Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D
Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676
Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.
Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676
Webb, W. B.
Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.
Fleming, J A
Since the 1950s, with the discovery of REM sleep and its relationship to dreaming, psychiatric sleep researchers have been interested in uncovering the complex relationship between disturbed sleep and psychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the alterations in REM sleep of relevance to psychiatry and indicates that continued developments in sleep research may assist in further understanding the neuropathophysiology of affective and other psychiatric illnesses. PMID:7803367
Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E
Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519
Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia
Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015
Wu, Wei; Cui, Linyang; Fu, Ying; Tian, Qianqian; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Du, Ning; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Zhijun; Song, Yijun; Shi, Fu-Dong; Xue, Rong
In order to characterize sleep and the cognitive patterns in patients with acute minor thalamic infarction (AMTI), we enrolled 27 patients with AMTI and 12 matched healthy individuals. Questionnaires about sleep and cognition as well as polysomnography (PSG) were performed on days 14 and 90 post-stroke. Compared to healthy controls, in patients with AMTI, hyposomnia was more prevalent; sleep architecture was disrupted as indicated by decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency, and decreased non-rapid eye movement sleep stages 2 and 3; more sleep-related breathing disorders occurred; and cognitive functions were worse, especially memory. While sleep apnea and long-delay memory recovered to a large extent in the patients, other sleep and cognitive function deficit often persisted. Patients with AMTI are at an increased risk for hyposomnia, sleep structure disturbance, sleep apnea, and memory deficits. Although these abnormalities improved over time, the slow and incomplete improvement suggest that early management should be considered in these patients. PMID:27237578
Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang
Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = −0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736
Hering, Eli; Epstein, Rachel; Elroy, Sarit; Iancu, Daisy R.; Zelnik, Nathanel
This study compared data on sleep disturbances of 22 autistic children obtained by questionnaires with data obtained with actigraphy. Questionnaire responses indicated that autistic children had an earlier morning awakening time and multiple and early night arousals; actigraphic monitoring, however, showed their sleep patterns were normal except…
Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon
Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.
Hayashi, M; Inoue, Y; Iwakawa, Y; Sasaki, H
Various abnormalities of sleep have been reported in extrapyramidal diseases in adults. We have investigated the disturbances of REM sleep (SREM) in severe athetoid cerebral palsy (ACP) originating perinatally. Ten ACP patients, 5 males and 5 females ranging from 15 to 30 years old, were studied by means of all-night polygraphic examination. Three cases showed a marked decrease in rapid eye movements in SREM. Moreover, the tone of submental muscle in SREM was also disturbed in three. Regarding body movements during sleep, gross movements and twitch movements of the submental muscle were analyzed. In most of the patients, an abnormal distribution of body movements according to sleep stages was observed, the rate being significantly reduced in SREM. REMs, atonia and body movements are considered to be related to the brainstem function in animals. The results of the present study suggest that perinatal extrapyramidal diseases could also coincide with brainstem dysfunctions. PMID:2288380
Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Zadra, Antonio; Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Petit, Dominique; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques
Background Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD), during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation. Methods Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers. Results During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls. Conclusions Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness. PMID:26241047
Priddis, Lynn E.
This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…
Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia
The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m(2), and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences. PMID:26483920
Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia
The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m2, and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences. PMID:26483920
Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Julie C.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.
Purpose of review To highlight the recent findings on sleep–obesity associations in children. We focus on sleep duration, sleep timing and chronotype, and describe the potential mechanisms underlying sleep–obesity associations. Recent findings Poor sleep is increasingly common in children and associations between short sleep duration in early childhood and obesity are consistently found. Less is known about the infancy period, and the findings in adolescents are inconsistent. Sleep timing patterns may also contribute to obesity risk. Variable and shifted sleep schedules and evening chronotypes have recently been linked to adiposity in adults; less is known about children. Further, there is little understanding regarding the mechanisms of association. The timing of eating, dietary intake, obesogenic eating behaviors, and changes in appetite-regulating hormones have been identified as possible mechanisms for sleep–obesity associations and may be promising avenues for future research. Longitudinal and experimental work with children is needed to determine the nature of associations. Summary Beyond sleep duration, sleep timing patterns may contribute to obesity risk. Biological and behavioral processes have been proposed as mechanisms that may explain the association. Understanding the pathways through which poor sleep patterns could increase obesity risk in children may provide novel avenues for intervention. PMID:25517022
Benoit, O; Foret, J; Bouard, G; Merle, B; Landau, J; Marc, M E
Five long sleepers (LS) and 5 short sleepers (SS) were selected from 310 medical students. Nine regular sleepers (RS) were used as a control. The sleep was recorded during 3 reference nights, one recovery night after a 36 h sleep deprivation (R2), one morning sleep after a 24 h sleep deprivation (D1) and the night following D1(R1). According to previous data slow wave sleep (SWS) amounts were the same in the 3 groups while stage 2 and paradoxical sleep (PS) amounts increased with the sleep duration. The hourly distribution of intervening wakefulness and SWS were similar for all groups. When compared to RS or SS the hourly distribution in LS of PS was lower until the sixth hour. As a function of experimental conditions, sleep patterns of LS were the most affected. In R2 the sleep of LS more closely resembled that of RS or SS than in reference nights, while in R1 LS' sleep was the most disturbed. Morning sleep durations were very similar for all groups, but in LS intervening wakefulness was increased and PS was decreased when compared to RS and SS. Negative correlations (Spearman rank test) were found between the morning increase of body temperature after a sleep-deprived night and both TST and PS durations. In all recorded sleep periods, SWS amounts were positively correlated with prior wakefulness duration and the PS amount with TST. PMID:6160990
Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David
Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson’s disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0 ± 5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5 ± 7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6 ± 5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9 ± 12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson’s disease-related network activity was also elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. PMID:25338949
Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio
Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206
Carskadon, Mary A., Ed.
Noting that healthy, adequate sleep fosters longevity and the optimal use of waking hours, and that adolescents, although rarely included in previous studies of sleep, are among the most sleep-deprived populations, this book explores the genesis and development of sleep patterns during adolescence, including biological and cultural factors that…
Jones, Franklin Ross
Diagnostic classifications of sleep and arousal disorders have been categorized in four major areas: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive sleepiness, disorders of the sleep/wake pattern, and the parasomnias such as sleep walking, talking, and night errors. Another nomenclature classifies them into DIMS (disorders…
Simor, Péter; Bódizs, Róbert; Horváth, Klára; Ferri, Raffaele
Study Objectives: Nightmares are disturbing mental experiences during sleep that usually result in abrupt awakenings. Frequent nightmares are associated with poor subjective sleep quality, and recent polysomnographic data suggest that nightmare sufferers exhibit impaired sleep continuity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Because disrupted sleep might be related to abnormal arousal processes, the goal of this study was to examine polysomnographic arousal-related activities in a group of nightmare sufferers and a healthy control group. Design: Sleep microstructure analysis was carried out by scoring the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in NREM sleep and the arousal index in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on the second night of the polysomnographic examination. Setting: Hospital-based sleep research laboratory. Participants: There were 17 in the nightmare (NMs) group and 23 in the healthy control (CTLs) group. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The NMs group exhibited reduced amounts of CAP A1 subtype and increased CAP A2 and A3 subtypes, as well as longer duration of CAP A phases in comparison with CTLs. Moreover, these differences remained significant after controlling for the confounding factors of anxious and depressive symptoms. The absolute number and frequency of REM arousals did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that NREM sleep microstructure is altered during nonsymptomatic nights of nightmares. Disrupted sleep in the NMs group seems to be related to abnormal arousal processes, specifically an imbalance in sleep-promoting and arousing mechanisms during sleep. Citation: Simor P; Bódizs R; Horváth K; Ferri R. Disturbed dreaming and the instability of sleep: altered nonrapid eye movement sleep microstructure in individuals with frequent nightmares as revealed by the cyclic alternating pattern. SLEEP 2013;36(3):413-419. PMID:23449753
Ahn, Youngmin; Williamson, Ariel A; Seo, Hyun-Joo; Sadeh, Avi; Mindell, Jodi A
The purpose of this study was to examine sleep patterns in a large sample of infants and toddlers (ages birth to 36 months) in Korea, and to compare sleep patterns, sleep problems, sleep ecology, and parental behaviors to global sleep data on young children in both predominantly Asian (P-A) and predominantly Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. We additionally examined parent and child demographic information, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology as predictors of sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Korea. Parents/caregivers of 1,036 Korean infants and toddlers completed an expanded, internet-based version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. Consistent with other studies of sleep in early childhood, sleep/wake patterns became increasingly consolidated with older child age for the Korea sample. Compared to both P-A and P-C infants and toddlers, children in Korea had the latest bedtimes, shortest total sleep and daytime sleep durations, and the least frequent rates of napping. Even though half of parents perceive their children's sleep problematic, parental perceptions of severe child sleep problems were the lowest. Within Korea, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding at sleep resumption were associated with increased nocturnal awakenings. Evening television viewing was associated with later bedtimes, which may have implications for sleep hygiene recommendations in clinical practice. The current study provides important information about sleep/wake patterns, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology for infants and toddlers for physicians to support healthy sleep in Korea. PMID:26839481
The purpose of this study was to examine sleep patterns in a large sample of infants and toddlers (ages birth to 36 months) in Korea, and to compare sleep patterns, sleep problems, sleep ecology, and parental behaviors to global sleep data on young children in both predominately Asian (P-A) and predominately Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. We additionally examined parent and child demographic information, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology as predictors of sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Korea. Parents/caregivers of 1,036 Korean infants and toddlers completed an expanded, internet-based version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. Consistent with other studies of sleep in early childhood, sleep/wake patterns became increasingly consolidated with older child age for the Korea sample. Compared to both P-A and P-C infants and toddlers, children in Korea had the latest bedtimes, shortest total sleep and daytime sleep durations, and the least frequent rates of napping. Even though half of parents perceive their children’s sleep problematic, parental perceptions of severe child sleep problems were the lowest. Within Korea, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding at sleep resumption were associated with increased nocturnal awakenings. Evening television viewing was associated with later bedtimes, which may have implications for sleep hygiene recommendations in clinical practice. The current study provides important information about sleep/wake patterns, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology for infants and toddlers for physicians to support healthy sleep in Korea. PMID:26839481
Maduabuchi, Josephat Chinawa; Obu, Herbert Anayo; Chukwu, Barthlomew Friday; Aronu, Ann Ebele; Manyike, Pius Chukwuka; Chinawa, Awoere Tamunosiki
Introduction Some adolescents may have sleep disorder at some point during adolescence. Determining the pattern and practice of sleep among adolescents could be useful to establish a lasting sleep hygiene program among adolescents. The objectives of this study are to describe sleep pattern and practice among adolescent in Nigerian secondary schools. Methods Sleep habits were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools from February to April 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria. Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used. Results A total of 443 subjects, comprising 263 (59.4%) females and 180 (40.6%) males completed the questionnaire. The mean duration of night sleep of the subjects during weekday was 7.84 (1.9) hours and 8.65 (2.07) hours during the weekend. 22.8% (101/443) had abnormal sleep onset latency (< 5 minutes and > 30 minutes). The gender of the subjects did not influence the sleep onset latency (χ2 = 32.89, p= 0.57). Twenty six (5.9%)of the subjects reported difficulty falling asleep. Conclusion Adolescents have varying degrees of sleeping practice and hygiene. PMID:25883740
Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Kapella, Mary Catherine; Park, Chang; Ferrans, Carol E.; Larson, Janet L.
Purpose/Objectives To characterize patient-reported and objective sleep assessments and provide a preliminary examination of the relationships among sleep, quality of life, and demographic or treatment factors. Design A secondary data analysis using a descriptive-correlational design. Setting University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System. Sample 40 patients undergoing a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) hospitalized for the conditioning regimen, stem cell infusion, and immediate recovery period. Methods Each patient wore a wrist actigraph continuously from the fourth day following HCT to the eighth day to objectively assess sleep patterns (total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and number of awakenings). At the end of the five-day period, patients completed measures of sleep disturbance and quality of life. Main Research Variables Objective sleep (total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and number of awakenings), subjective sleep (sleep disturbance), and quality of life. Findings The mean total nighttime sleep (objectively obtained) was 232 minutes (SD = 71 minutes), with 14 patients (35%) sleeping less than three consecutive hours during one or more study days. Age was negatively correlated with patient-reported sleep disturbance. Patient-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with length of hospital stay. No correlations were found between patient-reported and objective sleep assessments. Conclusions This study objectively documents inadequate and irregular sleep in hospitalized patients undergoing HCT. Sole reliance on patient-reported sleep assessments may not represent the full extent of the problem. Implications for Nursing Attempts to streamline care during the night by not waking patients for routine care unless indicated by the patient’s condition (as advocated by the American Academy of Nursing) and providing supportive care for
Clarke, D J; Waters, J; CORBETT, J A
A survey of 32 adult females and 31 adult males with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) shows that sleep disorders (including excessive day and night time sleep) and behavioural abnormalities, (temper tantrums and deliberate picking of sores) are common. These abnormalities are not related to the degree of obesity or to each other. Speech disorders also occur. Intelligence quotients are often within the normal range. PMID:2629712
Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.
Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming.
Wolfson, Amy R; Carskadon, Mary A
The present paper reviews and critiques studies assessing the relation between sleep patterns, sleep quality, and school performance of adolescents attending middle school, high school, and/or college. The majority of studies relied on self-report, yet the researchers approached the question with different designs and measures. Specifically, studies looked at (1) sleep/wake patterns and usual grades, (2) school start time and phase preference in relation to sleep habits and quality and academic performance, and (3) sleep patterns and classroom performance (e.g., examination grades). The findings strongly indicate that self-reported shortened total sleep time, erratic sleep/wake schedules, late bed and rise times, and poor sleep quality are negatively associated with academic performance for adolescents from middle school through the college years. Limitations of the current published studies are also discussed in detail in this review. PMID:15018092
Mahowald, Mark W.; Schenck, Carlos H.; O'Connor, Kevin A.
Virtually all members of the animal kingdom experience a relentless and powerful cycling of states of being: wakefulness, rapid eye movement sleep, and nonrapid eye movement sleep. Each of these states is composed of a number of physiologic variables generated in a variety of neural structures. The predictable oscillations of these states are driven by presumed neural pacemakers which are entrained to the 24 h geophysical environment by the light/dark cycle. Experiments in nature have indicated that wake/sleep rhythm perturbations may occur either involving desynchronization of the basic 24 h wake/sleep cycle within the geophysical 24 h cycle (circadian rhythm disturbances) or involving the rapid oscillation or incomplete declaration of state (such as narcolepsy). The use of phase spaces to describe states of being may be of interest in the description of state determination in both illness and health. Some fascinating clinical and experimental phenomena may represent bifurcations in the sleep/wake control system.
Buboltz, Walter C.; Brown, Franklin; Soper, Barlow
Surveyed college students regarding their sleep habits, patterns, and problems. A large majority had at least occasional sleep problems, with women reporting more of some difficulties than men. The most common sleep difficulties were taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep, trouble falling asleep more than three times per week, morning…
Prinz, Patricia N.
Sleep patterns of elderly subjects (N=12) differed from young adult levels. When sleep variables were compared with individual changes in intellectual function measured across the seventh through 10th decades of life, a positive correlation was found between time in REM sleep and several longitudinal measures of mental functioning. (Author)
Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny
The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient…
Schlosberg, A; Benjamin, M
A preliminary report is presented on the sleep patterns of three combat fatigued patients with recurrent nightmares, insomnia, low frustration thresholds and impotence. All the patients had undergone acute partial sleep deprivation prior to their breakdown. The results show severe deficiency in REM sleep and absence of stage 4 sleep. EMG was usually high with numerous body movements and bursts of tachycardia throughout the night. Nightmares occurred in stage 2. Total effective sleep time was between 129' and 250'. Most of the sleep was in stage 2, and patients woke up with the feeling that "they had not slept at all." It is hypothesized that acute partial sleep deprivation prior to breakdown was an important predisposing factor, and that chronic partial sleep deprivation was a constant aggravating factor of combat fatigue. Replacement therapy for the specific deficient sleep states is proposed. PMID:207680
Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece
Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999
Introduction: Sleep plays an important role in adolescent's health and undergoes substantial changes with puberty and physical maturation with a preference for later bed times. Evidence shows that many adolescents are not obtaining the required amounts of sleep which is 9.25 h, due to inadequate sleep practices, academic and societal demands. This study aims at describing the (1) sleep patterns of adolescents on school days and weekends, (2) sleep hygiene practices and the extent of parental monitoring and (3) gender and grade level differences in sleep duration and sleep hygiene practices among Indian adolescents in Bahrain. Materials and Methods: Study used a descriptive correlational design. A total of 145 adolescents from 11 to 17 years from grade 6 to 12 were selected using convenience sampling. Data was collected from November 2012 to March 2013. A structured questionnaire for sleep patterns and Mastin et al.'s Sleep Hygiene Index for assessing sleep hygiene practices were used. Results: The adolescents’ total sleep duration was 7.07 ± 1.13 hours. A highly significant difference in sleep duration on school days and weekends between adolescents of various grade levels (P < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively) and between parental monitoring at the time of getting up on school days and sleep duration (P value 0.026 at 0.05 level of significance) was found. Gender was not significant with the sleep duration, and also with Sleep Hygiene Index scores. Conclusion: The results suggest that there is a high prevalence of insufficient sleep and irregular bed-time schedule among Indian adolescents in Bahrain. Interventions directed toward improving sleep and promoting good sleep hygiene strategies are required to improve the physical and emotional health of adolescents. PMID:25949973
Profitt, Maxine F; Deurveilher, Samuel; Robertson, George S; Rusak, Benjamin; Semba, Kazue
Disruption of sleep/wake cycles is common in patients with schizophrenia and correlates with cognitive and affective abnormalities. Mice deficient in stable tubule only polypeptide (STOP) show cognitive, behavioral, and neurobiological deficits that resemble those seen in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about their sleep phenotype. We characterized baseline sleep/wake patterns and recovery sleep following sleep deprivation in STOP null mice. Polysomnography was conducted in adult male STOP null and wild-type (WT) mice under a 12:12 hours light:dark cycle before, during, and after 6 hours of sleep deprivation during the light phase. At baseline, STOP null mice spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) over a 24-hour period, with more frequent transitions between wake and NREMS, compared to WT mice, especially during the dark phase. The distributions of wake, NREMS and REMS across the light and the dark phases differed by genotype, and so did features of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Following sleep deprivation, both genotypes showed homeostatic increases in sleep duration, with no significant genotype differences in the initial compensatory increase in sleep intensity (EEG delta power). These results indicate that STOP null mice sleep less overall, and their sleep and wake periods are more fragmented than those of WT mice. These features in STOP null mice are consistent with the sleep patterns observed in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26940700
Kantor, Sandor; Varga, Janos; Morton, A Jennifer
Sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities are prominent early features of Huntington's disease (HD) that typically appear before the onset of characteristic motor symptoms. The changes in sleep and electroencephalogram seen in HD patients are largely recapitulated in mouse models of HD such as transgenic R6/2 lines. To test whether or not drugs with hypnotic properties can correct the sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities seen in HD mice, we treated male wild-type (WT; N = 7) and R6/2 mice (N = 9) acutely with intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, zolpidem (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) or amitriptyline (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), and then monitored their sleep-wake behavior. In R6/2 mice, both zolpidem and amitriptyline suppressed the abnormally high REM sleep amount and electroencephalographic gamma (30-46 Hz) oscillations in a dose-dependent manner. Amitriptyline's effect on sleep was similar in both genotypes, whereas zolpidem showed significant genotype differences. Zolpidem exerted a strong hypnotic effect in WT mice by increasing electroencephalographic delta power, doubling the mean bout duration and the total amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, no such effect was seen in R6/2 mice. Our study demonstrates that the pathophysiological changes seen in sleep and electroencephalogram are not 'hard-wired' in HD brain and can be reversed even at late stages of the disease. The diminished hypnotic effect of zolpidem suggests that the GABAergic control of sleep-wake states is impaired in HD mice. A better understanding of the neurochemical basis underlying these abnormalities should lead to more effective and rational therapies for HD. PMID:26805423
Verlander, L A; Benedict, J O; Hanson, D P
The present study investigated the relationship between stress and sleep. A self-report measure was used to assess three domains: environmental events, personality mediators, and emotional responses. It was hypothesized that one or more of the domains would predict seven different aspects of sleep. 227 college students completed the Derogatis Stress Profile and the Sleep Questionnaire. Analysis indicated that scores on emotional response were the best predictor of five different sleep aspects: depth of sleep, difficulties in waking up, quality and latency of sleep, negative affect in dreams, and sleep irregularity. Presence of environmental events was the best predictor for the length of sleep only. It was concluded that research looking at the effects of stress on sleep must consider all three components of stress and that perhaps the emotional response to stress is the best predictor of sleep complaints. PMID:10407896
Meguro, Kenichi; Meguro, Mitsue; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Akanuma, Kyoko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Itoh, Masatoshi
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), especially aggressiveness, wandering, and sleep disturbance, are a major burden for caregivers. Daily sleep/wake patterns and wandering of institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were visually monitored, and 34 patients who manifested wandering were selected and randomly classified into 2 groups: the risperidone group and the nonrisperidone group. After an administration of low-dose risperidone for the risperidone group, the BPSD were reassessed. The binding potentials of dopamine D2 receptor for preadministration and postadministration of risperidone were assessed using positron emission tomography (PET) for 1 case. After the use of risperidone, aggressiveness and wandering were reduced and the nighttime sleeping hours were increased. The PET revealed that the binding potential of dopamine receptor was increased after administration of the drug, associated with improved sleep/wake patterns and behavioral abnormality. Possible serotonergic modulation of dopaminergic function might explain the neurobiological basis of the effect of risperidone. PMID:15157345
Parrino, Liborio; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero; Terzano, Mario G
Cyclic alternating pattern CAP is the EEG marker of unstable sleep, a concept which is poorly appreciated among the metrics of sleep physiology. Besides, duration, depth and continuity, sleep restorative properties depend on the capacity of the brain to create periods of sustained stable sleep. This issue is not confined only to the EEG activities but reverberates upon the ongoing autonomic activity and behavioral functions, which are mutually entrained in a synchronized oscillation. CAP can be identified both in adult and children sleep and therefore represents a sensitive tool for the investigation of sleep disorders across the lifespan. The present review illustrates the story of CAP in the last 25 years, the standardized scoring criteria, the basic physiological properties and how the dimension of sleep instability has provided new insight into pathophysiolology and management of sleep disorders. PMID:21616693
Cassoff, Jamie; Wiebe, Sabrina T; Gruber, Reut
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with comorbid sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may be a risk factor for development of the disorder, a symptom of the disorder, or a comorbid condition affected by a similar psychopathology. Various studies have examined the impact of sleep deprivation on the presence/exacerbation of ADHD symptomology, as well as longitudinal and concurrent associations between different sleep disturbances and ADHD, yet the notion of sleep disturbances as a predecessor to ADHD remains unclear. As such, this review examines the evidence for sleep disturbances as a risk factor for the development of ADHD, as well as the mechanisms underlying the association between sleep patterns and ADHD. Additionally, clinical implications regarding the comorbid nature of sleep disturbances and ADHD will be considered. PMID:23620680
Iwata, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Matsuishi, Toyojiro
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the direct relationship of sleep schedule and sleep quality variables between healthy preschool children and their parents, focusing on the influence of the difference in bedtime between each other. Methods Forty-seven Japanese 5-year-old children and their primary parent were studied. The parents completed questionnaires including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The children wore an actigraph for one week. Results Although sleep patterns of children were generally independent of their parents, late sleep end time and bedtime of children were associated with parents' late sleep end time on weekends. For 87% of children and parents who shared a bedroom, sleep quality was negatively affected by a shorter difference in bedtimes between child and parent, but not by co-sleeping. Conclusion Sleep behaviours of parents can influence those of their children. For parents and children who share a bedroom, the timing of bedtime rather than co-sleeping may be a key factor in modulating sleep patterns. Trying to get children asleep and subsequently falling asleep at a similar time may disturb parents' sleep quality, which may subsequently affect that of their children. PMID:23419057
Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Velázquez-Perez, Luis; Ochoa, Nalia Canales; Polo, Lourdes Galicia; Valencia, Reyes Haro; Cruz, Gilberto Sánchez; Montero, Jacqueline Medrano; Laffita-Mesa, José M; Mederos, Luis E Almaguer; Zaldívar, Yanetza González; Parra, Cira Torres; Acosta, Arnoy Peña; Mariño, Tania Cruz
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disorders are commonly associated to patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2); however, these abnormalities have not been studied in presymptomatic gene carriers. To determine whether the REM sleep pathology is detectable before clinical manifestation of SCA2 and evaluate it as a preclinical biomarker, we studied 36 presymptomatic SCA2 individuals and 36 controls by video-polysomnography (VPSG) and sleep questionnaires. Presymptomatic subjects showed significant decrease of REM sleep percentage, REMs density, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency. Aging effect on REM sleep percentage was significant in both groups. There was no correlation between cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat length and REM sleep. Our findings identified the REM sleep pathology as a prominent herald sign of SCA2, conferring a special importance to VPSG as a sensitive neurophysiological tool to detect early changes associated with SCA2, which contributes to the understanding of disease pathophysiology and the development of therapeutic trials focused on the preclinical disease stage. PMID:20960485
Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M.
One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a > 60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671
Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a >60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671
Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy
Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment…
Ryu, K.-Y.; Fujiki, N.; Kazantzis, M.; Garza, J. C.; Bouley, D. M.; Stahl, A.; Lu, X.-Y.; Nishino, S.; Kopito, R. R.
