to low doses of genistein plus vinclozolin may seriously affect peripubertal development of the rat mammary gland. PMID:21539910
El Sheikh Saad, H; Meduri, G; Phrakonkham, P; Bergès, R; Vacher, S; Djallali, M; Auger, J; Canivenc-Lavier, M C; Perrot-Applanat, M
Immunohistochemistry was used to examine GCNA1, a germ cell specific protein, together with DMRT1, a transcription factor implicated in Sertoli cell and germ cell function, in order to resolve DMRT1’s cellular profile during pre- and postnatal gonad development in the mouse. In the indifferent gonad (10.5–11.5 dpc), DMRT1 localized to somatic cells and GCNA1+ germ cells and was indistinguishable in males and females. By 12.5 dpc, a clear sexual preference for DMRT1 in male somatic cells was observed, with male DMRT1 localized to testicular cords and more abundant in Sertoli cells than germ cells and female DMRT1 diffusely labeled and markedly lower in somatic cells than germ cells. A male somatic preference continued throughout development, with DMRT1 evident in Sertoli cells at all ages examined and absent in ovarian somatic cells from 13.5 dpc onward. In contrast, expression in primordial germ cells was not sexually distinct and both sexes showed DMRT1 increasing through 13.5 dpc and absent by 15.5 dpc. Notably, sexual differences in germ cell DMRT1 were revealed after birth, when it was detected only in spermatogonia of the testis. Co-localization of DMRT1 with proliferation markers KI67 and PCNA and stem cell markers OCT4 and NGN3 indicated that, in postnatal testes, DMRT1 was present in both stem and proliferating spermatogonia. Together, the findings implicate opposite functions for DMRT1 in somatic and germ cells of the testis. In Sertoli cells, DMRT1 expression correlated with differentiation, while in germ cells it suggested a role in expansion and maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia.
A reanalysis is reported of the wave time series recorded during Hurricane Camille having as objective the identification of individual waves that satisfy current criteria defining abnormal or freak waves. It is shown that during the hurricane development, a very nonstationary situation has occurred during which the second-order sea state parameters changed significantly with time. The parameters of the largest
The E2A gene products, E12 and E47, are critical for proper early B-cell development and commitment to the B-cell lineage. Here we reveal a new role for E2A in T-lymphocyte development. Loss of E2A activity results in a partial block at the earliest stage of T-lineage development. This early T-cell phenotype precedes the development of a T-cell lymphoma which occurs
GRETCHEN BAIN; ISAAC ENGEL; ELS C. ROBANUS MAANDAG; HEIN P. J. TE; JOSEPH R. VOLAND; LESLIE L. SHARP; JEROLD CHUN; BING HUEY; DAN PINKEL; CORNELIS MURRE
The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the Catholic Church. As in 1973, committees were formed but no action was taken. Sex education activity increased nonetheless - the first FPA document on school education prepared. In 1986 Personal and Social Education was approved by parliament providing an alternative (due to the Catholic Church) to Religious Education, but even with FPA support documents, the implementation did not begin until the end of 1990. In brief the FPA's emphasis was on the body, sexuality, sex and interpersonal relationships, and sexual reproduction. The role of FPA continues at the grass roots level in stimulating discussion; cooperating with schools, students and parents; and acting as a resource center. PMID:12343180
Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed after acute cerebrovascular events. The precise mechanism that leads to the development of these arrhythmias is still uncertain, though increasing evidence suggests that it is mainly due to autonomic nervous system dysregulation. In massive brain lesions sympathetic predominance and parasympathetic withdrawal during the first 72 h are associated with the occurrence of severe secondary complications in the first week. Right insular cortex lesions are also related with sympathetic overactivation and with a higher incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly QT prolongation, in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe prolongation of the QT interval which subsequently results in malignant arrhythmias and poor outcome. The prognostic value of repolarization changes commonly seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, such as ST segment, T wave, and U wave abnormalities, still remains controversial. In patients with traumatic brain injury both intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion correlate with low heart rate variability and increased mortality. Given that there are no firm guidelines for the prevention or treatment of the arrhythmias that appear after cerebral incidents this review aims to highlight important issues on this topic. Selected patients with the aforementioned risk factors could benefit from electrocardiographic monitoring, reassessment of the medications that prolong QTc interval, and administration of antiadrenergic agents. Further research is required in order to validate these assumptions and to establish specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:22809542