Aims Ubiquitin performs essential roles in a myriad of signalling pathways required for cellular function and survival. Recently, we reported that disruption of the stress-inducible ubiquitin-encoding gene Ubb reduces ubiquitin content in the hypothalamus and leads to adult-onset obesity coupled with a loss of arcuate nucleus neurones and disrupted energy homeostasis in mice. Neuropeptides expressed in the hypothalamus control both metabolic and sleep behaviours. In order to demonstrate that the loss of Ubb results in broad hypothalamic abnormalities, we attempted to determine whether metabolic and sleep behaviours were altered in Ubb knockout mice. Methods Metabolic rate and energy expenditure were measured in a metabolic chamber, and sleep stage was monitored via electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording. The presence of neurodegeneration and increased reactive gliosis in the hypothalamus were also evaluated. Results We found that Ubb disruption leads to early-onset reduced activity and metabolic rate. Additionally, we have demonstrated that sleep behaviour is altered and sleep homeostasis is disrupted in Ubb knockout mice. These early metabolic and sleep abnormalities are accompanied by persistent reactive gliosis and the loss of arcuate nucleus neurones, but are independent of neurodegeneration in the lateral hypothalamus. Conclusions Ubb knockout mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with hypothalamic dysfunction. Our data also indicate that Ubb is essential for the maintenance of the ubiquitin levels required for proper regulation of metabolic and sleep behaviours in mice. PMID:20002312
Patel, Sanjay R.; Hayes, Amanda L.; Blackwell, Terri; Evans, Daniel S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Wing, Yun K.; Stone, Katie L.
Background Reduced sleep duration has been increasingly reported to predict obesity. However, timing and regularity of sleep may also be important. In this study, the cross-sectional association between objectively measured sleep patterns and obesity was assessed in two large cohorts of older individuals. Methods Wrist actigraphy was performed in 3053 men (mean age: 76.4 years) participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) and 2985 women (mean age: 83.5 years) participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Timing and regularity of sleep patterns were assessed across nights, as well as daytime napping. Results Greater night-to-night variability in sleep duration and daytime napping were associated with obesity independent of mean nocturnal sleep duration in both men and women. Each 1 hour increase in the variability of nocturnal sleep duration increased the odds of obesity 1.63-fold (95% CI [1.31-2.02]) among men and 1.22-fold (95% CI [1.01-1.47]) among women. Each 1 hour increase in napping increased the odds of obesity 1.23-fold (95%CI [1.12-1.37]) in men and 1.29-fold (95%CI [1.17-1.41]) in women. In contrast, associations between later sleep timing and night-to-night variability in sleep timing with obesity were less consistent. Conclusions In both older men and women, variability in nightly sleep duration and daytime napping were associated with obesity independent of mean sleep duration. These findings suggest that characteristics of sleep beyond mean sleep duration may play a role in weight homeostasis, highlighting the complex relationship between sleep and metabolism. PMID:24458262
TAVASOLI, Azita; JALILOLGHADR, Shabnam; LOTFI, Shiva
Objective This study was conducted to investigate the sleep symptoms and polysomnographic patterns of obstructive sleep apnea in overweight and obese children. Materials & Methods Overweight or obese children aging 6-18 yr old referred during 2010 to Endocrinology Clinic of Ghods Hospital in Ghazvin, central Iran were enrolled in the study. Polysomnography was done for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea and the BEARS and Children’s Sleep Habits questionnaires were used to survey sleep behaviors. Results: We enrolled 30 children (14 males, 16 females). Twenty-one cases had body mass index (BMI) >95% and 9 had 85%
Oka, Yasunori; Suzuki, Shuhei; Inoue, Yuich
Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and their impact on sleep/wake patterns were assessed in 509 elementary school children (6-12 years of age; 252 males and 257 females). Television viewing, playing video games, and surfing the Internet had negative impact on sleep/wake parameters. Moreover, presence of a television set or video game in the child's bedroom increased their activity before bedtime. Time to return home later than 8 p.m. from after-school activity also had a negative impact on sleep/wake patterns. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television, video games, and the Internet before bedtime, and also the possibility that late after-school activity can disturb sleep/wake patterns. PMID:18853306
Forquer, LeAnne M.; Camden, Adrian E.; Gabriau, Krista M.; Johnson, C. Merle
Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine the sleep patterns of college students to identify problem areas and potential solutions. Participants: A total of 313 students returned completed surveys. Methods: A sleep survey was e-mailed to a random sample of students at a North Central university. Questions included individual…
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley
Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…
Ohaeri, J U; Odejide, A O; Ikuesan, B A; Adeyemi, J D
In a cross-sectional study of the patterns of isolated sleep paralysis among 164 Nigerian medical students, 26.1% admitted having experienced this phenomenon. About 31% of the females and 20% of the males had had this experience. Of those with sleep paralysis, 32.6% had hypnogenic hallucinations during the episode, mainly visual. Sleep paralysis was not significantly associated with psychosocial distress or differences in personality profile. Although the rate differs across cultures, the myths associated with sleep paralysis are similar. PMID:2787863
Mitler, M M; Lund, R; Sokolove, P G; Pittendrigh, C S; Dement, W C
Studies on daily and circadian rhythms in wheel running and electrographically defined wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep in M. musculus were done to gather data on the temporal distribution of activity and sleep. Generally, peaks in NREM and sleep tended to coincide and to alternate with the coincident peaks of wakefulness and wheel running. However, during the active phase of the circadian wheel running cycle some NREM and REM sleep did occur; conversely, during its rest phase, wakefulness was often present. The most striking finding was that in mice with clearly entrained or free-running activity onsets, the circadian peak-through patterns in wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep were not always distinct--they could be damped and/or polyphasic. Several explanations of these phenomena are considered. PMID:195675
Kubiszewski, Violaine; Fontaine, Roger; Potard, Catherine; Gimenes, Guillaume
The aim of this study was to explore: (a) sleep patterns and disorders possibly associated with adolescent bullying profiles (pure bully, pure victim, bully/victim and neutral) and (b) the effect of sleep on psychosocial problems (externalized and internalized) related to bullying. The sample consisted of 1422 students aged 10-18 (mean = 14.3, SD = 2.7; 57% male) from five socioeconomically diverse schools in France. Bullying profiles were obtained using the revised Bully-Victim Questionnaire. Subjective sleep disorders were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale. School-week and weekend sleep/wake patterns were recorded. Internalizing problems were investigated using a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing behaviors were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. These questionnaires were administered during individual interviews at school. After controlling for effects of gender and age, victims of bullying showed significantly more subjective sleep disturbances than the pure-bully or neutral groups (p < 0.001). Bullies' sleep schedules were more irregular (p < 0.001 for bedtime irregularity and p<0.01 for wake-up time irregularity) and their sleep duration was shorter than their schoolmates (p < 0.001 for the school week and p < 0.05 for the weekend). There was an effect of sleep on psychosocial problems related to bullying, and our results indicate that sleep has a moderating effect on aggression in bullies (p < 0.001). This would suggest a higher vulnerability of bullies to sleep deprivation. These results show differences in sleep problems and patterns in school-bullying profiles. Findings of this study open up new perspectives for understanding and preventing bullying in schools, with implications for research and clinical applications. PMID:24417522
Azari, Hassan; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi
Knowledge of the renal vascular anatomy may greatly contribute to the success of surgical, invasive and radiological procedures of the retroperitoneal region. Here, morphometric and histological studies of a human cadaveric specimen presented a complex, anomalous pattern of renal veins. The left renal vein had an oblique retro-aortic course and received two lumbar veins. It bifurcated near its drainage point into the inferior vena cava. The right renal vein received the right testicular vein. In addition, the left kidney was located at a low position. The spleen was enlarged. The present case is unique and provides information that may help surgeons or angiologists to apply safer interventions. PMID:22536553
Vgontzas, A.N.; Kales, A.; Bixler, E.O.
To assess whether sleep abnormalities are related to the genetic abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), we performed polysomnographic studies (nighttime and daytime) and determined the chromosome 15 genotypes in eight patients with PWS. Four patients demonstrated sleep onset REM periods (SOREM), and five met the objective polysomnographic criteria for severe or moderate excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Three of the four patients with SOREM displayed a paternally derived deletion of chromosome 15q11-q13, whereas the fourth exhibited maternal uniparental heterodisomy in this chromosomal region (UPD). Two of the four patients that did not display SOREM carried paternally derived deletions; the remaining two demonstrated UPD. Four of the five patients with EDS displayed paternal deletions, and the fifth exhibited UPD. One of three patients without evidence of EDS demonstrated paternal deletion; the remaining two showed UPD. Although neither EDS nor SOREM was not consistently associated with a specific genetic abnormality, these phenotypes may be more common in patients with paternal deletions than in those with UPD. Sleep abnormalities in PWS cannot be explained by a single genetic model. 32 refs., 1 tab.
Bruni, Oliviero; Novelli, Luana; Miano, Silvia; Parrino, Liborio; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Ferri, Raffaele
Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) has now been studied in different age groups of normal infants and children, and it is clear that it shows dramatic changes with age. In this review we first focus on the important age-related changes of CAP from birth to peripubertal age and, subsequently, we describe the numerous studies on CAP in developmental clinical conditions such as pediatric sleep disordered breathing, disorders of arousal (sleep walking and sleep terror), pediatric narcolepsy, learning disabilities with mental retardation (fragile-X syndrome, Down syndrome, autistic spectrum disorder, Prader-Willi syndrome) or without (dyslexia, Asperger syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). CAP rate is almost always decreased in these conditions with the exception of the disorders of arousal and some cases of sleep apnea. Another constant result is the reduction of A1 subtypes, probably in relationship with the degree of cognitive impairment. The analysis of CAP in pediatric sleep allows a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep disturbance. CAP can be considered as a window into pediatric sleep, allowing a new vision on how the sleeping brain is influenced by a specific pathology or how sleep protecting mechanisms try to counteract internal or external disturbing events. PMID:20427233
Bhattacharyya, Moushum; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Majumdar, Dhurjati
Various countries have permanent research bases in Antarctica that are manned year-round by a few members of an expedition team, facing extremes of temperature with the associated hardships. Acclimatisation to such an environment is associated with pyschophysiological changes along with alterations in sleep patterns. The present study was undertaken to explore the changes in sleep patterns of six members of the Indian expedition team during their winter stay at Maitri, the permanent research station of India in Antarctica. The mean (± SEM) age, height and weight of the subjects were 35.7 ± 2.32 years, 168.3 ± 2.37 cm and 71.0 ± 1.88 kg, respectively. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were obtained as baseline data in November 2004 in Delhi (altitude 260 m, latitude 29° N, longitude 77° E); data on the same parameters were collected at Maitri, Antarctica (altitude 120 m, latitude 70° 45' 39″ S, longitude 11° 44' 49″ E) from January to December 2005. A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant variation with time (month effect) in most of the sleep parameters recorded. Total sleep time decreased from Delhi baseline values in all months, sleep efficiency decreased significantly during winter months, duration of waking period after sleep onset increased significantly in winter, sleep latency increased immediately after exposure in January, stages 3 and 4 (slow wave sleep) reduced during dark winter months, whereas stages 1 and 2 and rapid eye movement sleep increased during dark winter months. This study observed a prevailing general trend of sleep disturbances amongst overwintering members in a modern Antarctic station.
Selvamurthy, W.; Raju, V. R. K.; Ranganathan, S.; Hegde, K. S.; Ray, U. S.
Alterations in sleep pattern during acclimatisation at an altitude of 3500 m were studied on 27 healthy men (20 30 years of age). Of these, 15 were sojourners (SJ), 6 were acclimatised lowlanders (AL) and 6 were high altitude natives (HAN). Baseline sleep profile of SJ was electrophysiologically monitored, initially at Delhi (260 m) and later at 3500 m altitude in Western Himalayas for 2 weeks. At high altitude (HA) the sleep patterns of AL and HAN were also monitored for comparison. There were 4 cases of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among SJ, whose sleep profiles were also recorded. The state of autonomic arousal was assessed by a battery of indices, while the psychological arousal was measured by the anxiety scales. On completion of studies at HA, the SJ were flown back to the plains and re-tested within one week of return. SJ showed curtailment of slow wave sleep (SWS) and frequent short episodes of arousal during sleep at HA. AL and HAN also had lesser amounts of SWS; however, the arousals and awakenings during sleep were less frequent. Subjects who experienced AMS had normal amounts of SWS at HA. There was sympathetic hyperactivity and slight increase in anxiety level in SJ, while HAN and AL had relatively reduced level of sympathetic activity. The curtailment of SWS and frequent arousals observed in SJ during the initial phase of acclimatisation at HA, appear to be adaptive features to prevent the accentuation of arterial hypoxemia due to sleep hypoventilation.
Yogesh, Saxena; Abha, Shrivastava; Priyanka, Singh
Exposure of humans to radio frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) both during receiving and transmitting the signals has amplified public and scientific debate about possible adverse effects on human health. The study was designed with the objective of assessing the extent of mobile phone use amongst medical students and finding correlation if any between the hours of usage of mobile to sleep pattern and quality. hundred medical students grouped as cases (n = 57) (> 2 hours/day of mobile usage) and control (n = 43) (≤ 2 hours/day of mobile usage) were examined for their sleep quality & pattern by Pittsburg sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Differences between groups were examined with the Mann Whitney "U" test for proportions (Quantitative values) and with Student't' test for continuous variables. The association of variables was analyzed by Spearman Rank's correlation. Probability was set at < 0.05 as significant. Sleep disturbance, latency and day dysfunction was more in cases especially females. A significant association of hours of usage and sleep indices were observed in both genders (males r = 0.25; p = 0.04, females r = 0.31; p = 0.009). Evening usage of mobile phone in cases showed a statistically significant negative association (-0.606; p = 0.042) with Sleep quality (higher PSQI means sleep deprivation). Students using mobile for > 2 hours/day may cause sleep deprivation and day sleepiness affecting cognitive and learning abilities of medical students. PMID:25464686
Yogesh, Saxena; Abha, Shrivastava; Priyanka, Singh
Exposure of humans to radio frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) both during receiving and transmitting the signals has amplified public and scientific debate about possible adverse effects on human health. The study was designed with the objective of assessing the extent of mobile phone use amongst medical students and finding correlation if any between the hours of usage of mobile to sleep pattern and quality. hundred medical students grouped as cases (n = 57) (> 2 hours/day of mobile usage) and control (n = 43) (≤ 2 hours/day of mobile usage) were examined for their sleep quality & pattern by Pittsburg sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Differences between groups were examined with the Mann Whitney "U" test for proportions (Quantitative values) and with Student't' test for continuous variables. The association of variables was analyzed by Spearman Rank's correlation. Probability was set at < 0.05 as significant. Sleep disturbance, latency and day dysfunction was more in cases especially females. A significant association of hours of usage and sleep indices were observed in both genders (males r = 0.25; p = 0.04, females r = 0.31; p = 0.009). Evening usage of mobile phone in cases showed a statistically significant negative association (-0.606; p = 0.042) with Sleep quality (higher PSQI means sleep deprivation). Students using mobile for > 2 hours/day may cause sleep deprivation and day sleepiness affecting cognitive and learning abilities of medical students. PMID:25508317
Csernansky, John G.; Gillespie, Sarah K.; Dierker, Donna L.; Anticevic, Alan; Wang, Lei; Barch, Deanna M.; Van Essen, David C.
To compare the morphology of the cerebral cortex and its characteristic pattern of gyri and sulci in individuals with and without schizophrenia, T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans were collected, along with clinical and cognitive information, from 33 individuals with schizophrenia and 30 healthy individuals group-matched for age, gender, race and parental socioeconomic status. Sulcal depth was measured across the entire cerebral cortex by reconstructing surfaces of cortical mid-thickness (layer 4) in each hemisphere and registering them to the human PALS cortical atlas. Group differences in sulcal depth were tested using methods for cluster size analysis and interhemispheric symmetry analysis. A significant group difference was found bilaterally in the parietal operculum, where the average sulcal depth was shallower in individuals with schizophrenia. In addition, group differences in sulcal depth showed significant bilateral symmetry across much of the occipital, parietal, and temporal cortices. In individuals with schizophrenia, sulcal depth in the left hemisphere was correlated with the severity of impaired performance on tests of working memory and executive function. PMID:18707008
Marco, Christine A; Wolfson, Amy R; Sparling, Michaela; Azuaje, Andrea
This study examined associations among socioeconomic status (SES), SES-related variables, and sleep in young middle school adolescents. Participants included 155 seventh-graders attending two urban New England middle schools. Aspects of the SES environment included parent demographic variables (e.g., income and education), neighborhood environment, and family home environment. Students completed 1 week of actigraphy to estimate sleep patterns. Results demonstrated that the timing and consistency of school-night sleep were associated with demographic and behavioral aspects of SES, whereas weekend sleep schedules were associated with demographic, behavioral, and neighborhood aspects of SES. Finally, regularity in school-night and weekend sleep schedules were associated with demographic and neighborhood aspects of SES. PMID:22250780
Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith
This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables. PMID:25396279
Alshaer, Hisham; Rudzicz, Frank; Falk, Tiago H; Tseng, Wen-Hou; Bradley, T Douglas
Upper airway (UA) narrowing and collapse during sleep results in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesize that vibratory patterns of snoring can distinguish simple snorers from those with OSA. Samples of breath sounds were collected from 7 snorers without OSA and 5 with OSA. Snoring pitch (F0) contours were found using the robust algorithm for pitch tracking (RAPT). The OSA snoring contours showed fluctuating patterns as compared to the smoother patterns of simple snorers. This suggests that snoring reveals the underlying instabilities of UA tissue in OSA. Conditional random fields, a statistical sequence classifier, gave 75% accuracy in distinguishing the 2 groups. PMID:24110129
... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ...
Capellini, I; Nunn, C L; McNamara, P; Preston, B T; Barton, R A
Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states - rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep - that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of sleep into several bouts per day), as having multiple sleep bouts avoids long periods of unconsciousness, potentially reducing vulnerability.Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested these predictions in mammals, and also investigated the relationships among sleep phasing, sleep-cycle length, sleep durations and body mass.Neither sleep-cycle length nor phasing of sleep was significantly associated with three different measures of predation risk, undermining the idea that they represent anti-predator adaptations.Polyphasic sleep was associated with small body size, shorter sleep cycles and longer sleep durations. The correlation with size may reflect energetic constraints: small animals need to feed more frequently, preventing them from consolidating sleep into a single bout. The reduced daily sleep quotas in monophasic species suggests that the consolidation of sleep into one bout per day may deliver the benefits of sleep more efficiently and, since early mammals were small-bodied and polyphasic, a more efficient monophasic sleep pattern could be a hitherto unrecognized advantage of larger size. PMID:20428321
Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny
The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient sleep for their needs and reporting lowered mood and daytime functioning. Support was found for the hypothesis that trait circadian preference mediates mood, daytime functioning and academic grades through its effect on sleep variables at school time. It was concluded that while the imposition of school schedule negatively impacted on mood and daytime functioning for the sample as a whole, evening-oriented adolescents were the most vulnerable to poorer outcomes. These students obtained poorer quality and less sleep than morning-oriented students. Sleep factors impacted negatively on evening-oriented students' mood and ability to function at school during the day, which in turn predicted poorer academic achievement. PMID:18076979
Poindexter, Ann R.; Bihm, Elson M.
Sleep patterns of 103 institutionalized individuals with profound mental retardation were explored. Almost 40% were found to have short-sleep patterns. Short-sleep was predicted by blindness; nonshort-sleep was predicted by diagnosis of cerebral palsy and sodium valproate usage. Techniques for minimizing possible negative consequences of…
Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Gonfalone, Alain A.
Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the China National Space Administration, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Indian Space Research Organization, although differing in their local political agendas, have a common interest in promoting all applied sciences that may facilitate man’s adaptation to life beyond the earth. One of man’s most important adaptations has been the evolutionary development of sleep cycles in response to the 24 hour rotation of the earth. Less well understood has been man’s biological response to gravity. Before humans ventured into space, many questioned whether sleep was possible at all in microgravity environments. It is now known that, in fact, space travelers can sleep once they leave the pull of the earth’s gravity, but that the sleep they do get is not completely refreshing and that the associated sleep disturbances can be elaborate and variable. According to astronauts’ subjective reports, the duration of sleep is shorter than that on earth and there is an increased incidence of disturbed sleep. Objective sleep recordings carried out during various missions including the Skylab missions, space shuttle missions, and Mir missions all support the conclusion that, compared to sleep on earth, the duration in human sleep in space is shorter, averaging about six hours. In the new frontier of space exploration, one of the great practical problems to be solved relates to how man can preserve “normal” sleep in a very abnormal environment. The challenge of managing fatigue and sleep loss during space mission has critical importance for the mental efficiency and safety of the crew and ultimately for the success of the mission itself. Numerous "earthly" examples now show that crew fatigue on ships, trucks, and long-haul jetliners can lead to inadequate performance and sometimes fatal consequences, a reality
Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gonfalone, Alain A
Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the China National Space Administration, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Indian Space Research Organization, although differing in their local political agendas, have a common interest in promoting all applied sciences that may facilitate man's adaptation to life beyond the earth. One of man's most important adaptations has been the evolutionary development of sleep cycles in response to the 24 hour rotation of the earth. Less well understood has been man's biological response to gravity. Before humans ventured into space, many questioned whether sleep was possible at all in microgravity environments. It is now known that, in fact, space travelers can sleep once they leave the pull of the earth's gravity, but that the sleep they do get is not completely refreshing and that the associated sleep disturbances can be elaborate and variable. According to astronauts' subjective reports, the duration of sleep is shorter than that on earth and there is an increased incidence of disturbed sleep. Objective sleep recordings carried out during various missions including the Skylab missions, space shuttle missions, and Mir missions all support the conclusion that, compared to sleep on earth, the duration in human sleep in space is shorter, averaging about six hours. In the new frontier of space exploration, one of the great practical problems to be solved relates to how man can preserve "normal" sleep in a very abnormal environment. The challenge of managing fatigue and sleep loss during space mission has critical importance for the mental efficiency and safety of the crew and ultimately for the success of the mission itself. Numerous "earthly" examples now show that crew fatigue on ships, trucks, and long-haul jetliners can lead to inadequate performance and sometimes fatal consequences, a reality which has
Whiting, Wythe L; Murdock, Karla Klein
College students face consistent cognitive demands and often get insufficient and/or irregular sleep. The current study investigated associations of sleep duration and sleep variability with attentional performance. Sleep duration variability was expected to moderate the association between duration and cognitive functioning. College students' (n = 83) natural sleep patterns were recorded via wristband actigraphy across three consecutive nights during an academic term. The association between sleep duration and attentional capture was strongest for those whose sleep was the most consistent across the three nights preceding the attentional task (i.e., low sleep duration variability). For those with low sleep duration variability, less sleep was associated (B = -0.25) with reduced ability to ignore irrelevant cues and redirect attention to target locations. In other words, consistently low sleep duration was associated with compromises in attention. Our results indicate the importance of consistent sleep routines as well as sufficient sleep duration in order to optimize attentional performance in college students. PMID:26921151
Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.
Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during
Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith
The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58 [plus or minus] 1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression;…
Taylor, Daniel J; Bramoweth, Adam D
We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students. PMID:20472221
Cowie, Jennifer; Palmer, Cara A; Hussain, Hira; Alfano, Candice A
This study compared parents' retrospective reports of their involvement in infant settling strategies and their relation to current sleep patterns among children (N = 84, ages 7-11) with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and healthy controls. Parents of children with GAD were significantly more likely to report rocking their infants to sleep and putting infants down when they were already asleep than parents of healthy controls, even when accounting for infant health-related factors and parental anxiety. Greater involvement in infant sleep routines also predicted sleep patterns (measured via actigraphy) during childhood, though opposite relationships were observed in the two groups. Early involvement was related to poorer sleep in control children but better sleep for children with GAD even after controlling for current parenting practices. Findings suggest differential effects of early sleep-related parenting for children with and without later anxiety disorders with possible implications for early intervention. PMID:26493392
Liu, Alice; Cardell, James; Ariel, Danit; Lamendola, Cindy; Abbasi, Fahim; Kim, Sun H.; Holmes, Tyson H.; Tomasso, Vanessa; Mojaddidi, Hafasa; Grove, Kaylene; Kushida, Clete A.; Reaven, Gerald M.
Study Objective: Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), possibly related to dyslipidemia in these individuals. Insulin resistance is also common in OSA, but its contribution to dyslipidemia of OSA is unclear. The study's aim was to define the relationships among abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism, clinical measures of OSA, and insulin resistance. Design: Cross-sectional study. OSA severity was defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during polysomnography. Hypoxia measures were expressed as minimum and mean oxygen saturation, and the oxygen desaturation index. Insulin resistance was quantified by determining steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test. Fasting plasma lipid/lipoprotein evaluation was performed by vertical auto profile methodology. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: 107 nondiabetic, overweight/obese adults. Measurements and Results: Lipoprotein particles did not correlate with AHI or any hypoxia measures, nor were there differences noted by categories of OSA severity. By contrast, even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, SSPG was positively correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, P < 0.01), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and its subclasses (VLDL1+2) (r = 0.21–0.23, P < 0.05), and low density lipoprotein subclass 4 (LDL4) (r = 0.30, P < 0.01). SSPG was negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = −0.38, P < 0.001) and its subclasses (HDL2 and HDL3) (r = −0.32, −0.43, P < 0.01), and apolipoprotein A1 (r = −0.33, P < 0.01). Linear trends of these lipoprotein concentrations across SSPG tertiles were also significant. Conclusions: Pro-atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are related to insulin resistance, but not to OSA severity or degree of hypoxia. Insulin resistance may represent the link between OSA-related dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease
Meltzer, Lisa J.; Sanchez-Ortuno, Maria M.; Edinger, Jack D.; Avis, Kristin T.