The issue of sex differences in reading disability has been of recent interest in relation to sex ratios in families with reading disabled children and to possible sex biases in referred populations. Data from a study of 570 twins are used to develop alternative definitions of reading disability that vary in the manner to which sex effects are taken into
Arginine-phenylalanine-amide (RFamide)-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3, encoded by the Rfrp gene) is the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone and can inhibit GnRH neuronal activity and LH release. However, the development and regulation of the RFRP-3 system in both sexes is poorly understood. Using in situ hybridization, we examined changes in Rfrp-expressing neurons in mice of both sexes during development and under different adulthood hormonal milieus. We found no sex differences in Rfrp expression or cell number in adult mice. Interestingly, we identified two interspersed subpopulations of Rfrp cells (high Rfrp-expressing, HE; low Rfrp-expressing, LE), which have unique developmental and steroidal regulation characteristics. The number of LE cells robustly decreases during postnatal development, whereas HE cell number increases significantly before puberty. Using Bax knockout mice, we determined that the dramatic developmental decrease in LE Rfrp cells is not due primarily to BAX-dependent apoptosis. In adults, we found that estradiol and testosterone moderately repress Rfrp expression in both HE and LE cells, whereas the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone has no effect. Using double-label in situ hybridization, we determined that approximately 25% of Rfrp neurons coexpress estrogen receptor-? in each sex, whereas Rfrp cells do not readily express androgen receptor in either sex, regardless of hormonal milieu. Lastly, when we looked at RFRP-3 receptors, we detected some coexpression of Gpr147 but no coexpression of Gpr74 in GnRH neurons of both intact and gonadectomized males and females. Thus, RFRP-3 may exert its effects on reproduction either directly, via Gpr147 in a subset of GnRH neurons, and/or indirectly, via upstream regulators of GnRH. PMID:22355072
Poling, Matthew C; Kim, Joshua; Dhamija, Sangeeta; Kauffman, Alexander S
The mechanisms controlling the formation of synaptic connections between muscle spindle afferents and spinal motor neurons are believed to be regulated by factors originating from muscle spindles. Here, we find that the connections form with appropriate specificity in mice with abnormal spindle development caused by the conditional elimination of the neuregulin 1 receptor ErbB2 from muscle precursors. However, despite a modest ( approximately 30%) decrease in the number of afferent terminals on motor neuron somata, the amplitude of afferent-evoked synaptic potentials recorded in motor neurons was reduced by approximately 80%, suggesting that many of the connections that form are functionally silent. The selective elimination of neurotrophin 3 (NT3) from muscle spindles had no effect on the amplitude of afferent-evoked ventral root potentials until the second postnatal week, revealing a late role for spindle-derived NT3 in the functional maintenance of the connections. These findings indicate that spindle-derived factors regulate the strength of the connections but not their initial formation or their specificity. PMID:19369542
Shneider, Neil A; Mentis, George Z; Schustak, Joshua; O'Donovan, Michael J
In the present paper we investigated the effect of heterologous expression of a rat liver ketohexokinase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants with the aim of investigating the role of fructose 1-phosphate in plant metabolism. Plants were generated that contained appreciable activity of ketohexokinase but did not accumulate fructose 1-phosphate. They were, however, characterised by a severe growth retardation and abnormal leaf development. Studies of (14)CO(2) assimilation and metabolism, and of the levels of photosynthetic pigments, revealed that these lines exhibited restricted photosynthesis. Despite this fact, the levels of starch and soluble sugars remained relatively constant. Analysis of intermediates of starch and sucrose biosynthesis revealed large increases in the triose phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate pools but relatively unaltered levels of inorganic phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate, and these lines were also characterised by an accumulation of glyceraldehyde. The transformants neither displayed consistent changes in the activities of Calvin cycle enzymes nor in enzymes of sucrose synthesis but displayed a metabolic profile partially reminiscent of that brought about by end-product limitation, but most likely caused by an inhibition of photosynthesis brought about by the accumulation of glyceraldehyde. Analysis of the metabolite contents in lamina and vein fractions of the leaf, and of the enzymes of carbohydrate oxidation indicate that the phloem-enriched veins of ketohexokinase-expressing leaves tend toward hypoxia and indicate a problem of phloem transport. PMID:14648118
The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.
Background The German Network of Disorders of SexDevelopment (DSD)/Intersexuality carried out a large scale clinical evaluation study on quality of life, gender identity, treatment satisfaction, coping, and problems associated with diagnoses and therapies in individuals with disorders of sexdevelopment (DSD). DSD are a heterogeneous group of various genetic disorders of sex determination or sex differentiation, all of which are rare conditions. In about half of all cases the molecular genetic diagnosis is unknown and diagnosis rests on clinical features. Methods and design The multi-centre clinical evaluation study includes short-term follow-up in some and cross-sectional assessments in all age and diagnostic groups fitting the criteria of DSD. Recruitment was from January 2005 until December 2007 in whole Germany and, additionally, in 2007 in Austria and German-speaking Switzerland. The study consists of a psychosocial inquiry for children, adolescents and their parents, and adults with standardized instruments and the collection of DSD-specific medical data by the attending physician. The main goal was the description of clinical outcomes and the health-care situation of individuals with DSD using a broad generic definition of DSD including all conditions with a mismatch of chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypical sex. 439 children and adolescents, their parents and adults with DSD participated. Discussion The clinical evaluation study represents the most comprehensive study in this clinical field. The paper discusses the study protocol, the data management and data quality as well as the classification used, and it describes the study population. Given the lack of large datasets in rare conditions such as DSD and often biased results from small scale clinical case series, the study aims to generate concrete hypotheses for evidence-based guidelines, which should be tested in further studies.
Genetic control of male or female gonad development displays between different groups of organisms a remarkable diversity of "master sex-determining genes" at the top of the genetic hierarchies, whereas downstream components surprisingly appear to be evolutionarily more conserved. Without much further studies, conservation of sequence has been equalized to conservation of function. We have used the medaka fish to investigate the generality of this paradigm. In medaka, the master male sex-determining gene is dmrt1bY, a highly conserved downstream regulator of sex determination in vertebrates. To understand its function in orchestrating the complex gene regulatory network, we have identified targets genes and regulated pathways of Dmrt1bY. Monitoring gene expression and interactions by transgenic fluorescent reporter fish lines, in vivo tissue-chromatin immunoprecipitation and in vitro gene regulation assays revealed concordance but also major discrepancies between mammals and medaka, notably amongst spatial, temporal expression patterns and regulations of the canonical Hedgehog and R-spondin/Wnt/Follistatin signaling pathways. Examination of Foxl2 protein distribution in the medaka ovary defined a new subpopulation of theca cells, where ovarian-type aromatase transcriptional regulation appears to be independent of Foxl2. In summary, these data show that the regulation of the downstream regulatory network of sex determination is less conserved than previously thought. PMID:23883523
The sex determining gene, Sry, determines the sex of the organism by initiating development of a testis rather than an ovary from the cells of the bipotential gonad. In the 10 years since the discovery of Sry, new genes and cellular pathways that operate in the establishment of the gonadal primordium and the initiation of testis development have been discovered.