Study Objectives: Parents of children with chronic illnesses have poorer health related quality of life (HRQoL), shorter sleep duration, and poorer sleep quality than parents of healthy children. However, night-to-night variability of sleep in parents has not previously been considered. This study compared the sleep patterns of parents of ventilator-assisted children (VENT) and healthy, typically developing children (HEALTHY), and examined the relationship between sleep variability and perceived HRQoL. Methods: Seventy-nine mothers and 33 fathers from 42 VENT families (n = 56) and 40 HEALTHY (n = 56) families completed the SF-36 and wore an actigraph for 2 weeks. Reported bedtime and wake time, along with actigraphic total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE) were examined using both average values and night-tonight instability (mean square successive differences). Results: VENT parents showed significantly later bedtimes, shorter TST, longer WASO, and lower SE than HEALTHY parents. VENT parents also exhibited greater instability in their reported wake time, WASO, and SE. Adjusting for family type and gender, greater instability of wake times, WASO and SE were related to poorer SF-36 subscale scores, while averaged sleep values were not. Conclusions: Many parents of ventilator-assisted children experience deficient sleep and show significant instability in their sleep, which was related to HRQoL. Similar to shift workers, variable sleep schedules that may result from caregiving responsibilities or stress may impact parental caregivers' health and well-being. Additional studies are needed to determine how support and other interventions can reduce sleep disruptions in parental caregivers. Citation: Meltzer LJ, Sanchez-Ortuno MM, Edinger JD, Avis KT. Sleep patterns, sleep instability, and health related quality of life in parents of ventilator-assisted children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):251–258. PMID:25515280
Miller, Nita Lewis; Tvaryanas, Anthony P.; Shattuck, Lawrence G.
Study Objective: This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep period of US Army recruits. Design: The quasi-experimental study compared recruits assigned to one of two training companies: one with a customary sleep regimen (20:30 to 04:30) while the other employed a phase-delayed sleep regimen (23:00 to 07:00), the latter aligning better with biologically driven sleep-wake patterns of adolescents. Setting: The study was conducted during Basic Combat Training (BCT) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Trainees: The study included 392 trainees: 209 received the intervention, while 183 composed the Comparison group. Measurements and Results: Demographic and psychophysiological measures were collected on all trainees. Weekly assessments of subjective fatigue and mood, periodic physical fitness, marksmanship scores, and attrition rates from BCT were studied. Actigraphy was collected on approximately 24% of trainees. Based on actigraphy, trainees on the phase-delayed sleep schedule obtained 31 m more sleep/night than trainees on the customary sleep schedule. The Intervention group reported less total mood disturbance relative to baseline. Improvements in marksmanship correlated positively with average nightly sleep during the preceding week when basic marksmanship skills were taught. No differences were seen in physical fitness or attrition rates. In contrast to the Intervention group, the Comparison group was 2.3 times more likely to experience occupationally significant fatigue and 5.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality. Conclusions: Accommodating adolescent sleep patterns significantly improves mental health and performance in the training environment. Citation: Miller NL; Tvaryanas AP; Shattuck LG. Accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns: the effects of shifting the timing of sleep on training effectiveness. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1123-1136. PMID:22851808
Arzi, Anat; Sela, Lee; Green, Amit; Givaty, Gili; Dagan, Yaron; Sobel, Noam
To assess the feasibility of using odors as a potential mechanism for treating sleep apnea, we set out to test the hypothesis that odorants delivered during sleep would modify respiratory patterns without inducing arousal or wake in healthy sleepers. We used 2 mildly trigeminal odorants: the pleasant lavender and unpleasant vetiver oil and 2 pure olfactory odorants: the pleasant vanillin and unpleasant ammonium sulfide. During sleep, an olfactometer delivered a transient odorant every 9, 12, or 15 min (randomized), providing 21-37 odorant presentations per night. Each of 36 participants was studied for 1 night and with 1 of the 4 different odorants tested. In addition to standard overnight polysomnography, we employed highly accurate measurements of nasal and oral respiration. Odorants did not increase the frequency of arousals or wake but did influence respiration. Specifically, all 4 odorants transiently decreased inhalation and increased exhalation for up to 6 breaths following odor onset. This effect persisted regardless of odorant valence or stage of sleep. These results suggest that the olfactory system may provide a path to manipulate respiration in sleep. PMID:19917590
Landau-Ferey, J; Rebelo, F; Glaser, P; Garma, L
5 patients admitted to intensive care following post-operative complications had EEG recordings on 2 consecutive nights some time after their operations. Study of the different sleep stages showed a marked increase in deep slow wave sleep and waking but asignificant reduction in light slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep. The appearance of the sleep cycles through the night was unusual with respect to the maximum occurrence of the various stages and their evolution. Finally certain characteristics of paradoxical sleep, the rhythm and duration of the phases and the number and frequency of ocular movements were also modified. Comparison of these findings with those previously reported show that these abnormalities, rather than suggesting sleep deprivation resemble more closely the fidings in shift workers when they resume night sleep after a period of day sleep. The also resemble the changes seen in people whose circadian rhythm has been displaced by 12 hours. PMID:565525
Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S.
Background: Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. Methods: A sample of…
Castellini, M A; Milsom, W K; Berger, R J; Costa, D P; Jones, D R; Castellini, J M; Rea, L D; Bharma, S; Harris, M
Although breath holding during diving has been studied extensively in seals, the recent observation that these mammals also exhibit long-duration apnea while apparently sleeping has not been systematically examined. This project examined sleep apnea in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris). The animals exhibited a sequential sleep pattern of wakefulness-slow-wave sleep (SWS)-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep that resembled the normal pattern of mammalian sleep. The typical respiratory pattern during sleep in 4-mo-old pups consisted of short periods of continuous breathing separated by periods of apnea of up to 12 min. Several cycles of apnea and eupnea could occur during a single sleep episode. Breathing during a sleep cycle occurred only in SWS, never during REM sleep. The eupneic heart rate was characterized by significant sinus arrhythmia, and the apneic heart rate was similar to the minimum value during normal sinus arrhythmia. Patterns of change in breathing and heart rate associated with wakefulness and sleep were similar in seals sleeping underwater and on land. When sleeping underwater, the seals raised their heads to the surface to breathe without awakening. The changes in heart rate associated with normal sinus arrhythmia, sleep apnea, and diving apnea appear to be similar, suggesting regulation by a common homeostatic control mechanism. PMID:8160882
Capellini, I.; Nunn, C. L.; McNamara, P.; Preston, B. T.; Barton, R. A.
Summary Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states – rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep – that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of sleep into several bouts per day), as having multiple sleep bouts avoids long periods of unconsciousness, potentially reducing vulnerability.Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested these predictions in mammals, and also investigated the relationships among sleep phasing, sleep-cycle length, sleep durations and body mass.Neither sleep-cycle length nor phasing of sleep was significantly associated with three different measures of predation risk, undermining the idea that they represent anti-predator adaptations.Polyphasic sleep was associated with small body size, shorter sleep cycles and longer sleep durations. The correlation with size may reflect energetic constraints: small animals need to feed more frequently, preventing them from consolidating sleep into a single bout. The reduced daily sleep quotas in monophasic species suggests that the consolidation of sleep into one bout per day may deliver the benefits of sleep more efficiently and, since early mammals were small-bodied and polyphasic, a more efficient monophasic sleep pattern could be a hitherto unrecognized advantage of larger size. PMID:20428321
Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Moraes, Walter André dos Santos; Andersen, Monica Levy; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio
Some individuals are able to successfully reach very old ages, reflecting higher adaptation against age-associated effects. Sleep is one of the processes deeply affected by aging; however few studies evaluating sleep in long-lived individuals (aged over 85) have been reported to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the sleep patterns and biochemical profile of oldest old individuals (N = 10, age 85–105 years old) and compare them to young adults (N = 15, age 20–30 years old) and older adults (N = 13, age 60–70 years old). All subjects underwent full-night polysomnography, 1-week of actigraphic recording and peripheral blood collection. Sleep electroencephalogram spectral analysis was also performed. The oldest old individuals showed lower sleep efficiency and REM sleep when compared to the older adults, while stage N3 percentage and delta power were similar across the groups. Oldest old individuals maintained strictly regular sleep-wake schedules and also presented higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels than older adults. The present study revealed novel data regarding specific sleep patterns and maintenance of slow wave sleep in the oldest old group. Taken together with the favorable lipid profile, these results contribute with evidence to the importance of sleep and lipid metabolism regulation in the maintenance of longevity in humans. PMID:25009494
Giannotti, Flavia; Cortesi, Flavia; Cerquiglini, Antonella; Miraglia, Daniela; Vagnoni, Cristina; Sebastiani, Teresa; Bernabei, Paola
This study investigated sleep of children with autism and developmental regression and the possible relationship with epilepsy and epileptiform abnormalities. Participants were 104 children with autism (70 non-regressed, 34 regressed) and 162 typically developing children (TD). Results suggested that the regressed group had higher incidence of…
Hoedlmoser, K; Kloesch, G; Wiater, A; Schabus, M
OBJECTIVES: Investigation of sleep patterns, sleep problems, and behavioral problems in 8- to 11-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 330 children (age: M=9.52; SD=0.56; range=8-11 years; 47.3% girls) in the 4th grade of elementary school in Salzburg (Austria) completed a self-report questionnaire (80 items) to survey sleep patterns, sleep problems, and behavioral problems. RESULTS: Children aged 8-11 years slept approximately 10 h and 13 min on school days (SD=47 min) as well as on weekends (SD=81 min); girls slept significantly longer on weekends than boys. Most common self-reported sleep problems were dryness of the mouth (26.6%), sleep onset delay (21.9%), bedtime resistance (20.3%), and restless legs (19.4%). There was a significant association between watching TV as well as playing computer games prior to sleep with frightful dreams. Daytime sleepiness indicated by difficulty waking up (33.4%) and having a hard time getting out of bed (28.5%) was also very prominent. However, children in Salzburg seemed to be less tired during school (6.6%) or when doing homework (4.8%) compared to other nationalities. Behavioral problems (e.g., emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and inattention, conduct problems, peer problems) and daytime sleepiness were both significantly associated with sleep problems: the more sleep problems reported, the worse behavioral problems and daytime sleepiness were. Moreover, we could show that sharing the bed with a pet was also related to sleep problems. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported sleep problems among 8- to 11-year-old children are very common. There is a strong relationship between sleep disorders and behavioral problems. Routine screening and diagnosis as well as treatment of sleep disorders in school children should, therefore, be established in the future. PMID:23162377
Ohaeri, J U; Adelekan, M F; Odejide, A O; Ikuesan, B A
In a cross-sectional study of the pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among the entire population of nursing students at the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Abeokuta, Nigeria (consisting of 58 males and 37 females), 44% admitted having experienced this phenomenon. The findings largely supported the results of a similar study of Nigerian medical students, except that there was a slight male preponderance among those who had the experience. Visual hallucination was the most common perceptual problem associated with the episodes, and all the affected subjects were most distressed by the experience. Whereas sleep paralysis in this country has not been found to be significantly associated with psychosocial distress or differences in personality profile, the popular view in Africa and the United States is that it is caused by witchcraft. PMID:1602503
Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J.
Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. PMID:26954762
Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J
Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. PMID:26954762
A series of important theoretical contributions flourished in the years 1950-1970 about displacement activities -- those 'out-of-context' actions expressed by organisms in stressful situations. Nothing really new has appeared thereafter. Although the models address different issues, such as causal factors of displacement, it appears obvious that they do not provide a unified (coherent) approach; they often explain the same phenomena using very different means and turn out to be contradictory on several points. In addition, some problems currently remain unsolved, especially concerning the fact that displacement activities exhibit 'abnormalities' of expression in comparison with the same activities performed in usual context. Each model is here described and criticized in order to evaluate its explanatory power and allow the identification of specific limits. A new, integrative model -- the Anticipatory Dynamics Model (or ADM) -- then attempts to overcome the failures of previous models. The ADM suggests that abnormal patterns of displacement activities result from attentional interference caused by a thwarting experience or conflicting motivations. At least one theoretical prediction of the ADM can be differentiated from that of any other model. PMID:18554824
Buboltz, Walter, Jr., Jenkins, Steve M.; Soper, Barlow; Woller, Kevin; Johnson, Patrick; Faes, Theresa
This study represents an expansion of previous research investigating the prevalence of sleep difficulties in college students. Sleep quality and sleep habits were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Poor sleep quality was reported by 22.6% of participants, whereas 65.9% replied that they experienced occasional sleep problems. More than half…
Devine, Jaime K; Wolf, Jutta M
Both night-time sleep and nap behaviour have been linked consistently to health outcomes. Although reasons for napping are usually tied to night-time sleep, the majority of studies assess their effects independently. The current study thus aimed to examine the health relevance of patterns of sleep behaviour that take into account both night-time and daytime sleep habits. Night-time sleep, recorded during 7 days via actigraphy from 313 participants (aged 34-82 years) of the Midlife in the United States II Biomarker study, was assessed. Blood and urine specimens were assayed for noradrenaline, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Participants self-reported nap behaviour, depressive symptoms, perceived chronic stress and the presence of medical symptoms and conditions. Overall, nappers (n = 208) showed elevated waist-hip ratios, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels compared to non-nappers and reported more physiological symptoms and conditions (all P ≤ 0.019). Within nappers, cluster analysis revealed three patterns of sleep behaviour-infrequent nappers with good night-time sleep, frequent nappers with good night-time sleep and nappers with poor night-time sleep. Nappers with poor night-time sleep thereby exhibited elevated noradrenaline levels, depressive symptoms and perceived stress scores compared to other groups (all P ≤ 0.041). These findings support the idea that nap-health relationships are complex, in that frequency of napping and accumulation of nap sleep is not related linearly to health consequences. Assessing nap behaviour in conjunction with night-time sleep behaviour appeared crucial to elucidate further the health relevance of napping, particularly in terms of psychological health outcomes, including chronic stress and depressive symptoms. PMID:26718988
Luiselli, James K.; Magee, Christine; Sperry, James M.; Parker, Shawn
There is little information about the sleep patterns of adults who have mental retardation and are supported in the community. In the present study, direct-care staff recorded sleep behaviors of 59 adults residing in 16 suburban group homes. Based on direct observation and measurement procedures, the adults averaged 7.9 hours of sleep each evening…
Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Beebe, Dean; Byars, Kelly
The diagnostic criteria for Angelman syndrome includes sleep disturbance as an associated characteristic. There are, however, few researchers who have examined sleep problems in this population. Our goal in this study was to better characterize the sleep patterns and problems in individuals with Angelman syndrome. Parents of 339 individuals…
Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.
The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.
Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas
The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…
Elias, M F; Nicolson, N A; Bora, C; Johnston, J
Published norms for infant sleep/wake patterns during the first 2 years of life include an increase in length of maximum sleep bout from four to five to eight to ten hours by 4 months but little decrease in total sleep in 24 hours from 13 to 15 hours. Thirty-two breast-fed infants were followed for 2 years and data collected on 24-hour patterns of nursing and sleep. Infants who were breast-fed into the second year did not develop sleep/wake patterns in conformance with the norms. Instead of having long unbroken night sleep, they continued to sleep in short bouts with frequent wakings. Their total sleep in 24 hours was less than that of weaned infants. This pattern was most pronounced in infants who both nursed and shared a bed with the mother, common practices in many nonwestern cultures. The sleep/wake development accepted as the physiologic norm may be attributable to the early weaning and separated sleeping practiced in western culture. As prolonged breast-feeding becomes more popular in our society, the norms of sleep/wake patterns in infancy will have to be revised. PMID:3951913
Hashizaki, Masanori; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Kume, Kazuhiko
Many people find that their sleep is restricted or disturbed by social obligations, including work. Sleep phase delays can affect an individual’s circadian rhythms on the following day and cause daytime sleepiness and/or poor performance. In this study, to examine weekly variations in sleep patterns, we analyzed sleep data for seven-day periods (from Sunday to Saturday) that had been collected from 2914 subjects (aged 20–79 years) over a total of 24,899 subject-weeks using contactless biomotion sensors. On the weekend, the subjects’ mean sleep midpoint, bedtime, and wake-up time were delayed by 40, 26 and 53 min, respectively, compared with those seen on weekdays. In addition, on weekdays, the mean difference between the maximum and median sleep midpoint ranged from 35 to 47 min among the subjects in their 20 s–70 s. The weekend delay and weekday variation in the subjects’ sleep patterns tended to decrease with age. This study detected sleep pattern disturbances on both weekdays and weekends. The serial changes in weekday bedtimes detected in this study suggest that sleep habits are influenced by changes in the temporal patterns of social activities/duties. We need further study the advantages of getting extra sleep and the disadvantages of sleep pattern disturbances in daily lifestyle. PMID:26247948
Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How
Abstract Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state. Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time. A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy. Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal
Shearer, David A; Jones, Rhys M; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J
No published research has assessed sleep patterns of elite rugby union players following match-play. The present study examined sleep patterns of professional rugby union players, prior and post-match-play, to assess the influence of competition. Twenty-eight male rugby union players (24.4 ± 2.9 years, 103.9 ± 12.2 kg) competed in one of four competitive home matches. Player's sleep behaviours were monitored continuously using an Actiwatch® from two days before the match, until three days post-match. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences across the time points measured for time to bed (F = 26.425, η(2) = 0.495, p < .001), get up time (F = 21.175, η(2) = 0.440, p < .001), time spent in bed (F = 10.669, η(2) = 0.283, p < .001), time asleep (F = 8.752, η(2) = 0.245, p < .001) and percentage of time moving (F = 4.602, η(2) = 0.146 p < .05). Most notable, post hocs revealed a significant increase for time in bed the night before the match (p < .01; 95% CI = 0 : 10-1 : 28 h; 9.7 ± 13.5%) compared with the reference night sleep. Furthermore, time asleep significantly decreased post-match (p < .05; 95% CI = -0:03 to -1:59 h; -19.5 ± 19.8%) compared to two nights pre-match. Across all time points, sleep latency and efficiency for most players were considered abnormal compared to that expected in normal populations. The results demonstrate that sleep that is deprived post-match may have detrimental effects on the recovery process. PMID:26255667
Lima, P F; Medeiros, A L D; Araujo, J F
The sleep-wake cycle of students is characterized by delayed onset, partial sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality. Like other circadian rhythms, the sleep-wake cycle is influenced by endogenous and environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of different class starting times on the sleep-wake pattern of 27 medical students. The data were collected during two medical school semesters having different class starting times. All subjects answered the Portuguese version of the Horne and Ostberg Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and kept a sleep diary for two weeks during each semester. Better sleep quality (PSQI = 5.3 vs 3.4), delayed sleep onset (23:59 vs 0:54 h) and longer sleep duration (6 h and 55 min vs 7 h and 25 min) were observed with the late schedule. We also found reduced sleep durations during weekdays and extended sleep durations during weekends. This pattern was more pronounced during the semester with the early class schedule, indicating that the students were more sleep deprived when their classes began earlier in the morning. These results require further investigation regarding the temporal organization of our institutions. PMID:12426638
Lemma, Seblewengel; Patel, Sheila V; Tarekegn, Yared A; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Berhane, Yemane; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A
Objective. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios for the associations of poor sleep quality with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results. Overall 52.7% of students were classified as having poor sleep quality (51.8% among males and 56.9% among females). In adjusted multivariate analyses, caffeine consumption (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.25-1.92), cigarette smoking (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06-2.63), and khat use (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.09-2.71) were all associated with increased odds of long-sleep latency (>30 minutes). Cigarette smoking (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11-2.73) and khat consumption (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.22-3.00) were also significantly associated with poor sleep efficiency (<85%), as well as with increased use of sleep medicine. Conclusion. Findings from the present study demonstrate the high prevalence of poor sleep quality and its association with stimulant use among college students. Preventive and educational programs for students should include modules that emphasize the importance of sleep and associated risk factors. PMID:23710363
Honomichl, Ryan D.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Burnham, Melissa; Gaylor, Erika; Anders, Thomas F.
Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children (ages 2-11) with pervasive developmental disorders. Slightly more than half of parents reported a sleep problem in their child. All of the children exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. (Contains references.)…
Lecube, Albert; Sampol, Gabriel; Hernández, Cristina; Romero, Odile; Ciudin, Andreea; Simó, Rafael
Background Although sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), it is unknown whether or not subjects with and without T2D share the same sleep breathing pattern. Methodology/Principal findings A cross-sectional study in patients with SAHS according to the presence (n = 132) or not (n = 264) of T2D. Both groups were matched by age, gender, BMI, and waist and neck circumferences. A subgroup of 125 subjects was also matched by AHI. The exclusion criteria included chronic respiratory disease, alcohol abuse, use of sedatives, and heart failure. A higher apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was observed in T2D patients [32.2 (10.2–114.0) vs. 25.6 (10.2–123.4) events/hours; p = 0.002). When sleep events were evaluated separately, patients with T2D showed a significant increase in apnea events [8.4 (0.1–87.7) vs. 6.3 (0.0–105.6) e/h; p = 0.044), as well as a two-fold increase in the percentage of time spent with oxygen saturation <90% [15.7 (0.0–97.0) vs. 7.9 (0.0–95.6) %; <0.001)], higher rates of oxygen desaturation events, and also higher daily sleepiness [7.0 (0.0–21.0) vs. 5.0 (0.0–21.0); p = 0.006)] than subjects without T2D. Significant positive correlations between fasting plasma glucose and AHI, the apnea events, and CT90 were observed. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses showed that T2D was independently associated with AHI (R2 = 0.217), the apnea index (R2 = 0.194), CT90 (R2 = 0.222), and desaturation events. Conclusions/significance T2D patients present a different pattern of sleep breathing than subject without diabetes. The most important differences are the severity of hypoxemia and the number of apneas whereas the incidence of hypopnea episodes is similar. PMID:25760760
Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert
Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…
Wolfson, Amy; And Others
Assigned 60 couples to training group learning behavioral strategies to promote healthy sleep patterns in infants or to control group. At 6-9 weeks, training group infants displayed significantly better sleeping patterns than did control infants. Training group parents awakened and responded less often to infant signaling and reported greater…
Frost, J. D., Jr.; Salamy, J. G.
The Skylab sleep-monitoring experiment simulated the timelines and environment expected during a 56-day Skylab mission. Two crewmembers utilized the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and their sleep characteristics were studied in an online fashion during a number of all night recording sessions. Comparison of the results of online automatic analysis with those of postmission visual data analysis was favorable, confirming the feasibility of obtaining reliable objective information concerning sleep characteristics during the Skylab missions. One crewmember exhibited definite changes in certain sleep characteristics (e.g., increased sleep latency, increased time Awake during first third of night, and decreased total sleep time) during the mission.
Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Sakashita, Yukine
With a questionnaire answered by parents this study investigated the sleeping pattern of children attending kindergartens or nursery schools and the function of an afternoon nap. Sleeping pattern was investigated by a questionnaire with 441 young children (229 boys and 212 girls) attending kindergartens or nursery schools at the ages of 3 to 6 years old. Nighttime sleep did not show any significant change, while daytime naps decreased drastically and almost disappeared by the age of 6. Nursery school children went to bed later at night, so nighttime sleep was shorter than that of kindergartners. They also reported having more 'difficulty to fall asleep', more frequent 'staying-up at late night', less 'not getting enough sleep', worse 'mood at rising', and more 'unwillingness to go to their schools'. To investigate whether afternoon naps, which are routine at Japanese nursery schools, can compensate for sleep insufficiency on the previous night and whether they have the effect of delaying the onset of the subsequent nighttime sleep, we compared sleep duration on the previous night and the sleep onset time between the days with and without an afternoon nap. The afternoon nap appeared to cause delayed sleep onset but was not a result of sleep deficiency. PMID:11883566
Baker, Emma K.; Richdale, Amanda L.
Study Objectives: To examine sleep patterns and sleep problems and their relationship with daytime functioning in adults with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder and no comorbid intellectual disability (high-functioning autism spectrum disorder [HFASD]) compared to neurotypical (NT) adults. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Home-based study. Participants: 36 adults with HFASD and 36 age-, intelligence quotient- and sex-matched NT adults. Measurements: Participants completed an online questionnaire battery including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 14-d sleep wake diary and 14-d actigraphy data collection. Results: Adults with HFASD had significantly more general sleep disturbances and higher scores on the PSQI, longer sleep onset latencies (actigraphy), and poorer sleep efficiency (diary) and these results remained significant after accounting for the False Discovery Rate. Those adults with HFASD who did not have a comorbid diagnosis of anxiety/depression had significantly shorter total sleep time (diary and actigraphy) compared to NT adults. Compared to NT adults, the HFASD group self-reported significantly poorer refreshment scores upon waking in the morning and higher scores on the daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness subscale of the PSQI. Conclusions: These findings support the notion that problems related to sleep, in particular insomnia, continue into adulthood in individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Citation: Baker EK, Richdale AL. Sleep patterns in adults with a diagnosis of high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1765–1774. PMID:26237770
Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul
Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) have experienced multiple traumas and are a high-risk group for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The effects of trauma are known to be associated with sleep problems; indeed sleeping problems are core features of PTSD. However, there has been no systematic research examining the sleep of this high risk group of children. This study presents the first evidence on the sleeping patterns of Afghan UASC living in the UK. A total of 222 male Afghan children, aged 13-18, were interviewed using validated self-report questionnaires measuring sleeping patterns and PTSD. Overall, UASC patterns for bed time and rise time appear acculturated to the country of asylum. Mean UASC sleep onset latency scores were approximately 20 minutes greater compared with normative scores, which may be a reflection of UASC pre-migration and post-migration experiences. As expected, UASC who screened above the clinical cut-off for PTSD reported significantly greater sleep onset latency, increased nightmares, and less total sleep time compared to the non-PTSD group. The results may be of particular interest to clinicians given that, compared to screening for PTSD, screening for sleep problems may be a less culturally disputed form of initial assessment indicating distress in UASC. Similarly, the field of UASC and refugee child interventions is largely focused on trauma, yet sleep may provide a novel avenue for equally or more effective treatment. PMID:23457517
Prabhakar, Nanduri R
What is the topic of this review? This article presents emerging evidence for heightened carotid body chemoreflex activity as a major driver of sympathetic activation and hypertension in sleep apnoea patients. What advances does it heighlight? This article discusses the recent advances on cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the exaggerated chemoreflex in experimental models of sleep apnoea. The carotid bodies are the principal peripheral chemoreceptors for detecting changes in arterial blood oxygen concentration, and the resulting chemoreflex is a potent regulator of the sympathetic tone, blood pressure and breathing. Sleep apnoea is a disease of the respiratory system that affects several million adult humans. Apnoeas occur during sleep, often as a result of obstruction of the upper airway (obstructive sleep apnoea) or because of defective respiratory rhythm generation by the CNS (central sleep apnoea). Patients with sleep apnoea exhibit several co-morbidities, with the most notable among them being heightened sympathetic nerve activity and hypertension. Emerging evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia resulting from periodic apnoea stimulates the carotid body, and the ensuing chemoreflex mediates the increased sympathetic tone and hypertension in sleep apnoea patients. Rodent models of intermittent hypoxia that simulate the O2 saturation profiles encountered during sleep apnoea have provided important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the heightened carotid body chemoreflex. This article describes how intermittent hypoxia affects the carotid body function and discusses the cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the exaggerated chemoreflex. PMID:27474260
Brooks, Peggy R.; Girgenti, Alicia A.; Mills, Maura J.
College students have long been considered a population particularly affected by sleep difficulties. Previous studies have confirmed individuals with sleep disturbances may be at risk for development of depression. This study provides evidence in support of the hypothesis that sleep and specific aspects of depression are related. 147 students…
Mao, Amy; Burnham, Melissa M.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Gaylor, Erika E.; Anders, Thomas F.
This study examined whether 3-15, month-old cosleeping infants displayed differences in time spent in active versus quiet sleep, and in the number/duration of nighttime awakenings when compared with solitary-sleeping infants; and also whether they spent the majority of the night sleeping face-to-face, as previously reported. Nine cosleeping and…
Sharma, Piyush Kumar; Shukla, Garima; Gupta, Anupama; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri
There is an increasing awareness for recognition of sleep disorders in India; however, there is still a huge gap in the number of people suffering from various sleep disorders, in the community versus those visiting hospital clinics for the same. Ours is a neurology services-based sleep disorders clinic, which has evolved successfully over the last decade. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in referral patterns and distribution of various sleep disorders in the patients presenting to the clinic. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective chart review-based study on all patients seen over an 8-year period, divided into 2 groups comprising of patients seen during the first 4 years versus those seen over the next 4 years. Only those patients who had the sleep disorder as their presenting manifestation and those who had been formally interviewed with a pre-structured questionnaire detailing about the main features of the common sleep disorders according to the ICSD-R were included. Patients, in whom the sleep disorder could be clearly attributable to another neurological or systemic disorder, were excluded. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify the differences between the two groups as regards the distribution of various sleep disorders and other clinical data. Results: Among 710 patients registered in the clinic, 469 were included for analysis and 222 patients formed group 1 while 247 formed group 2. The main differences observed were in the form of a clear increase in the percentage of patients with sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorder, and the hypersomnias on comparison of distribution over the first 4 years versus the last 4 years; while a clear decline was seen in the number of patients with insomnia and parasomnias. A 3-fold increase was observed in the number of patients in whom polysomnography was obtained. Conclusion: The distribution of various sleep disorders as seen in a neurology service-based sleep
Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Zeiders, Katharine H; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; De Jesús, Sue A Rodríguez
Late adolescence is a period of substantial risk for unhealthy sleep patterns. This study investigated the contextual correlates and health and adjustment implications of sleep patterns among Mexican American youth (N = 246; 51% female). We focused on Mexican American youth because they represent a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the US population that is at higher risk for health and adjustment problems; this higher risk may be explained, in part, by sleep patterns. Using data from seven phone diary interviews conducted when youth averaged 18 years of age, we assessed average nighttime sleep duration and night-to-night variability in sleep duration. Guided by socio-ecological models, we first examined how experiences in the family context (time spent and quality of relationships with parents, parents' familism values) and in extra-familial contexts (school, work, peers) were related to sleep duration and variability. The findings revealed that time spent in school, work, and with peers linked to less sleep. Further, conflict with mothers was related to greater sleep variability. Next, we tested the implications of sleep in late adolescence for health (perceived physical health, body mass index) and adjustment (depressive symptoms, risky behaviors) in young adulthood. These findings indicated that more sleep variability predicted relative decreases in health and increases in risky behaviors, and shorter sleep duration predicted relative decreases in poorer perceived health for males. The discussion highlights the significance of the transition to young adulthood as a target for sleep research and the importance of studying sleep within its socio-cultural context. PMID:25047598
Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; McHale, Susan M.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; De Jesús, Sue A. Rodríguez
Late adolescence is a period of substantial risk for unhealthy sleep patterns. This study investigated the contextual correlates and health and adjustment implications of sleep patterns among Mexican American youth (N = 246; 51% female). We focused on Mexican American youth because they represent a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the U.S. population that is at higher risk for health and adjustment problems; this higher risk may be explained, in part, by sleep patterns. Using data from 7 phone diary interviews conducted when youth averaged 18 years of age, we assessed average nighttime sleep duration and night-to-night variability in sleep duration. Guided by socio-ecological models, we first examined how experiences in the family context (time spent and quality of relationships with parents, parents’ familism values) and in extra-familial contexts (school, work, peers) were related to sleep duration and variability. The findings revealed that time spent in school, work, and with peers linked to less sleep. Further, conflict with mothers was related to greater sleep variability. Next, we tested the implications of sleep in late adolescence for health (perceived physical health, body mass index) and adjustment (depressive symptoms, risky behaviors) in young adulthood. These findings indicated that more sleep variability predicted relative decreases in health and increases in risky behaviors, and shorter sleep duration predicted relative decreases in poorer perceived health for males. The discussion highlights the significance of the transition to young adulthood as a target for sleep research and the importance of studying sleep within its socio-cultural context. PMID:25047598
Robillard, Rébecca; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; White, Django; Rogers, Naomi L.; Ip, Tony K.C.; Mullin, Sharon J.; Alvares, Gail A.; Guastella, Adam J.; Smith, Kristie Leigh; Rong, Ye; Whitwell, Bradley; Southan, James; Glozier, Nick; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.
Background The nature of sleep-wake abnormalities in individuals with mental disorders remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the differences in objective ambulatory measures of the sleep-wake and activity cycles across young people with anxiety, mood or psychotic disorders. Methods Participants underwent several days of actigraphy monitoring. We divided participants into 5 groups (control, anxiety disorder, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, psychotic disorder) according to primary diagnosis. Results We enrolled 342 participants aged 12–35 years in our study: 41 healthy controls, 56 with anxiety disorder, 135 with unipolar depression, 80 with bipolar disorder and 30 with psychotic disorders. Compared with the control group, sleep onset tended to occur later in the anxiety, depression and bipolar groups; sleep offset occurred later in all primary diagnosis groups; the sleep period was longer in the anxiety, bipolar and psychosis groups; total sleep time was longer in the psychosis group; and sleep efficiency was lower in the depression group, with a similar tendency for the anxiety and bipolar groups. Sleep parameters were significantly more variable in patient subgroups than in controls. Cosinor analysis revealed delayed circadian activity profiles in the anxiety and bipolar groups and abnormal circadian curve in the psychosis group. Limitations Although statistical analyses controlled for age, the sample included individuals from preadolescence to adulthood. Most participants from the primary diagnosis subgroups were taking psychotropic medications, and a large proportion had other comorbid mental disorders. Conclusion Our findings suggest that delayed and disorganized sleep offset times are common in young patients with various mental disorders. However, other sleep-wake cycle disturbances appear to be more prominent in broad diagnostic categories. PMID:25203899
Khazaie, Habibolah; Chehri, Azita; Sadeghi, Kheirollah; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Akram; Rezaei, Zahra
Introduction: Sleep hygiene was found as an important predictor for sleep quality. People’s sleep hygiene can have a major role in their daily function. The purpose of the study was to determine sleep hygiene patterns and sleep hygiene behaviors and factors affecting them in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1829 men and 1262 women were selected randomly from 50 clusters of different parts of the city. The inclusion criteria were age between 12 and 65 years and living in Kermanshah. The exclusion criteria were psychiatric disorder and known general medical conditions that affecting sleep. The data collection instruments were demographic questionnaire and Sleep Hygiene Questionnaire, consisted of 13 items about biological rhythm and bed room environment and behaviors that affecting sleep. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 software. Results: The highest percentage was obtained for irregular woke and went up from day to day or at weekend and holidays (74.8%). Only 213 (6.9%) participants were classified as having good sleep hygiene (score 12-14). The mean age of very poor, poor, moderate, and good sleepers was 34.8 ± 14.4, 33.7 ± 17.4, 36.5 ± 13.8, and 35 ± 13.7years, respectively. There were significant differences between the age of poor and moderate sleepers and also sleep hygiene patterns with respect to sex, education level and job. Conclusion: Poor sleep hygiene were more frequent in Iranian peoples and the major problem in sleep hygiene in our study was inappropriate sleep schedule. PMID:27045403
Tsui, Y. Y.; Wing, Y. K.
Objective: To investigate sleep patterns and problems of university business students. Participants: Undergraduate Chinese business students in Hong Kong. Methods: Self-reported questionnaires were completed during class lectures and through online system. Results: Of the 620 participating students (mean age 19.9 years), sleep duration was…
Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B
The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance. PMID:11765249
Graef, Danielle M.; Janicke, David M.; McCrae, Christina S.
Study Objectives: To examine the sleep patterns and the role of day of the week and school break in these patterns within a primarily obese sample of children. Methods: Participants included 143 obese children (8-12 years) and their parents initiating treatment in a weight-management study in a community-based setting. Demographics, anthropometrics, and objectively measured sleep (i.e., with use of Sensewear Armbands) were collected prior to treatment. Results: Sleep duration was insufficient in our sample, as approximately 88% obtained less than 8 hours of sleep (mean = 6.92, standard deviation = 0.85). Those with lower total sleep time included older children, those identified as African American (compared to those identified as Caucasian), and those identified as Non-Hispanic (compared to those identified as Hispanic). Children on school break initiated sleep later than those in school the week of measurement. Children woke later on weekends and when on school break. There were no differences in day of the week or school break in predicting child sleep duration and total wake time (p's > 0.05). Conclusions: This study is one of the first to examine sleep patterns within a primarily obese sample of treatment-seeking rural children. There is a need for research to develop a better understanding of how sleep may affect health functioning and weight management, as well as quality of life and psychosocial functioning of children who are overweight or obese. Clinical Trials Information: Title of trial: Extension Family Lifestyle Intervention Project (E-FLIP for Kids). Clinical-Trials.gov identifier: NCT01820338. NIH/NIDDK Grant #: 1R18DK082374-01. Citation: Graef DM, Janicke DM, McCrae CS. Sleep patterns of a primarily obese sample of treatment-seeking children. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1111-1117. PMID:25317092
Chamorro, Rodrigo; Ferri, Raffaele; Algarín, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio
Study Objectives: To compare sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) characteristics in otherwise healthy overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) children Design: Polysomnographic cross-sectional study Setting: Sleep laboratory Participants: Fifty-eight (26 NW and 32 OW) 10-year-old children Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Participants were part of a longitudinal study beginning in infancy and free of sleep disorders. Groups were based on body-mass index (BMI) z-score. From polysomnographic overnight recordings, sleep-waking states were scored according to international criteria. CAP analysis was performed visually during NREM sleep. Conventional sleep parameters were similar between groups. BMI was positively related to CAP rate and CAP sequences but inversely related to CAP B phase duration. Differences between groups were confined to slow-wave sleep (SWS), with OW children showing higher CAP rate, CAP cycles, and CAP A1 number and index and shorter CAP cycles and B phase duration. They also showed more CAP class intervals shorter than 30 s, and a suggestive trend for fewer intervals longer than 30 s. Conclusions: Cyclic alternating pattern characteristics in children related to nutritional status and were altered in overweight subjects during slow-wave sleep. We suggest that the more frequent oscillatory pattern of electroencephalographic slow activity in overweight subjects might reflect less stable slow-wave sleep episodes. Citation: Chamorro R; Ferri R; Algarin C; Garrido M; Lozoff B; Peirano P. Sleep cyclic alternating pattern in otherwise healthy overweight school-age children. SLEEP 2014;37(3):557-560. PMID:24587578
Trousselard, Marion; Leger, Damien; van Beers, Pascal; Coste, Olivier; Vicard, Arnaud; Pontis, Julien; Crosnier, Sylvain-Nicolas; Chennaoui, Mounir
Background To assess the effects of isolation, inadequate exposure to light and specific shift work on the subjective and objective measurements of sleep and alertness of submariners. Purpose A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with the polysomnography recorded twice during the mission. Methods Setting: Shift and night work with prolonged (70 days) social isolation from the real world (with no phone or Internet contact with families or friends during a routine mission aboard the “Téméraire” French Strategic Submarine with Ballistic Nuclear missiles (SSBN). Participants: 19 submariners working on a 24-hour shift for three days in a row schedule. Interventions: The participants attended two polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of night sleep on Day 21 (D21) and Day 51 (D51) of the 70-day patrol; urine cortisol levels were also taken after sleep, and subjective assessments of sleep, sleepiness, mood and anxiety on D21 and D51. The light and temperature on board were also recorded. Results PSG analyses showed that sleep did not significantly vary in length (total sleep time) or in quality between D21 and D51. The mariners reported the same subjective sleep, sleepiness, anxiety or mood (except for a slightly worse score for confusion on D51). Blood cortisol levels did not vary significantly. Conclusions These results show that humans living in an isolated environment for more than two months with this specific shift schedule do not suffer from any significant effects on sleep, sleepiness and confusion between D21 and D51, when they follow an organized regular shift pattern with controlled light and temperature. PMID:26016656
Nicholas, Christian L.; Jordan, Amy S.; Heckel, Leila; Worsnop, Christopher; Bei, Bei; Saboisky, Julian P.; Eckert, Danny J.; White, David P.; Malhotra, Atul; Trinder, John
Study Objectives: Upper airway muscles such as genioglossus (GG) and tensor palatini (TP) reduce activity at sleep onset. In GG reduced muscle activity is primarily due to inspiratory modulated motor units becoming silent, suggesting reduced respiratory pattern generator (RPG) output. However, unlike GG, TP shows minimal respiratory modulation and presumably has few inspiratory modulated motor units and minimal input from the RPG. Thus, we investigated the mechanism by which TP reduces activity at sleep onset. Design: The activity of TP motor units were studied during relaxed wakefulness and over the transition from wakefulness to sleep. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Nine young (21.4 ± 3.4 years) males were studied on a total of 11 nights. Intervention: Sleep onset. Measurements and Results: Two TP EMGs (thin, hooked wire electrodes), and sleep and respiratory measures were recorded. One hundred twenty-one sleep onsets were identified (13.4 ± 7.2/subject), resulting in 128 motor units (14.3 ± 13.0/subject); 29% of units were tonic, 43% inspiratory modulated (inspiratory phasic 18%, inspiratory tonic 25%), and 28% expiratory modulated (expiratory phasic 21%, expiratory tonic 7%). There was a reduction in both expiratory and inspiratory modulated units, but not tonic units, at sleep onset. Reduced TP activity was almost entirely due to de-recruitment. Conclusions: TP showed a similar distribution of motor units as other airway muscles. However, a greater proportion of expiratory modulated motor units were active in TP and these expiratory units, along with inspiratory units, tended to become silent over sleep onset. The data suggest that both expiratory and inspiratory drive components from the RPG are reduced at sleep onset in TP. Citation: Nicholas CL; Jordan AS; Heckel L; Worsnop C; Bei B: Saboisky JP; Eckert DJ; White DP; Malhotra A; Trinder J. Discharge patterns of human tensor palatini motor units during sleep onset. SLEEP 2012;35(5):699-707. PMID
Coleman, Cassandra M.; Johnson, Eric D.; Shaw, Cynthia
Narcolepsy, a disorder characterized by fragmented bouts of sleep and wakefulness during the day and night as well as cataplexy, has been linked in humans and non-human animals to the functional integrity of the orexinergic system. Adult orexin knockout mice and dogs with a mutation of the orexin receptor exhibit symptoms that mirror those seen in narcoleptic humans. As with narcolepsy, infant sleep-wake cycles in humans and rats are highly fragmented, with consolidated bouts of sleep and wakefulness developing gradually. Based on these common features of narcoleptics and infants, we hypothesized that the development of sleep-wake fragmentation in orexin knockout mice would be expressed as a developmental divergence between knockouts and wild-types, with the knockouts lagging behind the wild-types. We tested this hypothesis by recording the sleep-wake patterns of infant orexin knockout and wild-type mice across the first three postnatal weeks. Both knockouts and wild-types exhibited age-dependent, and therefore orexin-independent, quantitative and qualitative changes in sleep-wake patterning. At 3 weeks of age, however, by which time the sleep and wake bouts of the wild-types had consolidated further, the knockouts lagged behind the wild-types and exhibited significantly more bout fragmentation. These findings suggest the possibility that the fragmentation of behavioral states that characterizes narcolepsy in adults reflects reversion back toward the more fragmented sleep-wake patterns that characterize infancy. PMID:17284193
Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.
Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.
Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Glass, Leon; Goldberger, Ary L.; Stanley, H. Eugene
Patients at high risk for sudden death often exhibit complex heart rhythms in which abnormal heartbeats are interspersed with normal heartbeats. We analyze such a complex rhythm in a single patient over a 12-h period and show that the rhythm can be described by a theoretical model consisting of two interacting oscillators with stochastic elements. By varying the magnitude of the noise, we show that for an intermediate level of noise, the model gives best agreement with key statistical features of the dynamics.
Robillard, Rébecca; Rogers, Naomi L.; Whitwell, Bradley G.
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that includes symptoms such as hallucinations, disordered thoughts, disorganized or catatonic behaviour, cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disturbance. In addition to these symptoms, cardiometabolic dysfunction is common in patients with schizophrenia. While previously it has been thought that cardiometabolic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were associated with medications used to manage this disorder, more recently it has been demonstrated that these symptoms are present in drug naive and unmedicated patients. Sleep-wake disturbance, resulting in chronic sleep loss has also been demonstrated to induce changes in cardiometabolic function. Chronic sleep loss has been associated with an increased risk for weight gain, obesity and cardiac and metabolic disorders, independent of other potentially contributing factors, such as smoking and body mass index. We hypothesise that the sleep-wake disturbance comorbid with schizophrenia may play a significant role in the high prevalence of cardiometabolic dysfunction observed in this patient population. Here we present a critical review of the evidence that supports this hypothesis. PMID:23429436
Sharkey, Katherine M; Iko, Ijeoma N; Machan, Jason T; Thompson-Westra, Johanna; Pearlstein, Teri B
Our goal was to examine associations of infant sleep and feeding patterns with maternal sleep and mood among women at risk for postpartum depression. Participants were 30 women (age ± SD = 28.3 ± 5.1 years) with a history of MDD (but not in a mood episode at enrollment) who completed daily sleep diaries, wore wrist actigraphs to estimate sleep, and had their mood assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) during four separate weeks of the perinatal period (33 weeks pregnancy and weeks 2, 6, and 16 postpartum). They logged their infants' sleep and feeding behaviors daily and reported postnatal stress on the Childcare Stress Inventory (CSI) at week 16. Mothers' actigraphically estimated sleep showed associations with infant sleep and feeding patterns only at postpartum week 2. Shorter duration of the longest infant-sleep bout was associated with shorter maternal sleep duration (p = .02) and lower sleep efficiency (p = .04), and maternal sleep efficiency was negatively associated with the number of infant-sleep bouts (p = .008) and duration of infant feeding (p = .008). Neither infant sleep nor feeding was associated with maternal sleep at 6 or 16 weeks, but more disturbed infant sleep and more frequent feeding at 6 weeks were associated with higher HAM-D scores at 6 and 16 weeks and higher CSI scores. Sleep in the mother-infant dyad is most tightly linked in the early postpartum weeks, but mothers continue to experience disturbed sleep and infant sleep and feeding behaviors continue to be associated with mothers' depressive symptoms and stress ratings as long as 16 weeks postpartum. These data imply that interventions designed to improve maternal sleep and postpartum mood should include both mothers and infants because improving infant sleep alone is not likely to improve maternal sleep, and poor infant sleep is linked to postpartum depression and stress. PMID:26228760
Duncan, W C; Barbato, G; Fagioli, I; Garcia-Borreguero, D; Wehr, T A
Twenty-four hour sleep patterns were measured in six healthy male volunteers during a 90-minute short sleep-wake (SW 30:60) cycle protocol for 48 hours. Sleep pressure estimates (amount of Slow Wave Sleep [SWS], SWA, and Rate of Synchronization [RoS: the rate of SWA build-up at the beginning of the NREM period]) were compared with the 24-hour patterns of body temperature (Tb24) and sleep propensity. A moderate sleep debt was incurred over the 48 hour study as indicated by decreased levels of 24 hour sleep. On day 1, ultradian patterns of REM and SWS sleep were prominent; on day 2, more prominent were circadian patterns of REM sleep, SWS, Sleep Latency, TST and Tb24. Also on Day 2, biphasic patterns of SWA and RoS were expressed, with peaks occurring during the falling and rising limbs of Tb24. The biphasic peaks in SWA and RoS may be associated with phase-specific interactions of the circadian pacemaker with the sleep homeostat during conditions of moderate sleep pressure. Further research is needed to replicate the finding and to identify biological factors that may underlie the twelve hour pattern in SWA. PMID:20162861
Tamura, Norihisa; Tanaka, Hideki
Subjective insufficient sleep and delayed sleep-wake patterns have been reported as the primary causes for daytime sleepiness, a reasonably significant and prevalent problem for adolescents worldwide. Systematic reviews have indicated that the success of sleep education programs has thus far been inconsistent, due to the lack of a tailored approach that allows for evaluation of individual differences in behavior patterns. One way to resolve this problem is to assess the individual sleep behaviors of adolescents by using a checklist containing the recommended behaviors for promoting sleep health. Such self-help education programs have already been implemented for elementary school children, school nurses and the elderly. The present study aimed to verify the effects of a sleep education program with supplementary self-help treatment, based on a checklist of sleep-promoting behaviors, in addition to evaluation of changes in sleeping patterns, sleep-promoting behaviors and daytime sleepiness in adolescents. A cluster randomized controlled trial involving 5 Japanese junior high schools was conducted, and 243 students (sleep education: n = 122; waiting list: n = 121; 50.6% female; 7th grade) were included in the final analysis. The sleep education group was provided with information on proper sleep health and sleep-promoting behaviors. The students in this group were asked to practice one sleep-promoting behavior as a goal for 2 weeks and to monitor their practice using sleep diaries. Both pre- and post-treatment questionnaires were administered to students in order to assess knowledge of sleep-promoting behaviors, sleeping patterns and daytime functioning. Students in the sleep education group showed significant improvement in their knowledge of sleep health (F1,121 = 648.05, p < 0.001) and in their sleep-promoting behaviors (F1,121 = 55.66, p < 0.001). Bedtime on both school nights (F1,121 = 50.86, p < 0.001) and weekends (F1,121 = 15.03, p < 0.001), sleep
Gumenyuk, Valentina; Howard, Ryan; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Drake, Christopher L.
Study Objectives: Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. Methods: Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was evaluated using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Electrophysiological distractibility was evaluated by brain event-related potentials (ERP), whereas behavioral distractibility was evaluated by performance on a visual task in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Statistical analyses: Comparisons of ERP results were performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, and t-tests were used where appropriate. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of variables (MLST, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and DLMO) that deviated from normal. Results: First, in the SWD group, the reorienting negativity ERP amplitude was significantly attenuated compared to that in the NW group. Second, the SWD group had shorter MSLT during night shift hours (4.8 ± 4.9 min) compared to that in NW (7.8 ± 3.7 min; U = 47; z = -2.1; P < 0.03). Third, NW with SWD had a DLMO at 20:27 ± 5.0 h, whereas healthy NW had a DLMO at 05:00 ± 3.4 h (U = 43.5; z = -2.22, P < 0.03). Finally, acute sleep deprivation impaired behavioral performance and the P3a ERP in both groups. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate specific deficits in neurophysiological activity in the attentional domain among the shift-work disorder group relative to night workers. Citation: Gumenyuk V; Howard R; Roth T; Korzyukov O; Drake CL. Sleep loss, circadian mismatch, and abnormalities in reorienting of attention in night workers with shift work disorder. SLEEP 2014
Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Smith, Besa; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Boyko, Edward J.; Gackstetter, Gary D.; Gehrman, Philip; Macera, Carol A.; Smith, Tyler C.