The institution of renal replacement therapy has sustained the lives of many patients with end-stage renal failure and has made it possible to study in depth the metabolic abnormalities associated with the uremic state. An important consequence of chronic uremia is the development of lipid abnormalities [1, 2], which continue to affect many patients on dialysis [1, 3, 4] and
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron
Young adolescents in communities with high rates of early sexual initiation are at risk of multiple negative health outcomes. Although sex education programs for this age group are often controversial, surveys document that many mothers and fathers would appreciate guidance about how to discuss sexuality with their children. This paper presents an…
Thirty years of research on early social and hormonal environments and their relationship to the expression of behavioral sex differences in rhesus monkeys are reviewed. These studies demonstrate that whether aggressive and submissive behaviors are sexually dimorphic depends primarily on the social and not the hormonal environment. Early rearing environments without mothers or allowing brief periods of peer interaction produced
Sexual reproduction is a salient aspect of plants, and elaborate structures, such as the flowers of angiosperms, have evolved that aid in this process. Within the flower the corresponding sex organs, the anther and the ovule, form the male and female sporangia, the pollen sac and the nucellus, respectively. However, despite their central role for sexual reproduction little is known
Ursula Schiefthaler; Sureshkumar Balasubramanian; Patrick Sieber; David Chevalier; Ellen Wisman; Kay Schneitz
Interventions aimed at reducing HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been highly successful in urban areas in reducing the incidence of new cases of HIV infection. In rural areas, where the rates of infection are increasing, issues of culture, population density, isolation, and lack of access to health care services present different challenges
Deborah Bray Preston; Anthony R. D'Augelli; Richard E. Cain; Frederick W. Schulze
Interventions aimed at reducing HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been highly successful in urban areas in reducing the incidence of new cases of HIV infection. In rural areas, where the rates of infection are increasing, issues of culture, population density, isolation, and lack of access to health care services present different challenges
Deborah Bray Preston; Anthony R. D'Augelli; Richard E. Cain; Frederick W. Schulze
|Young adolescents in communities with high rates of early sexual initiation are at risk of multiple negative health outcomes. Although sex education programs for this age group are often controversial, surveys document that many mothers and fathers would appreciate guidance about how to discuss sexuality with their children. This paper presents…
Most studies of sex determination systems in plants involve dioecious annuals that have known sex chromosomes. Despite the absence of such structures in the majority of dioecious plants, gender seems to be under relatively strict genetic control in some species. Genetic markers linked to a female sex-determination locus in Salix viminalis L. have been discovered through bulked segregant analysis of three full-sib families using approximately 1,000 arbitrary primers. Two RAPD markers that were present in the common female parent as well as in predominantly female progeny of these families were subsequently sequenced and converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. The two SCAR markers are correlated with gender in the three full-sib families and are present in 96.4% of the female progeny and 2.2% of the males, providing evidence of linkage to a putative female-specific locus associated with gender determination in S. viminalis. Estimates of recombination suggest that the two markers are flanking a putative sex determination locus, SDL-II, in certain families of S. viminalis. PMID:12721232
Gunter, L E; Roberts, G T; Lee, K; Larimer, F W; Tuskan, G A
BackgroundMutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of SexDevelopment) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe evaluated the frequency of NR5A1 gene mutations in a large series of patients presenting with 46,XY DSD and hypospadias. Based on their clinical presentation 77 patients were classified either
Slimane Allali; Jean-Baptiste Muller; Raja Brauner; Diana Lourenço; Radia Boudjenah; Vasiliki Karageorgou; Christine Trivin; Henri Lottmann; Stephen Lortat-Jacob; Claire Nihoul-Fékété; Olivier de Dreuzy; Ken McElreavey; Anu Bashamboo; Joerg Gromoll