Study Objectives: To determine the associations between deployment in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and sleep quantity and quality. Design: Longitudinal cohort study Setting: The Millennium Cohort Study survey is administered via a secure website or US mail. Participants: Data were from 41,225 Millennium Cohort members who completed baseline (2001–2003) and follow-up (2004–2006) surveys. Participants were placed into 1 of 3 exposure groups based on their deployment status at follow-up: nondeployed, survey completed during deployment, or survey completed postdeployment. Measurements and Results: Study outcomes were self-reported sleep duration and trouble sleeping, defined as having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep. Adjusted mean sleep duration was significantly shorter among those in the deployed and postdeployment groups compared with those who did not deploy. Additionally, male gender and greater stress were significantly associated with shorter sleep duration. Personnel who completed their survey during deployment or postdeployment were significantly more likely to have trouble sleeping than those who had not deployed. Lower self-reported general health, female gender, and reporting of mental health symptoms at baseline were also significantly associated with increased odds of trouble sleeping. Conclusions: Deployment significantly influenced sleep quality and quantity in this population though effect size was mediated with statistical modeling that included mental health symptoms. Personnel reporting combat exposures or mental health symptoms had increased odds of trouble sleeping. These findings merit further research to increase understanding of temporal relationships between sleep and mental health outcomes occurring during and after deployment. Citation: Seelig AD; Jacobson IG; Smith B; Hooper TI; Boyko EJ; Gackstetter GD; Gehrman P; Macera CA; Smith TC. Sleep patterns before, during, and after deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan
Rowe, Meredeth A.; McCrae, Christina S.; Campbell, Judy M.; Pe Benito, Andrea; Cheng, Jing
Study Objectives: Informal caregivers of persons with dementia often complain about poor quality sleep; however, studies on caregivers have mixed results when examining sleep values. The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns in a subset of dementia caregivers who provide care during the night, and compare those patterns to noncaregiving adults. Methods: Data from a study on dementia caregivers and from a study of sleep in older adults were used. Both studies used objective and subjective methods to measure sleep in the home setting over a 7-day period. Participants were over 60 years old and relatively healthy. Results: Older dementia caregivers had worse objectively measured sleep than noncaregiving older adults, characterized by fewer minutes asleep and longer time to fall asleep. For subjectively measured sleep, depressive symptoms were the only predictive factor, with depressed participants reporting longer total sleep time, greater sleep onset latency, and wake after sleep onset. Caregivers' sleep had greater night-to-night variability. Conclusions: Caregivers consistently report poorer quality sleep and greater fatigue than noncaregivers. However, when sleep is measured objectively and subjectively, a mixed picture emerges regarding sleep deficits. Thus sleep changes are caused by a multitude of factors affecting sleep in a variety of ways. It is important for health care providers to assess sleep adequacy and depression in caregivers. Citation: Rowe MA; McCrae CS; Campbell JM; Benito AP; Cheng J. Sleep pattern differences between older adult dementia caregivers and older adult noncaregivers using objective and subjective measures. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(4):362–369. PMID:18763429
Silva, Andressa; de Queiroz, Sandra Souza; Andersen, Monica Levy; Mônico-Neto, Marcos; da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; Roizenblatt, Suely; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of passive body heating on the sleep patterns of patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Six menopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the criteria determined by the American College of Rheumatology were included. All women underwent passive immersion in a warm bath at a temperature of 36±1°C for 15 sessions of 30 minutes each over a period of three weeks. Their sleep patterns were assessed by polysomnography at the following time-points: pre-intervention (baseline), the first day of the intervention (acute), the last day of the intervention (chronic), and three weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Core body temperature was evaluated by a thermistor pill during the baseline, acute, chronic, and follow-up periods. The impact of this treatment on fibromyalgia was assessed via a specific questionnaire termed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. RESULTS: Sleep latency, rapid eye movement sleep latency and slow wave sleep were significantly reduced in the chronic and acute conditions compared with baseline. Sleep efficiency was significantly increased during the chronic condition, and the awakening index was reduced at the chronic and follow-up time points relative to the baseline values. No significant differences were observed in total sleep time, time in sleep stages 1 or 2 or rapid eye movement sleep percentage. The core body temperature and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire responses did not significantly change over the course of the study. CONCLUSION: Passive body heating had a positive effect on the sleep patterns of women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23525306
Boudreau, Eilis A.; Johnson, Kyle P.; Jackman, Angela R.; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, MaryPat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Lewy, Alfred J.; Smith, Ann C. M.; Magenis, R. Ellen
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body’s signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hour melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US & France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion (∼6Mb; cen<->TNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.1p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern. PMID:19530184
Orzech, Kathryn M.; Acebo, Christine; Seifer, Ronald; Barker, David; Carskadon, Mary A.
Summary This prospective, field-based study examined the association between actigraphically-measured total sleep time and incident illness including cold, flu, gastroenteritis, and other common infectious diseases (e.g., strep throat) in adolescents over the course of a school semester. Participants were 56 adolescents ages 14–19 years (mean = 16.6 (standard deviation = 1.2), 39% male) from 5 high schools in Rhode Island. Beginning in late January, adolescents wore actigraphs (mean 91 (19) days, range 16 – 112 days) and were assigned post-hoc to Longer or Shorter sleep groups based on median splits. Adolescents were interviewed weekly across as many as 16 weeks (modal number of interviews = 13) using a structured protocol that included 14 health event questions. Illness events and illness-related school absences were coded for 710 completed interviews, with 681 illness events and 90 school absences reported. Outcomes (illness bouts, illness duration, and absences) were compared among sex, sleep, and academic year groups using non-parametric regression. In a subset of 18 subjects, mean actigraphically estimated total sleep time 6 nights before matched illness/wellness events was compared using MANOVA. Longer sleepers and males reported fewer illness bouts; total sleep time effects were more apparent in males than females. A trend was found for shorter total sleep time before ill events. The present findings in this small naturalistic sample indicate that acute illnesses were more frequent in otherwise healthy adolescents with shorter sleep, and illness events were associated with less sleep during the prior week than comparable matched periods without illness. PMID:24134661
Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A
Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status. A total of 540 students (50.6% females) completed a questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographics and evaluated sleep quality and depression using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. The mean PSQI global score (6.57±3.49) indicated poor sleep, with no significant differences between men and women. The sleep/wake rhythm was delayed on weekends for both sexes. Females exhibited earlier bedtimes and rise times and longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends. However, unlike males females showed a greater phase delay in wake times than bedtimes on weekends (149 minutes vs 74 minutes, respectively). In all, 70.9% of females suffered from depressive symptoms, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with 58.5% of males (P<0.01). Based on the mean cumulative self-reported grade point average (GPA), the academic performance of females was significantly better than that of males (2.8±0.61 vs 2.65±0.61, P<0.05, respectively). Depression, as scored by CES-D, in females was significantly negatively correlated with the cumulative GPA (r=−0.278, P<0.01), earlier wake time (r=−0.168, P<0.05), and average sleep duration (r=−0.221, P<0.01) on weekdays. GPA of males was significantly correlated with bedtime on weekends (r=−0.159, P<0.05). We conclude that sex differences in sleep timing, such as bedtime/rise time and nocturnal sleep duration, rather
Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A
Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status. A total of 540 students (50.6% females) completed a questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographics and evaluated sleep quality and depression using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. The mean PSQI global score (6.57±3.49) indicated poor sleep, with no significant differences between men and women. The sleep/wake rhythm was delayed on weekends for both sexes. Females exhibited earlier bedtimes and rise times and longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends. However, unlike males females showed a greater phase delay in wake times than bedtimes on weekends (149 minutes vs 74 minutes, respectively). In all, 70.9% of females suffered from depressive symptoms, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with 58.5% of males (P<0.01). Based on the mean cumulative self-reported grade point average (GPA), the academic performance of females was significantly better than that of males (2.8±0.61 vs 2.65±0.61, P<0.05, respectively). Depression, as scored by CES-D, in females was significantly negatively correlated with the cumulative GPA (r=-0.278, P<0.01), earlier wake time (r=-0.168, P<0.05), and average sleep duration (r=-0.221, P<0.01) on weekdays. GPA of males was significantly correlated with bedtime on weekends (r=-0.159, P<0.05). We conclude that sex differences in sleep timing, such as bedtime/rise time and nocturnal sleep duration, rather than
Gamble, Amanda L.; D'Rozario, Angela L.; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Williams, Shaun; Bin, Yu Sun; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Marshall, Nathaniel S.
Introduction Electronic devices in the bedroom are broadly linked with poor sleep in adolescents. This study investigated whether there is a dose-response relationship between use of electronic devices (computers, cellphones, televisions and radios) in bed prior to sleep and adolescent sleep patterns. Methods Adolescents aged 11–17 yrs (n = 1,184; 67.6% female) completed an Australia-wide internet survey that examined sleep patterns, sleepiness, sleep disorders, the presence of electronic devices in the bedroom and frequency of use in bed at night. Results Over 70% of adolescents reported 2 or more electronic devices in their bedroom at night. Use of devices in bed a few nights per week or more was 46.8% cellphone, 38.5% computer, 23.2% TV, and 15.8% radio. Device use had dose-dependent associations with later sleep onset on weekdays (highest-dose computer adjOR = 3.75: 99% CI = 2.17–6.46; cellphone 2.29: 1.22–4.30) and weekends (computer 3.68: 2.14–6.32; cellphone 3.24: 1.70–6.19; TV 2.32: 1.30–4.14), and later waking on weekdays (computer 2.08: 1.25–3.44; TV 2.31: 1.33–4.02) and weekends (computer 1.99: 1.21–3.26; cellphone 2.33: 1.33–4.08; TV 2.04: 1.18–3.55). Only ‘almost every night’ computer use (: 2.43: 1.45–4.08) was associated with short weekday sleep duration, and only ‘almost every night’ cellphone use (2.23: 1.26–3.94) was associated with wake lag (waking later on weekends). Conclusions Use of computers, cell-phones and televisions at higher doses was associated with delayed sleep/wake schedules and wake lag, potentially impairing health and educational outcomes. PMID:25390034
Hicks, R A; Rozette, E
To measure the relationship between habitual sleep duration and eating disorders, the responses of groups of 34 short- and 43 longer-sleeping college students to the EAT-26 Test were compared. The short-sleepers scored twice as high and were five times more likely to exhibit abnormal eating patterns than the longer-sleeping group. PMID:3457356
Huỳnh, Christophe; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Godbout, Roger
Sleep-wake patterns are rarely examined in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Within a developmental perspective, this study explores the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents aged 12-17 years with BPD or BD and healthy controls (HC) during periods with and without entrainment by school/work schedules. Eighteen euthymic BPD, six euthymic BD, and 20 HC adolescents wore wrist actigraphy during nine consecutive days to assess sleep-wake patterns. During school/work days, BPD adolescents spent more time awake when they were in bed compared to HC and BD adolescents (p = 0.039). On schedule-free days, BPD and BD youths spent more time in bed compared to HC adolescents (p = 0.015). BPD adolescents woke up over 1 h later compared to HC (p = 0.003). Total sleep time was more variable between nights in BPD adolescents compared to the HC group (p = 0.031). Future research should explore if sleep-wake pattern disruptions are a cause or a consequence of BPD symptomatology in adolescents. Addressing sleep-wake pattern during clinical assessment and treatment of BPD adolescents may potentially reduce their symptoms; this therapeutic effect still needs to be evaluated. PMID:26003420
Venâncio, Daniel Paulino; Tufik, Sergio; Garbuio, Silvério Aparecido; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; de Mello, Marco Túlio
Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse has become a public health problem in many countries, and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Epidemiological studies have also found increasing numbers of sleep disorders reported by individuals using AASs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sleep patterns and disorders in anabolic androgenic users who practice resistance exercise. The sample comprised 58 males divided into three groups: (1) 20 current AAS users aged 26 +/- 1.2, (2) 21 controls with no history of AAS use, aged 26 +/- 1 and (3) 17 sedentary men with no sleep disorders aged 27.2 +/- 0.34. The volunteers spent a night in the sleep laboratory for polysomnography. Comparing the three groups, the user group showed reduced sleep efficiency and more wakings after sleep onset than the sedentary group (P = 0.001). The sedentary group showed a higher percentage of stage 4 than the non-users group. We suggest that using of anabolic steroids reduced sleep efficiency and alters sleep architecture. PMID:18043934
Pennestri, Marie-Hélène; Moss, Ellen; O'Donnell, Katherine; Lecompte, Vanessa; Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Gruber, Reut; Fleming, Alison S; Meaney, Michael J; Gaudreau, Hélène
The development of sleep-wake regulation in infants depends upon brain maturation as well as various environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep duration and quality as a function of child attachment to the mother. One hundred and thirty-four mother-child dyads enrolled in the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) project were included in this study. Attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation procedure at 36 months and maternal sleep reports were collected at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. Differences in sleep characteristics were assessed with mixed models with one factor (attachment group) and one repeated measure (age). Children classified as disorganized had a significantly lower duration of nocturnal sleep, went to bed later, signaled more awakenings, had shorter periods of uninterrupted sleep (only at 12 months) and had shorter periods of time in bed (only at 6 months) than children classified as secure and/or ambivalent (p < 0.05). This is the first study to show that children with insecure disorganized attachment present a distinct sleep pattern in comparison with those with secure or ambivalent attachment between 6 and 36 months of age. Sleep disturbances could exacerbate difficulties in these families that are already considered vulnerable. PMID:25231054
Chaput, J-P; Katzmarzyk, P T; LeBlanc, A G; Tremblay, M S; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Rae, D E; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Olds, T
OBJECTIVES: Although evidence is accumulating on the importance of a good night's sleep for healthy eating and activity behaviors, existing research has mainly been conducted in high-income, developed countries with limited sociocultural variability. This study is the first to examine the associations between sleep patterns and lifestyle behaviors in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world. METHODS: This observational, multinational cross-sectional study included 5777 children aged 9–11 years from sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States. Nocturnal sleep duration (hours per night), sleep efficiency (%) and bedtime (h:min) were monitored over 7 consecutive days using an accelerometer. Lifestyle behaviors included moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time (SED), self-reported screen time (ST) and healthy/unhealthy diet patterns (HDP/UDP). Multilevel modeling analyses were used to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. RESULTS: Overall, participants averaged 8.8 (s.d. 0.9) hours of sleep with 96.2% (s.d. 1.4) sleep efficiency and a mean bedtime of 2218 hours. After adjustment for age, sex, highest parental education and BMI z-score, results showed that (i) sleep duration was negatively associated with MVPA, SED and UDP score; (ii) sleep efficiency was negatively associated with MVPA and UDP score, and positively associated with SED; and (iii) later bedtime was positively associated with SED, ST and UDP score, and negatively associated with MVPA and HDP score. Results using categories of sleep patterns were consistent with the linear associations. Results also revealed that associations between sleep patterns and MVPA, SED and ST were significantly different between study sites, with stronger associations in high-income countries compared with low/middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep
Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How
Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state.Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time.A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept <7 h on weekdays tended to sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy.Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal behavior, and
Chouvarda, Ioanna; Mendez, Martin Oswaldo; Rosso, V; Bianchi, Anna M; Parrino, Liborio; Grassi, Andrea; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Cerutti, Sergio; Maglaveras, Nicos
This work aims to investigate new markers for the quantitative characterization of insomnia, in the context of sleep microstructure, as expressed by cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) sleep. The study group includes 11 subjects with normal sleep and 10 subjects with diagnosed primary insomnia. Differences between normal sleepers and insomniacs are investigated, in terms of dynamics and content of CAP events. The overall rate of CAP and of different phases is considered. The dynamic in the structure and alternation of CAP events is further studied in different scales by use of wavelet analysis, and calculation of energy/entropy features. The content of CAP events is studied in terms of electroencephalography (EEG) complexity analysis for the different types of events. Statistically significant differences are highlighted, both in structure and content. Besides confirming the increase in CAP rate, main findings regarding the microstructure difference in insomnia include: 1) as regards the deep sleep building phases, more irregular activation-deactivation patterns, with bigger deactivation time, i.e., distance between consecutive activation events, and appearing with higher EEG complexity in deactivation, and 2) a bigger duration of desynchronisation phases, with increased EEG complexity and more irregular patterns. This analysis extends previous findings on the relation between CAPrate increase and sleep instability mechanisms, proposing specific features of CAP that seem to play a role in insomnia (as consistently presented via classification analysis). This opens new perspectives for the understanding of the role of CAP in the quantitative characterization of sleep and its disorders. PMID:22855235
Teixeira, Liliane; Lowden, Arne; da Luz, Andrea Aparecida; Turte, Samantha Lemos; Valente, Daniel; Matsumura, Roberto Jun; de Paula, Leticia Pickersgill; Takara, Meire Yuri; Nagai-Manelli, Roberta; Fischer, Frida Marina
The double journey (work and study) may result or aggravate health problems, including sleep disturbances, as observed in previous studies with high school students. The aim of this study is to analyze the sleep-wake cycle and perceived sleepiness of working college students during weekdays. Twenty-three healthy college male students, 21-24 years old, working during the day and attending classes in the evening, participated in this study. During five consecutive days, the students filled out daily activities logs and wore actigraphs. Mean sleeping time was lower than 6 hours per night. No significant differences were observed in the sleep-wake cycle during the weekdays. The observed lack of changes in the sleepwake cycle of these college students might occur as participants were not on a free schedule, but exposed to social constraints, as was the regular attendance to evening college and day work activities. Sleepiness worsened over the evening school hours. Those results show the burden carried by College students who perform double activities - work and study. PMID:22317611
Bergman, Peter; Adori, Csaba; Vas, Szilvia; Kai-Larsen, Ylva; Sarkanen, Tomi; Cederlund, Andreas; Agerberth, Birgitta; Julkunen, Ilkka; Horvath, Beata; Kostyalik, Diana; Kalmár, Lajos; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Huutoniemi, Anne; Partinen, Markku; Hökfelt, Tomas
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder, likely with an autoimmune component. During 2009 and 2010, a link between A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemrix vaccination and onset of narcolepsy was suggested in Scandinavia. In this study, we searched for autoantibodies related to narcolepsy using a neuroanatomical array: rat brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry/double labeling using patient sera/cerebrospinal fluid as primary antibodies. Sera from 89 narcoleptic patients, 52 patients with other sleep-related disorders (OSRDs), and 137 healthy controls were examined. Three distinct patterns of immunoreactivity were of particular interest: pattern A, hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone and proopiomelanocortin but not hypocretin/orexin neurons; pattern B, GABAergic cortical interneurons; and pattern C, mainly globus pallidus neurons. Altogether, 24 of 89 (27%) narcoleptics exhibited pattern A or B or C. None of the patterns were exclusive for narcolepsy but were also detected in the OSRD group at significantly lower numbers. Also, some healthy controls exhibited these patterns. The antigen of pattern A autoantibodies was identified as the common C-terminal epitope of neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine/α–melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NEI/αMSH) peptides. Passive transfer experiments on rat showed significant effects of pattern A human IgGs on rapid eye movement and slow-wave sleep time parameters in the inactive phase and EEG θ-power in the active phase. We suggest that NEI/αMSH autoantibodies may interfere with the fine regulation of sleep, contributing to the complex pathogenesis of narcolepsy and OSRDs. Also, patterns B and C are potentially interesting, because recent data suggest a relevance of those brain regions/neuron populations in the regulation of sleep/arousal. PMID:25136085
Salisbury, R S; Parr, G; De Silva, M; Hazleman, B L; Page-Thomas, D P
We have identified regular thermal patterns over normal knee, ankle, and elbow joints and demonstrate how synovitis affecting these joints may be identified by alteration or loss of the thermal pattern. Sixty healthy volunteers were thermographed on a total of 190 occasions, and 614 out of 618 joints conformed to the normal thermal pattern. Eighty-five patients with synovitis of at least one of the specified joints were thermographed on a total of 339 occasions, and 322 out of 1362 thermograms were abnormal. No joint with clinical evidence of synovitis had a normal thermal pattern. As temperature-based parameters have been found to show marked diurnal variation and relative frequency distributions do not have this drawback, we suggest that quantification of synovitis by thermography should in future be based on abnormalities of thermal pattern rather than absolute skin temperature values. PMID:6684900
Gemignani, Jessica; Agrimi, Jacopo; Cheli, Enrico; Gemignani, Angelo; Laurino, Marco; Allegrini, Paolo; Landi, Alberto; Menicucci, Danilo
Sleep spindles are electroencephalographic oscillations peculiar of non-REM sleep, related to neuronal mechanisms underlying sleep restoration and learning consolidation. Based on their very singular morphology, sleep spindles can be visually recognized and detected, even though this approach can lead to significant mis-detections. For this reason, many efforts have been put in developing a reliable algorithm for spindle automatic detection, and a number of methods, based on different techniques, have been tested via visual validation. This work aims at improving current pattern recognition procedures for sleep spindles detection by taking into account their physiological sources of variability. We provide a method as a synthesis of the current state of art that, improving dynamic threshold adaptation, is able to follow modification of spindle characteristics as a function of sleep depth and inter-subjects variability. The algorithm has been applied to physiological data recorded by a high density EEG in order to perform a validation based on visual inspection and on evaluation of expected results from normal night sleep in healthy subjects. PMID:26736332
Shokry, Shereen M; El Wakeel, Eman E; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam
Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ (2) = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ (2) = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ (2) = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ (2) = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ (2) = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ (2) = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism. PMID:27034672
Shokry, Shereen M.; El Wakeel, Eman E.; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam
Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2 = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ2 = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ2 = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ2 = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2 = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ2 = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism. PMID:27034672
Tzischinsky, Orna; Shochat, Tamar
The purpose of the study was to assess the relationships between eveningness, sleep patterns, measures of daytime functioning, i.e., sleepiness, sleep problem behaviors, and depressed mood, and quality of life (QOL) in young Israeli adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was performed in urban and rural middle schools in Northern Israel. Participants were 470 eighth and ninth grade middle school students (14 ± 0.8 yrs of age) in the normative school system. Students completed the modified School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Short Form, assessing six subscales of physical, emotional, social, school performance, and psychosocial functioning, plus an addition generated total score. During weekdays and weekends, evening types went to bed later, their sleep latency was longer, their wake-up time was later, and their sleep duration was shorter than intermediate and morning types. Evening types exhibited more sleep problem behaviors, sleepiness, depressed mood, and lower QOL compared to intermediate and morning types. Based on the regression model, sleepiness, sleep-problem behaviors, and depressed mood were the variables most strongly associated with QOL, followed by morning-evening preference, weekday sleep duration, and weekend sleep latency. This study is the first to assess QOL in normative, healthy adolescents and to demonstrate strong associations between morning-evening preference and QOL. These findings enhance the need to identify young individuals with an evening preference, and to be aware of the characteristics and manifestations of the evening chronotype on daytime and nighttime behaviors in adolescence. PMID:21539425
Al-Sulaiman, A A; Ismail, H M
The pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities was studied in 68 patients (41 male, 27 female, age range 1 month to 17 years) with hydrocephalus. They all had standardized EEG recordings, which were read by the same electroencephalographer. In 48 children the EEG was performed after ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. The EEG abnormalities in the shunted group included slow waves in 26 patients [focal 2 (4.2%), generalized asynchronous 22 (45.8%), generalized synchronous 2 (4.2%)]; amplitude abnormalities in 2 (focal 1, generalized 1); epileptiform activity in 26 [partial 11 (22.9%), generalized 15 (31.3%)] and hypsarrhythmia in 4 (8.3%). Only 4 (8.3%) traces were normal, giving an overall percentage abnormality of 92%. In the unshunted group generalized asynchronous slow waves were found in 12 patients (60%), generalized amplitude abnormality in 1, focal epileptiform activity in 3 (15%), and generalized epileptiform activity in 6 (30%); 2 tracings in this group were normal, giving an overall percentage abnormality of 90%. Hydrocephalus in children, regardless of the cause, may be associated with generalized or focal EEG abnormalities. This may reflect the heterogeneity of the neural generator in the underlying disease process. PMID:9579868
Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama
This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. PMID:26724401
Gibbon, Fiona E.