This paper adds to the literature presented at the Seoul Symposium on Sex Preference for Children in Asia by focusing on the nature, extent, reasons for, and solutions to the abnormalsex ratio at birth in China. Comparisons are made to Taiwan and the Republic of Korea, which also show evidence of the "missing girl" syndrome. Coale and Banister are cited as indicating the trend toward higher female mortality and a higher sex ratio at birth during the 1930s and 1940s in China, a decline during the 1960s and 1970s, and an increase during the 1980s. Park and Cho are cited for identifying a rise in the sex ratio at birth around 1985 in Korea, 1986 in China, and 1987 in Taiwan. Although these three locations have different social, economic, and political contexts, all share a traditional culture of son preference. Gu and Li are cited for their evidence that the distorted sex ratio at birth is a new trend that balances parental desire for sex preference and small families in countries experiencing rapid fertility decline. Within China differences reveal a lower sex ratio in city provinces. The range is from 117.4 in Guangxi and 116.7 in Zhejiang to 103.4 in Guizhou and 103.6 in Tibet. 21 of the 31 provinces have a sex ratio higher than 108.0. The sex ratio at birth in China follows an inverted U-shaped pattern in relationship to the fertility level and level of socioeconomic development. Park and Cho are cited for their evidence that the Korean sex ratio rose earlier in cities than in towns and rural areas and among traditional provinces. Analysis of the sex ratio by parity in China indicates that the ratio for parity 1 has been about normal since 1989. The ratio of parity 2 increased from normal after 1984. At higher parities the sex ratio has been high since the beginning of the 1980s. Sex ratios rise with rising parity and more recent time period. This same pattern is also evident in Taiwan and Korea. The imbalance in China in recent times is particularly evident among women having one daughter. Zeng and others are cited for their identification of sex-selective abortion. Sex-differentiated underreporting of births are viewed as responsible for the recent imbalance. The suggestion is made that rapid fertility decline, technology, and cultural setting are crucial in explaining the reasons. Consciousness-raising is viewed as the best strategy for changing abnormalsex ratios. PMID:12290692
The author has a Master of Arts degree in religion from the International School of Theology and he has lectured to thousands of students and professors at universities on six continents. He argues that condom use does not guarantee 100% protection against the transmission of HIV and that the only truly safe sex occurs in a faithful mutually monogamous relationship between two HIV-seronegative individuals. It is the author's belief that young people should wait until marriage before having sexual intercourse. It is known that condoms can slip, break, and leak during in vivo use. Condoms have a 15% failure rate in protecting against unplanned pregnancy. A sperm cell, however, is much larger than the human immunodeficiency virus. This failure rate therefore indicates that if sperm cells can penetrate/bypass the condom when having sex, the far smaller HIV can most certainly do the same thing. HIV can easily pass through many of the tiny pores in latex condoms. The author further argues that while premarital sex is physically risky, one can also be hurt emotionally and relationally. Sex can breed insecurity and generate performance fears which impede sexual response. Waiting until marriage helps both partners to have the confidence, security, trust, and self-respect which a solid, intimate relationship needs. In closing, the author acknowledges the physical and emotional difficulty of delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse. PMID:7600801
The over-expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene in certain areas of the brain indicates abnormalities in gene regulation as an important factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have reported recently that APP mRNA expression is lower in female as compared to male and is regulated by sex steroids. As methylation of promoter is crucial for such
Sleep abnormalities are common in severe emphysema, and include poor sleep quality, the development of nocturnal oxygen desaturation, and the presence of coexistent obstructive sleep apnea. With lower baseline oxygenation and abnormal respiratory mechanics in patients with severe emphysema, alterations in ventilatory control and respiratory muscle function that normally occur during sleep can have profound effects, and contribute to the development of sleep abnormalities. The impact on quality of life, cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, and overall survival remains uncertain. In addition, treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its effect on sleep abnormalities have demonstrated conflicting results. More recently, as part of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, lung volume reduction surgery has been shown to improve both sleep quality and nocturnal oxygenation in emphysema. Although indications for performing an overnight polysomnogram in patients with emphysema have been debated, recommendations have been presented. Future studies investigating disease mechanism and response to therapy in patients with sleep abnormalities and severe emphysema are warranted.
Krachman, Samuel; Minai, Omar A.; Scharf, Steven M.