Individuals with cleft palate, even those with adequate velopharyngeal function, are at high risk for disordered lingual articulation. This article attempts to summarize current knowledge of abnormal tongue-palate contact patterns derived from electropalatographic (EPG) data in speakers with cleft palate. These data, which have been reported in 23…
Kölling, Sarah; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael
Recovery is essential for high athletic performance, and therefore especially sleep has been identified as a crucial source for physical and psychological well-being. However, due to early-morning trainings, which are general practice in many sports, athletes are likely to experience sleep restrictions. Therefore, this study investigated the sleep-wake patterns of 55 junior national rowers (17.7 ± 0.6 years) via sleep logs and actigraphy during a four-week training camp. Recovery and stress ratings were obtained every morning with the Short Recovery and Stress Scale on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (does not apply at all) to 6 (fully applies). The first training session was scheduled for 6:30 h every day. With two to four training sessions per day, the training load was considerably increased from athletes' home training. Objective sleep measures (n = 14) revealed less total sleep time (TST) in the first two weeks (409.6 ± 19.1 and 416.0 ± 16.3 min), while training volume and intensity were higher. In the second half of the camp, less training sessions were implemented, more afternoons were training free and TSTs were longer (436.3 ± 15.8 and 456.9 ± 25.7 min). A single occasion of 1.5-h delayed bedtime and usual early morning training (6:30 h) resulted in reduced ratings of Overall Recovery (OR) (M = 3.3 ± 1.3) and greater Negative Emotional State (NES) (M = 1.3 ± 1.2, p < .05), which returned to baseline on the next day. Following an extended night due to the only training-free day, sleep-offset times were shifted from ~5:30 to ~8:00 h, and each recovery and stress score improved (p < .01). Moreover, subjective ratings of the first six days were summarised as a baseline score to generate reference data as well as to explore the association between sleep and recovery. Intercorrelations of these sleep parameters emphasised the relationship between restful sleep and falling asleep quickly (r = .34, p < .05) as well as few awakenings (r = .35, p
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a music therapy procedure (music listening paired with progressive muscle relaxation) on the reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep patterns in abused women in shelters. Twenty-eight women residing in 2 domestic violence shelters in a Midwestern city met with the researcher on 5 consecutive days for half-hour sessions. A pretest-posttest design with control and experimental groups was used. The dependent variables included: stait anxiety measured by the STAI (Spielberger et al., 1983) before and after each music stimulus, sleep quality as measured by the PSQI (Buysse et al., 1989) on the first and last sessions, and levels of fatigue as measured by the Fatigue Scale (Lee, 1992) at waking time. The independent variable was a 20-minute recording of participant-selected music with a Progressive Muscle Relaxation script. Results indicated that music therapy constituted an effective method for reducing anxiety levels. Results also indicated a significant effect on sleep quality for the experimental group, but not for the control group. No significant relationships were found between anxiety levels and sleep quality, nor fatigue levels and sleep quality. These results seem promising in the light of domestic violence research, which has found that a greater amount of personal resources is a crucial aspect of abused women's recovery process. Reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep quality can be considered as increased personal resources, and seem feasible through the use of music therapy. PMID:15913391
Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Hasan, Muhammad; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Allan, David; Fraser, Matthew; Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Conway, Bernie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario
Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP) during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain (CNP) and complete/incomplete injury patients) and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients’ subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy. PMID:25221505
Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C.; Tang, Shou Jiang
Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician’s time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a “texton histogram” of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different “textons” representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723
Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C; Tang, Shou Jiang
Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician's time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a "texton histogram" of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different "textons" representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723
Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C
In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. PMID:26972038
Bei, Bei; Wiley, Joshua F; Trinder, John; Manber, Rachel
Features of an individual's sleep/wake patterns across multiple days are governed by two dimensions, the mean and the intraindividual variability (IIV). The existing literature focuses on the means, while the nature and correlates of sleep/wake IIV are not well understood. A systematic search of records in five major databases from inception to November 2014 identified 53 peer-reviewed empirical publications that examined correlates of sleep/wake IIV in adults. Overall, this literature appeared unsystematic and post hoc, with under-developed theoretical frameworks and inconsistent methodologies. Correlates most consistently associated with greater IIV in one or more aspects of sleep/wake patterns were: younger age, non-White race/ethnicity, living alone, physical health conditions, higher body mass index, weight gain, bipolar and unipolar depression symptomatology, stress, and evening chronotype; symptoms of insomnia and poor sleep were associated with higher sleep/wake IIV, which was reduced following sleep interventions. The effects of experimentally reduced sleep/wake IIV on daytime functioning were inconclusive. In extending current understanding of sleep/wake patterns beyond the mean values, IIV should be incorporated as an additional dimension when sleep is examined across multiple days. Theoretical and methodological shortcomings in the existing literature, and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:26588182
Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans
Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…
Li, Hai-Jun; Nie, Xiao; Gong, Hong-Han; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Si; Peng, De-Chang
Background and objective Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between the central executive network and the default mode network (DMN) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported. However, the effect of OSA on rs-FC within the DMN subregions remains uncertain. This study was designed to investigate whether the rs-FC within the DMN subregions was disrupted and determine its relationship with clinical symptoms in patients with OSA. Methods Forty male patients newly diagnosed with severe OSA and 40 male education- and age-matched good sleepers (GSs) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations and clinical and neuropsychologic assessments. Seed-based region of interest rs-FC method was used to analyze the connectivity between each pair of subregions within the DMN, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), hippocampus formation (HF), inferior parietal cortices (IPC), and medial temporal lobe (MTL). The abnormal rs-FC strength within the DMN subregions was correlated with clinical and neuropsychologic assessments using Pearson correlation analysis in patients with OSA. Results Compared with GSs, patients with OSA had significantly decreased rs-FC between the right HF and the PCC, MPFC, and left MTL. However, patients with OSA had significantly increased rs-FC between the MPFC and left and right IPC, and between the left IPC and right IPC. The rs-FC between the right HF and left MTL was positively correlated with rapid eye movement (r=0.335, P=0.035). The rs-FC between the PCC and right HF was negatively correlated with delayed memory (r=-0.338, P=0.033). Conclusion OSA selectively impairs the rs-FC between right HF and PCC, MPFC, and left MTL within the DMN subregions, and provides an imaging indicator for assessment of cognitive dysfunction in OSA patients. PMID:26855576
Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Khidir, Hazar; Casillas, Gardenia; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Pensuksan, Wipawan C.; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.
Purpose Poor sleep and heavy use of caffeinated beverages have been implicated as risk factors for a number of adverse health outcomes. Caffeine consumption and use of other stimulants are common among college students globally. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the influence of caffeinated beverages on sleep quality of college students in Southeast Asian populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the patterns of sleep quality; and to examine the extent to which poor sleep quality is associated with consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages and other stimulants among 2,854 Thai college students. Methods A questionnaire was administered to ascertain demographic and behavioral characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep habits and quality. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify statistically significant associations. Results Overall, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was found to be 48.1%. A significant percent of students used stimulant beverages (58.0%). Stimulant use (OR 1.50; 95%CI 1.28-1.77) was found to be statistically significant and positively associated with poor sleep quality. Alcohol consumption (OR 3.10; 95% CI 1.72-5.59) and cigarette smoking (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.02-1.98) also had statistically significant association with increased daytime dysfunction. In conclusion, stimulant use is common among Thai college students and is associated with several indices of poor sleep quality. Conclusion Our findings underscore the need to educate students on the importance of sleep and the influences of dietary and lifestyle choices on their sleep quality and overall health. PMID:23239460
Jammu, Vinay B.; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.
A new unsupervised pattern classifier is introduced for on-line detection of abnormality in features of vibration that are used for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. This classifier compares vibration features with their respective normal values and assigns them a value in (0, 1) to reflect their degree of abnormality. Therefore, the salient feature of this classifier is that it does not require feature values associated with faulty cases to identify abnormality. In order to cope with noise and changes in the operating conditions, an adaptation algorithm is incorporated that continually updates the normal values of the features. The proposed classifier is tested using experimental vibration features obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. The overall performance of this classifier is then evaluated by integrating the abnormality-scaled features for detection of faults. The fault detection results indicate that the performance of this classifier is comparable to the leading unsupervised neural networks: Kohonen's Feature Mapping and Adaptive Resonance Theory (AR72). This is significant considering that the independence of this classifier from fault-related features makes it uniquely suited to abnormality-scaling of vibration features for fault diagnosis.
Chow, Ho Ming; Horovitz, Silvina G; Carr, Walter S; Picchioni, Dante; Coddington, Nate; Fukunaga, Masaki; Xu, Yisheng; Balkin, Thomas J; Duyn, Jeff H; Braun, Allen R
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep constitutes a distinct "third state" of consciousness, during which levels of brain activity are commensurate with wakefulness, but conscious awareness is radically transformed. To characterize the temporal and spatial features of this paradoxical state, we examined functional interactions between brain regions using fMRI resting-state connectivity methods. Supporting the view that the functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN) reflects "level of consciousness," we observed functional uncoupling of the DMN during deep sleep and recoupling during REM sleep (similar to wakefulness). However, unlike either deep sleep or wakefulness, REM was characterized by a more widespread, temporally dynamic interaction between two major brain systems: unimodal sensorimotor areas and the higher-order association cortices (including the DMN), which normally regulate their activity. During REM, these two systems become anticorrelated and fluctuate rhythmically, in reciprocally alternating multisecond epochs with a frequency ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 Hz. This unique spatiotemporal pattern suggests a model for REM sleep that may be consistent with its role in dream formation and memory consolidation. PMID:23733938
Parrino, Liborio; Milioli, Giulia; Grassi, Andrea; De Paolis, Fernando; Riccardi, Silvia; Colizzi, Elena; Bosi, Marcello; Terzano, Mario Giovanni
Atypical cardiorespiratory patterns can be found during routine clinical use of portable monitoring for diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Over 1,000 consecutive portable recordings were analysed to study the potential ictal nature of stereotyped cardiorespiratory and motor patterns. Snoring, airflow, thoracic effort, pulse rate, body position, oxygen saturation and activity of the anterior tibialis muscles were quantified. Recordings showing stereotyped polygraphic patterns recurring throughout the night, but without the features of sleep apnoea (apnoea/hypopnoea index <5 events·h(-1)), were selected for investigation. Once included in the study, patients underwent attended nocturnal video polysomnography. A total of 15 recordings showing repeated polygraphic patterns characterised by a sequence of microphone activation, respiratory activity atypical for sleep and wakefulness, heart rate acceleration and limb movements, followed by body position change, were selected for investigation. Once included in the study, patients underwent attended nocturnal video polysomnography that showed frontal epileptic discharges triggering periodic electroencephalographic arousals, autonomic activation and stereotyped motor patterns. A diagnosis of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) was established for all patients. NFLE should be taken into consideration in patients with stereotyped and recurrent behavioural features during portable monitoring carried out for diagnosis of SDB. PMID:22700842
Nemati, Shamim; Malhotra, Atul; Clifford, Gari D.
Background T-Wave Alternans (TWA) activity is known to be a function of heart rate and condition, as well as perhaps physiological state. A recently published non-parametric non-stationary TWA analysis method has been shown to reject nonstationary noise accurately using phase randomized surrogates and has been shown to estimate TWA accurately. This new method was evaluated on multiple databases over a range of heart rates and in healthy subjects, cardiac patients, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. We hypothesized that TWA would be lower than previously reported when measured with our new technique and that higher levels of TWA would be observed in OSA patients when compared to normals. Methods Five databases were analyzed: 1) Healthy subjects from PhysioNet’s Normal Sinus Rhythm Database (NSRDB), 2) Arrhythmia patients from PhysioNet’s Chronic Heart Failure Database (CHFDB) and 3) PhysioNet’s Sudden Cardiac Death Database (SCDDB), 4) OSA patients from PhysioNet’s MIT-BIH Polysomnographic Database (SLPDB), and 5) a private Sleep Apnea Database (SADB) of 85 subjects. TWA magnitudes were calculated for 7 heart rate decades [intervals of 10 beats per minute (BPM) between 40 and 110 BPM] for each database. The Mann-Whitney U-test and the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were applied to test for significant differences between data from each database in each heart rate decade interval. Results In the healthy population TWA activity level tended to increase with heart rate. Moreover, there appeared to be an unexpected nadir in TWA activity around 60–70 BPM, and a small but significant rise in TWA above and below these heart rates. The rise in TWA at lower heart rates has not been previously reported to our knowledge. We also observed that TWA is unexpectedly lower in OSA patients and did not increase with heart rate. Conclusion Although the physiological mechanisms underlying our observations are unclear, there may be clinical implications for TWA
Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob
Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…
Mendez, Martin Oswaldo; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Alba, Alfonso; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Grassi, Andrea; Arce-Santana, Edgar; Milioli, Guilia; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Parrino, Liborio
An analysis of the EEG signal during the B-phase and A-phases transitions of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) during sleep is presented. CAP is a sleep phenomenon composed by consecutive sequences of A-phases (each A-phase could belong to a possible group A1, A2 or A3) observed during the non-REM sleep. Each A-phase is separated by a B-phase which has the basal frequency of the EEG during a specific sleep stage. The patterns formed by these sequences reflect the sleep instability and consequently help to understand the sleep process. Ten recordings from healthy good sleepers were included in this study. The current study investigates complexity, statistical and frequency signal properties of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings at the transitions: B-phase-A-phase. In addition, classification between the onset-offset of the A-phases and B-phase was carried out with a kNN classifier. The results showed that EEG signal presents significant differences (p < 0.05) between A-phases and B-phase for the standard deviation, energy, sample entropy, Tsallis entropy and frequency band indices. The A-phase onset showed values of energy three times higher than B-phase at all the sleep stages. The statistical analysis of variance shows that more than 80 % of the A-phase onset and offset is significantly different from the B-phase. The classification performance between onset or offset of A-phases and background showed classification values over 80 % for specificity and accuracy and 70 % for sensitivity. Only during the A3-phase, the classification was lower. The results suggest that neural assembles that generate the basal EEG oscillations during sleep present an over-imposed coordination for a few seconds due to the A-phases. The main characteristics for automatic separation between the onset-offset A-phase and the B-phase are the energy at the different frequency bands. PMID:26253282
St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Anderson, Clare; Cohen, Daniel A.; Barger, Laura K.; Lockley, Steven W.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.
There is currently no “gold standard” marker of cognitive performance impairment resulting from sleep loss. We utilized pattern recognition algorithms to determine which features of data collected under controlled laboratory conditions could most reliably identify cognitive performance impairment in response to sleep loss using data from only one testing session, such as would occur in the “real world” or field conditions. A training set for testing the pattern recognition algorithms was developed using objective Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) data collected from laboratory studies during which subjects were sleep deprived for 26 – 52 hours. The algorithm was then tested in data from both laboratory and field experiments. The pattern recognition algorithm was able to identify performance impairment with a single testing session in individuals studied under laboratory conditions using PVT, KSS, length of time awake and time of day information with sensitivity and specificity as high as 82%. When this algorithm was tested on data collected under real-world conditions from individuals whose data were not in the training set, accuracy of predictions for individuals categorized with low performance impairment were as high as 98%. Predictions for medium and severe performance impairment were less accurate. We conclude that pattern recognition algorithms may be a promising method for identifying performance impairment in individuals using only current information about the individual’s behavior. Single testing features (e.g., number of PVT lapses) with high correlation with performance impairment in the laboratory setting may not be the best indicators of performance impairment under real-world conditions. Pattern recognition algorithms should be further tested for their ability to be used in conjunction with other assessments of sleepiness in real-world conditions to quantify performance impairment in
Oginska, Halszka; Fafrowicz, Magdalena; Golonka, Krystyna; Marek, Tadeusz; Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Tucholska, Kinga
The study focused on chronotype-related differences in subjective load assessment, sleepiness, and salivary cortisol pattern in subjects performing daylong simulated driving. Individual differences in work stress appraisal and psychobiological cost of prolonged load seem to be of importance in view of expanding compressed working time schedules. Twenty-one healthy, male volunteers (mean +/- SD: 27.9 +/- 4.9 yrs) were required to stay in semiconstant routine conditions. They performed four sessions (each lasting approximately 2.5 h) of simulated driving, i.e., completed chosen tasks from computer driving games. Saliva samples were collected after each driving session, i.e., at 10:00-11:00, 14:00-15:00, 18:00-19:00, and 22:00-23:00 h as well as 10-30 min after waking (between 05:00 and 06:00 h) and at bedtime (after 00:00 h). Two subgroups of subjects were distinguished on the basis of the Chronotype Questionnaire: morning (M)- and evening (E)-oriented types. Subjective data on sleep need, sleeping time preferences, sleeping problems, and the details of the preceding night were investigated by questionnaire. Subjective measures of task load (NASA Task Load Index [NASA-TLX]), activation (Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List [AD ACL]), and sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]) were applied at times of saliva samples collection. M- and E-oriented types differed significantly as to their ideal sleep length (6 h 54 min +/- 44 versus 8 h 13 min +/- 50 min), preferred sleep timing (midpoint at 03:19 versus 04:26), and sleep index, i.e., 'real-to-ideal' sleep ratio, before the experimental day (0.88 versus 0.67). Sleep deficit proved to be integrated with eveningness. M and E types exhibited similar diurnal profiles of energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness assessed by AD ACL, but E types estimated higher their workload (NASA-TLX) and sleepiness (KSS). M types exhibited a trend of higher mean cortisol levels than E types (F = 4.192, p < .056) and
Cotton, Sue M.; Richdale, Amanda L.
Sleep problems have often been reported in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). How anomalies in 24-h sleep patterns relate to behaviour difficulties in children with different types of ID remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to assess 24-h sleep and behaviour patterns in children with a variety disorders including…
White, William B.; Kutner, Michael; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Bliwise, Donald L.
Background To examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) pattern among community-dwelling older adults. Methods A convenience sample of 70 community-dwelling older adults, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and learning centers, were admitted to General Clinical Research Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Information regarding demographic and clinical history was obtained using questionnaires. Twenty-four–hour BP monitoring in supine position was performed using Spacelabs model 20207. Breathing during sleep was monitored with the use of a modified sleep recording system (Embletta, PDS), which monitors nasal and oral airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and pulse oximetry. Night time–daytime (night-day) BP ratio (average night-time BP divided by daytime BP) was calculated both for systolic and diastolic BPs. Results Sixty-nine participants, mean age 74.9 ± 6.4 years (41 [57%] women), completed the study. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 13 ± 13 per hour of sleep, and 20 participants (29%) had AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep, indicating moderate to severe SDB. Moderate to severe SDB (AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep) was significantly associated with nocturnal hypertension, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in wake-time BP between those with and without moderate to severe SDB. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that AHI independently predicted increased night-day systolic and night-day diastolic BP ratio, even after controlling for nocturia frequency. Conclusions The results indicate increased BP load associated with increased AHI in this group of older adults. This increased BP load may contribute to increased hypertension-related morbidity and disease burden. PMID:19196901
Shin, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Boreom; Park, Kwang Suk
In this study, we developed an automated behavior analysis system using infrared (IR) motion sensors to assist the independent living of the elderly who live alone and to improve the efficiency of their healthcare. An IR motion-sensor-based activity-monitoring system was installed in the houses of the elderly subjects to collect motion signals and three different feature values, activity level, mobility level, and nonresponse interval (NRI). These factors were calculated from the measured motion signals. The support vector data description (SVDD) method was used to classify normal behavior patterns and to detect abnormal behavioral patterns based on the aforementioned three feature values. The simulation data and real data were used to verify the proposed method in the individual analysis. A robust scheme is presented in this paper for optimally selecting the values of different parameters especially that of the scale parameter of the Gaussian kernel function involving in the training of the SVDD window length, T of the circadian rhythmic approach with the aim of applying the SVDD to the daily behavior patterns calculated over 24 h. Accuracies by positive predictive value (PPV) were 95.8% and 90.5% for the simulation and real data, respectively. The results suggest that the monitoring system utilizing the IR motion sensors and abnormal-behavior-pattern detection with SVDD are effective methods for home healthcare of elderly people living alone. PMID:21317086
Ha, Seungshin; Stottmann, Rolf W; Furley, Andrew J; Beier, David R
Formation of a 6-layered cortical plate and axon tract patterning are key features of cerebral cortex development. Abnormalities of these processes may be the underlying cause for a range of functional disabilities seen in human neurodevelopmental disorders. To identify mouse mutants with defects in cortical lamination or corticofugal axon guidance, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis was performed using mice expressing LacZ reporter genes in layers II/III and V of the cortex (Rgs4-lacZ) or in corticofugal axons (TAG1-tau-lacZ). Four lines with abnormal cortical lamination have been identified. One of these was a splice site mutation in reelin (Reln) that results in a premature stop codon and the truncation of the C-terminal region (CTR) domain of reelin. Interestingly, this novel allele of Reln did not display cerebellar malformation or ataxia, and this is the first report of a Reln mutant without a cerebellar defect. Four lines with abnormal cortical axon development were also identified, one of which was found by whole-genome resequencing to carry a mutation in Lrp2. These findings demonstrated that the application of ENU mutagenesis to mice carrying transgenic reporters marking cortical anatomy is a sensitive and specific method to identify mutations that disrupt patterning of the developing brain. PMID:23968836
Boyt, Margaret A
Dysfunctional elimination may be learned, to some degree. Because children spend nearly half of their waking hours at school, there is the potential for school to have a significant impact on their elimination patterns. Surveys were mailed to 1,000 randomly selected Iowa public elementary school teachers; 467 of the surveys were returned. Findings indicate that most elementary school teachers are unaware of the potential health problems of elimination dysfunction. One third of respondents indicated that they ask children to wait to go to the bathroom. Suboptimal conditions exist in most of the school bathrooms, with only 35% of the boys' restrooms and 48% of the girls' restrooms reported as "always clean." Those teachers with more experience were more likely to report information about abnormal elimination to the school nurse. Very few teachers (18% of respondents) reported having received information about abnormal elimination and even fewer (8% of respondents) were aware of specialists trained to treat children with these problems. School nurses can have a significant impact on the development of healthy bladder habits in children. Teachers need information about normal and abnormal elimination patterns in children. PMID:16285844
Schmitt, Daniel T.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.
Cardiac dynamics exhibit complex variability characterized by scale-invariant and nonlinear temporal organization related to the mechanism of neuroautonomic control, which changes with physiologic states and pathologic conditions. Changes in sleep regulation during sleep stages are also related to fluctuations in autonomic nervous activity. However, the interaction between sleep regulation and cardiac autonomic control remains not well understood. Even less is known how this interaction changes with age, as aspects of both cardiac dynamics and sleep regulation differ in healthy elderly compared to young subjects. We hypothesize that because of the neuroautonomic responsiveness in young subjects, fractal and nonlinear features of cardiac dynamics exhibit a pronounced stratification pattern across sleep stages, while in elderly these features will remain unchanged due to age-related loss of cardiac variability and decline of neuroautonomic responsiveness. We analyze the variability and the temporal fractal organization of heartbeat fluctuations across sleep stages in both young and elderly. We find that independent linear and nonlinear measures of cardiac control consistently exhibit the same ordering in their values across sleep stages, forming a robust stratification pattern. Despite changes in sleep architecture and reduced heart rate variability in elderly subjects, this stratification surprisingly does not break down with advanced age. Moreover, the difference between sleep stages for some linear, fractal, and nonlinear measures exceeds the difference between young and elderly, suggesting that the effect of sleep regulation on cardiac dynamics is significantly stronger than the effect of healthy aging. Quantifying changes in this stratification pattern may provide insights into how alterations in sleep regulation contribute to increased cardiac risk. PMID:19203874
Montserrat Sánchez-Ortuño, M; Edinger, Jack D
The aim of this study was to determine how distinctive patterns of unhelpful beliefs about sleep endorsed by insomnia patients relate to their presenting symptoms and treatment responses. A sample of 281 primary insomnia sufferers completed items comprising the Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep scale (DBAS-16). Their resultant scores on the four DBAS-16 subscales were then subjected to a cluster analysis, which resulted in the identification of four distinctive age-matched subgroups. Two subgroups were characterized by pathologically elevated scores on at least two of the DBAS-16 subscales, whereas the other two subgroups had subscale scores that closely resembled those of a normative sample. Subsequent comparisons showed the insomnia subgroups differed in regard to their insomnia severity, use of prescribed medication for sleep, depression and anxiety symptoms, and daytime sleepiness. Furthermore, comparisons of treatment outcomes (i.e. analysis of change scores and normative comparisons) across clusters showed that the subgroups did not benefit equally from a standardized form of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for insomnia. Findings demonstrate the contribution of specific sleep-related beliefs on presenting insomnia symptoms and suggest the potential usefulness of tailoring CBT protocols to match the needs of distinctive insomnia subtypes. PMID:19879556
Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng
After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been
Ramezani, Ryan J.; Stacpoole, Peter W.