This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners; and 38% reported high levels of depression. Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. PMID:20391057
Witte, Susan S; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway
Used the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory, the Sex Experience Inventory, and Kohlberg's Moral Dilemmas Questionnaire in Exp I to assess 119 unmarried college women with regard to sex behavior, sex guilt, and moral reasoning. Categories of sexual expression were developed which were useful in predicting behavior. Guilt was a better predictor of sex than morality. Maintaining virginity and losing it
J. Econ. Entomol. 95(4): 706Ð714 (2002) ABSTRACT The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identiÞed as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of
Jocelyn G. Millar; Kent M. Daane; J. Steven Mcelfresh; Jardel A. Moreira; Raksha Malakar-Kuenen; Marta Guillén; Walt J. Bentley
This study examines HIV\\/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV\\/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using
Susan S. Witte; Altantsetseg Batsukh; Mingway Chang
Members of the Cucurbitaceae family display a range of sexual phenotypes including various combinations of male, female, or\\u000a bisexual flowers. Ethylene appears to be a key hormone regulating the sex determination process. Application of ethylene,\\u000a or inhibition of ethylene action, increases or decreases the number of pistil-bearing buds, respectively. Elevated levels\\u000a of ethylene production and expression of genes for ethylene
Ekaterina Papadopoulou; Holly Ann Little; Sue Ann Hammar; Rebecca Grumet
The efficacy of various doses of an androgen mixture, containing testosterone (T), 17?-methyltestosterone (MT), and testosterone propionate (TP) in equal ratios, for induction of sex change in protogynous orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, was examined. The androgen mixture, with doses from 1 to 20,000 ?g\\/kg BW, was implanted into each fish (body weight 1.7 kg) in July (post-spawning season), and gonadal
The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its structurally related proteins are implicated in the developmental regulation of various brain neurons, including midbrain dopaminergic neurons. There are EGF and EGF receptor abnormalities in both brain tissues and blood from schizophrenic patients. We administered EGF to neonatal rats to transiently perturb endogenous EGF receptor signaling and evaluated the neurobehavioral consequences. EGF-treatment-induced transient impairment
T Futamura; A Kakita; M Tohmi; H Sotoyama; H Takahashi; H Nawa
Background Short stature is associated with several disorders including wide variations of chromosomal disorders and single gene disorders. The objective of this report is to present the cytogenetic findings in Indonesian patients with short stature. Methods G-banding and interphase/metaphase FISH were performed on short stature patients with and without other clinical features who were referred by clinicians all over Indonesia to our laboratory during the year 2003–2009. Results The results of chromosomal analysis of ninety seven patients (mean age: 10.7 years old) were collected. The group of patients with other clinical features showed sex chromosome abnormalities in 45% (18/40) and autosomal abnormalities in 10% (4/40), whereas those with short stature only, 42.1% (24/57) had sex chromosome abnormalities and 1.75% (1/57) had autosomal abnormalities. The autosomal chromosomal abnormalities involved mostly subtelomeric regions. Results discrepancies between karyotype and FISH were found in 10 patients, including detection of low-level monosomy X mosaicism in 6 patients with normal karyotype, and detection of mosaic aneuploidy chromosome 18 in 1 patient with 45,XX,rob(13;14)(q10;q10). Statistical analysis showed no significant association between the groups and the type of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusion Chromosome abnormalities account for about 50% of the short stature patients. Wide variations of both sex and autosomal chromosomes abnormalities were detected in the study. Since three out of five patients had autosomal structural abnormalities involving the subtelomeric regions, thus in the future, subtelomeric FISH or even a more sensitive method such as genomic/SNP microarray is needed to confirm deletions of subtelomeric regions of chromosome 9, 11 and 18. Low-level mosaicism in normal karyotype patients indicates interphase FISH need to be routinely carried out in short stature patients as an adjunct to karyotyping.
|Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)|
... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ... frequently asked questions about sex during pregnancy. Can sex harm my baby? No, not directly. Your baby ...
This article reviews various social influences and their effects on adolescent sex role development, including parents, peers, media, schools, race, social class and religion. The authors conclude that teens may experience sex role strain based on pressures to conform to gender expectations. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
|Discusses how conversation about AIDS affects the possibilities of developing a Christian sexual ethic. Examines how the AIDS crisis influences and directs discourse about sex and sexuality, arguing that although safe sex is a legitimate public health concern, it is not the same as a Christian sexual ethic. (GEA)|
The history of scientific sex research which emerged at the turn of the century with the exemplary work of Sigmund Freud and Havelock Ellis has been complexly interactive with changing general social conditions, specific trends in sexual conduct, the content of sexual ideologies, and the developing techniques of scientific inquiry. The earliest sex researchers, although serving to bring sexuality out
Sexually differentiated responses occur in molecular, cellular, physiologic, and organismic aspects of immune-system function in relation to acquired and innate immunities. These sex differences apparently include activational effects, which depend on gonadal hormone levels in adults, and lifelong effects, which arise directly from genetic differences or organizational effects of gonadal hormones early in development that lead to lifelong sex differences.
Sex offenders are thought to suffer from deficits in their capacity to experience empathy, and this is considered to be important in the development, and particularly the maintenance, of their deviant behaviour. The concept of empathy, however, is confused. A multicomponent staged model of empathy is outlined, and it is suggested that empathy deficits may be more person-specific than has
Background: Although a karyotype represents the first objective evidence of investigating a case of suspected disorder of sexdevelopment (DSD), the factors that influence the clinician's decision to initiate investigations are unclear. Methods: Cases of suspected DSD in Scotland were identified through the Scottish Genital Anomaly Network (SGAN) Register. The timing as well as other factors that influence the decision to perform a karyotype were subsequently studied. Results: Out of the 572 cases on the register, 383 (67%) were classified as having a non-specific disorder of under-masculinisation. In 463 (81%) cases, the sex of rearing was male, in 71 (12%) female, and in 38 (7%) cases data regarding sex of rearing were unavailable. A karyotype was reported to have been performed in 153/572 (27%) cases. Infants in Scotland with suspected DSD are more likely to have a karyotype performed in the presence of a low external masculinisation score, bilateral impalpable testes, proximal hypospadias, or associated malformations. Discussion: These data represent the first attempt at benchmarking the decision to check a karyotype and investigate infants with suspected DSD. Whilst this decision may be related to the complexity of the genital anomaly, there are other factors that may influence this decision, and these require further exploration through more rigorous systems for data collection. PMID:21474920
Rodie, M; McGowan, R; Mayo, A; Midgley, P; Driver, C P; Kinney, M; Young, D; Ahmed, S F
Objective The aim of this study was to develop a framework and best estimates of prevalence for the most at risk populations (MARPs) for HIV/AIDS to include sex workers (SW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and injecting drug users (IDUs) in order to evaluate national HIV/AIDS programmatic targets across the Republic of Serbia. Design A national, cross-sectional study and direct enumeration, multiplier and benchmark methods with integrated bio-behavioural surveys, capture/recapture and methods with Wald and Clopper-Pearson CIs were used. Setting This study was carried out in the three largest cities and main regions of Serbia, the capital city, Belgrade, (population 1?639?121 persons), the Vojvodina region with main city Novi Sad (population 335?701) and the rest of Serbia with main city Nis (population 257?867). Participants A total of 1301 respondents from the defined MARPs completed the survey in the 2009/2010 period across the three cities. Primary outcome measures Estimates of the hidden numbers at risk of HIV/AIDS. Results It was estimated that there were 1775–6027 SW between 18 and 49?years in Serbia in 2009. For MSM, national estimates for 2009 ranged from 20?789 to 90?104 individuals aged between 20 and 49?years. For IDU, a possible range of 12?682–48?083 individuals aged between 15 and 59?years in 2009 was estimated. Conclusions For service planning across Central and Eastern Europe, it is important to highlight how credible estimates can be achieved and compared with numbers within HIV/AIDS-prevention programmes. Within needle exchange programmes, only 5.4–20.5% of the estimated population was observed and this proportion was lower within methadone treatment data. Results have implications for future IDU treatment and HIV incidence and spread across all populations at risk.