Study Objectives: Primary mitochondrial diseases are caused by heritable or spontaneous mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Such pathological mutations are relatively common in humans and may lead to neurological and neuromuscular complication that could compromise normal sleep behavior. To gain insight into the potential impact of primary mitochondrial disease and sleep pathology, we reviewed the relevant English language literature in which abnormal sleep was reported in association with a mitochondrial disease. Design: We examined publications reported in Web of Science and PubMed from February 1976 through January 2014, and identified 54 patients with a proven or suspected primary mitochondrial disorder who were evaluated for sleep disturbances. Measurements and Results: Both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA mutations were associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Most subjects who underwent polysomnography had central sleep apnea, and only 5 patients had obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four patients showed decreased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia that was not considered due to weakness of the intrinsic muscles of respiration. Conclusions: Sleep pathology may be an underreported complication of primary mitochondrial diseases. The probable underlying mechanism is cellular energy failure causing both central neurological and peripheral neuromuscular degenerative changes that commonly present as central sleep apnea and poor ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Increased recognition of the genetics and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases by sleep researchers and clinicians is important in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with sleep disturbances. Prospective population-based studies are required to determine the true prevalence of mitochondrial energy failure in subjects with sleep disorders, and conversely, of individuals with primary mitochondrial diseases and sleep pathology. Citation: Ramezani RJ
Martin, Jennifer L; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Mitchell, Michael; Fung, Constance H; Jouldjian, Stella; Alessi, Cathy A
Sleep quality is related to emotional, physical, psychological and cognitive functioning and functional independence in later life. After acute health events, older adults are likely to utilize postacute rehabilitation services to improve functioning and facilitate return to independent living. Patterns of how sleep changes with postacute rehabilitation, and predictors of such patterns, are unknown. The current investigation employed latent class analysis (LCA) methods to classify older adults (n = 233) into groups based on patterns of self-reported sleep quality pre-illness, during postacute rehabilitation and up to 1 year following postacute rehabilitation. Using LCA, older adults were grouped into (1) consistently good sleepers (46%), (2) good sleepers who transitioned into poor sleepers (34%), (3) consistently poor sleepers (14%) and (4) poor sleepers who transitioned into good sleepers (6%). In three planned analyses, pain was an independent predictor of membership in classes 1 or 2 (good pre-illness sleep quality) versus classes 3 or 4 (poor pre-illness sleep quality), and of membership in class 1 (consistently good sleep) versus class 2 (good sleep that transitioned to poor sleep). A lower Mini-Mental State Examination score was a predictor of membership in class 1 versus class 2. There were no statistically significant predictors of membership in class 3 versus class 4. Demographics, comorbidities and depressive symptoms were not significant predictors of class membership. These findings have implications for identification of older adults at risk for developing poor sleep associated with changes in health and postacute rehabilitation. The findings also suggest that pain symptoms should be targeted to improve sleep during postacute rehabilitation. PMID:23834036
Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Szakadát, Sára; Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert
Rapid eye movement sleep is composed of phasic and tonic periods, two distinguishable microstates in terms of arousal thresholds and sensory processing. Background electroencephalogram oscillations are also different between periods with (phasic state) and periods without (tonic state) eye movements. In Study 1, previous findings analysing electroencephalogram spectral power in phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep were replicated, and analyses extended to the high gamma range (52-90 Hz). In Study 2, phasic and tonic spectral power differences within a group of 4-8-year-old children were examined. Based on the polysomnographic data of 20 young adults, the phasic state yielded increased delta and theta power in anterior sites, as well as generally decreased high alpha and beta power in comparison to the tonic state. Moreover, phasic periods exhibited greater spectral power in the lower and the higher gamma band. Interestingly, children (n = 18) exhibited a different pattern, showing increased activity in the low alpha range during phasic periods. Moreover, during phasic in contrast to tonic rapid eye movement sleep, increased low and high gamma and enhanced low gamma band power emerged in anterior and posterior regions, respectively. The current findings show that spectral activity within the high gamma range substantially contributes to the differences between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep, especially in adults. Moreover, the current data underscore the heterogeneity of rapid eye movement sleep, and point to marked differences between young adults and children regarding phasic/tonic electroencephalogram spectral power. These results suggest that the differentiation between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement periods undergoes maturation. PMID:26762188
Duning, Thomas; Deppe, Michael; Brand, Eva; Stypmann, Jörg; Becht, Charlotte; Heidbreder, Anna; Young, Peter
Background The exact underlying pathomechanism of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR) is still unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between cerebral white matter changes and CSA. A dysfunction of central respiratory control centers in the brainstem was suggested by some authors. Novel MR-imaging analysis tools now allow far more subtle assessment of microstructural cerebral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what severity of subtle structural cerebral changes could lead to CSA-CSR, and whether there is a specific pattern of neurodegenerative changes that cause CSR. Therefore, we examined patients with Fabry disease (FD), an inherited, lysosomal storage disease. White matter lesions are early and frequent findings in FD. Thus, FD can serve as a "model disease" of cerebral microangiopathy to study in more detail the impact of cerebral lesions on central sleep apnea. Patients and Methods Genetically proven FD patients (n = 23) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 44) underwent a cardio-respiratory polysomnography and brain MRI at 3.0 Tesla. We applied different MR-imaging techniques, ranging from semiquantitative measurement of white matter lesion (WML) volumes and automated calculation of brain tissue volumes to VBM of gray matter and voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis. Results In 5 of 23 Fabry patients (22%) CSA-CSR was detected. Voxel-based DTI analysis revealed widespread structural changes in FD patients when compared to the healthy controls. When calculated as a separate group, DTI changes of CSA-CSR patients were most prominent in the brainstem. Voxel-based regression analysis revealed a significant association between CSR severity and microstructural DTI changes within the brainstem. Conclusion Subtle microstructural changes in the brainstem might be a neuroanatomical correlate of CSA-CSR in patients at risk of WML. DTI is more sensitive and specific than
Denardo, S J; Yock, P G; Hargrave, V K; Srebro, J P; Ports, T A; Talbot, L
Abnormal arterial blood flow patterns have been implicated as etiologic factors in thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Intravascular pulsed Doppler ultrasound techniques with fast-Fourier transform analysis offer the opportunity to measure these abnormalities. The authors hypothesized that statistical analysis of radial-directed beam spectra could be used to distinguish disturbed from non-disturbed flow and that analysis of conventional axial-directed beam spectra could then be used to distinguish laminar high-shear from laminar low-shear flow. They developed a scaled-up in-vitro model of coronary flow consisting of a glycerol/H2O test fluid flowing through an acrylic cylinder at Reynolds numbers spanning the typical physiologic range within the coronary arteries. A scaled-up Doppler catheter with the capacity for 90 degrees reflection of the beam was placed centrally. Disturbed flow was created by introducing a flow screen, and altered shear rates were produced by changing the Reynolds number. For the radial-directed beam studies, the coefficients of variation of the Doppler spectra for the disturbed flow states were significantly greater than for the nondisturbed flow states (p less than 0.01). For the axial-directed beam studies, the coefficients of variation of the Doppler spectra for the laminar high-shear flow states were significantly greater than for the laminar low-shear flow states (p less than 0.01). They conclude that abnormal blood flow patterns can be differentiated by the selective use of radial-directed and axial-directed Doppler catheter recordings. PMID:1928812
Curtis, L J; Georgiades, I B; White, S; Bird, C C; Harrison, D J; Wyllie, A H
Current opinion of the genetic events driving colorectal tumourigenesis focuses on genomic instability. At least two apparently independent mechanisms are recognized, microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability. The genetic defects underlying each type of instability are only partially understood and controversy remains as to the role of p53 in the generation of chromosomal defects in colorectal cancer. This study sought to clarify the relationships between chromosomal abnormalities and defects of both p53 and mismatch repair. Extensive chromosomal analysis was undertaken, using flow cytometry and comparative genomic hybridization, of a series of sporadic colorectal cancers which had been grown to early passage as subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice. Overall levels of chromosomal defects were observed to be low in RER+ cancers compared with RER- and distinctive patterns of chromosomal anomalies were found to be associated with both the RER+ and RER- phenotype. No particular level or pattern of chromosomal anomalies appeared to be associated with p53 status, supporting recent observations that abnormal p53 function is not sufficient to cause chromosomal anomalies in colorectal tumours. PMID:11113860
Appleman, Kenneth; Figueiro, Mariana G.; Rea, Mark S.
Objective Examine, in a field study, circadian phase changes associated with two different light–dark exposures patterns, one that was congruent with a phase advanced sleep schedule and the other that was incongruent with an advanced schedule. Methods Twenty-one adults (mean age ± SD = 22.5 ± 3.9 years; 11 women) participated in the 12 day study. After a five day baseline period, participants were all given individualized, fixed, 90 minute advanced sleep schedules for one week. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups, an advance group with a light–dark exposure prescription designed to advance circadian phase or a delay group with light–dark exposure prescription designed to delay circadian phase. The advance group received two morning hours of short-wavelength (blue) light (λmax ≈ 476 ± 1 nm, full-width-half-maximum ≈ 20 nm) exposure and three evening hours of light restriction (orange-filtered light, λ < 525 nm = 0). The delay group received blue light for three hours in the evening and light restriction for two hours in the morning. Participants led their normal lives while wearing a calibrated wrist-worn light exposure and activity monitor. Results After seven days on the 90 minute advanced sleep schedule, circadian phase advanced 132 ± 19 minutes for the advance group and delayed 59 ± 7.5 minutes for the delay group. Conclusions Controlling the light–dark exposure pattern shifts circadian phase in the expected direction irrespective of the fixed advanced sleep schedule. PMID:23481485
Simasko, Steven M; Mukherjee, Sanjib
Rats are polyphasic sleepers. However, a formal definition of when one sleep episode ends and another begins has not been put forth. In the present study we examine the distribution of wake episode durations and based on this distribution conclude there are multiple components of wake. If the wake episode exceeds 300 s the wake episode is assigned to long-duration wake (LDW), if the episode is less than 300 s it is assigned to brief wake (BW). Further support for this separation was found in close analysis of the EEG power spectrum in BW versus LDW. We then used LDW episodes to separate one sleep episode from another. We term the sleep episodes vigilance cycling (VC) because the rat is cycling between the vigilance states of BW, slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS). We find that the characteristics of VC are different in the light period versus the dark period. We further find that as VC episodes progress, SWS pressure lessens, but the amount of time spent in REMS increases. These findings suggest that VC episodes are regulated and meaningful to the sleep behavior of rats. The use of the concepts of LDW and VC provides additional insights into the description of sleep patterns in rats that may be important in the development of a complete description of sleep behavior in this animal. PMID:18835301
Simasko, Steven M.; Mukherjee, Sanjib
Rats are polyphasic sleepers. However, a formal definition of when one sleep episode ends and another begins has not been put forth. In the present study we examine the distribution of wake episode durations and based on this distribution conclude there are multiple components of wake. If the wake episode exceeds 300 sec the wake episode is assigned to long duration wake (LDW), if the episode is less than 300 sec it is assigned to brief wake (BW). Further support for this separation was found in close analysis of the EEG power spectrum in BW versus LDW. We then used LDW episodes to separate one sleep episode from another. We term the sleep episodes vigilance cycling (VC) because the rat is cycling between the vigilance states of brief wake (BW), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS). We find that the characteristics of VC are different in the light period versus the dark period. We further find that as VC episodes progress, SWS pressure lessens, but the amount of time spent in REMS increases. These findings suggest that VC episodes are regulated and meaningful to the sleep behavior of rats. The use of the concepts of LDW and VC provides additional insights into the description of sleep patterns in rats that may be important in the development of a complete description of sleep behavior in this animal. PMID:18835301
Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo
Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.
Gonzalez-Salazar, J S; Alba, A; Mendez, M O; Luna-Rivera, J M; Parrino, L; Grassi, A; Terzano, M; Milioli, G
Evaluation of the RR variability was carried out during the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) in sleep. CAP is a central phenomenon formed by short events called A-phases that break basal electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations of the sleep stages. A-phases are classified in three types (A1, A2 and A3) based on the EEG desynchronization during A-phase. However, the relation of A-phases with other systems, such as cardiovascular system, is unclear and a deep analysis is required. For the study, six patients with Nocturnal Front Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE) and other six healthy controls patients underwent whole night polysomnographic recordings with CAP and hypnogram annotations. Amplitude reduction and time delay of the RR intervals minimum with respect to A-phases onset were computed. In addition, the same process was computed over randomly chosen RR interval segments during the NREM sleep for further comparison. The results suggest that the onset of the A-phases is correlated with a significative increase of the heart rate that peaks at around 4s after the Aphase onset, independently of the A-phase subtype. PMID:25570820
de Leon-Lomeli, R; Murguia, J S; Chouvarda, I; Mendez, M O; Gonzalez-Galvan, E; Alba, A; Milioli, G; Grassi, A; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L
Insomnia is a condition that affects the nervous and muscular system. Thirty percent of the population between 18 and 60 years suffers from insomnia. The effects of this disorder involve problems such as poor school or job performance and traffic accidents. In addition, patients with insomnia present changes in the cardiac function during sleep. Furthermore, the structure of electroencephalographic A-phases, which builds up the Cyclic Alternating Pattern during sleep, is related to the insomnia events. Therefore, the relationship between these brain activations (A-phases) and the autonomic nervous system would be of interest, revealing the interplay of central and autonomic activity during insomnia. With this goal, a study of the relationship between A-phases and heart rate fluctuations is presented. Polysomnography recording of five healthy subjects, five sleep misperception patients and five patients with psychophysiological insomnia were used in the study. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) was used in order to evaluate the heart rate dynamics and this was correlated with the number of A-phases. The results suggest that pathological patients present changes in the dynamics of the heart rate. This is reflected in the modification of A-phases dynamics, which seems to modify of heart rate dynamics. PMID:25570435
Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans
The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…
Sridhar, G. R.; Putcha, Venkata; Lakshmi, G.
Objective: Pattern of sleep in hyperthyroid state / thyrotoxicosis has not been systematically studied. It is being characterized as poor without further elaboration. We analyzed the pattern of sleep in a large sample of individuals with thyrotoxicosis who came to our endocrine center in southern India. Materials and Methods: We identified individuals with the diagnosis of ‘thyrotoxicosis’ from our electronic medical record database, and evaluated clinical parameters and pattern of their sleep: difficulty in falling asleep (DFA), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), excess daytime sleepiness). In the first phase, univariate analysis with logistic regression was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed in the next phase on variables with a P-value < 0.1: these were considered as potential categories/ variables. Results: In model response variable with DFA, multivariate logistic regression predicted that subjects with abnormal appetite (more 1.7 or less 2.2), change in bowel motion (loose 1.5 or constipation 2.8), in mood (easy loss of temper 3.4), change of voice -- hoarse 7.4 or moderately hoarse 3.1), tended to have higher chances of difficulty in falling asleep (DFA). Patients with tremor (yes = 5.4) had greater likelihood of difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS). Conclusions: Individuals with hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis principally had difficulty in falling asleep DFA, which was related to hyperkinetic features. PMID:21584162
Pieters, Delphine; De Valck, Elke; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Pirrera, Sandra; Wuyts, Johan; Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Haex, Bart; Michiels, Nina; Verbraecken, Johan; Cluydts, Raymond
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of media use in the hour before bedtime on sleep/wake patterns and daytime functioning among adolescents and to examine the moderating role of parental control. A total of 1,926 Belgian students, 55% girls and 45% boys, with a mean age of 16.9 ± 1.5 years, completed a modified version of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Correlational analyses showed that media use, except television viewing, was associated with later bedtimes and longer sleep latencies. Cell phone and computer usage was negatively associated with daytime functioning. On schooldays, parental control had a moderating effect on the relationship between bedtime and computer use (β = .05; p < .05) and between bedtime and mp3 player use (β = .08; p < .01). During the weekend, parental control played a moderating role between bedtime and television viewing (β = .06; p = .01). As media use can influence the sleep of adolescents considerably, parental control is necessary to regulate the exposure of adolescents to media and to moderate the detrimental effect of media use on sleep. PMID:24617896
Miniou, P.; Blanquet, V.; Viegas-Pequignot, E.
ICF syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by variable immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial abnormalities. Stretchings and frequent associations of centromeric or juxtacentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 1 and 16 principally, and to a lesser degree, chromosome 9 mimic chromosome features of normal PHA-stimulated lymphocytes treated with 5-azacytidine, an inducer of demethylation. In fact, in these patients we have detected by DNA digestion with methyl-sensitive enzymes a hypomethylation of classical satellites 2 and 3, located in heterochromatin. To assess the role of other satellite DNA in the heterochromatin modifications and chromosome rearrangements, in situ fluorescent method using 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) monoclonal antibody on chromosomes and nuclei were performed in parallel with Southern blot analysis of other satellite sequences located in heterochromatin. 5-MeC reveals that constitutive and facultative heterochromatin (X inactive chromosome) are hypomethylated. Alpha satellite sequences corresponding to centromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 16, 18 and X are mostly methylated in patients G and R, and are undermethylated in patient S. Both molecular and cytogenetic analysis are in agreement. By in situ hybridization, breakpoints of rearranged chromosomes were located in stretched and hypomethylated classical satellites. In euchromatin, 5-MeC antibodies reveal an R-like banding pattern indicating an unequal distribution of DNA methylation, disclosing another aspect of chromosome organization. The underlying hypomethylation, associated with an abnormal chromatin structure, may predispose to chromosome instability.
Li, Shuyu; Yuan, Xiankun; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Wu, Liyong; Chao, Wang; Chen, Nan; He, Yong; Han, Ying
Previous studies have suggested that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with changes in cortical morphological features, such as cortical thickness, sulcal depth, surface area, gray matter volume, metric distortion, and mean curvature. These features have been proven to have specific neuropathological and genetic underpinnings. However, most studies primarily focused on mass-univariate methods, and cortical features were generally explored in isolation. Here, we used a multivariate method to characterize the complex and subtle structural changing pattern of cortical anatomy in 24 aMCI human participants and 26 normal human controls. Six cortical features were extracted for each participant, and the spatial patterns of brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by high classification weights using a support vector machine method. The classification accuracy in discriminating the two groups was 76% in the left hemisphere and 80% in the right hemisphere when all six cortical features were used. Regions showing high weights were subtle, spatially complex, and predominately located in the left medial temporal lobe and the supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobes. In addition, we also found that the six morphological features had different contributions in discriminating the two groups even for the same region. Our results indicated that the neuroanatomical patterns that discriminated individuals with aMCI from controls were truly multidimensional and had different effects on the morphological features. Furthermore, the regions identified by our method could potentially be useful for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25100588
Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.
The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.
Pizza, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Poli, Francesca; Vandi, Stefano; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Plazzi, Giuseppe
We investigated nocturnal sleep abnormalities in 19 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (IH) in comparison with two age- and sex- matched control groups of 13 normal subjects (C) and of 17 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC), the latter considered as the extreme of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Sleep macro- and micro- (i.e. cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) structure as well as quantitative analysis of EEG, of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), and of muscle tone during REM sleep were compared across groups. IH and NC patients slept more than C subjects, but IH showed the highest levels of sleep fragmentation (e.g. awakenings), associated with a CAP rate higher than NC during lighter sleep stages and lower than C during slow wave sleep respectively, and with the highest relative amount of A3 and the lowest of A1 subtypes. IH showed a delta power in between C and NC groups, whereas muscle tone and PLMS had normal characteristics. A peculiar profile of microstructural sleep abnormalities may contribute to sleep fragmentation and, possibly, EDS in IH. PMID:23061443
Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing
Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680
Ishizaki, Ryuji; Shinba, Toshikazu; Mugishima, Go; Haraguchi, Hikaru; Inoue, Masayoshi
We performed electroencephalography (EEG) for six male Wistar rats to clarify temporal behaviors at different levels of consciousness. Levels were identified both by conventional sleep analysis methods and by our novel entropy method. In our method, time-dependent pattern entropy is introduced, by which EEG is reduced to binary symbolic dynamics and the pattern of symbols in a sliding temporal window is considered. A high correlation was obtained between level of consciousness as measured by the conventional method and mean entropy in our entropy method. Mean entropy was maximal while awake (stage W) and decreased as sleep deepened. These results suggest that time-dependent pattern entropy may offer a promising method for future sleep research.
Rhie, Seonkyeong; Lee, Sihyoung
Purpose Korean adolescents have severe nighttime sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness because of their competitive educational environment. However, daytime sleep patterns and sleepiness have never been studied using age-specific methods, such as the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS). We surveyed the daytime sleepiness of Korean adolescents using a Korean translation of the PDSS. Methods We distributed the 27-item questionnaire, including the PDSS and questions related to sleep pattern, sleep satisfaction, and emotional state, to 3,370 students in grades 5-12. Results The amount of nighttime sleep decreased significantly with increasing age. During weekday nights, 5-6th graders slept for 7.95±1.05 h, 7-9th graders for 7.57±1.05 h, and 10-12th graders for 5.78±1.13 h. However, the total amounts of combined daytime and nighttime sleep during weekdays were somewhat greater, 8.15±1.12 h for 5-6th graders, 8.17±1.20 h for 7-9th graders, and 6.87±1.40 h for 10-12th graders. PDSS scores increased with age, 11.89±5.56 for 5-6th graders, 16.57±5.57 for 7-9th graders, and 17.71±5.24 for 10-12th graders. Higher PDSS scores were positively correlated with poor school performance and emotional instability. Conclusion Korean teenagers sleep to an unusual extent during the day because of nighttime sleep deprivation. This negatively affects school performance and emotional stability. A Korean translation of the PDSS was effective in evaluating the severity of daytime sleepiness and assessing the emotional state and school performance of Korean teenagers. PMID:21359058
Arkilo, Dimitrios; Devinsky, Orrin; Mudigoudar, Basanagoud; Boronat, Susana; Jennesson, Melanie; Sassower, Kenneth; Vaou, Okeanis Eleni; Lerner, Jason T; Jeste, Shafali Spurling; Luchsinger, Kadi; Thibert, Ronald
Our objective was to define the EEG features during sleep of children with neurodevelopmental disorders due to copy number gains of 15q11-q13 (Dup15q). We retrospectively reviewed continuous EEG recordings of 42 children with Dup15q (mean age: eight years, 32 with idic15), and data collected included background activity, interictal epileptiform discharges, sleep organization, and ictal activity. Three patterns were recognized: This is the first report of electroencephalographic patterns during sleep of children with Dup15q reporting alpha-delta rhythms, CSWS, and high amplitude fast frequencies. Alpha-delta rhythms are described in children with dysautonomia and/or mood disorders and CSWS in children with developmental regression. The significance of these findings in cognitive function and epilepsy for the children in our cohort needs to be determined with follow-up studies. PMID:26949155
Chouvarda, I; Mendez, M O; Alba, A; Bianchi, A M; Grassi, A; Arce-Santana, E; Rosso, V; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L
This study analyzes the nonlinear properties of the EEG at transition points of the sequences that build the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP). CAP is a sleep phenomenon built up by consecutive sequences of activations and non-activations observed during the sleep time. The sleep condition can be evaluated from the patterns formed by these sequences. Eleven recordings from healthy and good sleepers were included in this study. We investigated the complexity properties of the signal at the onset and offset of the activations. The results show that EEG signals present significant differences (p<0.05) between activations and non-activations in the Sample Entropy and Tsallis Entropy indices. These indices could be useful in the development of automatic methods for detecting the onset and offset of the activations, leading to significant savings of the physician's time by simplifying the manual inspection task. PMID:23366075
Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Bruni, Oliviero; Terzano, Mario G; Stam, Cornelis J
The levels of EEG synchronization, in the 0.25-2.5 Hz band, during the A1 subtypes of the sleep "cyclic alternating pattern" (CAP) were measured in five healthy subjects by means of the synchronization likelihood (SL) algorithm. SL was measured for seven electrode pairs (F4-F3, C4-C3, P4-P3 for the analysis of interhemispheric SL and F4-C4, C4-P4, F3-C3, and C3-P3, for the analysis of intrahemispheric SL). During the A1 CAP subtypes, SL tended to be highest between pairs of electrodes situated over different hemispheres; in particular, SL obtained from F4-F3 was the highest, followed by that of P4-P3. These results indicate that the transient high level of synchronization in the slow-wave EEG range, during the sleep A1 CAP subtypes, is a phenomenon involving mostly the anterior parts of the brain and is probably based on interhemispheric interactions, possibly mediated by transcallosal connections. PMID:16806696
Tumeh, S.S.; Aliabadi, P.; Weissman, B.; McNeil, B.J.
In this study the authors reviewed data from 136 patients (pts) in order to refine the interpretive criteria used to diagnose active osteomyelitis (AOM) in patients with previous bone disease (e.g., old osteomyelitis, fractures, orthopedic devices excluding prostheses). They evaluated bone (Tc-99mMDP) and gallium 67 studies and obtained followup in all pts. AOM was diagnosed by surgery or biopsy and culture in 49 pts and was excluded by the same criteria in 16 pts. An additional 71 pts had the diagnosis excluded by followup clinical criteria. Five patterns were found. T1: abnormal Tc-99m-MDP, normal Ga-67. T2: diffuse increased uptake of both radiopharmaceuticals with Tc-99m-MDP greater than Ga-67. T3: different geographic distribution, but similar intensities of uptake of both. T4: very similar uptake and distribution of both. T5: Ga-67 exceeded Tc-99m-MDP. The authors conclude that T5 is diagnostic of AOM, T3 and T4 raise the probability of AOM than before scanning, T1 and T2 decrease it.
Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid
Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236
Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Herrel, Anthony
Despite the ubiquitous nature of sleep, its functions remain a mystery. In an attempt to address this, many researchers have studied behavioural and electrophysiological phenomena associated with sleep in a diversity of animals. The great majority of vertebrates and invertebrates display a phase of immobility that could be considered as a sort of sleep. Terrestrial mammals and birds, both homeotherms, show two sleep states with distinct behavioural and electrophysiological features. However, whether these features have evolved independently in each clade or were inherited from a common ancestor remains unknown. Unfortunately, amphibians and reptiles, key taxa in understanding the evolution of sleep given their position at the base of the tetrapod and amniote tree, respectively, remain poorly studied in the context of sleep. This review presents an overview of what is known about sleep in amphibians and reptiles and uses the existing data to provide a preliminary analysis of the evolution of behavioural and electrophysiological features of sleep in amphibians and reptiles. We also discuss the problems associated with analysing existing data, as well as the difficulty in inferring homologies of sleep stages based on limited data in the context of an essentially mammalian-centric definition of sleep. Finally, we highlight the importance of developing comparative approaches to sleep research that may benefit from the great diversity of species with different ecologies and morphologies in order to understand the evolution and functions of sleep. PMID:26031314
Kondo, Hideaki; Ozone, Motohiro; Ohki, Noboru; Sagawa, Yohei; Yamamichi, Keiichirou; Fukuju, Mitsuki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Nishi, Chikako; Kawasaki, Akiko; Mori, Kaori; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Izumi, Motomori; Hishikawa, Yasuo; Nishino, Seiji; Shimizu, Tetsuo
Study Objectives: Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is frequently followed by changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), but the sequential associations between CAP and autonomic nerve activity have not been studied. The study aimed to reveal the precise changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during phase A of the CAP cycle. Design: Polysomnography was recorded according to the CAP Atlas (Terzano, 2002), and BP and electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded. The complex demodulation method was used for analysis of HRV and evaluation of autonomic nerve activity. Setting: Academic sleep laboratory. Participants: Ten healthy males. Measurements and Results: The increase in HR (median [first quartile – third quartile]) for each subtype was as follows: A1, 0.64 (-0.30 to 1.69), A2, 1.44 (0.02 to 3.79), and A3, 6.24 (2.53 to 10.76) bpm (A1 vs. A2 P < 0.001, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). The increase in BP for each subtype was as follows: A1, 1.23 (-2.04 to 5.75), A2, 1.76 (-1.46 to 9.32), and A3, 12.51 (4.75 to 19.94) mm Hg (A1 vs. A2 P = 0.249, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). In all of phase A, the peak values for HR and BP appeared at 4.2 (3.5 to 5.4) and 8.4 (7.0 to 10.3) seconds, respectively, after the onset of phase A. The area under the curve for low-frequency and high-frequency amplitude significantly increased after the onset of CAP phase A (P < 0.001) and was higher in the order of subtype A3, A2, and A1 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: All phase A subtypes were accompanied with increased heart rate variability, and the largest heart rate variability was seen in subtype A3, while a tendency for less heart rate variability was seen in subtype A1. Citation: Kondo H; Ozone M; Ohki N; Sagawa Y; Yamamichi K; Fukuju M; Yoshida T; Nishi C; Kawasaki; Mori; Kanbayashi T; Izumi M; Hishikawa Y; Nishino S; Shimizu T. Association between heart rate variability, blood pressure and autonomic activity in cyclic alternating pattern during sleep
Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L.; Drescher, Amy A.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Simon, Richard D.; Smith, Terry W.; Quan, Stuart F.
Study Objectives: Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Methods: Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ≥ 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Results: Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m2, and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p < 0.05). The BMI was higher among women in both CPAP and Sham groups. However, compared to women, men had higher AHI only in the CPAP group (50 vs. 34). Similarly, the arousal index was higher among men in CPAP group. Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p < 0.05), there also were no changes in activity patterns. Conclusion
Parry-Fielder, Bronwyn; Collins, Kevin; Fisher, John; Keir, Eddie; Anderson, Vicki; Jacobs, Rani; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Nolan, Terry
Earlier research has suggested a link between epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and developmental speech-language disorder (DSLD). This study investigated the strength of this association by comparing the frequency of EEG abnormalities in 45 language-normal children (29 males, 16 females; mean age 6y 11mo, SD 1y 10mo, range…
Pedersen, Mangor; Curwood, Evan K; Vaughan, David N; Omidvarnia, Amir H; Jackson, Graeme D
Individuals with focal epilepsy have heterogeneous sites of seizure origin. However, there may be brain regions that are common to most cases of intractable focal epilepsy. In this study, we aim to identify these using multivariate analysis of task-free functional MRI. Fourteen subjects with extratemporal focal epilepsy and 14 healthy controls were included in the study. Task-free functional MRI data were used to calculate voxel-wise regional connectivity with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and weighted degree centrality (DCw), in addition to regional activity using fraction of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Multivariate pattern analysis was applied to each of these metrics to discriminate brain areas that differed between focal epilepsy subjects and healthy controls. ReHo and DCw classified focal epilepsy subjects from healthy controls with high accuracy (89.3% and 75%, respectively). However, fALFF did not significantly classify patients from controls. Increased regional network activity in epilepsy subjects was seen in the ipsilateral piriform cortex, insula, and thalamus, in addition to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and lateral frontal cortices. Decreased regional connectivity was observed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as lateral temporal cortices. Patients with extratemporal focal epilepsy have common areas of abnormality (ReHo and DCw measures), including the ipsilateral piriform cortex, temporal neocortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. ReHo shows additional increase in the "salience network" that includes anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. DCw showed additional effects in the ipsilateral thalamus and striatum. These brain areas may represent key regional network properties underlying focal epilepsy. PMID:26537783
Goldman, Suzanne E; Wang, Lily; Fawkes, Diane B
Sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are often associated with problem behaviors. Problematic sleep in the child may impact maternal sleep. We examined the association of sleep in mother-child dyads to child daytime behavior and maternal insomnia and daytime sleepiness in 11 children with ASD and 6 children of typical development (TD) using wrist actigraphs over 14 consecutive nights. Early morning wakenings were significantly associated with poorer daytime behavior as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist in both ASD and TD children. Additionally, associations were found between mother and child sleep and between the child's sleep and maternal daytime sleepiness. These results highlight the need to consider the potential interaction of maternal-child sleep in future studies. PMID:25325077
Marshall, Jillian C; Malerba, Julie R; Schroeder, Joseph A
Sleep is often a topic of avid interest to college students, yet it is one that does not yield itself well to hands-on, interactive learning modules. Supplementing classroom learning with interactive "real world" laboratory activities provides students with a deeper understanding of behavior and its neural control. The project described here was designed to supplement the teaching of EEGs, sleep and circadian rhythms and involved students in the empirical process from hypothesizing about the factors that affect sleep, to personal data collection, data analysis and writing in the style of a peer-reviewed manuscript. Students enrolled in Behavioral Neuroscience at Connecticut College were provided with a home-based personal EEG monitor used to collect sleep data in their natural sleep setting. Participants recorded sleep data with the use of the ZEO® Personal Sleep Coach system and completed a nightly sleep journal questionnaire for seven nights. The ZEO® system uses EEG patterns to define sleep stages including wakefulness, light, deep and REM sleep. The journal included questions about factors known to affect sleep such as stress, caffeine, academic activity, exercise and alcohol. A class data set was compiled and used by students to perform univariate correlations examining the relationships between ZEO® variables and sleep journal variables. The data set allowed students to choose specific variables to investigate, analyze and write a peer-reviewed style manuscript. Significant class-wide correlations were found between specific sleep stages and behavioral variables suggesting that the ZEO® system is sophisticated yet inexpensive enough to be used as an effective tool in the classroom setting. Overall student feedback on the exercise was positive with many students indicating that it significantly enhanced their understanding of sleep architecture and made them keenly aware of the factors that affect quality of sleep. PMID:23626495
Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick
Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Sample and Method: Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results: An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. Conclusion: The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective
Díaz, M; Rendón, A; Cano, M E
In order to find out the effectiveness of the nasal CPAP in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), we studied 30 patients with this diagnosis corroborated by nocturnal polysomnography. The average age was 46.37 +/- 11.58 years, 97% were males and 90% were overweight, with a weight of 101.24 +/- 15.57 Kg. All the patients were evaluated before and after the application of nasal CPAP with a pressure of 12.9 +/- 4.35 cm of H2O with a FIO2 of 21%. The sleep efficiency index improved from 0.62 +/- 0.03 to 0.84 +/- 0.02 (p < 0.0001). The maximum duration of the apneas diminished from 65.5 +/- 6.5 seconds to 19 +/- 3.7 seconds (p < 0.0001), and the minimum level of O2 saturation of the hemoglobin increased from 56.8 +/- 3.2% to 84.9 +/- 1.9% (p < 00.0001). These findings showed a clear improvement in the majority of the evaluated parameters in all of the patients, and, in many of them, a normalization. We conclude that the nasal CPAP is effective for the acute improvement of the disorders observed during the sleep in patients with OSA, which supports its therapeutic use in this illness. PMID:9927773
Platt, Bettina; Drever, Benjamin; Koss, David; Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Jyoti, Amar; Plano, Andrea; Utan, Aneli; Merrick, Georgina; Ryan, Duncan; Melis, Valeria; Wan, Hong; Mingarelli, Marco; Porcu, Emanuele; Scrocchi, Louise; Welch, Andy; Riedel, Gernot
Late-stage neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are β-amyloid (βA) and hyperphosphorylated tau peptides, aggregated into plaques and tangles, respectively. Corresponding phenotypes have been mimicked in existing transgenic mice, however, the translational value of aggressive over-expression has recently been questioned. As controlled gene expression may offer animal models with better predictive validity, we set out to design a transgenic mouse model that circumvents complications arising from pronuclear injection and massive over-expression, by targeted insertion of human mutated amyloid and tau transgenes, under the forebrain- and neurone-specific CaMKIIα promoter, termed PLB1Double. Crossing with an existing presenilin 1 line resulted in PLB1Triple mice. PLB1Triple mice presented with stable gene expression and age-related pathology of intra-neuronal amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau in hippocampus and cortex from 6 months onwards. At this early stage, pre-clinical 18FDG PET/CT imaging revealed cortical hypometabolism with increased metabolic activity in basal forebrain and ventral midbrain. Quantitative EEG analyses yielded heightened delta power during wakefulness and REM sleep, and time in wakefulness was already reliably enhanced at 6 months of age. These anomalies were paralleled by impairments in long-term and short-term hippocampal plasticity and preceded cognitive deficits in recognition memory, spatial learning, and sleep fragmentation all emerging at ∼12 months. These data suggest that prodromal AD phenotypes can be successfully modelled in transgenic mice devoid of fibrillary plaque or tangle development. PLB1Triple mice progress from a mild (MCI-like) state to a more comprehensive AD-relevant phenotype, which are accessible using translational tools such as wireless EEG and microPET/CT. PMID:22096518
Gemignani, Angelo; Piarulli, Andrea; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Rota, Giuseppina; Mastorci, Francesca; Gushin, Vadim; Shevchenko, Olga; Garbella, Erika; Pingitore, Alessandro; Sebastiani, Laura; Bergamasco, Massimo; L'Abbate, Antonio; Allegrini, Paolo; Bedini, Remo
Spaceflights "environment" negatively affects sleep and its functions. Among the different causes promoting sleep alterations, such as circadian rhythms disruption and microgravity, stress is of great interest also for earth-based sleep medicine. This study aims to evaluate the relationships between stress related to social/environmental confinement and sleep in six healthy volunteers involved in the simulation of human flight to Mars (MARS500). Volunteers were sealed in a spaceship simulator for 105 days and studied at 5 specific time-points of the simulation period. Sleep EEG, urinary cortisol (24 h preceding sleep EEG recording) and subjectively perceived stress levels were collected. Cognitive abilities and emotional state were evaluated before and after the simulation. Sleep EEG parameters in the time (latency, duration) and frequency (power and hemispheric lateralization) domains were evaluated. Neither cognitive and emotional functions alterations nor abnormal stress levels were found. Higher cortisol levels were associated to: (i) decrease of sleep duration, increase of arousals, and shortening of REM latency; (ii) reduction of delta power and enhancement of sigma and beta in NREM N3; and (iii) left lateralization of delta activity (NREM and REM) and right lateralization of beta activity (NREM). Stressful conditions, even with cortisol fluctuations in the normal range, alter sleep structure and sleep EEG spectral content, mirroring pathological conditions such as primary insomnia or insomnia associated to depression. Correlations between cortisol fluctuations and sleep changes suggest a covert risk for developing allostatic load, and thus the need to develop ad-hoc countermeasures for preventing sleep alterations in long lasting manned space missions. PMID:24793641
Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Gelaye, Bizu; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A
Objectives To use wrist-actrigrphy to collect objective measures of sleep and to characterise actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities. We also assessed the extent to which, if at all, caregivers’ education is associated with children's sleep disturbances. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A rehabilitation centre in the Patagonia region, Chile. Methods This study was conducted among 125 children aged 6–12 years with disabilities (boys: 55.2%) and their primary caregivers in Chile. Children wore ActiSleep monitors for 7 days. A general linear model was fitted to generate least-square means and SEs of sleep efficiency (proportion of the sleep period spent asleep) across caregivers’ education levels adjusting for children's age, sex, disability type, caregiver–child relationship and caregivers’ age. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of longer sleep latency (≥30 min) and longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) (≥90 min) (a measure of sleep fragmentation) in relation to caregivers’ educational attainment. Results Median sleep latency was 27.3 min, WASO 88.1 min and sleep duration 8.0 h. Mean sleep efficiency was 80.0%. Caregivers’ education was positively and significantly associated with children's sleep efficiency (p trend<0.001). Adjusted mean sleep efficiency was 75.7% (SE=1.4) among children of caregivers
Sterniczuk, Roxanne; Rusak, Benjamin; Rockwood, Kenneth
Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a restorative process, sleep is important for supporting immune function and aiding the body in healing and recovery. Aging is associated with characteristic changes to sleep quantity and quality, which make it more difficult to adjust sleep-wake rhythms to changing environmental conditions. Sleep disturbance and abnormal sleep-wake cycles are commonly reported in seriously ill older patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors appears to contribute to these disruptions. Little is known regarding the effect that sleep disturbance has on health status in the oldest of old (80+), a group, who with diminishing physiological reserve and increasing prevalence of frailty, is at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes, such as cognitive decline and mortality. Here we review how sleep is altered in the ICU, with particular attention to older patients, especially those aged ≥80 years. Further work is required to understand what impact sleep disturbance has on frailty levels and poor outcomes in older critically ill patients. PMID:25018625
Bindewald, A; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S; Jorzik, J J; Dolar-Szczasny, J; Sieber, H; Keilhauer, C; Weinberger, A W A; Dithmar, S; Pauleikhoff, D; Mansmann, U; Wolf, S; Holz, F G
Aim: To describe and classify patterns of abnormal fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in the junctional zone of geographic atrophy (GA) in patients with age related macular degeneration. Methods: Digital FAF images were recorded in 164 eyes of 107 patients using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO; excitation 488 nm, detection above 500 nm) as part of a prospective multicentre natural history study (FAM Study). FAF images were obtained in accordance with a standardised protocol for digital image acquisition and generation of mean images after automated alignment. Results: Image quality was sufficient for classification of FAF patterns in 149 eyes (90.9%) with lens opacities being the most common reason for insufficient image quality. Abnormal FAF outside GA in 149 eyes was classified into four patterns: focal (12.1%), banded (12.8%), patchy (2.0%), and diffuse (57.0%), whereby 12.1% had normal background FAF in the junctional zone. In 4% there was no predominant pattern. The diffuse pattern was subdivided into four groups including reticular (4.7%), branching (27.5%), fine granular (18.1%), and fine granular with peripheral punctate spots (6.7%). Conclusions: Different phenotypic patterns of abnormal FAF in the junctional zone of GA can be identified with cSLO FAF imaging. These distinct patterns may reflect heterogeneity at a cellular and molecular level in contrast with a non-specific ageing process. A refined phenotypic classification may be helpful to identify prognostic determinants for the spread of atrophy and visual loss, for identification of genetic risk factors as well as for the design of future interventional trials. PMID:15965170
Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti
The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes. PMID:19095304
Xue, Cunjin; Song, Wanjiao; Qin, Lijuan; Dong, Qing; Wen, Xiaoyang
A spatiotemporal mining framework is a novel tool for the analysis of marine association patterns using multiple remote sensing images. From data pretreatment, to algorithm design, to association rule mining and pattern visualization, this paper outlines a spatiotemporal mining framework for abnormal association patterns in marine environments, including pixel-based and object-based mining models. Within this framework, some key issues are also addressed. In the data pretreatment phase, we propose an algorithm for extracting abnormal objects or pixels over marine surfaces, and construct a mining transaction table with object-based and pixel-based strategies. In the mining algorithm phase, a recursion method to construct a direct association pattern tree is addressed with an asymmetric mutual information table, and a recursive mining algorithm to find frequent items. In the knowledge visualization phase, a "Dimension-Attributes" visualization framework is used to display spatiotemporal association patterns. Finally, spatiotemporal association patterns for marine environmental parameters in the Pacific Ocean are identified, and the results prove the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed mining framework.
Hou, F. Z.; Li, F. W.; Wang, J.; Yan, F. R.
Based on a visibility-graph algorithm, complex networks were constructed from very short-term heart rate variability (HRV) during different sleep stages. Network measurements progressively changed from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep to light sleep and then deep sleep, exhibiting promising ability for sleep assessment. Abnormal activation of the cardiovascular controls with enhanced 'small-world' couplings and altered fractal organization during REM sleep indicates that REM could be a potential risk factor for adverse cardiovascular event, especially in males, older individuals, and people who are overweight. Additionally, an apparent influence of gender, aging, and obesity on sleep was demonstrated in healthy adults, which may be helpful for establishing expected sleep-HRV patterns in different populations.
Jung, Ji-Young; Roh, Mootaek; Ko, Kyung-Kyun; Jang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seong-Ryong; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Jang, Il-Sung; Lee, Ho-Won; Lee, Maan-Gee
We studied the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil and galantamine, and an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker, memantine, on sleep-wake architecture in rats. Screw electrodes were chronically implanted into the frontal and parietal cortex for the electroencephalography (EEG). EEG was recorded with a bio-potential amplifier for 8 h from 09:30 to 17:30. Vibration was recorded to monitor animal activity with a vibration measuring device. Sleep-wake states such as wake (W), slow-wave sleep (S) and paradoxical or rapid eye movement sleep (P), were scored every 10 sec by an experimenter. We measured mean episode duration and number of episode to determine which factor sleep disturbance was attributed to. Donepezil and memantine showed a significant increase in total W duration and decreases in total S and P duration and delta activity. Memantine showed increases in sleep latency and motor activity. Changes of S and P duration in memantine were attributed from changes of mean episode duration. Galantamine had little effect on sleep architecture. From these results, it is showed that galantamine may be an anti-dementia drug that does not cause sleep disturbances and memantine may be a drug that causes severe sleep disturbance. PMID:22915987
Terzaghi, Michele; Sartori, Ivana; Rustioni, Valter; Manni, Raffaele
Delirium is a disturbance of consciousness and cognition that results in a confusional state. It tends to fluctuate in intensity and is often observed in older patients. Sleep is a window of vulnerability for the occurrence of delirium and sleep disorders can play a role in its appearance. In particular, delirious episodes have been associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, which is reported to be frequent in the elderly. Hereby, we present a case-report documenting the sudden onset of a confusional state triggered by obstructive sleep apnoea-induced arousal, together with a review of the literature on the topic. We emphasise that, among the many pathogenic factors implicated in delirium, it is worth considering the possible link between nocturnal delirium and the occurrence of impaired arousals. Indeed, the complex confusional manifestations of delirium could be due, in part, to persistence of dysfunctional sleep activity resulting in an inability to sustain full arousal during behavioural wakefulness. Arousals can be triggered by sleep disturbances or other medical conditions. Clinicians should be aware that older patients may present disordered sleep patterns, and make investigation of sleep patterns and disorders potentially affecting sleep continuity a key part of their clinical workup, especially in the presence of cognitive comorbidities. Correct diagnosis and optimal treatment of sleep disorders and disrupted sleep can have a significant impact in the elderly, improving sleep quality and reducing the occurrence of abnormal sleep-related behaviours. PMID:24636782
Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.
Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Takala, Pirjo; Sailas, Eila; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti
Background Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. Case presentation The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. Conclusions The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding. PMID:15507139
Katz, Eliot S.; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn M.
Sleep-disordered breathing is a common and serious cause of metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive morbidity in children. The spectrum of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing ranges from habitual snoring to partial or complete airway obstruction, termed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Breathing patterns due to airway narrowing are highly variable, including obstructive cycling, increased respiratory effort, flow limitation, tachypnea, and/or gas exchange abnormalities. As a consequence, sleep homeostasis may be disturbed. Increased upper airway resistance is an essential component of OSA, including any combination of narrowing/retropositioning of the maxilla/mandible and/or adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, in addition to anatomic factors, the stability of the upper airway is predicated on neuromuscular activation, ventilatory control, and arousal threshold. During sleep, most children with OSA intermittently attain a stable breathing pattern, indicating successful neuromuscular activation. At sleep onset, airway muscle activity is reduced, ventilatory variability increases, and an apneic threshold slightly below eupneic levels is observed in non-REM sleep. Airway collapse is offset by pharyngeal dilator activity in response to hypercapnia and negative lumenal pressure. Ventilatory overshoot results in sudden reduction in airway muscle activation, contributing to obstruction during non-REM sleep. Arousal from sleep exacerbates ventilatory instability and, thus, obstructive cycling. Paroxysmal reductions in pharyngeal dilator activity related to central REM sleep processes likely account for the disproportionate severity of OSA observed during REM sleep. Understanding the pathophysiology of pediatric OSA may permit more precise clinical phenotyping, and therefore improve or target therapies related to anatomy, neuromuscular compensation, ventilatory control, and/or arousal threshold. PMID:18250219
Goldman, S. E.; Malow, B. A.; Newman, K. D.; Roof, E.; Dykens, E. M.
Background: Sleep disorders are common in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and may adversely affect daytime functioning. Children with Williams syndrome have been reported to have disturbed sleep; however, no studies have been performed to determine if these problems continue into adolescence and adulthood. Methods: This study…
Siniatchkin, Michael; Groppa, Sergey; Jerosch, Bettina; Muhle, Hiltrud; Kurth, Christoph; Shepherd, Alex J.; Siebner, Hartwig; Stephani, Ulrich
Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is a highly heritable electroencephalographic trait characterized by an abnormal cortical response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). In PPR-positive individuals, IPS induces spikes, spike-waves or intermittent slow waves. The PPR may be restricted to posterior visual areas (i.e. local PPR…
Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George
We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.
Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George
We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4±2.3years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS. PMID:20615010
Thacher, Pamela V
This study evaluated the self-reported patterns, motivations, and correlates of engagement in a single night of total sleep deprivation (SN-TSD) in a sample of 120 university students at a 4-year liberal arts college. Participants' mean age . was 20.1 years; the sample was 63% female. Measures included the Owl-Lark Scale of circadian preference; the Beck Depression Inventory; and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); as well as self-reported usual bedtime, rise time, and total sleep time. Students' cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) were also obtained; these were reported from the university registrar. Sixty percent of students surveyed reported engaging in SN-TSD once or more since coming to college. No differences between genders or among class standing with respect to use of SN-TSD were detected. Engagement in SN-TSD was associated with later self-reported bedtimes, evening preference, and poorer academic achievement as measured by GPA. A trend for increased symptoms of depression was detected; sleep quality as measured by the PSQI was not related to engagement in SN-TSD. PMID:18412035
Sugai, Fuminobu; Baba, Kousuke; Toyooka, Keiko; Liang, Wen-Chen; Nishino, Ichizo; Yamadera, Misaki; Sumi, Hisae; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshiro
We report a case of a 37 year-old male with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD). The patient had suffered from exercise intolerance in his hip and thigh muscles for one year. Then, restriction of carbohydrates for a diet made his symptoms rapidly deteriorate. Blood test revealed compound heterozygosity for two novel missense mutations in the electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase gene (ETFDH), and an abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern: LDH-1 (60.0%) and LDH-2 (26.0%) predominated with abnormally elevated LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (2.3), compared with muscle-derived LDH-5 (4.0%). Oral riboflavin treatment significantly improved his exercise intolerance and the LDH profile: LDH-1 (34.4%), LDH-2 (34.9%), LDH-5 (6.9%) and LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (1.0). The abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern may be one feature of adult-onset MADD selectively affecting type I muscle fibers with relatively high LDH-1 content. PMID:21907580
Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. This can include problems falling or staying asleep, ... for medical causes and determine which type of sleep disorder is causing the problem.
Biggs, Sarah N; Pizzorno, Violeta A; van den Heuvel, Cameron J; Kennedy, J Declan; Martin, A James; Lushington, Kurt
Caucasian (N = 47) and Southeast (SE) Asian (N = 36) families completed a questionnaire on their attitudes toward sleep, as well as a 7-day sleep diary for their children aged 5 to 11 years. Cultural differences were found in the perceived importance of sleep, particularly compared to homework and belief of how much sleep a child needs. Differences were also found in sleep-wake behaviors and amount of time spent on homework, with SE Asian children reporting a shift in sleep timing and increased homework load compared to Caucasian counterparts. Parental attitudes toward sleep, perception of sleep need, and homework load were not associated with the regulation of actual sleep behaviors in children, regardless of cultural heritage. PMID:20924834
Schütz, T C B; Andersen, M L; Silva, A; Tufik, S
Since it is recognized that acute inflammation of the temporomandibular joint results in sleep disturbances in male rats, and that the orofacial region may display a site-specific effect of ovarian hormones on nociception, we hypothesized that distinct genders would respond differently when subjected to this inflammatory acute orofacial pain. Sleep was monitored after injection of saline/Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint in male and female (proestrus and diestrus phases) rats. Progesterone and stress-related hormones were also assessed. In males, Freund's adjuvant induced a significant nociceptive response and sleep disturbances. Behavior and sleep architecture in the females remained unaffected. Our results suggest that females and males present distinct responses to an acute model of orofacial pain. PMID:19493893
Koulack, D; Nesca, M; Stroud, B M
The suggestion that there may be a discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep led us to explore the sleep and dreams of 7 Type A and 7 Type B scorers in our laboratory over a three-night period. In earlier studies, Type A scorers had indicated that their sleep was somewhat more disturbed and their dream content generally more active and negative in tone than that of Type B scorers. However, in this study the only differences were that Type A scorers had a greater number of body movements and greater dream recall than did Type B scorers. These results seem to indicate that the impression Type A scorers have of the quality of their sleep and dreams may be a function of their waking life-style. PMID:8367243
Conroy, Deirdre A; Kurth, Megan E; Strong, David R; Brower, Kirk J; Stein, Michael D
Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States. Research on the relationship between marijuana and sleep is still in its infancy. The study examined differences in sleep characteristics between a community sample of daily users, non-daily marijuana users, and non-users. A total of 98 subjects (45 M; 53 F) participated. The mean age was 22.3 (standard deviation = 3.0). There were 53 females and 55% of the sample was Caucasian. Recruitment was done online and via print advertisements in the community. Groups were categorized as non-daily users (n = 29), daily users (n = 49), and non-user controls (n = 20). Sleep was characterized by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire. A standard cut off score of >10 for the Insomnia Severity Index was found in 38.8% of daily users, 10.3% of non-daily users, and 20% of non-users. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores in daily users (7.0+/-3.8) were higher than non-daily (4.9+/-3.2) and non-user controls (5.0+/-3.7), p = .02. Insomnia Severity Index scores in daily users (7.9+/-6.1) were higher than non-daily (5.1+/-4.3) and non-user controls (4.3+/-4.8), p = .01. Covariate adjusted regression analyses revealed mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Insomnia Severity Index scores were significantly lower for non-daily users and controls relative to the daily users. When adjusting for depression and anxiety, these unique associations were not significant. There were no differences in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale or Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire. Daily marijuana users endorsed more sleep disturbance than non-daily users. Future studies should consider mood in the relationship between marijuana use and sleep. PMID:26727193
Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa
To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations. PMID:26163336
Frostig, R D; Frysinger, R C; Harper, R M
Simultaneously recorded spike trains were obtained using microwire bundles from unrestrained, drug-free cats during different sleep-waking states in forebrain areas associated with cardiac and respiratory activity. Cardiac and respiratory activity was simultaneously recorded with the spike trains. We applied the recurring discharge patterns detection procedure described in a companion paper (Frostig et al. 1990) to the spike and cardiorespiratory trains. The pattern detection procedure was applied to detect only precise (in time and structure) recurring patterns. Recurring discharge patterns were detected in all simultaneously recorded groups. Recurring discharge patterns were composed of up to ten spikes per pattern and involved up to four simultaneously recorded spike trains. Fourty-two percent of the recurring patterns contained cardiac and/or respiratory events in addition to neuronal spikes. When patterns were compared over different sleep-waking states it was found the the same units produced different patterns in different states, that patterns were significantly more compact in time during quiet sleep, and that changes in the discharge rates accompanying changes in sleep-waking states were not correlated with changes in pattern rate. PMID:2357473